This text is intended for users whose text readers cannot use the "real" (Unicode, UTF-8) version of the file. Some compromises have been made, mainly in the spelling of Old English.
—Where possible, macrons ("long" marks) are shown with circumflex accents: —Long is split up as , while long y is approximated with . (The dictionary rarely uses acute accents, and never for Old English.) —The "oe" ligature (rare) is shown in brackets as [oe]. —Greek words and letters (also rare) have been transliterated and are shown between marks. —The "dagger" and "double dagger" symbols have been replaced with and respectively; the + and symbols are as printed.
Unless otherwise noted, words are spelled and alphabetized as in the original.
The letter is alphabetized as "ae". The letter (eth) is alphabetized separately after "t". The letters j and v are not used; medial k occurs only once. When two words are otherwise identical, the one containing a macron is usually given second.
Cross-references are shown as printed. When there is an error or ambiguity, corrections are given in [[double brackets]] at the end of the entry or as a separate paragraph. Where possible, these standard wordings were used:
under "ms" The referenced word is either a secondary entry or a parenthesized alternative spelling in the form "ms ()". headword spelled "ms" Minor difference, generally an added or omitted macron or a predictable vowel variation such as for . form of "ms" The referenced word is an inflected form. A few very common patterns such as adverbs in "-lce" listed under adjectives in "-lic" are not individually noted. redirected to "ms" The cross-referenced form leads to further cross-references.
To avoid empty cross-references, a few entries, clearly identified, were restored from the first edition.
In the original book, shorter entries—chiefly cross-references—were printed two or three to a line. They have been separated for this e-text. All [single brackets], asterisks* and question marks? are in the original.
In the body of the Dictionary, italics are shown conventionally with lines, while small capitals are marked as text. Boldface in headwords is unmarked; elsewhere it is shown as text. Superscript numerals ("small superior figures") are shown with a caret; braces are used when necessary to avoid ambiguity.
wron^1,2 = strong verb, class 1 or 2 brnett (y^2) = second syllable also spelled with y 234^1 = page 234, line 1
Typographical errors are listed at the end of the e-text. To avoid confusion with original brackets, anything added by the transcriber is shown in [[double brackets]].
The New English Dictionary (NED) is now known as the Oxford English Dictionary (OED).]
* * * * * * * * *
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
C. F. CLAY, Manager London: FETTER LANE, E.C. Edinburgh: 100 PRINCES STREET
Bombay, Calcutta and Madras: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. Toronto: J. M. DENT AND SONS, Ltd. Tokyo: THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA
All rights reserved
FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS
JOHN R. CLARK HALL, M.A., Ph.D.
Second Edition Revised And Enlarged
New York: The Macmillan Company 1916
Cambridge: Printed by John Clay, M.A. at the University Press
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
The first edition of this dictionary having been exhausted, it has been extensively revised, and certain new features and alterations have been introduced into it.
1. The principle of arranging all words according to their actual spelling has been to a considerable extent abandoned. It was admittedly an unscientific one, and opened the door to a good many errors and inconsistencies. The head form in this edition may be either a normalised form or one which actually occurs.
2. Words beginning with ge- have been distributed among the letters of the alphabet which follow that prefix, and the sign + has been employed instead of ge- in order to make the break in alphabetical continuity as little apparent to the eye as possible. The sign has been used where a word occurs both with and without the prefix.
3. References to Cook's translation of Sievers' Anglo-Saxon Grammar, and to the Grammatical Introduction to Sweet's Reader have been taken out, as Wright's or Wyatt's Old English Grammar will have taken their place with most English students.
4. A new feature which, it is hoped, will prove widely useful, is the introduction of references to all, or nearly all, the headings in the New English Dictionary under which quotations from Anglo-Saxon texts are to be found. Avast mass of valuable information as to the etymology, meaning and occurrence of Old English words is contained in that Dictionary, but is to a very large extent overlooked because it is to be found under the head of words which are now obsolete, so that unless one happens to know what was the last form which they had in Middle English, one does not know how to get at it. This information will be made readily available by the references in the present work, which will form a practically complete index to the Anglo-Saxon material in the larger dictionary and will at the same time put the student on the track of interesting Middle English examples of the use of Old English words. Besides directing the reader (by means of quotation marks) to the heading in the New English Dictionary where the relevant matter may be found, an indication has been given of the texts from which quotations are made therein, when these do not exceed four or five.
[Footnote 1: As regards the letter W and some small parts of other letters which have not yet appeared in the NED, a reference has been given to its abridgement (The Concise Oxford Dictionary).]
5. There have been many valuable contributions to Anglo-Saxon lexicography (by Napier, Swaen, Schltter, Frster, Wlfing and others) since the first edition of this Dictionary appeared, and these have been made use of, but (as before) unglossaried matter has not been systematically searched for words not hitherto recorded in Anglo-Saxon Dictionaries.
[Footnote 2: The part of the Supplement to 'Bosworth-Toller' which has already appeared shows that Professor Toller is examining such matter with great care and thoroughness.]
6. The number of references to passages has been very largely increased. All words occurring only in poetical texts have been marked. If they occur more than once they bear the sign, if only once, a reference to the passage is generally given. If not they are marked. As regards prose texts, the rule has been only to give references to particular passages in the case of rare words,—more especially hapax legomena. The references to AO, CP and which were given in the earlier edition have been retained, as a useful indication that the word occurs in Early West Saxon or Late West Saxon prose, as the case may be.
7. By various devices it has been found possible, while much increasing the amount of matter in the book, to add very slightly to the number of pages, and at the same time to reduce the number of columns on a page from three to two. Most of these devices are more or less mechanical, but one method of saving space may be mentioned. Certain compound words, descriptive of places, which, as far as I know, occur only in charters and which may often be more correctly regarded as proper nouns, have not been separately inserted. Their meaning can however always be ascertained by referring to their components, and where the abbreviation Mdf is inserted the reader will understand that examples of words so compounded, or of the components, or of both, will be found in Birch's Cartularium Saxonicum, or in Earle's Land Charters, and that references to those examples are given in Middendorff's Altenglisches Flurnamenbuch.
8. In the List of Abbreviations, etc. at the commencement of the book, editions of texts which are furnished with a glossary have been specially indicated.
J. R. C. H.
LIST OF SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS WITH THEIR EXPLANATION
Note 1. Where references are in italic type, quotations from the texts indicated will be found in the New English Dictionary, under the head of the English word which is distinguished in the article by quotation marks (see Preface). In references to special passages volumes have been marked off from pages by an inverted full stop, and lines or verses have been shown, where they follow other numerals, by small superior figures. Occasionally where lines have not been given, the mark has been inserted to show that the quotation is in the lower half of a page.
Note 2. In the following list the number (1) after an edition of a text indicates that the edition is supplied with a complete referenced glossary or word-index, (2)that it has a complete glossary, but without references and (3)that it has a partial glossary or word-index.
Note 3. Some of the abbreviations given below are used in combination. Examples: MtLR = the Lindisfarne and Rushworth MSS of St Matthew; BJPs = the Bosworth and the Junius Psalters; asf. = accusative singular feminine. EK = Early Kentish.
' ' Quotation marks are used to enclose the English words which should be looked up in the NED in order to find etymological information as to, and examples of the use of, the Anglo-Saxon words to which the articles in this Dictionary relate, see Note1 above. If they enclose Latin words, they indicate the lemmata of Anglo-Saxon words in glosses or glossaries etc., or the Latin equivalent of such words in the Latin texts from which they are translated. The Latin is especially so given when the Ags. word seems to be merely a blindly mechanical and literal equivalent.
* is prefixed or affixed to hypothetical forms. Normalised forms of Ags. words which actually exist are not usually so marked.
See Note 1 above.
+ = ge-.
indicates that the Ags. word to which it is prefixed is found both with and without the prefix ge-.
= occurs in poetical texts only.
= occurs in a poetical text, and once only.
== This sign is used to indicate that the words which it follows, and its compounds, are to be found in the Dictionary under the heading given after it, thus meht==miht is equivalent to meht = miht and meht- = miht-.
a. = accusative.
A = Anglian, or, if followed by numerals, Anglia, Zeitschrift fr Englische Philologie, Halle, 1877 etc. AB = Anglia Beiblatt.
= lfric. (References followed by numerals in parentheses refer to certain Homilies attributed to lfric in HL.) If followed by a book of the Bible the reference is to that book in lfric de vetere et novo Testamento (Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol.1).
Gr = lfric's Grammatik und Glossar, ed. J. Zupitza, Berlin, 1880.
H = lfric's Homilies, ed. by B. Thorpe, London, 1844-6. (Quoted by vol., page and line.)
L = lfric's Metrical Lives of Saints, ed. W.W. Skeat (EETS), 1881-1900(3).
P = lfric's Hirtenbriefe (lfric's Pastoral Letters), ed. B. Fehr, Hamburg, 1914 (Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol.9).
AF = Anglistische Forschungen, ed. J.Hoops, Heidelberg.
Alm = the poem on Alms, in Gr.
An = the poem of Andreas, in Gr; or ed. G.P. Krapp, Boston, U.S.A., 1905(1).
Andr = the prose legend of St Andrew, in J.W. Bright's Anglo-Saxon Reader, London, 1892(1).
ANS = Herrig's Archiv fr das Studium der neueren Sprachen, Brunswick, 1846-1914.
AnT = Analecta Anglo-saxonica by B. Thorpe, London, 1846(2).
anv. = anomalous verb.
AO = Alfred's translation of Orosius, ed. H. Sweet (EETS), 1883. (v.also Wfg.)
Ap = the poem of the Fate of the Apostles, in Gr; or included with Andreas in Krapp's edition (v.An).
APs = the Arundel Psalter, ed. G. Oess (AF vol.30), Heidelberg, 1910.
ApT = Anglo-Saxon version of Apollonius of Tyre, ed. B.Thorpe, London, 1834.
AS = King Alfred's version of Augustine's Soliloquies, ed. H.L. Hargrove (Yale Studies in Old English), Boston, U.S.A., 1912(1). See also Shr.
Az = the poem of Azarias, in Gr.
B = the poem of Beowulf, in Gr; also ed. A.J. Wyatt and R.W. Chambers, Cambridge, 1914 (1); or ed. W.J. Sedgefield, Manchester, 1912 (1); or ed. Harrison and Sharp, Boston, U.S.A., 1888(1).
Bas = The Admonition of St Basil, ed. H.W. Norman, London, 1840.
BB = Bonner Beitrge zur Anglistik, ed. M. Trautmann.
BC = Cartularium Saxonicum, ed. W. de Gray Birch, London, 1883 etc., 3 vols.
Bd = Bede.
BDS = Beitrge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, ed. E. Sievers, Leipzig, 1874-1914.
BH = the Anglo-Saxon version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, 2 vols., ed. T. Miller (EETS), 1891-6. (Reference is usually made to the pages in vol.1 as regards the various readings recorded in vol.2—not to the pages in the latter vol.)
Bk = Texte und Untersuchungen zur AE Literatur, etc., by R. Brotanek, Halle, 1913.
Bl = The Blickling Homilies, ed. R. Morris (EETS), 1874-80(1).
BlPs = Blickling Glosses to the Psalms, at the end of Bl.
Bo = King Alfred's translation of Boethius, with the Metres of Boethius, ed. W.J. Sedgefield, Oxford, 1899(1).
BPs = die AE Glossen im Bosworth-Psalter, ed. U. Lindelf (Mmoires de la Soc. no-philologique Helsingfors, tom. 5), 1909(3).
BR = An Anglo-Saxon Reader, ed. J.W. Bright, New York, 1913 or London, 1910(1).
Br = the poem of Brunanburh, in Gr or Chr.
BT = An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, by J. Bosworth and T.N. Toller, Oxford, 1882-98. BTSup. = the Supplement to the above, Part I (A-EOR), 1908.
CC = The Crawford Charters, ed. by A.S. Napier and W.H. Stevenson (Anecdota Oxoniensia), Oxford, 1895.
CD = the Codex Diplomaticus, ed. Kemble
[[This citation occurs a few times in error for the author's normal form, KC.]]
Chr = Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, ed. J. Earle and C. Plummer, Oxford, 1892(1). The poetical passages are marked Chr.
CM = the tract 'de Consuetudine Monachorum,' in Anglia, vol.13, pp. 365-454.
Cos = Altwestschsische Grammatik, by P.J. Cosijn, Haag, 1888.
cp. = compare.
CP = King Alfred's trans. of Gregory's Pastoral Care, ed. H. Sweet (EETS), London, 1871.
Cp = the Corpus Glossary, in OET, or in WW (cols. 1-54) or (if the numbers are followed by a letter), in A Latin-Anglo-Saxon Glossary, ed. by J.H. Hessels, Cambridge, 1890(1).
CPs = Der Cambridge-Psalter, ed. K. Wildhagen, Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol.7, Hamburg, 1910. (CHy = Cambridge Hymns in the same vol.) (3)
Cr = the poem of Crist, in Gr.
Cra = the poem of Men's Crafts, in Gr.
Creat = the poem of the Creation, in Gr.
Ct = Charters, wills and other like documents, as contained in BC, CC, EC, KC and TC.
d. = dative. dp. = dat. pl. ds. = dat. singular; etc.
Da = the poem of Daniel, in Gr; or ed. T.W. Hunt (Exodus and Daniel), Boston, 1885. [[Sometimes writen Dan in body text]]
DD = the poem 'Be Dmes Dge' ('de die judici'), ed. J.R. Lumby (EETS), London, 1876 (1); or in Gr (vol.2, pp. 250-272).
Deor = the poem of Deor's Complaint, in Gr and Kl.
DHy = the Durham Hymnarium, ed. J. Stevenson (Surtees Society, vol.23), London, 1851. (Gl, by H.W. Chapman, Yale Studies, No. 24, Boston, 1905.)
Dom = the poem 'Be Dmes Dge' from the Exeter Book, in Gr (Vol. 3, pp. 171-4).
DR = the Durham Ritual, ed. T. Stevenson (Surtees Society), London, 1840. Lines of Anglo-Saxon only counted. [Gl by Uno Lindelf, Bonn, 1901 (BB vol.9).]
Du. = Dutch.
E = Early.
EC = Land Charters and other Saxonic Documents, ed. John Earle, Oxford, 1888(3).
EETS = Early English Text Society's Publications.
EK = Early Kentish.
El = the poem of Elene, in Gr; or ed. Kent, Boston, 1889.
Ep = the Epinal Gloss., in OET.
EPs = Eadwine's Canterbury Psalter, ed. F. Harsley, EETS, London, 1889. (EHy = Hymns in the same vol.)
Erf = the Erfurt Gloss., in OET.
ES = Englische Studien, Heilbronn and Leipzig, 1876-1914.
EWS = Early West Saxon.
Ex = the poem of Exodus, in Gr or in Hunt's edition (v.Da). If followed by two kinds of numerals = Exodus in lfric de vetere et novo Testamento in the Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, Vol. 1, Cassel, 1872.
exc. = except.
f. = feminine. fp. = fem. plural.
FAp = the poem 'Fata Apostolorum,' in Gr.
FBO = Das Benediktiner Offizium, ed. E. Feiler (AF vol.4), Heidelberg, 1901.
Fin = the poem of Finnsburg, in Gr, and most editions of Beowulf.
FM = The Furnivall Miscellany, Oxford, 1901.
FT = the poem 'A Father's Teachings,' in Gr.
g. = genitive. gs. = gen. singular. gp. = gen. pl.; etc.
G = the Anglo-Saxon Gospels, ed. W.W. Skeat, Cambridge, 1871-87. See also LG, NG, RG, WG. (Gl to WG by M.A. Harris, Yale Studies, vol.6, Boston, 1899.)
GD = Die Dialoge Gregors den Grossen, ed. Hans Hecht (Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol.5), Cassel, 1900-1907.
Gen = the poem of Genesis, in Gr. If followed by two kinds of numerals = Genesis in lfric de vetere et novo testamento (Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol.1, Cassel, 1872).
Ger. = German.
GK = Grein's Sprachschatz der Ags. Dichter, revised by Khler and Holthausen, Heidelberg, 1912. (Acomplete referenced glossary to Gr.)
Gl = Glossary. Used also as a comprehensive sign for all or any of the extant Anglo-Saxon glosses or glossaries: Cp, Ep, Erf, GPH, HGl, KGl, Ln, OEG, WW etc.
Gn = The Gnomic Verses in Gr. GnE = those in the Exeter Book and GnC those in the Cotton MS. Separate edition also by B.C. Williams, New York, 1914(1).
GPH = Prudentius Glosses, contributed by A. Holder to Germania, Vierteljahrsschrift fr deutsche Altertumskunde, vol.11 (ns).
Gr = Bibliothek der Angelschs. Poesie, ed. C.W.M. Grein and revised by R.P. Wlker, Cassel, 1883-98.
Gu = the poem of St Guthlac, in Gr.
Guth = the (prose) Life of St Guthlac, ed. C.W. Goodwin, London, 1848 (pp. 8-98), or ed. P. Gonser (AF vol.27), Heidelberg, 1909 (pp. 100-176).
Hell = the poem of Hell, in Gr.
Hept = The Heptateuchus, etc., Anglo-Saxonice, ed. Edw. Thwaites, Oxford, 1698.
Hex = The Hexameron of St Basil, ed. H.W. Norman, London, 1849.
HGl = Glosses in (Haupt's) Zeitschrift fr deutsches Altertum, vol.9 (1853).
HL = Homilien und Heiligendleben, ed. B. Assmann, Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol.3, Cassel, 1889. v. also and Shr,(3).
Hu = the poem 'The Husband's Message,' in Gr.
Hy = the collection of 'Hymns' at the end of most of the Ags. versions of the Psalms. v. the various Psalters (Ps). [The numbering of verses etc. usually follows that in Wildhagen's Cambridge Psalter (CPs).]
i. = instrumental (case).
IM = 'Indicia Monasterialia,' ed. F. Kluge, in Techmer's Internationale Zeitschrift fr allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, vol.2, Leipzig, 1885.
intr. = intransitive.
JAW = Eigentmlichkeiten des Anglischen Wortschatzes, by R. Jordan (AF vol.17), Heidelberg, 1906
JGPh = Journal of (English and) Germanic Philology, Urbana, Ill.
Jn = the Gospel of St John. v. G and NG (JnL = Lindisfarne MS; JnR = Rushworth MS, v. LG, RG).
JPs = der Junius-Psalter, ed. E. Brenner (AF vol.23), Heidelberg, 1909 (JHy = the Hymns in the same vol.).
Jud = the poem of Judith, in Gr, or ed. A.S. Cook, Boston, 1889(1).
Jul = the poem of Juliana, in Gr.
K = Kentish.
KC = Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici, ed. J.M. Kemble, 6 vols., London, 1839-48.
KGl = Kentish Glosses to the Proverbs of Solomon (= WW 55-88, or, if quoted by number, in Kl).
Kl = Angelschsisches Lesebuch, by F.Kluge, 3rd edition, Halle, 1902(2).
KlED = F. Kluge's Etymologisches Wrterbuch, 7th edition, 1910, or J.F. Davis' translation, London, 1891.
L. = Latin.
Lcd = Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of the Anglo-Saxons, ed. O.Cockayne, London, 3 vols., Rolls Series, 1864-66 (vol.2, and pp. 1-80 of vol.3 are referred to by the folio of the MS, so that the references may also be available for G.Leonhardi's edition of that part of the Lcd, in the Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol.6)(3).
Leas = the poem 'Be manna lease,' in Gr.
Leo = Leo's Angelschsiches Glossar. Halle, 1877.
[[Listing added by transcriber; used only in first edition.]]
LG = the Lindisfarne Gospels, in Skeat's ed. of the Anglo-Saxon Gospels (v.G). (Glossary by A.S. Cook, Halle, 1894.) LRG = Lindisfarne and Rushworth Gospels. v. RG.
Lieb. = F. Liebermann (v.LL).
Lk = the Gospel of St Luke. v. G and NG (LkL = Lindisfarne MS; LkR = Rushworth MS; v. LG, RG).
LL = the Anglo-Saxon Laws, as contained in Liebermann, Schmid or Thorpe. If followed by numerals not in parentheses, or only partially in parentheses, the reference is to 'Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen,' by F.Liebermann, 2 vols., Halle, 1903-12(1); if by numerals entirely in parentheses, to vol.2 of 'Ancient Laws and Institutes,' by B.Thorpe, 2vols., London, 1840(3).
Ln = the Leiden Glossary, ed. J.H. Hessels, Cambridge, 1906(1).
Lor = the Lorica Hymn, in Kleinere angelschsische Denkmler, by G. Leonhardi (Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol.6), Hamburg, 1905.
LPs = Der Lambeth-Psalter, ed. U. Lindelf, Acta Soc. Sc. Fennicae, vol.35, Helsingfors, 1909(1). (LHy = the Hymns in the same vol.)
LWS = Late West Saxon.
LV = Leofric's Vision, ed. A.S. Napier, in the Transactions of the Philological Society for 1907-10, pp. 180-188.
M = Mercian.
m. = masculine. ms., mp., etc. = masc. sing., masc. plur., etc.
Ma = the poem of the Battle of Maldon, in Gr, also in Br, Kl or Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader, Oxford.
Mdf = Altenglisches Flurnamenbuch, by H. Middendorff, Halle, 1902. [See Preface.]
Men = the Menologium, at the end of Chr.
Met = the Metres of Boethius; v. Bo.
MF = Festschrift fr L. Morsbach (Studien zur Eng. Philologie, vol.50), Halle, 1913.
MFH = Homilies in MF, ed. Max Frster.
MH = An Old English Martyrology, ed. G. Herzfeld (EETS), London, 1900. See also Shr.
MHG. = Middle High German. [[Listing added by transcriber]]
Mk = the Gospel of St Mark; v. G and NG. (MkL = Lindisfarne MS; MkR = Rushworth MS of St Mark; v. LG, RG.)
MLA = Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, Baltimore.
MLN = Modern Language Notes, Baltimore, 1886-1914.
Mod = the poem 'Bi Manna Md,' in Gr.
MP = Modern Philology, Chicago, 1903-1914.
Mt = the Gospel of St Matthew; v. G and NG. (MtL = Lindisfarne MS; MtR = Rushworth MS of St Matthew; v. LG, RG.)
n. = nominative, or neuter, or note. (np., nap., etc. = nom. plural, nom. and acc. plur., etc.)
N = Northumbrian.
Nar = Narratiunculae, ed. O. Cockayne, London, 1861.
NC = Contributions to Old English Lexicography by A. Napier, in the Philological Society's Transactions for 1903-1906, London (mostly late texts).
NED = the New English Dictionary, ed. Sir J. A.H. Murray and others, Oxford, 1888-1915. (See Preface, and Note 1.)
neg. = negative.
NG = the Northumbrian Gospels, contained in Skeat's edition (v.G, LG, RG).
Nic = the Gospel of Nicodemus, in Hept; or in MLA 13456-541. (The references to passages are always to the latter edition.)
NR = The Legend of the Cross (Rood-tree), ed. A.S. Napier, EETS, London, 1894.
obl. = oblique.
occl. = occasional, occasionally.
OEG = Old English Glosses, ed. A.Napier (Anecdota Oxoniensia), Oxford, 1900(1).
OET = The Oldest English Texts, ed. H.Sweet, EETS, 1885(1).
OF. = Old French. [[Rare, and always written OFr. in text]]
OHG. = Old High German.
ON. = Old Norse.
OS. = Old Saxon.
p. = page, or plural.
Pa = the poem of the Panther, in Gr.
Part = the poem of the Partridge, in Gr.
Ph = the poem of the Phoenix, in Gr or BR.
pl. = plural.
PPs = the Paris Psalter, ed. B. Thorpe, London, 1835. The prose portion (Psalms 1-50) also ed. Bright and Ramsay, Belles Lettres Series, Boston, 1907, and the remainder (verse portion) in Gr.
Ps = any one or more of the Anglo-Saxon Psalters. [NB. In the numbering of the Psalms, the Authorised Version is usually one ahead of the MSS.] v. A, B, C, E, J, L, R, S and VPs; also Hy.
[[The occasional form Pss was retained. It may be either an error for Ps or short for "several Psalters". In the one OED reference, two Psalters are quoted.]]
PST = Philological Society's Transactions (v.also LV and NC).
QF = Mone, Quellen u. Forschungen zur Geschichte der teutschen Lit. u. Sprache, Aachen und Leipzig, 1830.
RB = der Benedictinregel, ed. A. Schrer, Bibl. der Ags. Prosa, vol.2, Cassel, 1885-8(3).
RBL = the Anglo-Saxon and Latin Rule of St Benet (Interlinear Glosses), ed. H. Logeman, EETS, London, 1888.
Rd = The Riddles of the Exeter Book, in Gr, or ed. F. Tupper Junr., Boston, 1910(1).
RG = the Rushworth Gospels, in Skeat's ed. of the Anglo-Saxon Gospels (v.G). Mt (all), Mk 1-2^15 and Jn 18^1-3 are in a Mercian dialect, and are usually known as R^1; the rest (R^2) is in a Northumbrian dialect (v.also LG). Glossary to R^1 by Ernst Schulte, Bonn, 1904; to R^2 by U. Lindelf, Helsingfors, 1897.
Rim = the Riming Poem, in Gr
[[Listing added by transcriber. The Riming Poem is included in Grein along with many other texts from its original source, the Exeter MS.]]
Rood = the poem 'Dream of the Rood,' in Gr.
RPs = der Regius-Psalter, ed. F. Roeder (Studien in Eng. Philologie, vol.18), Halle, 1904. (RHy = the Hymns in the same vol.)
RSL = Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, London.
Ruin = the poem of the Ruin, in Gr.
Run = the Rune-poem, in Gr.
s. = strong; also = singular. sv. = strong verb. swv. = strong-weak verb.
Sat = the poem 'Christ and Satan,' in Gr.
sb. = substantive.
Sc = Defensor's Liber Scintillarum, ed. E. Rhodes, EETS, London, 1889(3).
Seaf = the poem of the Seafarer, in Gr.
sg. = singular.
Shr = the Shrine by O. Cockayne, London, 1864-70 [pp. 29-33 and 46-156 = MH; pp. 35-44 = HL pp. 199-207; pp. 163-204 = AS].
SHy = Surtees Hymnarium = DHy.
SkED = An Etymological English Dictionary by W.W. Skeat, Oxford, 1910.
Sol = the poem Solomon and Saturn, in Gr (if in italics, the reference is sometimes to the prose version, ed. J.M. Kemble).
Soul = the poem of the Soul, in Gr.
SPs = Psalterium Davidis Latino-Saxonicum, ed. J. Spelman, London, 1640. (Stowe MS, but includes marginal readings from APs, CPs and EPs.)
Swt. = The Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon by H. Sweet, Oxford, 1897.
TC = Diplomatarium vi Saxonici, ed. B. Thorpe, London, 1865(3).
tr. = transitive.
usu. = usual, usually.
v. = vide, or very.
v.l. = varia lectio.
VPs = the Vespasian Psalter, as contained in OET(1). [VHy = Hymns at the end of the Psalter.] Glossary also by Conrad Grimm (AF, vol.18), Heidelberg, 1906.
V^2Ps = Psalter-Glosses in Cotton Vitellius E 18 (noted by Wildhagen in CPs).
w. = with.
W = (I) Wulfstan's Homilies, ed. A. Napier, Berlin, 1883. Glossary by L.H. Dodd, New York, 1908. (II) West Saxon.
Wa = the poem of the Wanderer, in Gr.
Wald = the poem of Waldhere, in Gr.
Wfg = die Syntax in den Werken Alfreds, by J.E. Wlfing, Bonn, 1894-1901 (copious material, and indexes to words in AO, BH, Bo, CP, AS, PPs, etc.).
WG = West Saxon Gospels (v.G).
Whale = the poem of the Whale, in Gr.
Wid = the poem of Widsith, in Gr, or ed. R.F. Chambers, Cambridge, 1912.
Wif = the poem of 'the Wife's Complaint,' in Gr.
WS = West Saxon.
Wt = An Old English Grammar by J. and E.M. Wright, 2nd edition, Oxford, 1914.
WW = Old English Vocabularies, ed. by T. Wright and R.P. Wlker, London, 1884. Cols. 1-54 = Cp; 55-88 = KGl; pp. 89-103 = Colloq. Monast. in NED.
Wy = the poem 'Be manna wyrdum' in Gr.
ZDA = Zeitschrift fr deutsches Altertum, Leipzig and Berlin, 1853-1914.
ZDPh = Zeitschrift fr deutsche Philologie, Halle, 1869-1914.
ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS
[Transcriber's Note: This section is included for completeness. All changes have been made in the text.]
brytan...SPs should be brtan...EPs.
cweorran: for SPs read ELPs.
fest: for Ei read El.
fgerefa: for LkL 12^42 read LkL 12^58.
fterlan: add Gen 76.
lmesfeoh: add LL.
rendung: add RB.
scwiga: for read .
faran: add Da 6.
gniend: possession should be possessor.
gniendlc should be gniendlic.
gryndan: add Men 111.
hwylfan: add to roll to MP 1592.
antemnere, antifonere (P 154^6) = antefnere.
sanian: add LV 57.
spradan: for CSPs read EPs.
stgnes: for SPs read EPs.
tilian should be tillan.
tlag: add EC 448^9.
torgebld n. swelling caused by poison, Lcd 162b.
ecgan: add oppress? (Tupper) Rd 1^2,7.
ynnian: for VHy read DHy 8^10.
warnian: read (APs) = swrnian.
+bearded having a beard, GD 279^14.
besrgung: strike out sorrowing, VHy.
besceawere: for VHy read DHy 24^15.
besencan: add plunge into (fire), GD 317.
began: add +bged bowed down, infirm, Nic 471^29.
ble: add (+b. occurs at Guth 161^9).
crc: add LV 74.
cwme- = cwm-
+dal n. part, GD 311^11.
dalmatice: omit ? and add GD 329^34.
+drog II.: add gentle (horse), GD 78^12.
ian should be ian.
+fadung: add rule, dominion.
fmne(n)dlic (GD) = fmnhdlic
frrning f. quick marching, GD 14^24.
fsting f. read commendation, trust, guardianship, GD 239^15; LL 58.
fstnung: add exhortation, MkL p2^5: monument, MtL p5^4; Mk 5^5.
fantbletsung f. consecration of water for baptism, P 188^12.
feohtling: add MP 1610.
ferhtlic: add PPs 95^10.
feriend: add Sol 80.
flogettan: substitute to fly, flutter, Sc; GD 100^19.
folclic: add worldly, secular, GD 209^13.
fordmednes: add GD 345^3.
forecweden aforesaid, GD 12; 344.
forehs: add LV 33.
forewtung should be forewitung.
forltednes (GD 227^16) = forltennes
forrda? m. traitor, plotter, MP 1592.
forsegenlic (GD 233^21) = forsewenlic
forfromung: for CSVPs read CVPs.
forman: add NC 289.
foron to profit ('proficere'), GD 200.
fullfremed: add -lce after adv.
fullhl thoroughly well, GD 248^1.
fyrdgestealla, fyrdgetrum: add .
+gang: add passage (lapse) of time, GD 179^10.
geadrung f. text, MtL p8^17.
geancyme: delete second line of article.
gearowyrdig: add Mod 51.
godd: add .
geondflwende ebbing and flowing, OEG 2363.
geondlcan: add Ph 70.
geondsendan: omit .
gest-: for gst- read gst-
giestran: add Rd 41^44.
glsft: add GD 10^16.
glmung: for VHy read DHy; GD.
godwebben: add GD 176^1.
hftnednes: add GD 346^22.
hftnedan should be +hftnedan.
hlettan should be hlettan.
heals-iendlic, -igendlic: for SPs 89^13 read APs 89^13: imploring, GD 17^23.
hellegst: strike out .
hellegeat: add MP 1610.
hellestw f. infernal region, hell, GD 332^10.
hwculic: add familiar, GD 32.
hnep (GD 186^27) = hnpp
horsegn: add muleteer, GD 191^23.
hrnes: add P 136^23.
hselbox receptacle of the host, P 178^6.
hwlsticce: add GD 254^24.
+hyldelic secure, safe, GD 348^10.
+ean: add compassionate, GD 216().
Additional references to the NED:—bebod 'bibod'; belcan 'belouke'; cempa 'kemp'; cennan 'ken'; clipung 'cleping'; cnpp 'knap'; dihtere 'dighter'; draca 'drake'; dysgian 'dizzy'; fcne 'faken'; forhogian 'forhow'; forwiernan 'forwarn'; gafol 'gavel'; glaw 'glew'; heonon 'hen'; hlo 'lee'; hliehhan 'laugh'; hrof 'reof'; hryre 'rure'; huru 'hure'; ierre 'irre'; ltan 'lout'
a prep. [= on] on, at, in, to, for.
I. (wa, ) adv. always, ever, at all, continuously, for ever, , AO, CP. on cnisse; butan ende world without end: at any time: in any degree. [ON. ei, ey] II. f. =
- (unemphatic verbal prefix); I. orig. = forth, away, but as a rule only intensitive in meaning. II. = on- III. ym(b)- IV. = (I.) in pronouns and participles, and gives a sense of indefiniteness. V. =-
lan = onlan
an = ean
b = web
bacan^6 to bake, H 2268^9.
bdan to compel, restrain, ward off: exact, take toll: force out, extract.
bligan = bylgan
bran to disclose, bring to light, DD 41.
bre (W 274^24) = bre [[headword spelled "bre"]]
brnan = onbrnan
abal (Gen 500) = afol
bannan^7 to summon, convoke, command: announce, proclaim. .t call out, assemble, Chr. ['abanne']
barian to lay bare, disclose.
abbad, abbod, abbot == abbud
abbud (a, o) m. 'abbot,' BH, Chr; . [L. abbatem]
abbuddm m. abbatial jurisdiction, BH.
abbudesse f. abbess, Chr.
abbudhd m. abbatial rank, dignity, LL.
abbudlast f. lack of an abbot, BC 1155.
abbudrce (o) n. abbey, abbacy, office or jurisdiction of an abbot (used even of a convent of nuns).
batan^7 to beat, strike, break to pieces, make to fall, Cr. ['abeat']
bcd f. ABC, alphabet.
bedecian (ee-) to get by begging or asking, Bo 71^12.
abedisse = abbudesse
bgan = bgan
belgan^3 to make angry, irritate, offend, Sol; , AO, CP: hurt, distress: be angry with. ['abelgen']
bodan^2 to order, proclaim, bid, command, direct: summon, call out: announce, relate, declare, present, offer, AO; . hl. to wish one good luck, greet, bid farewell to. ['abede']
beofian = bifian
bogan = bgan
beornan^3 to take fire, PPs 105^16.
bowan (WW 217^46) = bwan
beran^4 to bear, carry: endure, suffer, Mt, Bo; , CP: bear (achild), : take away, remove: reveal: (refl.) restrain oneself: do without, NC 268.
-berd, -bered crafty, cunning.
bernan (N) = beornan
berstan^3 to burst out, break out, , CP: break away, escape. t. break out.
beecian = bedecian
bicgan = bycgan
bdan^1 to 'abide,' wait, remain, delay, remain behind, AO: survive: wait for, await, : expect, Mt 11^3.
biddan^5 to ask for, request, require, demand, pray, pray to, pray for, : get by asking, obtain, , AO, CP: call out (anarmy).
bifian (eo) to tremble, quake, shake.
bilg, bilh = bylg
biran = beran
biring = byrging
bisg-, biseg- = bysg-
btan^1 to bite in pieces, tear to pieces, devour, gnaw, , AO: taste, partake of, consume.
bit(e)rian to turn bitter, CP 341^24: embitter.
bitt = bit
btt = bt
[[The first edition gives "bit" as a form of "biddan", "bt" as a form of "bdan" or "btan".]]
blcian to become pale, grow faint: become tarnished, CP 135^2.
blcan to bleach, whiten, BJPs 50^9.
blcnes f. pallor, gloom, Lcd 1294.
blcung f. pallor, HGl 518.
blst inspired, furious.
blwan^1 _to blow, blow away, breathe upon_, _: _puff up, swell_, _Lcd_ 93b. ['_ablow_']
blw-nes, -ung f. inflation, Lcd.
blegned ulcerated, Lcd.
blendan _to blind, put out the eyes of_, , CP: _dazzle, deceive, delude_, _. ['_ablend_']
blred bare, uncovered, bald. [blre] [[headword spelled "blere"]]
blcan^1 to shine, glitter.
blicgan = blycgan
blignes = bylgnes
blindan to make blind, Bl 151^4.
blindian = blendan
blinnan^3 to cease, leave off, desist, , AO, CP.
blinnednes f. cessation, interruption, A 5465.
blinnendlce indefatigably, HGl 429^32.
blinnendnes = blinnednes
blisian () = blysian
blissian to make glad, please, GD 335n.
blongen = bolgen, pp. of belgan.
blycgan (i) to grow pale, : make afraid.
blynnan = blinnan
blysian to blush.
blysung f. blushing, shame, RB 133^11.
bodian to announce, proclaim, LkR 12^3.
bolgennes f. irritation, WW 230^19.
borgian to be surety for, LL: (w. t) borrow.
borian = barian
bracian to engrave, emboss.
brdan I. to spread out, dilate: stretch out, . II. bake, Lcd 44a.
braslian to crash, crackle, GD 236^12.
brac pret. 3 sg. of brcan.
brat pret. 3 sg. of brotan.
brecan^4 to break, break to pieces, break down, conquer, capture, violate, destroy, , AO, CP: break away from.
brdan^3 to move quickly, draw, unsheath, wench, pull out, Mt: withdraw, take away, draw back, free from, , AO. p broden drawn up, raised up: start up, awake. ['abraid']
bredwian to lay low, kill, B 2619.
brgan to alarm, terrify.
bregdan = brdan
brotan^2 to destroy, kill.
brotnes f. extermination, OET 182.
broan^2 (intr.) to fail, decay, deteriorate, perish, be destroyed, Ma; . broen (pp.) degenerate, reprobate, Gr. (tr.andwk.) destroy. [v.'brethe']
brerd- = onbryrd-
broennes f. baseness, cowardice, W.
brcan^3 to eat, A 111^17.
bryrd- = onbryrd-
brtan to destroy, EPs 36^9.
bfan (= on-) adv. above, Chr 1090#e#.
bgan^2 (= on-) to bow, incline, bend, submit, do reverence, B, ChrL; : swerve, turn (toor from), deviate, CP: withdraw, retire: be bent or turned, turn one's self. ['abow']
brod not inhabited, TC 162^28.
btan, -bten, -bton. I. prep. acc. on, about, around, on the outside, round about, CP, ChrL, . II. adv. about, nearly, ChrC. [= onbtan; 'about']
bycgan to buy, pay for, requite: redeem: perform, execute.
byffan to mutter, WW 447^24.
bgan () to bend, deflect: subdue, bring low: convert.
bgendlic v. un-.
bylg-, bylig- = bylg-
-byrgan, -byrian to taste, eat.
byrging (-iri-) f. taste.
bysgian to busy, occupy, employ: engage in, undertake: take up, fill,GD.
bysgung f. occupation: trouble.
bwan (o) to rub off, polish, cleanse, purify.
ac I. conj. but: but also, moreover, nevertheless, however: because, for (?): and (?), An 569. ac gif unless, except, Bl 151. [Goth. ak] II. interrog. particle, why, wherefore, whether: in direct questions = L. nonne, numquid.
c f. gds. and np. c 'oak,' , Ct, Lcd; Mdf: () ship of oak: (w.nap. cas) name of the rune for a. [OHG. eih]
cgan = cgan
cglod 'serratus,' Nar 20^26.
cnn- = cenn-
crran = cirran
calan^6 to become frost-bitten, Lcd 2b.
acan^6 _to 'ache,' suffer pain_, _.
acas, acase f. (NG) = cs
cbam m. oak-tree.
accent m. accent. [L.]
accutian ?= cunnian
ccynn n. a kind of oak, WW 430^6.
cdrenc m. oak drink, drink made from acorns?, WW.
ace = ece
cealdian to become cold, , CP. ['acold']
capian to buy off, buy out.
clan to cool off, still, quiet, Met. ['akele']
celma = celma
cen = cen
cennan to bring forth, produce, renew, Bo, WG; : attribute to. ['akenne(d)']
cennedlic 'genuinus,' native, OEG.
cennednes (_WG_; _), -cennes (_CP,NG_;AO) f. _birth_. ['_akenn(ed)nes_']
cennend m. parent, DR 197^11.
cennicge f. mother, DR.
cenning f. birth, Bk 16.
cocian (tr.) to choke: (intr.) burn out.
cocung f. 'ruminatio,' WW 179^2.
ceorfan^3 to cut off, hew down, AO, CP. onweg . to cut away. of. to cut off,AO.
cosan^2 to choose, AO, CP.
acer = cer
cerr- = cirr-
cgan to call, summon.
cirran (e, y) (tr.) to turn, turn away or aside: (intr.) turn oneself, go, return.
cirrednes v. onweg-. [[headword spelled "onwegcyrrednes"]]
cl = col
clc == glc
clnsian to cleanse, purify, .
claf n. oak leaf, Lcd.
clofan^2 to cleave, EC 351^10.
cleopian to call out, WW 378^5.
+clian to frighten, excite. [col]
clungen contracted, WW 239^37. [clingan]
cmelu n. acorn meal, Lcd.
cmistel f. mistletoe, Lcd.
cn- = acn-
cnwan^1 to know, recognise, understand.
cnyssan to drive out, expel, SPs 35^13.
cofrian to recover, Lcd. ['acover']
col affrighted, dismayed.
clian to grow cold, CP.
colitus m. acolyte, LL [L.].
colmd fearful minded, timid.
+colmdian to cast down, sadden, WW 209^16. [col]
cordian to make terms, reconcile, Chr 1120.
corenlic eligible, worthy of choice, CP 409^36.
costnian to try, test, prove, CM, WW.
crftan to think out, devise, AO 46^29.
crammian to cram, WW 236^10.
cropian to creep, crawl, .
crimman^3 (y) to cram, stuff, WW.
crind f. oak bark, Lcd.
crummen pp. of crimman.
acs = x
cs- = sc-
acse = asce
ctn m. oak-twig, Lcd.
ctro n. oak-tree, Wif 28^36.
cucian () = cwician
cul = col
cuma () = cumba
cuman^4 to come, come forth (from), : bear, bring: endure, withstand, : get to or from, reach, Gen. ['acome']
cum-ba m., -be fn. 'oakum,' hards, tow, Lcd, OEG, WW: ashes of oakum: parings, clippings. [cemban]
cumendlic tolerable, : possible.
cumendlcnes f. possibility.
cunnan (NG) = oncunnan
cunnian to try, test, prove: experience,CP.
cunnung f. experience, trial, GD.
cusan to accuse, MtL 12^10 [L.].
cwacian to tremble.
cwncan = cwencan
cweccan (tr.) to move, swing, shake, vibrate, Ma; : (intr.) quiver, . ['aquetch']
cwelan^4 to die, perish, , AO, CP.
cwellan to kill, destroy, JnL; , AO, CP. ['aquell']
cwellednes (e^2) f. slaughter, EPs 43^22.
cwencan to quench, extinguish, Mt; AO. ['aquench']
cweorna m. squirrel, Gl. ['aquerne']
cweorran^3 to guzzle, gorge, ELPs 77^71.
cwern = cweorna
cwerren = cworren pp. of cweorran.
cwean^5 to say, speak out, declare, utter, express, answer, Gen: reject, banish, Gen 304. ['acweath']
cwician (tr.) to quicken, vivify, Ps: (intr.) revive, BH. ['aquick']
cwnan^1 to dwindle away, disappear, go out (offire), BH, LPs.
cwincan^3 to vanish, be extinguished or eclipsed.
-cwucian, -cwycian = cwician
cwudu m. an oak wood, KC 6218^19.
cwylan = cwelan
cwylman to kill, slay.
cwylmian to be tormented, W 220^5.
cwyncan = cwencan
cynned = cenned pp. of cennan.
cyrr- = cirr-
can to show, proclaim, reveal, announce, confirm, prove.
d mn. heap, funeral pile, pyre: fire, flame. [OHG. eit]
dlan to divide, separate.
dadian to fail, decay, mortify, become torpid or callous,.
dafian to became deaf, WW 179^25.
dafung f. deafening, making deaf, Lcd. [v.'adeave']
del I. = dl. II. = dela
dela m. _mud, dirt, filth, filthy place_, _. ['_addle_']
delfan^3 to delve, dig, excavate, , AO, CP.
deliht filthy, WW.
delsa m. sewer, sink, .
dman to judge, try, deprive of or exclude from by a legal decision: try, afflict.
deorcian to become dull, obscure, tarnished, CP: grow dark,W.
derian to hurt, GD 219^19.
adesa m., adese f. 'adze,' hatchet, BH,W.
dexe = exe
d-faru f. ds. -fre way or path to the funeral pile, B 3010.
dfini n. limit? ash-heap of a beacon? EC 354^5.
dfr n. sacrificial fire, Ex 398.
+dgian = +adgian
dihtan to compose, write.
dihtian to regulate, arrange, order, CP.
-dlegian, -dl(i)gian () to destroy, blot out, annihilate, devastate,CP.
dimmian to become dim or dull, to darken, obscure,CP.
dl fn., dle f. disease, infirmity, sickness, AO,CP.
dlg m. flame of the funeral pile, Ph 222.
dlian to be diseased or ill, languish, : cause disease,DR.
dlig sick, diseased, .
dliga m. sick person
dliht = deliht
dloma m. one crippled by fire, Gu 884. [lama?]
dlsoc sick of a contagious disease, ES 39322.
dl-racu f. gs. -rce force of disease.
dlung f. illness, H 1122^31.
dlwrig weary from illness, Gu 981.
dn (for conj. v. dn) to take away, send away: cast out, expel, destroy: (w.preps. to, on, from, etc.) put, place, take, remove, set free, AO,CP.
adosa = adesa
drdan = ondrdan
drfan to drive away, shut out, expel, AO, CP. ['adreve']
drnct = drenced pp. of drencan.
dragan^6 to draw (sword), HL 15^356.
drfan = drfan
adreminte f. feverfew.
drencan to submerge, immerse, drown, AO. ['adrench']
drogan^2 _to act, perform, do, practise_, _: _bear, suffer, endure_, _An_; CP: _pass time, live_, . ['_adree_']
drohan = drogan
dropan^2 to drip, drop, An.
drosan^2 to fall to pieces, decline, vanish, fail.
drfan^1 to drive, drive away, drive out, pursue, follow up, LL; , AO, CP: stake out (aford): chase (metal), . ['adrive']
drgan = drgan
drincan^3 be drowned, extinguished, BH; AO. ['adrink']
drgian, drwian (Mt, ) to dry up. ['adroughe']
drgan () to become dry, dry up, wither, CP: dry, wipe dry.
drysnan to extinguish, repress, NG.
adsa = adesa
adulsa = adelsa [[headword spelled "delsa"]]
dumbian to become dumb, keep silence, Mk; . [v.'dumb'vb.]
a-dn, -dna, -dne adv. down, downward, . [= ofdne]
adne()stgan to descend, CPs.
adnfeallan to fall down, EPs 144^14.
adnweard adv. downwards, ChrL. ['a-downward']
dstrigan = andstrian
dwscan () to put out, quench, extinguish, blot out, destroy, AO: suppress, ,CP.
-dwelian to wander, stray.
dwellan, pret. 3 sg. -dwealde to seduce, lead astray: hinder,.
dwscan = dwscan
dwnan^1 to dwindle or waste away.
ddan _to destroy, mortify, kill_, _. ['_adeaden_']
dfan to overpower with sound.
dylf = dealf pret. of delfan.
dlgian, dlegian = dlegian
dymman = dimmian
dysgian to make foolish, W 185^12.
- accented verbal prefix, = (1) without; (2)-.
I. f. also w f. (and m. or n.? in _NG_) _law (divine or human_), _custom, covenant_, AO, CP; _WG, NG_. butan _outlaw_: (esp. inpl.) _rite, ceremony_: _faith, religion_. unrihte _false religion_. Crstes _gospel_: _scriptures, revelation_: _marriage_, : _(lawful) wife_. For some comps. v.w-. ['_'] II. = a I. III. interj. _oh! alas!_
a I. = a I. II. gp. of .
al- = eal-
al interj. = al
ar- = ar-
eargian to become remiss, AO 212^20.
bre ( LL) manifest, notorious, public, open, evident, clear. ['eber']
ebbian to ebb away, recede, Chr.
bbung (= ebb-) f. 'ebbing.' s . gulf, bay, WW 154
bebod n. injunction of the law, command, PPs 118^102.
bc fp. books of the law, WW 439^15.
bre = bre
besn = fesn [[headword spelled "fesn"]]
bilg-, -bili(g)- = bylg-
blc- = blc-
blce lustreless, pale, pallid.
bod m. business, : statute.
boda m. messenger, preacher, Gu 909.
brce = wbrce [[headword spelled "wbrce"]]
breca = wbreca
brec f. sacrilege, LPs.
brucol sacrilegious, GPH 402.
bs f? fir-tree, . [L. abies]
bylg n. = bylg
bylga m. anger, LPs 77^49.
bylgan, -byli(g)an to make angry, offend, .
bylgnes f. anger, offence, .
bylg, -bylgu f. anger, AO.
bylig- = bylg-
-byl, -bylyg = bylg
c I. f. = c. II. (N) = ac
cambe f. = cumbe [[under "cumba"]]
can = ecan
ccyrn = cern
ce = ece
ce = ce
ced = eced
cedwn n. wine mingled with myrrh, MkL 15^23.
clan = clan
celma m. chilblain, OEG, WW.
celmehte (ecil-) having chilblains, OEG 1523.
cen I. a wood of oaks. II. oaken, WW 270^14. III. = acen pp. of acan.
cer nap. cras m. _field, sown land, cultivated land_, _Mt_; , AO, CP; Mdf: _a certain quantity of land, 'acre,'_ _; v.LL 2267: _crop_.
cerceorl m. countryman, farmer, NC 268.
ceren = cern
cerhege m. hedge of a field, KC 333^2.
cermlum by acres, KC 698^5.
cermann m. farmer, WW. ['acreman']
cern n. _nut, mast of tree_, _ (i^2): '_acorn_,'WW.
cernspranca m. 'ilex,' oak sapling? Gr 69^15.
cersd n. seed enough for an acre? Chr 1124.
certeoung f. tithe of the produce of the soil, W 310^24.
certning f. fencing, EC 377^9.
cerweorc n. field-work, GPH 391.
ces = x
cest, ce pres. 2 and 3 sg. of acan.
cilma = celma
cirn = cern
clca = glca
claw = glaw
cnsle degenerate, not noble, WW.
+cnsliende degenerating, WW 218^12.
crft m. knowledge of law or ordinances, religion.
crftig learned in the law; as sb. = lawyer, scribe, Pharisee.
cras v. cer.
cren = cern
cs f. 'axe,' pickaxe, hatchet, CP; Mt(x).
cst, c pres. 2 and 3 sg. of acan.
cumba = cumba
cur = cer
cyrf m. (wood-)choppings, BH 224^15.
d (NG) = t
d- = ed-
dderseax (WW) = dreseax
ddre, dr = dre
dre I. f. artery, vein, pulse, nerve, sinew, B; AO: pl. veins, kidneys: runlet of water, fountain, spring, stream. ['eddre'] II. adv. at once, directly, instantly, quickly: () fully, entirely. [OS. dro]
dreseax (der) n. lancet, WW 410^10.
dreweg m. artery, vein.
drfan = drfan
dwist = edwist
fst = fest
fst = wfst
fdll -dell (NG) = ofdle
fdne m. declivity, Gl.
felle without skin, peeled, WW 190^31.
fen = efen
fen () nm. 'even,' evening, eventide, B, MkL, Gu (fn). t fenes till evening: eve, RB.
fencollatio the 'collatio' read before compline, NC 268.
fendram m. even-song, RB.
fengebed n. evening service, WW 129^34.
fengereord n. evening meal, supper (often used in pl. of one meal).
fengereordian to sup, give supper to, CM 1030.
fengereordung f. supper, NC 269.
fengeweorc n. evening work, Lcd 70b.
fen-giefl, -gifl n. evening repast, supper, AO,CP.
fen-glm, -glma m., -glmung (omm-, eom-) f. gloaming, twilight.
fengrom fierce at eve, B 2074.
fenian = fnian [[headword spelled "fnian"]]
fenlc n. evening sacrifice, evening prayer, PPs 140^3.
fenlcan to grow towards evening, Lk 24^29.
fenloht n. evening light, B 403.
fenleo n. evening song.
fenlic of the evening; adv. -lce.
fenlof n. lauds (service), CM 1035.
fenmete m. supper.
fenoffrung f. evening sacrifice, NC 269.
fenrding f. reading (during the evening meal at a monastery), 'collatio,'CM.
fenrepsung f. nightfall, .
fen-rest, -rst f. evening rest.
fensang m. 'evensong,' , RB.
fensceop m. evening singer, bard, Rd 9^5. [scop]
fenscma m. evening splendour, Gen 2448.
fensprc f. evening talk, B 759.
fensteorra m. the evening star, Hesperus, Bo; . ['evenstar']
fen-td f., -tima m. eventide, .
fennung f. evening service: evening repast, supper.
fenowdm m. evening service or office, WW 129^34.
fenung = fnung
fer = fre
fere f. name of a plant, Lcd.
fes- = efes-
fesa ? m., fese (m.) f. = fesn
fesn, fesen f. relish, dainty, special pasturage, pannage; the charge for special pasturage,LL.
fesne ?= psen?
fest mf. envy, hatred, malice, spite, CP; El, Ps: zeal, rivalry. ['evest']
fest == wfst
festful full of envy.
festian -igian to be or become envious.
festig envious: zealous.
festlce = ofostlce [[under "ofost"]]
fgl f. superstition, OEG.
fgerefa (-groefa) 'exactor,' LkL 12^58.
fgrynde n. abyss, PPs 35^6.
fhynde = ofhende
fian (-an?) to be in a miserable condition, Cr 1357 (orfnan? Gollancz).
fisc (EC 291) = efesc [[under "efes"]]
flst m. a wandering from the way? Ex 473.
fnan (e) to carry out, do, perform, fulfil: cause: endure, suffer: (+) hold, sustain. [ON. efna]
fne = efne
fnian to grow towards evening, .
fnung f. _'evening,' sunset_, _.
fre adv. 'ever,' at any time, Sat, Mt: always, constantly, perpetually, Cr, RB; , CP: henceforth: ne.; .ne (= nfre) never; . t aldre for ever. .lc, W, Chr. .nig any at all, KC.
freda m. what is taken or separated from, OEG (Napier). [f; *hreda (hreddan)]: tow, oakum(BT).
fremmende pious, religious, Jul 648.
fse I. = efes. II. = bs
fsecgan to confute, ES 42^163.
fst == fest
fsweorc n. pasturage, WW 410^12 (= *fesweorc).
ft = eft
ftan adv. from behind, behind, in the rear, Ma. ['aft']
ftanweard adj. behind, in the rear, following, Rd 63^5.
ftemest adj. last, hindmost, , AO.
fter I. prep. (w. d., i. and—chiefly N.—a.) (local and temporal) after, along, behind, through, throughout, during: (causal) following, in consequence of, according to, for the purpose of: (object) after, about, in pursuit of, for. II. adv. after, then, afterwards, thereafter: thereupon, later, back (= in return). . on, m, isum; . m (on, an) e; afterwards, thereafter.
ftera = fterra
fter f. the book Deuteronomy, .
fterboren adj. 'afterborn,' posthumous, Gr.
ftercwean^5 to speak after, repeat. ftercweendra lof praise from posterity: to renounce, abjure, Chr 1094.
ftercyning m. later king, BH 140^24 B.
fterealu n. small beer, WW 129^4.
fterfilian = fterfylgan [[under "fterfolgan"]]
fterfiligend = fterfylgend
fterfolgere m. follower, AO 142^23.
fter-folgian, -fylgan (AO) to follow after, succeed, pursue.
fterfylgednes f. sequel, L 23b^365.
fterfylgend m. follower, successor, AO, -lce in succession.
fterfylgendnes f. succession, SHy 11.
fterfylgung (eft-) f. pursuit.
fterfylig- = fterfylg-
fter-genga, -gengea m. follower, successor: descendant,.
ftergengel m. successor, KC.
ftergengnes f. succession, : posterity: inferiority.
ftergyld n. further payment, LL.
fterhe f? autumn drought, AO 102^7.
fterhyrigan to imitate, BH.
fterlan n. reward, recompense, restitution, retribution, Gen 76.
fterlic second, WW 505^19.
fterra (comp.) second, following, next, latter, lower,CP.
fter-rp () -rpe m. crupper.
fterrdan^1 to ride after.
fterrwan^7 to row after, ES 41^325.
fterryne m. 'occursus,' CPs 18^7.
ftersang m. _(after-song), _matins_, CM 449.
ftersingallic (= -sanglic) of matins, CM 476.
ftersingend m. succentor, WW 129^23.
ftersona soon, afterwards, again, NG.
ftersprc f. after-claim, LL 398^7.
ftersprecan^5 to claim, LL 226[9,4].
fterspyrian to track out, search, inquire into, examine,CP.
fterweard adj. after, following, further, behind, in the rear, later,.
fterweardnes f. posterity, WW 464^18.
fterwriten written afterwards, Lcd 69b.
fterwyrcan to cause, effect.
fter-yld, -yldo f. advanced age, old age: after age, later time, BH. [ield(o)]
fteweard = fterweard
ftewearde adv. behind.
ftra = fterra
ftresta superl. last.
ftum adv. after, MtR 24^21.
ftyr = fter
fanc, fanca (o, u) m. insult, offence: grudge, displeasure, anger.
f-weard (CP) -ward absent.
fweardnes f. absence, Bo, GD.
fwela f. decrease of wealth, Lcd 3170^13.
fwendla (WW 223^1) = fwyrdla
f-werdelsa, -wyrdelsa m. injury, damage, loss.
fwyrdla, m. injury, damage, loss: fine for injury or loss.
fwyr(u) ? f. degradation, disgrace, RB.
fyllende fulfilling the law, pious, Cr 704.
fyn = fen
fyrma fp. sweepings, rubbish. [feormian]
g n. (nap. gru) 'egg,' Lcd, Lk, OET, Met.
g = eg
gan = gan
ge = ege
gen = gen
gera (K) dp. of g.
gerfelma f. egg-skin, Lcd 20b.
gergelu n. yolk of egg, Gl. [g, geolu]
gflota m. seafarer, sailor, An 258. [eg]
ggemang n. egg-mixture, WW.
g-hw mf., -hwt, n. pron. each one, every one, everything, who or whatever. ghwt neut. anything. [g = gi]
ghwr everywhere, in every direction, Mk; : in every case, in every respect: anywhere. ['aywhere']
ghws (gs. of ghw) altogether, in every way, entirely, wholly, throughout, in general.
ghwt v. ghw.
ghwer (ger, er). I. pron. each or every one (oftwo or more), 'either,' both, AO, Mt (g). II. conj. ghwer (ge)...ge; ger...and both...and; as well...as.
g-hwanan, -hwanon(e), -hwannon, -hwanum, from all parts, everywhere, on every side, in every way.
g-hwr, -hwr = ghwr
ghwelc = ghwilc
ghweer = ghwer
ghwider on every side, in all directions: in any direction, anywhere.
ghwilc adj. each, every, whosoever, whatsoever, all, every one, Bo, Met. .nra each. .er each other, Ma. ghwilces in every way. [v.'each']
g-hwonan, -hwonon (CP), -hwonene = ghwanan
ghwyder = ghwider
ghwylc = ghwilc
gift f. (m? n?) restitution, repayment.
gilde adv. receiving no 'wergild' as compensation,LL.
gilt = gylt
glc == glc
glaw learned in the law.
glca = glca
glm m. white of egg. [lm]
gmang (WW 4^89) = ggemang
gmore f. root of the eye, socket? Lcd 398^5. [age]
gnan sb. pl. awns, sweepings, chaff, Gl. [v.egenu]
gnes = gnes, v. gen.
gnian = gnian
gru v. g.
gsa = egsa [[under "egesa"]]
gscill (y) f. eggshell, Lcd.
ger = ghwer
gweard f. watch on the shore, B 241. [eg]
gwern = ghwr
gwyrt f. dandelion, Lcd 158b.
gylde = gilde
gylt m. sin, offence. [w, gylt]
gype without skill or cunning (BT), PPs 106^10.
hher (MkR 4^28) = ar
hw n. pallor, OEG 4897.
hwe pallid: deformed.
hwnes f. pallor, Lcd 1294^3.
hlp m. breach of the peace, assault, LL. [cp. thlp]
ht == eaht
ht I. f. (rare in sg.) possessions, goods, lands, wealth, cattle, Mk; AO: ownership, control. [gan: 'aught' sb.] II. = ht
htan to persecute, LkL 21^12.
htboren born in bondage, RB 11^20.
hte = hte pret. sg. of gan.
hteland n. territory, BH 358^14.
htemann m. tiller of the soil, serf, farmer, .
hteswn m. swineherd who was a chattel on an estate, LL 449^7.
htgesteald n. possession, Jul 115.
htgestron n. possessions, Ph 506.
tgeweald mn. power, control.
htian = eahtian
+htle f. esteem, B 369.
htowe (LkR 2^21) = eahta
htspd f. wealth, riches, LPs 103^24.
htwela m. wealth, riches.
htwelig wealthy, rich, Jul 18.
hwnne = hwnne
hwr, -hwr = hwr
[[Printed on one line: hwnne, hwr, -hwr = hwnne, hwr]]
hwyrfan = hwierfan
hx = cs
ig = g [[error for "g"?]]
l- prefix = I. eal(l)-. II. el(e)-.
l m. _piercer, 'awl,'_ _.
l m. 'eel,' WW; Mdf.
l = al
ldend m. legislator, SPs 9^21.
lrende m. teacher of the law, instructor in religion, El 506.
lte I. n. desert place. II. desert, empty, W 47^21. III. f. divorced woman.
lten I. = lten pp. of ltan. II. = lteII.
lagol lawgiving, GPH 397^363.
lan to kindle, light, set on fire, burn, , CP.
lrow (-lrua) m. teacher of the law, Pharisee,NG.
la = eala
lbeorht = eallbeorht
lbitu (Gl) = ilfetu
lc [lc, ylc (VPs); v. 'each'] I. (pron. subst.) any, all, every, each (one), , AO, CP. lc...rum the one...the other. II. (adj. pron.) each, Lcd: any, CP.
lceald altogether cold, very cold.
lcor = elcor
lcra = elcra [[under "elcora"]]
lcrftig almighty, all-powerful.
lcuht (AO) lcwuht n. everything.
ld = led [[headword spelled "led"]]
ld- = ield-
ldewuta (NG) = ealdwita
lecung = leccung
led m. gs. ldes fire, firebrand. . weccan to kindle a fire, Whale 21. [ON. eldr]
ledfr n. flame of fire, Ph 366?
ledloma m. fire-brand, B 3125.
legrdig greedy, L 18^213. [eall-]
legrne (RPs 127^3) = eallgrne
lelendisc = elelendisc
lemidde f. exact middle, .
lenge I. lengthy, tedious, vexatious, CP. ['elenge'] II. weariness.
lengnes f. tediousness, Sc, WW.
lepe ? 'origanum,' wild marjoram, WW 299^19. [lene?BT]
lepte f. 'eel-pout,' burbot, WW.
le pres. 3 sg. of alan.
le, l = led
lewealdend = eallwealdend
lf mf. (pl. ielfe, ylfe) 'elf,' sprite, fairy, goblin, incubus, B, Lcd.
lfdl f. nightmare, Lcd 123b.
lfle = ealfelo
l-faru, -fr f. whole army, host, Ex 66.
lfcynn n. elfin race, Lcd 123a.
lfer = lfaru
l-fisc, -fix m. eel, TC 242^11.
lfitu = ylfetu [[under "ylfet" (defined under "ilfetu")]]
l-fremed, -fremd, (el-) strange, foreign, : (+) estranged, LPs 57^4: (w.fram) free, separated from,.
lfremeda (el-) m. stranger, foreigner.
lfremedung f. 'alienatio,' RHy 5^14.
lf-scene (^2^2) bright as an elf or fairy, beautiful, radiant.
lfsiden f. elvish influence, nightmare, Lcd 120b.
lfsogoa m. hiccough (thought to have been caused by elves), Lcd 124b.
lfodlce = elodiglce
lfone f. nightshade, Lcd 123b.
lfylce (= el-) n. I. strange land. II. foreign band, enemy.
lhyd f. eel receptacle? eel-skin? (BT) LL 455^17.
lic (of the law), legal, lawful, . adv. -lce.
lifn f. sustenance, Gl? (v. ES 42166)
ling f. burning, : ardour.
ling- = leng-
ll- = l-, eal(l)-, el(l)-
lmes = lmesse
lmescer m. ground of which the yield was given as alms, first-fruits, A113^69.
lmesb n. gratuitous bath, W 171^2.
lmesdd f. almsdeed, .
lmesdnde giving alms, NC 269.
lmesfeoh n. alms: Peter's pence, Romescot, LL ['almsfee']
lmesgedl n. distribution of alms.
lmesgeorn charitable, .
lmesgifa (y^3) m. giver of alms, W 72^4.
lmesgifu f. alms, charity, W 159^20.
lmeshlf m. dole of bread, TC 474^23.
lmeslc giving of alms, NC 269.
lmesloht n. a light in church provided at the expense of a pious layman.
lmeslic charitable: depending on alms, poor, -lce, adv. charitably, OET.(Ct.)
lmeslond m. land granted in frankalmoigne. [almes-]
lmesmann m. 'almsman,' bedesman, beggar, Lcd;.
lmespening m. alms-penny.
lmesriht n. right of receiving alms.
lmesse f. 'alms,' almsgiving, Da, Mt; , CP. [L. elemosyna]
lmessylen (e^3) f. almsgiving.
lmesweorc n. almsdeed, Bl 25^17.
lmidde = lemidde
lmiehtig = lmihtig
lmihtig (ea^2, e^2) adj. 'almighty,' B, Ps, TC; AO, CP: m. the Almighty.
lmihtignes f. omnipotence, AS 59^13.
lmyrca m. one entirely black, Ethiopian, An 432.
lmysse = lmesse
lnet n. eel net, BH.
lpig = nlpig [[under "nlpe"]]
lren adj. of an alder tree, KC 7316. ['aldern']
lreord = elreord
lsyndrig separately, LkR 2^3.
ltwe (o, ) _complete, entire, perfect, healthy, sound, true_, , AO, CP: _noted_, _. [_Goth._ twa]. -lce adv.
lod (lied-) == elod
l-walda, -wealda = ealwealda [[under "eallwealda"]]
lwiht m. strange creature, monster [= *elwiht]; (inpl.) = eallwihta
mbern = embren
melle insipid, WW 429^30.
melnes f. slackness, sloth, : weariness, disgust,WW.
men, menne (AO) uninhabited, desolate, desert.
menne solitude, AS 4^11 (v. Wfg 3).
merge f. embers, ashes, dust, Lcd; . ['ember']
met- = mett-
metbed n. ant-hill, Lcd 121b.
methwl f. leisure, .
methyll m. ant-hill, CP 191^25.
metian = mtian
metta m. leisure, rest, CP. [mt]
mette f. 'emmet,' ant, Lcd, WW; .
mettig (CP), -m(e)tig () _'empty,' vacant_, _Bl, _: _unoccupied, without employment_, _: _unmarried_, _CP_.
mettigian = mtian
minde n. forgetfulness, Lcd 1384.
md dismayed, disheartened, , AO.
mt- = mett-
mtian _to 'empty,'_ _: _to be at leisure, have time for_, ,CP.
mtignes f. emptiness, GD 35^17.
ma m. 'ccum intestinum,' WW 160^11.
mynde = minde
myrce excellent, WW 393^38.
myrie = merge
mytte = mette
n == n
+n- = +en-
nbrece = unbrece
nd- = end-
ne (ne) once, at some time, , B: at any time: at once. ['ene']
ned = ened
nes adv. once.
netre = nwintre
nett, netnes = net [[under "nett"]]
nga = nga
ngancundes in a unique way? (BT), Lcd 162b.
nge = enge
ngel = engel
nglisc = Englisc
nid = ened
nig adj. pron. and sb. 'any,' any one, Mk, Jn. nige inga somehow, anyhow.[n]
nigge = nage
nigmon any one, some one, NG.
niht = wuht
ninga = nunga
nlnan = onlnan
nlefan = endlufon [[under "endleofan"]]
nlp- = nlp-
nlic one, 'only,' singular, solitary, Ps; Lk: unique, glorious, noble, splendid, excellent, Bo; , AO. adv. -lce.
nlpig () = nlpig [[under "nlpe"]]
nne (AO, CP) v. n.
note useless, LL 254[3,34].
nrdnis = nrdnes
nyge = nage
nytte = nette [[form of "nett"?]]
pl == ppel
pled = ppled
ppel m. (nap. pplas, rarely ap(p)la, ppla) any kind of fruit, fruit in general: 'apple,' CP, Gen: apple of the eye, ball, anything round, Bo, CP, Sol.
ppelbre fruit-bearing: apple-bearing.
ppelbearu m. orchard, PPs 78^2.
ppelberende apple-bearing, DR 98^16.
ppelcynn n. kind of apple, Lcd 67a.
ppelcyrnel n. apple pip, WW 440^23.
ppelft n. apple-vessel, ZDA 3115^401.
ppelfealu apple-yellow, bay, B 2165.
ppelhs n. fruit storehouse, WW.
ppelscealu f. apple-core, WW 371^1.
ppelscrad n. (only in pl.) apple-parings, WW 118^1.
ppeltrow n. 'apple-tree,' WW.
ppeltn m. apple or fruit garden, orchard, , CP.
ppelorn m. crab-apple tree, BC 393.
ppelwn n. cider, WW 430^9.
ppled shaped like an apple, round, embossed, El. ['appled']
ppul- = apul-
ps == sp, bs
psen shameless, OEG 7^301.
psenes f. disgrace.
r I. adv. comp. ror; sup. rost, r(e)st 'ere,' before that, soon, formerly, beforehand, previously, already, lately, till; (comp.) sooner, earlier; (sup.) just now, first of all, OET, Jn, El: early, prematurely, Gu, Mk. on r; r issum previously, formerly, beforehand, CP. t r too soon. r oe fter sooner or later. hwonne r how soon? when? hwne r just before. on ealne rne mergen very early in the morning. ne r ne sian neither sooner nor later. r and si at all times. II. conj. 'ere,' before that, until, , AO, CP. r am(e) before, B. III. prep. (w.d.) before. IV. adj. only in comp. and sup. (rra, rest) q.v.V. f. = r f. VI. n. = rn.
r- = I. early, former. II. intensitive prefix.
ra I. m. scraper, strigil, Gl. II. = rra
rt m. excessive (or too early?) eating.
rbe- = yrfe-, ierfe-
rboren earlier born, first-born (or ? two words), Gen 973.
rc = earc
rce == arce
rcwide m. prophecy? Mod 4.
rdd f. former deed.
rdg m. (nap. rdagas) early day, early morn, dawn: in pl. former days, past times,AO.
rda m. premature death, Ex 539.
rdian = eardian
rdon = rndon? from rnan (Grein), Ma 191.
rdung = eardung
re I. = re. II. in comp. = -oared.
rafe (= ^2) detected, TC 230^16.
reldo 'anteritus,' WW 347^12.
ren made of brass, brazen, , AO, CP: tinkling? [r; cp. Ger. ehern]
rendbc f. message, letter.
renddraca (AO, CP) = rendraca
rende n. 'errand,' message, BH, Gu; AO: mission, An, Chr: answer, news, tidings,.
rendfst commissioned with an errand, L 26^221.
rendgst m. angel, Gen 2296.
rendgewrit n. written message, letter, , CP.
rendian to go on an errand, carry a message, send word to, CP: intercede, BH; : (+)speed, succeed, W 238^9. ['ernde']
rendraca m. messenger, apostle, ambassador, angel, , AO: representative, substitute, proxy, BH 276^19.
rendscip n. skiff, small boat.
rendsecg m. messenger, Gen 658.
rendsprc f. message, Rd 61^15.
rendung f. errand: errand-going, RB. ['ernding']
rend-wraca (AO) -wreca, (CP) = rendraca
rendwrit = rendgewrit
renscip = rendscip
rer = ror
rest I. adv. and superl. adj. first, at first, before all, , CP. , onne, sian. as soon as. .inga first of all. II. = rist
rfder m. forefather, B 2622.
rfst == rfst
rfe == ierfe, yrfe
rgedn done before, CP.
rgefremed before committed.
rgelred previously instructed, MtL 14^8.
rgenemned, -gesd = rnemned
rgestron n. ancient treasure.
rgeweorc n. ancient work, work of olden times.
rgewinn n. former strife or trouble, old warfare, #Cross#19.
rgewyrht n. former work, deed of old.
rgld very bright, Ex 293.
rgd good from old times?, very good.
rhwlum erewhile, formerly.
rian = erian
rig (OET) = earh
riht n. code of law or faith.
ring f. day-break, early morning (A).
risc = arisc
rist I. () mfn. rising, VPs: resurrection, awakening, Jn; CP. ['arist'] II. = rest
rlof? very dear, OEG 56^296.
rlst = rlast
rlic() adj.; -lce adv. 'early,' Jn.
rlyft f. early morning air, WW 415^13.
rm = earm
rmorgen (a^1, a^2, e^2) m. early morning, dawn, day-break.
rmorgenlic of early morning, DR.
rn n. dwelling, habitation, house, building, closet.
rn = ren
rnan to 'run,' ride, gallop, BH: (+) to ride, run to, reach, gain by running or riding, AO: = +iernan
rndian = rendian [[headword spelled "rendian"]]
rne-mergen, -merigen () = rmorgen
rnemergenlic matutinal, CM 277.
rneweg m. road for riding on, race-course. [iernan]
rnian = earnian
rning f. 'running,' riding, racing, Bo, GD: flow of blood, MtL 9^20. (iorn-)
rn = ern
rnegen (?) m. house-officer, Gl.
rnung = earnung
ron = rran [[form of "rra"]]
ror I. adv. earlier, before, beforehand, formerly, , AO: rather. II. prep. (w.d.) before.
rost = rest
rra m. rre fn. adj. earlier, former, Bo, El; CP. on rran dg the day before yesterday. ['ere,' 'erer']
rror = ror
rs = ears
rsceaft f. old work, ancient building.
rschen, rshen = erschen
rst = rest
rstf = rstf
r-am, -on, -ame v. r.
r- = yr-
rwacol early awake, .
+rwe depraved, wicked, EPs 100^4.
rwela m. ancient wealth, B 2747.
rworuld f. ancient world, Cr 937.
rynd = rend [[headword spelled "rende"]]
ryr = ror
ryst I. = rist. II. = rest
s n. food, meat, carrion: bait. [OHG.s]
sc I. m. nap. ascas 'ash'-tree, Gl, KC; Mdf: name of the rune for ==: () spear, lance: ship, . II. = cs
scre unshorn, untrimmed. [scieran]
scan to demand (legally), LL 177.
scapo (WW 273^36) = sceapa
scberend m., -bora m. spear-bearer, soldier.
scberende spear-bearing, Gen 2041.
sce = asce
sce f. asking, inquiry, search, LL: claim (toinsurance money for theft of cattle), LL 175^2. ['ask'sb.]
sceap (^1) n. remnant, patch.
sceda fpl. refuse? WW 148^33.
scegeswp n. cinders, ashes, TC 318^33.
scen I. fm. vessel of ash-wood, bucket, pail, bottle, cup. II. adj. made of ash-wood, ashen, Lcd.
scfealu ashy-hued, WW 204^23.
scgrg ashy gray, WW 204^24.
schere m. naval force, Ma 69.
scholt n. spear of ash-wood, spear-shaft, lance (v.also Mdf).
scian = csian [[under "scian"]]
scmann m. ship-man, sailor, pirate. [sc]
scplega m. play of spears, battle, Jud 217.
scrind f. bark of the ash-tree, Lcd.
scrf brave in battle.
scstede m. place of battle, Mod 17; Mdf.
scstederd f. cross marking a battlefield? Ct (BT).
sctr m. glory in war, Gen 2069.
scracu f. battle, Gen 2153.
sc-rote, -rotu f. a plant, ferula? vervain?
sml smallness of the eye, Lcd.
smogu np. slough (of snake) Lcd 88a. [-smgan]
scwert = scwyrt
scwiga m. (spear-) warrior.
scwyrt f. verbena, vervain.
scyldian 'delinquere,' PPs.
sellend (y^2) m. lawgiver.
sil = hsel
slitend m. law-breaker, LPs.
sne- = esne-
sp = spe I.
spe I. f. aspen-tree, white poplar, Gl; Mdf. ['asp^1'] II. = bs
spen adj. aspen.
spreng, spring(e) = spryng
sprind (ps) f. aspen, bark, Lcd. ['asp']
springnes = sprungenes [[headword spelled "sprungennes"]]
spryng nf. spring, fountain, CP. [a]: departure, #Creat#77.
st I. = rest. II. = st
stnan = stnan
stan = astan
stel m. book-marker, CP 9. [L. hastula]
sul = esol
swpe sbpl. sweepings, rubbish.
swic m. offence, stumbling-block, infamy, seduction, deceit.
swica, swicend m. offender, deceiver, hypocrite, traitor.
swice m. violation of God's laws (or? adultery), W 164^3.
swician to offend, deceive, : apostatize, WW 342^12: desert,.
swicnes f. stumbling-block, LPs 105^36.
swicung f. offence, stumbling-block, : deceit, : sedition.
swind idle, slothful, WW 422^13. [sw]
syllend = sellend
t I. prep. (w. d. and, more rarely, a.) (local) 'at,' near, by, in, on, upon, with, before, next to, as far as, up to, into, toward: (temporal) at, at the time of, near, in, on, to, until: (causal) at, to, through: (source) from: (instrumental) by. t fawum wordum in few words, BH: in respect to, as to. II. adv. at, to, near. t nehstan, t siestan finally. t- in composition = at, to, from.
t I. mfn. eatables, food, meat, flesh, Gu; , AO. t and wt food and drink, : the act of feeding, eating, PPs; MkL (). ['eat' sb.] II. pret. 3 sg. of etan.
t- = te-
-ta v. self-ta.
twian = tewan
etan^5 to eat, devour, AS 17^16; 37^5.
tbon anv. to be present.
tberan^4 to carry to, bring, produce, show, Da: carry off, B. ['atbear']
tberstan^3 _to break out, or away, escape from_, _. ['_atburst_']
tbrdan = tbregdan
tbrdendlic ablative, Gr 23^7.
t-bregdan, -brdan^3 to take away, carry off, deprive of, snatch away, draw off, withdraw, Mt; : release, rescue, enlarge: prevent, L 31^126. ['atbraid']
tclifian to adhere, BJPs 101^6.
tclan to adhere, OET 181.
tdman to refuse, give judgment against, EC 202.
tdn anv. to take away, deprive.
te = te
taca (eth-) m. 'appendix,' OEG 53^18.
tacnes = tcnes
tealdod too old, (2^159).
taw- = tew-, tw-
tcan = tcan
tegr = tgr [[under "tgre"]]
teglan to harm, PPs 88^19.
tode pret. 3 sg. of *tgn he came.
teorian = teorian [[headword spelled "torian"]]
tow- = tew-, tw-
tercyn = atorcyn [[headword spelled "torcyn"]]
tere (^1) m. 'eater,' glutton, Prov;NG.
tern I. (NG) viper. II. = tren
tw- = tew-, tw-
tfstan (= o-) to inflict on, afflict with: fasten to, drive into, impart to, CP 115^19: commit, entrust: marryto.
tfstnian to fasten? entrust? AS 21^19.
tfaran^6 to escape, Shr 14^23.
tfeallan^7 to fall, fall out: fall away, fail, be reduced, LL; : happen. ['atfall']
tfele m. adhesion, PPs 72^23.
tfeng m. attaching, distraint v. LL 2279.
tfeohtan^2 to grope about.
tfolan^3 to stick to: adhere, apply oneself to, continue in,CP.
tfeorrian to take from, Sc 160^7.
tferian to carry away, bear off.
tflan = tfolan
tflon^2 _to flee away, escape by flight_, _. ['_atflee_']
tflwan^7 to flow together, accumulate, SPs 61^10.
tfn^7 to seize upon, lay claim to, LL. ['atfong']
tforan I. prep. w. d. before, in the presence of, in front of, close by, Jn; . ['atfore']. II. adv. beforehand (time).
tfyligan, -fylgan to adhere, cling to.
t-gdere (AO), -gddre (CP), -gdre, -gderum adv. together, united, at the same time. [gadrian]
t-gre n., -gr m. spear, dart, javelin, Gl.
tgangan^7 to go to, approach, Az 183. ['atgo']
tgeddre, -gedre = tgdere
tgenumen removed, taken away, WW 529^39.
tgiefa (eo, i) m. food-giver, feeder.
tgifan^5 to render, give, B 2878.
tgldan^1 to slip away, disappear, OEG 7^132.
tgrpe seizing. . weoran seize, B 1268.
thabban to retain, .
thealdan^7 to keep back, Sc 109^18.
thebban^6 to take away, take out, hold back, : exalt oneself, CP 113^13.
thindan prep. w. d. behind, after, Chr; . ['athinden']
thlapan^7 to run away, flee, escape, W 162^5.
thlp m. assault. [cp. hlp]
thrnan^1 to touch, move, Mt; . ['atrine']
thrine m. touch.
thw each, every one.
thwre somewhat, HGl 421^37.
t-hwega, -hwga, -hweg(u) adv. somewhat, tolerably, a little: how.
thweorfan^3 to return, go back, B 2299.
thwn adv. almost, nearly.
thd 'eviscerata,' (skinned? BT), WW 392.
tiernan^3 _to run away_, _. ['_atrin_']
tewan (o-; , a, o, , ) pret. sg. -e(w)de, (tr.) to show, reveal, display, disclose, manifest, Mt (), CP: (intr.) show oneself, become visible, appear, Mt (). ['atew']
ting f. eating, Sc 170^45 (): pasture? Mdf.
tinge (y^2) speechless, OEG 46^45.
tis pres. 3 sg. of twesan, tbon.
tw- = tew-, tw-
tldan (= o-) _to drive away_, _. ['_atlead_']
tlic adj. eatable, WW, LkL ().
tlicgan^5 to lie idle, Gr 2^22. ['atlie']
tlimpan^3 to fall away from, escape, be lost, .
tltian _to lurk, hide_, _. ['_atlutien_']
tnhstan () adv. at last.
tnes f. edibility, WW 226^11.
tniman^4 to take away, deprive of, Ex 414.
tol = etol
ton pret. pl. of etan.
tor = tor
torcynn = torcynn [[headword spelled "torcyn"]]
tran = trian
treccan w. d. and a. to declare forfeit, deprive of, Lcd.
tren poisoned, poisonous, MtL (-ern). ['attern']
trenmd of venomous spirit, malignant (or? two words), GnE 163.
trennes f. poisonous nature, Lcd 55a.
trian to poison, AO: become poisonous. ['atter']
trig poisonous, Lcd; . ['attery']
trihte (y) I. adj. right at, near, present, at hand. II. adv. almost, nearly.
tsacan^6 to deny, Lk; : renounce, Mk. ['atsake']
tsamne (, e, o) adv. united, together, at once,AO.
tscotan^2 to escape, disappear, MF (Vesp. D xiv).
tscfan^2 to shove away.
tsittan^5 to sit by, remain, stay, Chr. ['atsit']
tslpan^7 to sleep beside, Lcd 83a.
tsldan^1 _to slip, glide, fall_, _.
tsomne () = tsamne
tspornan^3 (u) to strike against, stumble, go wrong, CP: rebel(t).
tspornung f. offence, stumbling-block, misfortune, CM 230.
tspringan^3 to rush forth, spurt out, B 1121. ['atspring']
tspringnes, -sprung(en)nes f. defection.
tspurnan = tspornan
tspyrning = tspornung
tst = itst pres. 2 sg. of etan.
tst- = ost-
tstl m. aid, assistance (GK); = tsteall (BT), Gu 150.
tstppan^6 to step up to, B 745.
tstandan^6 _to stand still, stand at, near, in or by_, _: _remain, stand up_: _check, resist_, : _cease_, _Lk_; . ['_atstand_']
tstandend m. bystander, attendant, .
tstandende standing by, GD 284^21.
tsteall m. assistance, meeting with hostile intent (GK): station, camp station (BT), Wald 1^21.
tstent v. tstandan.
tstente v. tstyntan.
tstillan to still, Lcd 25b.
tstrengan to withhold wrongfully, LL 206.
tstyntan to blunt, dull, weaken.
tswerian^6 to deny on oath, LL.
tswgan to keep silence about (be) GD 217^18.
tswimman^3 to escape by swimming, swim out, Chr 918.
ettan (yttan) to eat up.
tter, ttor = tor
ttr- = tr-
tringan^3 to take away from, deprive of.
tweaxan^1 to increase (Swt.).
twegan^5 to bear away, carry off, B 1198.
twela abundance of food, feast, Soul 123.
twenian to wean from, LL 368.
twesan anv. to be at hand.
twesende at hand, imminent, WW.
twindan^3 _to escape_, _. ['_atwind_']
twist I. f. presence. II. = edwist
twtan^6 to reproach (with), censure, taunt, Met, Ps; CP. ['atwite']
twrencan to seize by fraud.
tcan to add to, increase, BH. [ecan]
tcnes f. increase, BH.
tnan = ontnan
tynge = tinge
tys = tis pres. 3 sg. of twesan.
t-wan, -wian = tewan
twednes f. showing, appearance, manifestation, revelation,GD.
twigendlic demonstrative, Gr.
twnes f. showing, manifestation, revelation: apparition, : Epiphany.
twung f. manifestation, Epiphany, CM 531.
an I. ()to make oath, swear.  II. = an
el = ele
el == el
elboren of noble birth, distinguished, : free-born, : inborn, natural.
elborennes f. nobility of birth or nature, : inborn nature, OEG 4518.
elcund of noble birth.
elcundnes f. nobleness, Bo 46^13.
elcyning m. noble king (Christ), .
eldugu f. noble retinue, Cr 1012.
ele noble, aristocratic, excellent, famous, glorious, Ex, Gen; , AO, CP: splendid, fine, costly, valuable: lusty, young: pleasant, sweet-smelling, Gen: (+)natural, congenial, suitable. ['athel']
el-feringwyrt, -fyrdingwyrt f. stitch-wort (plant), Lcd.
+elian to make noble or renowned, Hy. ['i-athele']
elic = ellic
elic = aelic
eling m. man of royal blood, nobleman, chief, prince, AO, Chr (v.LL2274): king, Christ, God, Cr: man, hero, saint; in pl. men, people, Gen. ['atheling']
elinghd n. princely state, Lcd 3438^5.
ellic noble, excellent. adv. -lce.
elnes f. nobility, excellence.
elo = elu
elstenc m. sweet smell, Ph 195.
eltungol n. noble star.
elu fn. nobility, family, descent, origin, CP: nature: noble qualities, genius, talents, pre-eminence, Bo: produce, growth. ['athel']
- = -
m () m. air, breath, breathing, CP; Sat. (): vapour, B: blast, . ['ethem']
mian to fume, exhale, emit a smell.
re = dre
reclic terrible, RPs 95^4.
ret- = ryt-
rot n. disgust, weariness. [rotan]
ryt I. troublesome, wearisome, disgusting. II. n. weariness, disgust, tediousness,.
ryte = ryt I.
rytnes f. tedium, v. OEG 4582.
ryttan to weary, .
a (Bd, Death-song) = oe
w I. = . II. = we
wde without clothes, WW 230^38.
wan to despise, scorn, Ps.
wbrce despising the law, : adulterous,LL.
wbreca (i, y) m. adulterer, LL (y). ['eaubruche^2']
wbryce m. adultery, ; LL. ['eaubruche^1']
wda, wdamann m. witness, compurgator, LL.
we I. fn. married woman, : married people. II. lawful: married: born of the same marriage.
welm = wielm
wenbror m. brother by the same marriage, WW 413^29.
wne doubtful, uncertain.
werd adj.? religious, or sb.? regular priest, ANS128298. [cp. weweard]
werdla = fwyrdla
weweard m. priest, Bl 161^27.
wfst upright, pious, devout, religious, , CP: married,.
wfsten n. legal or public fast.
wfstlic lawful: religious, CP (f-). adv. -lce.
wfstnes f. religion, piety.
wicnes f. eternity, RPs 102^17 (v. p. 303).
wielm (e, i, y), -wielme m. source, fount, spring, beginning, AO, CP. [= awylm]
wintre = nwintre
wis- = wisc-
wisc I. nf. offence, shame, disgrace, dishonour, AO. [Goth. aiwisks] II. disgraced, shameless, indecent.
wiscberende disgraceful, shameful, WW 264^42.
wisce = wisc I.
wisc-ferinend (Gl), -firina (NG) m. shameless sinner, publican.
wisclic disgraceful, infamous, OEG.
wiscmd ashamed, abashed, cowed.
wiscnes f. shameless conduct: reverence.
wita m. counsellor, El 455.
wlic legal, lawful. adv. -lce.
wnian to marry, .
wnung f. wedlock, OEG.
wul basket with a narrow neck for catching fish, WW181^11. [?=cawl,BT]
wumboren lawfully born, LL 76.
wung = wnung
wunge = awunge [[under "awunga"]]
wyll m. stream, BC 1542.
-wylm, -wylme = wielm
wyrdla = fwyrdla
wyrp m. throwing away: what is cast away: an abortion. [weorpan]
wysc- = wisc-
x == cs, eax
xe = asce
xer f. axe-head, Chr 1012#e#.[r]
xfaru f. 'apparatus,' naval expedition? (= sc-? v.ES37184), Gl.
xian = ascian [[headword spelled "scian"]]
xl = eaxl
xs = cs
fdan = fdan
fgan to depict, figure, BH. [fg]
fgrian () to ornament, adorn, BH.
-flan, -fllan = fyllan II.
fman to foam out, PPs 118^131.
fran to frighten, PPs, Mk, Chr; AO, CP. ['afear,' 'afeared']
fst = wfst
fstan I. to fast, LL, W. II. to let out on hire, MkR12^1.
fstla interj. certainly! assuredly! .
fstnian (e) to fix upon, fasten, make firm, confirm, AO: enter, inscribe, : build.
fttian to fatten, anoint, #APs# 22^6; #LPs#140^5.
fandelic = fandodlic [[under "fandigendlic"]]
fandian to try, test, prove, tempt, Lk, Lcd; , CP: find out, experience, . fandod (and fanden?) approved, excellent,.
fand-igendlic, -odlic proved, approved, laudable. adv. -odlce.
fandung f. trial, .
fangennes f. reception, acceptance.
afara = eafora
faran to go out, depart, march, travel, , AO; Da 6. ['afare']
feallan^7 to fall down, fall in battle, Lk; CP: fall off, decay. ['afalle']
feallan = fyllan
fdan _to feed, nourish, bring up, maintain, support_, _; AO: _bring forth, produce_. ['_afede_']
fgan to join, DR (oe).
fehtan (DR) = feohtan
fellan = fyllan
felle = felle
feohtan^3 to fight, fight against, attack, AO: tear out, destroy.
fon 'odisse,' PPs.
feormian to cleanse, purge, purify.