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A Concise Dictionary of Middle English - From A.D. 1150 To 1580
by A. L. Mayhew and Walter W. Skeat
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[Transcriber's Note:

This text is intended for users whose text readers cannot use the "real" (Unicode/UTF-8) version of the file. Characters that could not be fully displayed have been "unpacked" and shown in brackets; Greek words are shown in transliteration between marks.

[Gh] [gh] (yogh) [oe] [] (oe ligature, with accent) ⱥ ɇ ... (letters with macron or "long" mark) ă ĕ (letters with breve or "short" mark)

Yogh is used in dictionary headwords; the others occur only in etymologies.

Significant typographical errors are noted as they occur. Other errors—chiefly in punctuation and abbreviations—are listed at the end of the e-text, along with an explanation of line-end hyphens.

Unless otherwise noted, words are spelled and alphabetized as originally printed. Note in particular:

The letter / is alphabetized as "ae". The letter I is alphabetized according to its phonetic value, vowel before consonant. J is not used. Thorn / and eth (capital does not occur) are alphabetized as "th". The letters U and V are shown with the form used in their source documents, but are alphabetized by phonetic value. A few sequences such as initial "Su-" do not make this distinction. Yogh [Gh]/[gh] is alphabetized after "y".

Changes given in the authors' Additions and Corrections have been made in the main text. New entries are noted with [[Addition]] at the end of the entry; additions to existing entries have [[Addition:]] at the beginning of the new material.

All cross-references are shown as printed. Where necessary, corrections are given in [[double brackets]] at the end of the entry or as a separate paragraph. The notation "headword spelled Mous" means that the referenced form exists but is not the primary entry; "error for Mous" means that the spelling in the cross-reference is not used.

Transcriber's notes within the body of the text are shown in [[double brackets]]. Text in [single brackets] is in the original.]



A

CONCISE DICTIONARY

of

MIDDLE ENGLISH

MAYHEW and SKEAT



London HENRY FROWDE



Oxford University Press Warehouse Amen Corner, E.C.



A

CONCISE DICTIONARY

of

MIDDLE ENGLISH

FROM A.D. 1150 TO 1580

By the REV. A. L. MAYHEW, M.A. of Wadham College, Oxford

and the

REV. WALTER W. SKEAT LITT.D.; LL.D. EDIN.; M.A. OXON. Elrington and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the University of Cambridge

"These our Ancient Words here set down, I trust will for this time satisfie the Reader." R. VERSTEGAN, Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, ch. vii (at the end)

"Authentic words be given, or none!" WORDSWORTH, Lines on Macpherson's Ossian

Oxford AT THE CLARENDON PRESS M DCCC LXXXVIII [All rights reserved]



PREFACE

(By Professor Skeat.)

The present work is intended to meet, in some measure, the requirements of those who wish to make some study of Middle-English, and who find a difficulty in obtaining such assistance as will enable them to find out the meanings and etymologies of the words most essential to their purpose.

The best Middle-English Dictionary, that by Dr. Mtzner of Berlin, has only reached the end of the letter H; and it is probable that it will not be completed for many years. The only Middle-English Dictionary that has been carried on to the end of the alphabet is that by the late Dr. Stratmann, of Krefeld. This is a valuable work, and is indispensable for the more advanced student. However, the present work will still supply a deficiency, as it differs from Stratmann's Dictionary in many particulars. We have chosen as our Main Words, where possible, the most typical of the forms or spellings of the period of Chaucer and Piers Plowman; in Stratmann, on the other hand, the form chosen as Main Word is generally the oldest form in which it appears, frequently one of the twelfth century. Moreover, with regard to authorities, we refer in the case of the great majority of our forms to a few, cheap, easily accessible works, whereas Stratmann's authorities are mainly the numerous and expensive publications of the Early English Text Society. Lastly, we have paid special attention to the French element in Middle-English, whereas Stratmann is somewhat deficient in respect of words of French origin[1]. The book which has generally been found of most assistance to the learner is probably Halliwell's Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words; but this is not specially confined to the Middle-English period, and the plan of it differs in several respects from that of the present work.

[Footnote 1: A new and thoroughly revised edition of Stratmann's Dictionary is being prepared by Mr. Henry Bradley, for the Delegates of the Clarendon Press.]

The scope of this volume will be best understood by an explanation of the circumstances that gave rise to it. Some useful and comparatively inexpensive volumes illustrative of the Middle-English period have been issued by the Clarendon Press; all of which are furnished with glossaries, explaining all the important words, with exact references to the passages wherein the words occur. In particular, the three useful hand-books containing Specimens of English (from 1150 down to 1580) together supply no less than sixty-seven characteristic extracts from the most important literary monuments of this period; and the three glossaries to these books together fill more than 370 pages of closely-printed type in double columns. The idea suggested itself that it would be highly desirable to bring the very useful information thus already collected under one alphabet, and this has now been effected. At the same time, areference has in every case been carefully given to the particular Glossarial Index which registers each form here cited, so that it is perfectly easy for any one who consults our book to refer, not merely to the particular Index thus noted, but to the references given in that Index; and so, by means of such references, to find every passage referred to, with its proper context. Moreover the student only requires, for this purpose, asmall array of the text-books in the Clarendon Press Series, instead of a more or less complete set of editions of Middle-English texts, the possession of which necessitates a considerable outlay of money. By this plan, so great a compression of information has been achieved, that a large number of the articles give a summary such as can be readily expanded to a considerable length, by the exercise of a very little trouble; and thus the work is practically as full of material as if it had been three or four times its present size. Acouple of examples will shew what this really means.

At p. 26 is the following entry:—

'Bi-heste, sb. promise, S, S2, C2, P; byheste, S2; beheste, S2; byhest, S2; bihese, S; biheest, W; bihese, pl., S.—AS. be-h[]s.'

By referring to the respective indexes here cited, such as S (=Glossary to Specimens of English, PartI), and the like, we easily expand this article into the following:—

'Bi-heste, sb. promise, S (9. 19); S2 (1a. 184); C2 (B37, 41, 42, F 698); P (3. 126); byheste, S2 (18b. 25); beheste, S2 (14a.3); byhest, S2 (12. 57, 18b. 9, [where it may also be explained by grant]); bihese, S (where it is used as a plural); biheest, W (promise, command, Lk. xxiv. 49, Rom. iv. 13; pl. biheestis, Heb. xi. 13); bihese, S (pl. behests, promises, 4d. 55).—AS. beh[]s.'

In order to exhibit the full meaning of this—which requires no further explanation to those who have in hand the books denoted by S, S2, &c.—it would be necessary to print the article at considerable length, as follows:—

'Biheste, sb. promise; "dusi biheste" afoolish promise, (extract from) Ancren Riwle, l.19; "and wel lute wule hulde e biheste at he nom," (extract from) Robert of Gloucester, l.184; "holdeth your biheste," Chaucer, Introd. to Man of Law's Prologue, l.37; "biheste is dette," same, l.41; "al my biheste" same, l.42; "or breken his biheste" Chaucer, sequel to Squieres Tale, l.698; "orw fals biheste," Piers Plowman, Text B, Pass. iii, l.126; "to vol-vulle (fulfil) at byheste" Trevisa (extract from), lib. vi. cap. 29, l.25; "the lond of promyssioun, or of beheste," Prol. to Mandeville's Travels, l.3; "wi fair by-hest," William and the Werwolf, l.57; "e byhest (promise, or grant) of oere menne kyngdom," Trevisa, lib. vi. cap. 29, l.9; "y schal sende the biheest of my fadir in-to [gh]ou," Wyclif, Luke xxiv. 49; "not bi the lawe is biheest to Abraham," Wycl. Rom. iv. 13; "whanne the biheestis weren not takun," Wycl. Heb. xi. 13; "longenge to godes bihese" Old Eng. Homilies, Dominica iv. post Pascha, l.55.'

We thus obtain fifteen excellent examples of the use of this word, with the full context and an exact reference (easily verified) in every case. And, in the above instance, all the quotations lie within the compass of the eleven texts in the Clarendon Press Series denoted, respectively, by S, S2, S3, C, C2, C3, W, W2, P, H, andG.

The original design was to make use of these text-books only; but it was so easy to extend it by including examples to be obtained from other Glossaries and Dictionaries, that a considerable selection of interesting words was added from these, mainly for the sake of illustrating the words in the Clarendon text-books. These illustrative words can be fully or partially verified by those who happen to possess all or some of the works cited, or they can safely be taken on trust, as really occurring there, any mistake being due to such authority.

A second example will make this clearer. 'Brant, adj. steep, high, MD, HD; brent, JD; brentest, superl. S2.—AS. brant (bront); cp. Swed. brant, Icel. brattr.'

Omitting the etymology, the above information is given in two short lines. Those who possess the 'Specimens of English' will easily find the example of the superl. brentest. By consulting Mtzner's, Halliwell's, and Jamieson's Dictionaries, further information can be obtained, and the full article will appear as follows:—

'Brant, adj. steep, high, MD [brant, brent, adj. ags. brand, arduus, altus, altn. brattr, altschw. branter, schw. brant, bratt, dn, brat, sch. brent, nordengl. Diall. brant: cf. "brant, steepe," Manipulus Vocabulorum, p.25: steil, hoch.—"Apon the bald Bucifelon brant up he sittes," King Alexander, ed. Stevenson, p.124; "Thir mountaynes ware als brant uprit[gh]e as thay had bene walles," MS. quoted in Halliwell's Dict., p.206; "Hy[gh]e bonkkes & brent," Gawain and the Grene Knight, l.2165; "Bowed to e hy[gh] bonk er brentest hit wern," Alliterative Poems, ed. Morris, Poem B, l.379]; HD [brant, steep. North: "Brant against Flodden Hill," explained by Nares from Ascham, "up the steep side;" cf. Brit. Bibl. i. 132, same as brandly?—"And thane thay com tille wonder heghe mountaynes, and it semed as the toppes had towched the firmament; and thir mountaynes were als brant upri[gh]te as thay had bene walles, so that ther was na clymbyng upon thame," Life of Alexander, MS. Lincoln, fol. 38]; JD [brent, adj. high, straight, upright; "My bak, that sumtyme brent hes bene, Now cruikis lyk are camok tre," Maitland Poems, p.193; followed by a discussion extending to more than 160 lines of small print, which we forbear to quote]; brentest, superl. S2. 13. 379 ["And bowed to e hy[gh] bonk er brentest hit were (MS. wern)," Allit. Poems, l.379; already cited in Mtzner, above].'

The work, in fact, contains a very large collection of words, in many variant forms, appearing in English literature and in Glossaries between A.D. 1150 and A.D. 1580. The glossaries in S2, S3 (Specimens of English, 1298-1393, and 1394-1579) have furnished a considerable number of words belonging to the Scottish dialect, which most dictionaries (excepting of course that of Jamieson) omit.

The words are so arranged that even the beginner will, in general, easily find what he wants. We have included in one article, together with the Main Word, all the variant spellings of the glossaries, as well as the etymological information. We have also given in alphabetical order numerous cross-references to facilitate the finding of most of the variant forms, and to connect them with the Main Word. In this way, the arrangement is at once etymological and alphabetical—adapted to the needs of the student of the language and of the student of the literature.

The meanings of the words are given in modern English, directly after the Main Word. The variant forms, as given in their alphabetical position, are frequently also explained, thus saving (in such cases) the trouble of a cross-reference, if the meaning of the word is alone required.

An attempt is made in most cases to give the etymology, so far at least as to shew the immediate source of the Middle-English word. Especial pains have been taken with the words of French origin, which form so large a portion of the vocabulary of the Middle-English period. In many cases the AF (Anglo-French) forms are cited, from my list of English Words found in Anglo-French, as published for the Philological Society in 1882.

The student of English who wishes to trace back the history of a word still in use can, in general, find the Middle-English form in Skeat's Etymological Dictionary, and will then be able to consult the present work in order to obtain further instances of its early use.

The relative share of the authors in the preparation of this work is easily explained. The whole of it in its present form (with the exception of the letterN) was compiled, prepared, and written out for press by Mr. Mayhew. The original plan was, however, my own; and I began by writing out the letter N (since augmented) by way of experiment and model. It will thus be seen that Mr. Mayhew's share of the work has been incomparably the larger, involving all that is most laborious. On the other hand, I may claim that much of the labour was mine also, at a much earlier stage, as having originally compiled or revised the glossaries marked S2, S3, C2, C3, W, W2, P, and G, as well as the very full glossarial indexes cited as B, PP, and WA, and the dictionary cited as SkD. The important glossary marked S was, however, originally the work of Dr. Morris (since re-written by Mr. Mayhew), and may, in a sense, be said to be the back-bone of the whole, from its supplying a very large number of the most curious and important early forms.

The material used has been carefully revised by both authors, so that they must be held to be jointly responsible for the final form in which the whole is now offered to the public.

NOTE ON THE PHONOLOGY OF MIDDLE-ENGLISH.

One great difficulty in finding a Middle-English word in this, or any other, Dictionary is due to the frequent variation of the symbols denoting the vowel-sounds. Throughout the whole of the period to which the work relates the symbols i and y, in particular, are constantly interchanged, whether they stand alone, or form parts of diphthongs. Consequently, words which are spelt with one of these symbols in a given text must frequently be looked for as if spelt with the other; i.e. the pairs of symbols i and y, ai and ay, ei and ey, oi and oy, ui and uy, must be looked upon as likely to be used indifferently, one for the other. For further information, the student should consult the remarks upon Phonology in the Specimens of English (1150 to 1300), 2nd ed., p.xxv. For those who have not time or opportunity to do this, afew brief notes may perhaps suffice.

The following symbols are frequently confused, or are employed as equivalent to each other because they result from the same sound in the Oldest English or in Anglo-French:—

i, y;—ai, ay;—ei, ey;—oi, oy;—ui, uy.

_a_, _o_;—_a_, _, _e_, _ea_;— _e_, _eo_, _ie_;—_o_, _u_, _ou_;—(all originally short).

_a_, _, _ea_, _e_, _ee_;—_e_, _ee_, _eo_, _ie_;— _o_, _oo_, _oa_;—_u_, _ou_, _ui_;—(all long).

These are the most usual interchanges of symbols, and will commonly suffice for practical purposes, in cases where the cross-references fail. If the word be not found after such substitutions have been allowed for, it may be taken for granted that the Dictionary does not contain it. As a fact, the Dictionary only contains a considerable number of such words as are most common, or (for some special reason) deserve notice; and it is at once conceded that it is but a small hand-book, which does not pretend to exhibit in all its fulness the extraordinarily copious vocabulary of our language at an important period of its history. The student wishing for complete information will find (in course of time) that the New English Dictionary which is being brought out by the Clarendon Press will contain all words found in our literature since the year 1100.

Of course variations in the vowel-sounds are also introduced, in the case of strong verbs, by the usual 'gradation' due to their method of conjugation. To meet this difficulty in some measure, numerous (but not exhaustive) cross-references have been introduced, as when, e.g. 'Bar, bare' is given, with a cross-reference to Beren. Further help in this respect is to be had from the table of 183 strong verbs given at pp. lxix-lxxxi of the Preface to Part I of the Specimens of English (2nd edition); see, in particular, the alphabetical index to the same, at pp. lxxxi, lxxxii. The same Preface further contains some account of the three principal Middle-English dialects (p.xl), and Outlines of the Grammar (p.xlv). It also explains the meaning of the symbols , (both used for th), [gh] (used for y initially, gh medially, and gh or z finally), with other necessary information.



THE CLARENDON PRESS GLOSSARIES.

This work gives all the words and every form contained in the glossaries to eleven publications in the Clarendon Press Series, as below:—

S.—SPECIMENS OF EARLY ENGLISH, ed. Morris, Part I: from A.D. 1150 to A.D. 1300.

This book contains extracts from:—1. Old English Homilies, ed. Morris, E.E.T.S. 1867-8, pp. 230-241; 2.The Saxon Chronicle, A.D. 1137, 1138, 1140, 1154; 3.Old Eng. Homilies, ed. Morris, First Series, pp. 40-53; 4.The same, Second Series, pp. 89-109; 5.The Ormulum, ed. White, ll.962-1719, pp. 31-57; 6.Layamon's Brut, ed. Madden, ll.13785-14387 [add 13784 to the number of the line in the reference]; 7.Sawles Warde, from Old Eng. Homilies, ed. Morris, First Series, pp. 245-249, 259-267; 8.St. Juliana, ed. Cockayne and Brock; 9.The Ancren Riwle, ed. Morton, pp. 208-216, 416-430; 10.The Wooing of our Lord, from Old Eng. Homilies, ed. Morris, First Series, pp. 277-283; 11.A Good Orison of our Lady, from the same, pp. 191-199; 12.A Bestiary, the Lion, Eagle, and Ant, from An Old Eng. Miscellany, ed. Morris; 13.Old Kentish Sermons, from the same, pp. 26-36; 14.Proverbs of Alfred, from the same, pp. 102-130; 15.Version of Genesis and Exodus, ed. Morris, ll.1907-2536; 16.Owl and Nightingale, from An Old Eng. Miscellany, ed. Morris, ll.1-94, 139-232, 253-282, 303-352, 391-446, 549-555, 598-623, 659-750, 837-855, 905-920, 1635-1682, 1699-1794; 17.A Moral Ode (two copies), from An Old Eng. Miscellany and Old Eng. Homilies, 2nd Series, ed. Morris; 18.Havelok the Dane, ed. Skeat, ll.339-748; 19.King Horn (in full).

S2.—Specimens Of English, Part II, ed. Morris and Skeat; from A.D. 1298-1393.

This book contains extracts from:—1. Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle (William the Conqueror and St. Dunstan); 2.Metrical Psalter, Psalms 8, 14(15), 17(18), 23(24), 102(103), 103(104); 3.The Proverbs of Hendyng; 4.Specimens of Lyric Poetry, ed. Wright (Alysoun, Plea for Pity, Parable of the Labourers, Spring-time); 5.Robert Mannyng's Handlynge Synne, ll.5575-5946; 6.William of Shoreham, De Baptismo; 7.Cursor Mundi, ed. Morris, ll.11373-11791 [add 11372 to the number in the reference]; 8.Eng. Metrical Homilies, ed. Small (Second Sunday in Advent, Third Sunday after the Octave of Epiphany); 9.The Ayenbite of Inwyt, ed. Morris, pp. 263-9, and p.262; 10.Hampole's Prick of Conscience, ll.432-9, 464-509, 528-555, 662-707, 728-829, 1211-1292, 1412-1473, 1818-29, 1836-51, 1884-1929, 2216-2233, 2300-11, 2334-55, 2364-73, 7813-24; 11.Minot's Songs, Nos. 3, 4, 7; 12.William of Palerne, ed. Skeat, ll.3-381; 13.Alliterative Poems, ed. Morris, Poem B, ll.235-544, 947-972, 1009-1051; 14.Mandeville's Travels, Prologue, part of Chap. 12, and Chap. 26; 15.Piers the Plowman, A-text, Prologue, Passus 1, part of Pass. 2, Pass. 3, Pass. 5, parts of Pass. 6 and 7; 16.Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, Book VII. ll.1-230, 400-487; 17.Wyclif's translation of St. Mark's Gospel, Chapters 1-6; Hereford's version of the Psalms, Ps. 14(15), 23(24), 102(103); 18.Trevisa's translation of Higden's Polychronicon, lib. i. c. 41, c. 59, lib. vi. c. 29; 19.Chaucer, Man of Law's Tale; 20.Gower's Confessio Amantis, part of BookV.

S3.—Specimens Of English, Part III, ed. Skeat; from A.D. 1394-1579.

This book contains extracts from:—1. Pierce the Ploughman's Crede, ll.153-267, 339-565, 744-765, 785-823; 2.Hoccleve's De Regimine Principum, stanzas 281-301, 598-628; 3.Lydgate, London Lickpenny, and the Storie of Thebes, bk. ii. ll.1064-1419; 4.James I (of Scotland), the King's Quair, stanzas 152-173; 5.Pecock's Represser, pt. i. c. 19; pt. ii. c. 11; 6.Blind Harry's Wallace, bk. i. ll.181-448; 7.Chevy Chase (earlier version); 8.Malory's Morte Darthur, bk. xxi. c. 3-7; 9.Caxton's History of Troy; 10.The Nut-brown Maid; 11.Dunbar, Thistle and Rose, and Poem on being desired to be a Friar; 12.Hawes, Pastime of Pleasure, c. 33; 13.G. Douglas, Prol. to neid, book xii; 14.Skelton, Why Come Ye Nat to Courte, ll.287-382, 396-756; Philip Sparrow, ll.998-1260; 15.Lord Berners, tr. of Froissart, c. 50, c. 130; 16.Tyndale, Obedience of a Christian Man; 17.More, Dialogue Concerning Heresies, bk. iii. c. 14-16; Confutation of Tyndale, bk. iii; 18.Sir T. Elyot, The Governor, bk. i. c. 17, 18; 19.Lord Surrey, tr. of neid, bk. ii. ll.253-382, 570-736, and minor poems; 20.Sir T. Wiat, Three Satires, and minor poems; 21.Latimer, Sermon on the Ploughers; 22.Sir D. Lyndesay, The Monarchy, bk. iii. ll.4499-4612, 4663-94, 4709-38; bk. iv. ll.5450-5639; 23.N. Udall, Ralph Roister Doister, Act iii. sc. 3-5; 24.Lord Buckhurst, The Induction; 25.Ascham, The Schoolmaster, bk. i; 26.Gascoigne, The Steel Glas, ll.418-470, 628-638, 750-893, 1010-1179; 27.Lyly, Euphues and his Eph[oe]bus; 28.Spenser, Shepherd's Calendar, November, December.

The remaining eight publications in the Clarendon Press Series which have also been indexed are those marked C, C2, C3, W, W2, P, H, and G; i.e. three books containing extracts from Chaucer, two books containing parts of Wyclif's Bible, part of Piers Plowman, Hampole's Psalter, and Gamelyn; the full titles of which are given below.

We also give all the important words occurring in CM (Chaucer, ed. Morris); and in addition to this, and for the purpose of illustration, forms are given from various texts and Dictionaries, and from the Glossaries to B (Bruce), PP (Piers Plowman), and WA (Wars of Alexander).

WALTER W. SKEAT.



FULL LIST OF AUTHORITIES,

With Explanations Of Abbreviations.

NOTE.—The abbreviations referring to the authorities for the forms of English words (A.D. 1150-1580) are printed in italics. (CP= Clarendon Press.)

1. Alph.: Alphita, a Medico-Botanical Glossary, ed. Mowat, 1887.CP. 2. Anglo-Saxon Gospels, in AS. and Northumbrian Versions, ed. Skeat. 3. Apfelstedt: Lothringischer Psalter (des XIV Jahrhunderts), 1881. 4. B: Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, 1870, EETS. (Extra Seriesxi). 5. Bardsley: English Surnames, 1875. 6. Bartsch: Chrestomathie de l'ancien franais (glossaire), 1880. 6*. BH: Bartsch and Horning, Langue et Littrature franaises, 1887. 7. Bosworth: Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 1838. 8. Brachet: French Dict., 1882. CP. 9. Brugmann: Grundriss, 1886. 10. BT.: Bosworth-Toller AS. Dict. [A-SAR].CP. 11. C: Chaucer; Prol., Knight's Tale, Nun's Priest's Tale.CP. 12. C2: Chaucer; Prioress, Sir Thopas, Monk, Clerk, Squire.CP. 13. C3: Chaucer; Man of Law, Pardoner, Second Nun, Canon's Yeoman.CP. 14. Cath.: Catholicon Anglicum (A.D. 1483), ed. Herrtage, 1881. EETS(75). 15. Chron.: Two Saxon Chronicles, ed. Earle, 1865.CP. 16. CM: Chaucer, ed. Morris, 1880. 17. Constans: Chrestomathie de l'ancien franais (glossaire), 1884. 18. Cotg.: Cotgrave, French and English Dict., 1611. 19. Curtius: Greek Etymology, ed. Wilkins and England, 1886. 20. CV: Icelandic Dictionary, Cleasby and Vigfusson, 1874.CP. 21. DG: Davies, Supplementary English Glossary, 1881. 22. Diez: Etymologisches Wrterbuch, 1878. 23. Douse: Introduction to the Gothic of Ulfilas, 1886. 24. Ducange: Glossarium, ed. Henschel, 1883-7. 24*. Ducange: Glossaire Franais, ed. 1887. 25. EDS: English Dialect Society. 26. EETS: Early English Text Society. 27. Fick: Wrterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen, 1874. 28. Florio: Italian and English Dict., 1611. 29. G: Tale of Gamelyn, ed. Skeat, 1884.CP. 30. Godefroy: Dictionnaire de l'ancienne langue franaise [A-LIS]. 31. Grein: Glossar der angelschsischen Poesie, 1861. 32. Grimm: Teutonic Mythology, ed. Stallybrass, 1883. 33. H: Hampole, Psalter, ed. Bramley, 1884.CP. 34. HD: Halliwell, Dict. of Archaic and Provincial Words, 1874. 35. Heliand, ed. Heyne, 1873. 36. JD: Jamieson, Scottish Dictionary, 1867. 37. Kluge: etymologisches Wrterbuch der deutschen Sprache, 1883. 38. Leo: angelschsisches Glossar, 1877. 39. Manip.: Manipulus Vocabulorum, Levins, ed. Wheatley, EETS, 1867. 40. MD: Mtzner, altenglisches Wrterbuch [A-H], 1885. 41. Minsheu: Spanish and English Dict., 1623. 42. ND: Nares, Glossary, 1876. 43. NED: New English Dictionary, ed. Murray [A-BOZ].CP. 44. NQ: Notes and Queries. 45. OET: Oldest English Texts, ed. Sweet, 1885, EETS(83). 45*. ONE: Oliphant, The New English, 1886. 46. Otfrid: Evangelienbuch, glossar, ed. Piper, 1884. 47. P: Piers the Plowman (B-text), ed. Skeat.CP. 48. Palsg.: Palsgrave, Lesclaircissement de langue francoyse, ed. 1852. 49. PP: Piers the Plowman, glossary by Skeat, 1885, EETS(81). 50. PP. Notes: by Skeat, 1877, EETS(67). 51. Prompt.: Promptorium Parvulorum, ed. Way, Camden Soc., 1865. 52. Ps.: (after French forms), see Apfelstedt. 53. RD: Richardson's English Dictionary, 1867. 54. Roland: Chanson de Roland, ed. Gautier, 1881. 55. S: Specimens of Early English, Part I, ed. Morris, 1885.CP. 56. S2: Specimens of Early English, Part II, ed. Morris and Skeat, 1873.CP. 57. S3: Specimens of English Literature, ed. Skeat, 1879.CP. 58. SB: Sinonoma Bartholomei, 14th Cent. Glossary, ed. Mowat, 1882.CP. 59. Schmid: Gesetze der Angelsachsen (glossar), 1858. 60. SD: Stratmann, Dict. of the Old English Language, 1878. 61. Sh.: Shakespeare Lexicon, by Schmidt, 1875. 62. Sievers: Grammar of Old English, ed. A.S. Cook, 1885. 63. SkD: Skeat, Etymological Dict. of Eng. Lang., 1884.CP. 64. Skeat, English Words in Norman-French, 1882, Phil. Soc. 65. Skeat, M[oe]so-gothic Glossary, 1868. 66. SPD: Smythe Palmer, Dictionary of Folk-Etymology, 1882. 67. Spenser: Faery Queene, glossaries to Books I and II, 1887.CP. 68. Sweet: AS. Reader, 1884. CP. 69. Tatian: Evangelienbuch, ed. Sievers, 1872. 70. TG: Trench, Select Glossary, 1879. 71. Trevisa: version of Higden, Rolls' Series(41). 72. Voc.: Wright's Vocabularies, ed. Wlcker, 1884. 73. VP: Vespasian Psalter, as printed in OET., see45. 74. Vulg.: the Vulgate Version of the Bible. 75. W: Wycliffe, New Testament (Purvey's revision), ed. Skeat, 1879.CP. 76. W2: Wycliffe, Job, Psalms, &c. (revised by Hereford and Purvey), ed. Skeat, 1881.CP. 77. WA: Wars of Alexander, ed. Skeat, 1887, EETS (Extra Series xlvii). 78. Weigand: deutsches Wrterbuch, 1878. 79. Windisch: Glossary added to Old Irish Texts, 1882. 80. WW: Wright, The Bible Word-Book, 1884. 81. ZRP: Zeitschrift fr romanische Philologie, ed. Grber.



ABBREVIATIONS (Languages),

With References To Authorities.

AF: Anglo-French, see 64. AS.: Anglo-Saxon, see 10, 31, 45, 62. Church Lat.: Ecclesiastical Latin, see 24, 74. Goth.: Gothic, see 23, 65. Gr.: Greek, see 9, 19, 27. Icel.: Icelandic, see 20. It.: Italian, see 28. Lat.: Latin. Late Lat.: Post-classical Latin, of Latin origin, see 24, 72, 74. Low Lat.: Latin derived from the later European languages, see 1, 14, 24, 51, 58. ME.: Middle English. North.E.: Northern English, see 4, 36. OF.: Old French, see 3, 6, 17, 18, 22, 24, 30, 48, 54. OHG.: Old High German, see 37, 46, 69, 78. OIr.: Old Irish, see 19, 79. OMerc.: Old Mercian, see 2 (Rushworth version), 45, 73. ONorth.: Old Northumbrian, see 2. OS.: Old Saxon, see 35. OTeut.: Old Teutonic (as restored by scholars), see 27, 43. Sp.: Spanish, see 41.

SYMBOLS.

In the etymological part three stops are used as symbols in connexion with the cognate forms cited, namely the comma, the semi-colon, and the colon. The comma is used to connect various spellings of a word, as well as parallel forms cited from nearly connected languages; for instance, s.v. daunger, the OF. forms are so connected. The semi-colon between two forms denotes that the two forms are phonetically equivalent, and that the preceding one is directly derived from, and is historically connected with the one following this symbol; for instance, s.v. bugle, the OF. bugle is the phonetic equivalent of the Lat. buculum, and is immediately derived therefrom. The colon between two forms denotes that the two forms are phonetically equivalent, and that the form following this symbol is an earlier, more primitive form than the one preceding, without an immediate interborrowing between the languages being asserted; for instance, s.v. demen, the Goth. dmjan is an older form than the AS. dman, but dman is not borrowed from the Gothic. The abbreviation 'cp.' introduces other cognate forms, and has the same value as the symbol + in Skeat's Dictionaries.

The asterisk * at the beginning of a word denotes a theoretical form, assumed (upon scientific principles) to have formerly existed. The sign = is to be read 'a translation of.' '(n)' after Prompt., Cath. and other authorities refers to foot-notes or other notes citing the form in question.



A CONCISE

DICTIONARY OF MIDDLE-ENGLISH.

A.

A-, prefix (1), adding intensity to the notion of the verb.—AS. for ar-, OHG. ar-, Goth. us-. For the quantity of the see Sievers, 121. Cf. Or.

A-, _prefix_ (2), standing for A, _prep._, and for Icel. _; see On-(1).

A-, prefix (3), standing for Of, prep.; see Of.

A-, prefix (4), standing for AS. and-, against, in return, toward.—AS. and-, ond-, on- (proclitic). Cf. On- (2).

A-, prefix (5), standing for At, prep., and Icel. at, used with the infin. See At-(1).

A-, prefix (6), standing for AS. ge-; see [Gh]e-.

A-, prefix (7), standing for OF. a- and Lat. ad-.

A-, prefix (8), standing for OF. a- and Lat. ab-.

A-, prefix (9), standing for AF. a, OF. e-, es- from Lat. ex-, e-.

A-, prefix (10), standing for AF. an-, OF. en- from Lat. in-. See In-.

A-, prefix (11), standing for Gr. a- privative.

A, interj. O! Ah! expressing surprise, pain, S,MD.

A, prep. on, in, PP, S, S2, C2; see On.

A, prep. of, S2, S3, PP; see Of. [[Addition]]

A, adv. ever, S; aa, S; abuten, ever without, S; see O. [[Addition]]

A-bac, adv. backwards, S, W2; abec, S; abak, C2, W; obak, S2.—AS. on-bc. (+A-+2.)

Abasshen, v. to abash, S3; abasshed, pp. abashed, ashamed, alarmed, C3, PP; abashed, S2; abasshid, S3; abasched, PP; abaisshed, PP; abaischid, W; abaischt, S2; abaissed, PP; abaist, S3; abayste, S2, C2.—OF. esbahiss- stem of pr. p.of esbahir, to astonish; Lat. ex + *badire for badare, to open the mouth. (+A-+9.)

Abate, v. to beat down, bring down, calm down, P, NED.—AF. abatre (pr. p.abatant); Late Lat. *adbatere. (+A-+7.)

Abaue, v. to put to confusion, to be confounded, NED, HD, JD; abawed, pp. HD; abaued, HD.—OF. *abavir: esbahir (with v in place of lost h, see Brachet, s.v. glaive). (+A-+9). See Abasshen.

Abaye, sb. barking; phr. at e abaie, at abaye, at bay, S2.—OF. abai, barking, from abaier; cp. F. aboi in phr.: tre aux abois.

Abbay, sb. abbey, C2; abbeis, pl., S2.—AF. abbeie (abeie); Church Lat. abbⱥdia, abbⱥtia, from abbⱥtem. See Abbod.

Abbesse, sb. abbess, PP.—OF. abbesse; Church Lat. abbatissa.

Abbod, sb. abbot, MD, S2; abbot, S, PP; abbodes, pl. S2.—Church Lat. abbⱥtem (pronounced abbⱥdem), nom. abbas; Gr. abbas; Syriac, abba, father.

Abbodesse, sb. abbess, PP.

Abbot-rice, sb. abbacy, S.—AS. abbod-rce, the rule of an abbot.

A-B-C, the alphabet, P; abcy, Cath.; abce, Cath. (n.), PP; abcee, Cotg.; abece, Cath. (n.); apece, Prompt.—Cp. OF. abece, the crosse rowe (Cotg.).

Abeah, Abeh; see Abu[gh]en.

Abeggen, Abeien; see Abyen.

A-bernen, v. to burn; abern, pr. s. S.—AS. -beornan. (+A-+1.)

Abhominacioun, sb. abomination, NED,C2.

Abhomynable, adj. abominable, S3, C3.—AF. abhominable; Lat. abominabilem.

A-biden, v. to abide, remain, await, endure, S, S2, W2; habide, S2; abyde, C2; abid, imp., S, S2; abid, pr. s., S; abit, S, S2, C3; abod, pt. s., S; abood, W2; abide, pt. pl., S2; abididen, W2; abide, pp., G.—AS. -bdan. (+A-+1.)

A-biding, sb. expectation, W2.

Abiggen; see Abyen.

Abil, adj. able, CM; able, C; hable, S3, MD.—OF. able, hable (mod. F. habile); Lat. habilem.

Abilite, sb. ability, NED; habilitie, S3.—OF. habilit.

Abil[gh]eit, pp. apparelled, S3.—OF. habiller.

Abil[gh]ement, sb. clothing, S3.—OF. habillement.

Abit, sb. dress, a monk's clothing, habit, PP, CM, HD; abite, W.—AF. abit (habit); Lat. habitum (acc.).

A-biten, v. to bite, S.—AS. -btan. (+A-+1.)

Abject, pp. and adj. cast out, NED.

Abjecte, v. to cast aside, S3.

A-blawen, v. to blow, MD; ableow, pt. s., S.—AS. -blwan. (+A-+1.)

A-blenden, v. to blind, MD; ablent, pr. s., S; pl., S; ablende, pt. s., MD; ablend, pp. MD.—AS. -blendan. (+A-+1.)

A-bouten, adv. and prep. about, C2, P, MD; abuten, S; abuuten, S; abuton, S; abute, S; aboute, S, G; oboute, MD; obout, S2.—AS. on-btan (=on-be-tan). (+A-+2.)

A-bouen, adv. and prep. above, C2, PP, MD; aboue, PP; abufen, S; abuuen, MD; abowen, MD; abone, S3, JD; oboven, MD; obowen, MD; oboune, MD. Phr.: at here aboue, S2.—AS. on + bufan (=be + ufan). (+A-+2.)

Abregge, v. to abridge, shorten, C; abreggide, pp., W; breggid, W.—OF. abreger, abregier: Prov. abrevjar; Lat. abbreviare. (+A-+8.)

A-breiden, _v._ to start up, to draw (sword), to thrust out, to blame, S; abreyden, NED; abraid, _pt. s._, S; abreyde, C2; abrayde, C; abroden, _pp._, S; abruden, S.—AS. _ + _bregdan_. (+A-+1.)

A-brode, adv. abroad, PP; abrood, C2; abrod, widely apart, PP. (+A-+2.)

Abusioun, sb. deceit, S2, C3.—OF. abusion (Cotg.).

Abute, Abuton, Abuten; see A-bouten.

A-bu[gh]en, v. to bow, MD; abuen, MD; abouwen, MD; abowe, NED; abeah, pt. s., MD; abeh, S.—AS. -bugan. (+A-+1.)

A-byen, Abye, v. to buy, to pay for, S3, C2, C3, PP; abygge, PP; abiggen, PP; abuggen, S, PP; abeggen, MD, G; abeien, S; abie, PP; abui, pr. s., S; abuge, pr. pl., S; abouhte, pt. s., S; aboughte, G; abought, pp. C3.—AS. bycgan. (+A-+1.)

Abyme, sb. abyss, S2, HD.—OF. abime, abisme; Low Lat. *abyssimum, superl. of Lat. abyssus; Gr. abussos, bottomless. (+A-+11.)

Ac, conj. but, S, S2, P; acc, S; ah, S, S2; ak, S2, PP; hac, S; ach, MD; auh, MD, S; auch, MD; oc, S; occ, S.—AS. ac.

Acc-; see Ac-.

Accident, sb. accident (a term of the schoolmen), C3.—Lat. accidentem.

Accidie, sb. sloth, indolence, S, CM, PP.—AF. accidie (NED); Low Lat. accidia, acedia; Gr. akdia, heedlessness, torpor. (+A-+11.)

Accompt, sb. account, S3; see Acounte. [[Addition]]

Accompted, pp. accounted, S3; see Acounte. [[Addition]]

Ace, sb. a jot, S3; see As. [[Addition]]

A-cennen, v. to bring forth, to beget, MD; acenned, pp. MD; accenned, S; akenned, MD; akennet, S; acende (for acend), S.—AS. -cennan. (+A-+1.)

A-cennende, sb. begetting, birth,S.

A-cenneng, sb. birth, S.

A-chape, v. to escape, NED; achaped, pt. s., S2.—OF. achaper; cf. AF. ascaper. (+A-+9.) Cf. Eschapen, Ascapie.

Achate, v. to purchase, NED.—OF. achater (F. acheter, acater; Late Lat., accaptare.

Achate, sb. purchase, provisions purchased, NED, C; achat, HD; acate, NED; acates, pl., HD.—OF. achat, AF. acate. See above.

Achatour, sb. a purchaser of provisions, purveyor, C, NED, HD; acatour, NED.—AF. achatour, acatour; Late Lat. accaptatorem.

Ache, sb. pain, Prompt.; eche, MD; hache, HD.—AS. ce (ece). See Aken.

Ache, sb. wild celery, parsley, NED, Voc.—OF. ache; Lat. apium; Gr. apion.

Achesoun, sb. occasion, motive, HD, MD, NED.—OF. achoison, ocoison; Lat. occasionem. Cf. Anchesoun, Enchesoun, Chesoun.

Achtande, ord. eighth, S2, NED.—Icel. ttandi; cp. OHG. ahtande. Cf. Eighte (ord.).

A-colien, v. to wax cold; acolede, pt. s., S; acoled, pp., S.—AS. -clian. (+A-+1.)

Acombren, v. to encumber, PP; acumbrid, pp., S2.—OF. encombrer. (+A-+10.)

Acomplesshen, v. to accomplish, NED; accomplice, C; accompliced, pp. NED.—AF. acomplir (acomplice, pr. s. subj.); Late Lat. accomplere; see Brachet. (+A-+7.)

Acord, sb. accord, agreement, MD; accord, S2; acorde, S.—AF. acord.

Acordaunce, sb. agreement, PP.

Acorden, v. to reconcile, to agree, MD, S2, P; accordyng, pr.p., S3; accorded, pp., S2; pt. s., S3.—OF. acorder; Late Lat. accordare, from Lat. ad + cord-, stem of cor, heart. (+A-+7.)

Acorse; see Acursien.

Acounte, v. to count, to calculate, NED, C2, PP; acompte, NED, PP; accompted, pp., S3.—AF. acounter, OF. acunter, aconter; Late Lat. accomptare; Lat. ad + computare. (+A-+7.)

Acounte, sb. account, reckoning, PP; acompte, PP; accompt, S3; accomptes, pl., S3.—AF. acounte, acunte.

Acoupen, v. to accuse, NED, HD; acoupede, pt. s., NED, PP; acopede, NED; acoulped, NED; acouped, pp., S2.—OF. acouper, acolper, for encouper, encolper; Lat. inculpare. (+A-+10.)

Acoyen, v. to quiet, coax, tame, NED, Palsg.; acoyed, pt. s., S2.—OF. acoyer, to calm; Lat. ad + quietare. (+A-+7.)

Acumbrid; see Acombren.

A-cursien, v. to curse, NED; acursi, S, NED; acorse, PP; acorsed, pp. MD. (+A-+1.)

Acustumaunce, sb. customary use, NED, C2.—OF. acostumance. (+A-+7.)

Acwenchen; see Aquenchen.

Adamant, sb. adamant, very hard metal, afabulous rock or mineral, the diamond, the loadstone or magnet, NED; precious stone, Prompt.; ademaunt, C; adamounde, Prompt. (n.); admont, NED; athamant, NED; athamaunte, C; attemant, NED; aymont, NED.—AF. adamant (aimant); Lat. adamantem; Gr. adamas (-anta), lit. invincible, untamable, from a- + dama, I tame. (+A-+11.)

Adaunten, v. to subdue, NED; adauntede, pt. s., S2.—OF. adanter, adonter; Lat. ad + domitare, to tame. (+A-+7.)

A-dawe, out of life, NED, HD.—AS. of dagum, from days. (+A-+3.)

A-dawen, v. to rise from sleep, also, to arouse, NED; adawed, pp. S3.—Cp. MHG. er-tagen, to dawn. (+A-+1.)

A-day, adv. at morn, by day, S2, P; adai, S. (+A-+2.)

Addledd, pp. earned, S; see Adlen. [[Addition]]

A-dili[gh]en, v. to be lost, to perish, S; adili[gh]ede, pt. s., S; adiligde, S.—AS. -diligan, to destroy. (+A-+1.)

A-di[gh]ten, v. to appoint, order, prepare, compose, clothe, treat, MD, S; ady[gh]t, pp., MD; adight, G; adyght, MD, HD. (+A-+1.)

Adlen, v. to earn, MD; addle, Manip., MED; addledd, pp., S.—Icel. la, refl. la-sk, to acquire for oneself property, from al, property, patrimony, from *aal, race, see Fick, 7. 14; cp. OHG. uodil, 'praedium' (Tatian). See Athel.

Admirald, sb. a Saracen commander, S; see Amirail.

Admod, adj. humble, gentle, S; dmod, MD; edmod, MD.—AS. admd, amd. See Eth.

Admoded, pp. as adj. lowly; see Eadmodien.

Admodie, adj. pl. humble, MD; edmodi,MD.

Admodliche, adv. humbly, gently, MD; dmodli[gh], S.—AS. admdlice.

Admodnesse, sb. humility, gentleness, MD, S; edmodnesse, S; ddmodnesse, S.—AS. admdnes.

A-do, sb. fuss, trouble, difficulty, S3, Prompt., WW; =to do, PP, WW; adoe, ND, (+A-+5.)

A-doun, adv. down, S, S2, C2, C3, G; adun, S; adune, S.—AS. of dne, off the hill. (+A-+3.)

A-drad, pp. frightened, put in dread, NED, S2, G, C, PP; adred, S; adrede, NED.—AS. of-drad (+A-+3). Cf. Of-dreden.

A-drawen, v. to draw out, S2; adroh, pt. s., NED; adrou, NED; adra[gh]e, pp. NED. (+A-+1.)

A-dreden, v. to fear greatly, S, NED; adrade, reflex., S.—OMerc. and-dr[]dan (Rushw.); see NED. (+A-+4.)

A-drenchen, v. to drown, to be drowned, MD, S, PP; adreynten, pt. pl., PP; adreynt, pp. drenched, PP; adreint, MD; adrent, S, PP; adreynched, PP.—AS. -drencan. (+A-+1.)

Adressen, v. to make straight, to direct, NED, H.—OF. adressier, adrecier Late Lat. addrictiare, from Lat. directum, straight. (+A-+7.)

A-drinken, v. to be drowned, MD, S; adronc, pt. s., MD; adronken, pl., MD; adrunken, pp., MD.—AS. -drincan. (+A-+1.)

A-drye, v. to endure, bear, HD; adri[gh]en, S (19. 1047), MD.—AS. -drogan. (+A-+1.)

A-dun, adv. down, S; see Adoun.

A-dunien, v. to din; adunest, 2 pr. s., adenyd, pp. MD. (+A-+1.)

Adun-ward, adv. downward, NED; adonward,S2.

Adversarie, sb. adversary, C3.—OF. adversarie; Lat. aduersarius.

Advertence, sb. mental attention, C3.—Late Lat. advertentia.

Advocat, sb. advocate, intercessor, C3; vokate, PP; vokyte, causidicus, Voc.; vokettus, pl. PP.—OF. advocat; Lat. aduocatum (acc.).

+, sb. law, MD.—AS. []w ([]), law, divine law, the Mosaic law, marriage; Goth. aiws, an age, eternity; cp. OHG. wa, the law of God, eternity (Otfrid). Cf. +-uez+, +Eu-bruche+, +Eche+.

dmod, adj. humble, gentle, MD; see Admod.

dmodli[gh], adv. humbly, S; see Admodliche.

dmodnisse, sb. humility, MD; ddmodnesse, S; see Admodnesse.

hte, num. eight, MD; see Eighte.

htene, num. eighteen, S; see Eightene.

n, num. and indef. art. one, S; nne, S; see Oon. [[Addition]]

ness, adv. once, S; see Oones. [[Addition]]

oure, pron. your, S; see [Gh]oure.

rd, sb. native land, home, S; see Erd.

rfe-telle, adj. difficult to count, S. See Arfe.

rnde, sb. errand, MD; see Erende.

rnd-race, sb. messenger, S; rnd-raches, pl., S.—AS. []rend-raca.

rnen, v. to run, S; see Rennen.

+-uez+, adj. pious, fast in the law, S.—AS. []-fest. See +.

Afaiten, v. to affect, to prepare, array, dress, to train, tame, subdue, NED, PP; affaiten, P; fayten, S2, PP; faiten, PP.—OF. afaiter, afeiter; Lat. affectare, freq. of afficere; ad + facere. (+A-+7.)

A-fallen, v. to fall, MD; auallen, MD; afeol, pt. s., MD; afallen, pp., MD.—AS. -feallan. (+A-+1.)

A-fallen, v. to fell, NED; afal, imp., S; aual,S.

A-felde, adv. a-field, to the field, PP. (+A-+2).

A-fellen, v. to fell, NED; auellen, MD.—AS. -fellan, -fyllan. (+A-+1.)

A-fer, adv. afar, W, W2; afeer, NED; of feor, S (s.v. feor). (+A-+3.) Cf. A-ferre.

Afere, sb., affair, bustle, appearance, demeanour, S2, NED; effere, S2; effeir, S2, S3; effer, S2; afferes, pl., PP.—OF. afere = a + fere; Lat. facere, to do. (+A-+7.)

A-feren, v. to frighten, terrify, S, PP; afferen, MD; affeare, 2 pr. s. subj., S; afered, pp. afraid, S, C, P; aferd, S, C, P, W2; afeerd, W; afert, PP; aferde, S3, P, W; afferde, S3.—AS. -f[]ran. (+A-+1.)

A-ferre, adv. afar, Prompt.; oferrum, S2; onferrum, S2; onferre, NED; onferr, NED. (+A-+2). Cf. Afer.

Aff-; see Af-.

Affamysit, pp. famished, S3, NED. Cp. OF. afamer; Late Lat. affamare.

Affectuosly, adv. passionately, HD, NED.

Affectuouse, adj. hearty, affectionate, NED, H; affectuse, NED.—Lat. affectuosus.

Affray, sb. terror, S3, C2, C3. Cf. Effray.

Affrayen, v. to frighten, C2; affrayed, pp. S2, C, C3, W; see Afrayen.

Afile, v. to file down, NED; affyle, C.—OF. afiler.

Afingret, pp. an-hungered, NED, HD; see Of-hungred. [[Addition]]

A-flemen, v. to drive away, MD; aulem, imp. s., S.—AS. -flman (-flman). (+A-+1.)

Afolen, v. to befool; afoled, pp., S; afoild, NED, HD.—OF. afoler (Bartsch); Low Lat. *adfolare, to make foolish. (+A-+7.)

A-fon, v. to receive, S; afeoh, imp., S; avo, pr. pl., S; auenge, pt. pl., S2.—AS. -fn, on-fn (for ond-fn), see Sievers, 198, 5. 1. (+A-+4.) Cf. Onfon.

Aforce, v. to force, constrain, NED, H; afforce, H; aforsed, pt. pl., H.—OF. aforcer, efforcer, esforcier; Late Lat. exfortiare, from Lat. fortis, strong. (+A-+9.)

A-fore, adv. prep., before, PP, WW; affore, PP; afor, PP; affor, PP; aforn, NED.—AS. on-foran. (+A-+2.)

A-forthen, v. to further, promote, to achieve, to manage to do, to manage to give, to afford; P, NED, SkD, HD; aforde, NED.—AS. ge + forian. (+A-+6.)

A-fote, adv. on foot, PP; afoote, S3, W; auote, S2. (+A-+2.)

Afrayen, v. to disturb from peace and quiet, to frighten, NED; affraye, C2 (E. 455); afreyd, pp. alarmed, afraid, NED; affrayed, W, S2, C, C3; affrayd, S3; affrayt, S3; frayd, S3, fraid, S3.—AF. afrayer, effrayer, OF. esfreer: Prov. esfredar; Low Lat. ex-fridare, from fridum; cp. OS. friu, peace. (+A-+9.) See Affrayen.

A-fright, pp. terrified, C; afri[gh]t, NED, HD; afry[gh]te, HD.—AS. -fyrht, -fyrhted. (+A-+1.)

After, prep. and adv. after, according to, S, HD, S2, C3; efter, S, S2; eftir, S3; eafter, MD; aftir, S2.—f-ter is a comp. form, see SkD.

After-clap, sb. an evil consequence or result, HD; after-clappys, pl.,MD.

After-del, sb. disadvantage, MD; after-dele,HD.

A-fure, adv. on fire, S2; auere, S2; afiere, W2. (+A-+2.)

Afyngred; see Ahungerd.

Afyrst, pp. athirst, PP; afurst, PP; afrust, PP; see Of-urst. [[Addition]]

A-gasten, _v._ to terrify, MD, PP; agesten, S; agaste, _pt. s._, C2, C; agast, _pp._, PP, S2, S3, C2, C3, G; agazed, S3; agaste, _pl._, S2, W.—AS. _ + _g[]stan_, to frighten. (+A-+1.)

A-gen, prep. and adv. towards, back, again, S; see A-[gh]ein.

Agenes, prep. against, S; see A[gh]eines.

Agenst, prep. against, NED; see A-[gh]einst.

Agenst-Christ, sb. Antichrist,S3.

A-gessen, v. to reckon, calculate, S. (+A-+1.)

Aghe, sb. awe, H; agh, NED; see Awe.

Aghe-ful, adj. awful, H; aghful,H.

A-gon, v. to obtain, PP.—AS. of-gangan, to require. (+A-+3.)

A-gon, pp. and adv. gone away, ago, S2, C3; agoon, C2, C3; agone, S3; agoo, PP; ago, C2.—AS. a-gn, pp. of -gn, to go forth. (+A-+1.)

A-graythen, v. to make ready, to dress, NED; agreed, pp., S2; agrayed, NED.—From Icel. greia: Goth. ga-raidjan. (+A-+1.)

A-graythinge, sb. apparel, S2, NED.

Agreable, adj. pleasant, NED; aggreable, favourable, S3.—AF. agreable. (+A-+7.)

A-gref, in grief, NED; agrief, C; ogrefe, NED. Phr.: takes not agreve, takes it not unkindly, NED. (+A-+2.)

Agreggen, v. to make heavy, to be heavy, to aggravate, HD; agreggid, pp., W2.—OF. agregier: Prov. agreujar; Late Lat. aggreuiare, from *greuis for Lat. grauis. (+A-+7.)

Agreed, pp. made ready, S2; see A-graythen. [[Addition]]

Agreuen, v. to bear heavily on, to grieve, oppress, HD; agreued, pp., C2, PP.—OF. agrever; Lat. aggrauare; ad + grauare, from grauis. (+A-+7.)

Agrimony, sb. agrimony, Prompt.; agremoine, Voc.; egrimony, Prompt.; egremoin, C3; egremounde, NED; ogremoyne, Voc.—Lat. agrimonia; Gr. agremn cp. F. aigremoine.

A-grisen, v. to be horrified, to terrify, to loathe, HD, MD, S; agryse, S2, C3.—AS. -grsan. (+A-+1.)

A-grounde, on the ground, S2, PP; on this earth, PP. (+A-+2.)

Agte, sb. possession, S; see Auhte.

A-gulten, v. to sin, to offend, MD, PP, S; agilten, MD; agelten, MD; a[gh]ulten, S; agulte, pt. s., PP; agult, pp., S; agilt, HD, PP.—AS. -gyltan. (+A-+1.)

Ah, conj. but, S, S2; see Ac.

Ah, pr. s. owes (as a duty), S; ahen, pr. pl., are obliged, S; see Owen. [[Addition]]

A-honge, pp. hanged up, S. (+A-+1.)

Aht, adj. worthy, valiant, NED; see Auht.

Aht, sb. aught, anything; ahte, S; ahct, S; see Ought. [[Addition]]

Ahte, sb. possession, S2; ahhte, S; see Auhte.

Ahtlice, adv. valiantly, NED; ohtliche, NED. See Auht.

A-hungerd, pp. a-hungered, PP, S3; ahungred, NED; afyngred, PP.—AS. ofhyngred. (+A-+3.) See Of-hungred.

Aihte, sb. property, S; ayhte, S; see Auhte.

Air, sb. air, S2; aire, NED; see Eyre.

Airtis, sb. pl. quarters of the sky, S3; see Art.

Aisille, sb. vinegar, S; eisil, MD; eisel, MD; eyselle, MD; esylle, Prompt.; aselle, MD; eysell, Sh.; aysel, H.—OF. aisil (eisil), also, aisi, Ps. 68. 21 (Metz); Late Lat. acitum (cp. OF. azet); Lat. acɇtum; see Schuchardt, Vokalismus, i. 294.

Aisliche, adv. timorously, S3; see Eisliche.

Ak, conj. but, S2, PP; see Ac.

Ak, sb. oak, Voc.; akis, pl., S3; see Ook. [[Addition]]

A-kelen, v. to make cold, to grow cold, S, MD.—AS. -clan. (+A-+1.)

Aken, v. to ake, to throb with pain, C2, S2, Prompt., NED; eken, MD; [gh]aik, NED; oc, pt. s., MD; ok, MD; oke, MD, NED; akide, NED; oken, pt. pl., PP.—AS. acan, pt. c, pp. acen; cp. Icel. aka, to drive, Lat. agere. Cf. Ache.

Akennet, pp. born, S; see A-cennen. [[Addition]]

Aketoun, sb. a jacket of quilted cotton worn under the mail, ajacket of leather plated with mail, NED, Voc., C2; acketoun, HD; acton, NED, HD, JD; hakatone, HD; haqueton, NED; haketon, ND; hacqueton, ND.—OF. auqueton; Sp. alcoton; Arab. al-qutn, the cotton.

A-kneon, on knees, S, NED; aknen, HD; aknewes, HD. (+A-+2.)

Al, adj., sb., adv. all, MD, S, S2, C2, C3; all, S, S3; hal, S2; alle, dat., S; lle, pl., S; alle, S2; halle, S; ealre, gen., S; allre, S; alra, S; alre, S.—AS. eall, all, al.

Al, adv. (with conjunctions); al if, although, NED.

Al, adv. (with subj. mood), although, NED, C, C3; Al be it, even though it be that,C.

Alabastre, sb. alabaster, W (Mt. 26.7); alabaustre, S3; alablaster, Sh.—OF. alabastre; Lat. alabastrum (nom. -ter); Gr. alabastros, alabastos.

A-lang, adv. along, MD; along, MD; olong, MD (+A-+4). See Endlang.

Alange, adj. tedious, strange, foreign, Prompt.; alenge, HD; see Elenge.

Alarge, v. to enlarge, to give largely, HD; alargid, pp., W, W2.—OF. alargir. (+A-+7.)

A-last, adv. at last, S2, NED. (+A-+5.)

Alaun, sb. a large dog used for hunting; alan, NED; alant, NED; alauntz, pl., C; allaundes, NED.—OF. alan (allan in Cotg.); It. alano (Florio); Low Lat. alanus.

Alay, sb. alloy, PP; alayes, pl., C2.—AF. alay.

Alayen, v. to mix metals, to alloy, NED, PP; alayed, pp., PP.—AF. alayer, aleyer (F. aloyer); Lat. alligare, to bind. (+A-+7.)

Albe, sb. a vestment worn by priests, and by some kings; NED.—Church Lat. alba, an alb; Lat. alba (vestis), awhite garment.

Albificacioun, sb. the process of making white (in alchemy), C3.—Late Lat. albificationem.

Alblastrye, sb. the use of cross-bows, S3. See Arblaste.

Ald, adj. old, S, S2; alder, comp., MD; aldreste, superl., S; see Old.

Al-day, adv. always, continually, C2,PP.

Alde-like, adv. with solemn, venerable mien,S.

Alder, sb. elder, ancestor, also, prince, chief, MD, PP; aldren, pl., S; lderen, S; elderne, S2; ealdren, MD; ealdrene, gen., S.—AS. ealdor (aldor). See Ald.

Alder, gen. pl. of all, C2, H; see Alre-.

Alder-best, adj. best of all, H; see Alrebest.

Alder-first, adj. first of all, C2; see Alrefyrst.

Alder-mon, sb. a prince, also, the principal officer in the shire, MD, Voc.; elldernemanness, gen., S; aldermen, pl., PP, AS. ealdormann.

Aldire-, gen. pl. of all, H; see Alre-.

Aldire-mast, adj. most of all, H; see Alremest.

Ale, sb. ale, S2, C2; ale-house, S2; an ale-drinking, NED. Comb.: ale-stake, astake before an alehouse as a sign, C, C3, NED.—AS. ealu, alu; OTeut. stem *alut-. Cf. Nale.

A-leggen, v. to lay down, to lay aside, to put down, confute, S, NED (allay1).—AS. -lecgan. (+A-+1.)

Alemaunde, sb. almond, NED, W2; almaundes, pl., NED; almoundes, NED.—OF. alemande, alemandre, alemandle (cp. Sp. almendra); Late Lat. amendola (cp. Pg. amendoa); Lat. amygdala; Gr. amugdal.

Alemaunde-tre, sb. almond-tree,W2.

Alembyk, sb. a retort (used in alchemy), C3; alambic, NED; limbeck, ND, Sh.; lymbecke, (Minsheu).—OF. alambic, Sp. alambique (Minsheu); Arab. al-anbq; Gr. ambɨk-, stem of ambix, acup.

A-lemen, _v._ to illumine, S; alimen, S; aleomen, S.—AS. _ + _loman_. (+A-+1.)

A-lesednesse, sb. redemption,MD.

A-lesen, v. to loose, deliver, S; alesde, pt. s., S; alesed, pp., S, HD.—AS. -lsan, lsan. (+A-+1.)

A-lesendnesse, sb. redemption,MD.

A-lesnesse, sb. redemption, S, MD.—AS. -lsnis.

Al-gate, adv. every way, always, in any case, NED, S3, C, C2, C3; allegate, S; algates, S2, C2, C3; algatis, W.—Cp. Icel. alla gtu, every way.

Algorisme, sb. the Arabic or decimal system of numeration, arithmetic, NED; algrim, MD; augrim, S. Phr.: cipher in algorisme, the figure o, amere cipher, NED.—OF. algorisme (augorime); Low Lat. algorismus (cp. Span. guarismo, arithmetic, Minsheu); from Arab. al-Khowarazmi, the surname of an Arab mathematician of the 9th cent.

Al-halowen, sb. pl. all saints, NED; alhalowes, NED; halalwes,S2.

Al-halowen day, sb. All Saints' Day, NED.—AS. ealra halgena dg.

Aliance, sb. alliance, NED; alliaunce, C2.—AF. aliance.

A-liche, adv. alike, PP, NED.—AS. ge-lce. (+A-+6.) See Iliche.

+ Alie+, sb. ally, relative, PP; allye,C2.

Alien, v. to combine, unite, ally, NED; allyed, pp., C2.—OF. alier; Lat. alligare. (+A-+7.)

A-liri, adv. across (said of the legs), P; alyry, PP.—AS. on + lira, the fleshy part of the leg (Voc.). (+A-+2.)

A-li[gh]ten, v. to alight, get lightly down from a horse, to descend, also, to lighten, MD; alyghte, C2; alyghte, pt. s., PP; aly[gh]te, PP; alihte, MD; ali[gh]te, S; alyhte, S2; ali[gh]t, pp., S2.—AS. -lhtan. (+A-+1.)

A-li[gh]ten, v. to enlighten, illuminate, to light (afire), NED.—AS. on-lhtan. (+A-+2.)

A-li[gh]tnen, v. to enlighten, NED; alichtyn, S3; alyctnyng, pr.p., S3. (+A-+1.)

Al-kaly, sb. alkali, C3.—Arab. al-qalɨy, calcined ashes; from qalay, to roast in a pan.

Alkamistre, sb. alchemist, C3, NED. OF. alkemiste.

Al-kamye, sb. medieval chemistry, PP.—OF. alcamie, alquimie; Sp. alquimia; Arab. al-kɨmɨⱥ; Late Gr. chmia, of doubtful origin, prob. from chumeia, pouring.

Al-karon, sb. the Koran, S2.—OF. al-coran; Ar. al-qorⱥn, the reading, from qara'a, to read aloud.

Al-katran, sb. the resin of fir trees, pitch, also, bitumen, NED, S2.—OF. alketran; Sp. alquitran; Ar. al-qatran, from qatara, to drop.

Al-kin, adj. of every kind, MED, PP; alkyn, S2, PP; alkynnes, PP; alle kynez, S2.—AS. alles cynnes, gen.

Al-kynd, adj. of every kind,S3.

All-; see Al-.

Allunge, adv. altogether, S, MD; allynge, MD; allinge, MED.—AS. eallunga, eallunge.

Allure, sb. a place to walk in, agallery, awalk by the parapets of a castle, acloister, S3; alure, Prompt., NED.—OF. alure (now allure), walk, going, agallery, also, alere (=Low Lat. *alatura), from aler, to go (F. aller).

Almain, adj. German, NED; Almaines, pl. Germans, NED; Almaygnes, S3.—OF. aleman (F. allemand).

Almain, sb. a kind of dance, NED; almond, NED. Comb.: almain-leap, ND; almond-leape, Cotg. (s.v. saut).

Almaine, sb. Germany, H; Almayne, NED; Alemaine, S; Almeyne, NED; Almen, NED; Alamanie, S.—OF. Alemaigne; Lat. Allemannia, the country of the Allemanni.

Almes-dede, sb. deed of mercy,S2.

Almesse, sb. alms, charity, S, PP, Prompt., S2, C3; lmes, S; elmesse, MD; almes, S, S2, W; almous, S2; almessis, pl., W.—AS. lmysse; Church Lat. *alimosina (cp. OF. almosne); eleemosyna (Tertullian); Gr. elemosun alms, Lu. 12. 33; orig. pity.

Al-mest, adv. almost, S2, C2, W, W2; almeest, W2; almost,PP.

Al-mi[gh]t, adj. all-powerful, MD; almight, NED, G.—AS. lmiht.

Al-mi[gh]ti, adj. almighty, NED; almichti, S; allmahhti[gh], S; almy[gh]ty, S2; almihti, S.—AS. lmeahtig.

Al-mi[gh]tin, adj. almighty, NED; almihten, NED; almihtin,S.

Alne-way; see Alweye.

A-lofte, adv. on high, aloft, PP; aloft, PP; on-lofte, S2, C2; olofte, NED; oloft, NED.—Icel. lopt (of motion), lopti (of position); lopt, air, sky, loft; cp. AS. on lyft, into the air, (+A-+2.)

A-londe, on land, in the land, S2, HD; alond,S2.

Al-one, adj., adv. alone, MED. Phr.: hym allane, S2. See One. [[headword spelled Oon]]

A-longen, v. to seem long to, to long, NED; alonged, pp. filled with longing, G, HD; alonget, S2.—AS. of-langian. (+A-+3.)

A-long on, prep. on account of, S2, NED.—AS. ge-lang, along. (+A-+6.) See Ilong.

Al-only, adv. merely, S2; alle only,S2.

A-loofe, adv. aloof, more nearly to the wind, NED; alofe, S3; aluffe, HD. Probably from Du. loef, in te loef, to windward. (+A-+2.)

A-losen, v. to praise, PP; alosed, pp. notorious, S2, NED, HD. (+A-+7.)

Al-out, adv. entirely, NED: all out,H.

A-louten, v. to bow down, S3, NED; alowtid, pt. s., PP.—AS. -ltan. (+A-+1.)

A-low, on the low ground, on earth, ED, PP; alawe, S3; alowe, PP. (+A-+2.)

Alowable, adj. praiseworthy,PP.

Alowaunce, sb. praise, PP.

Alowen, v. to praise, commend, to approve of, sanction, to admit (intellectually), S3, PP; allowen, C2, G, PP.—OF. alouer; Late Lat. *allaudare; Lat. ad + laudare. (+A-+7.)

Alowen, v. to assign, bestow, to give an allowance to, NED, Palsg.; allow, Sh.—AF. alower, OF. alouer, aloer; Lat. allocare, to place. (+A-+7.)

A-loyne, v. to remove far off, NED, HD, AF. aloyner, from loin; Lat. longe. (+A-+7.)

Alre, gen. pl. of all, used as an intensifying prefix with a superlative, NED (all, see sect. D. II, p.227), MD (p.56); allere, H; aller, G, C; alder, C2, H; alther, G, C, W2; aldire-, H.—AS. ealra. [[cross-references use hyphen Alre-]]

Alre-best, best of all, S2; alderbest, H; altherbest, NED, HD, C; altherbeste, S,HD.

Alre-fyrst, first of all, NED; altherfirst, NED, HD; alderfirst, C2,C3.

Alre-mest, most of all, S; aldiremast, H; althermoost,HD.

Als, adv. and conj. also, as, S, S2, S3, C2; see Also.

Als-as, conj. just as if, S3.

Al-so, adv. and conj. (1) even so, likewise, also, (2), as, MED, PP, S, S3, C3; allswa, S; alswo, MED; alse, S; alsse, S; als, S, S2, S3, C2; alls, S; ase, S, S2; as, S, S2, S3, C2; es, PP; alsswa, S2; alsua, S2; als-so, S2; alswa, S, S2, MED.—AS. eal-sw.

Al solne day, All Souls' Day, NED; alle soule day, S2.—AS. ealra sawlena dg.

Als-tite, adv. as quick, immediately, MED,S2.

Al-suic, adj. all such, S.

Al-swithe, adv. as fast, immediately, MED; alswythe, PP; als-suith, S2; aswithe, S2; asswythe,S2.

Alther-, gen. pl. of all, C, G, W2, PP; see Alre-.

Alther-best, adj. best of all, S, C; see Alrebest.

Alther-feblest, adj. feeblest of all, S2,HD.

Alther-first, adj. first of all, HD; see Alrefyrst.

Alther-moost, adj. most of all, HD; see Alremest.

Al-to, adv. entirely, S, NED (s.v. all, see C, sect. 15), W, W2, H; all-to,H.

Al-togidere, adv. altogether, G; altegdere,S.

Al-wat, conj., adv. all the while, till, S, MD (s.v. al, p.57); alwet, MD; alhuet, NED (s.v. all what). See What.

Al-weldand, adj. all-wielding, S2; alwealdent, S.—AS. al-wealdend.

Al-weye, adv. all along, at all times, perpetually, at any rate, NED; alne-way, S2; alwey, C2, C3, PP; alwais, S2; alleweyes, NED.—AS. ealne weg.

Alynen, v. to besmear; alyned, pp., S2.—Lat. allinere. (+A-+7.)

A-lyue, adv., adj. as pred. alive, C2, S2, PP; onlyue, C2, G; onliue, S.—AS. on life. (+A-+2.)

Am, 1 pr. s. am, S, C3; m, S, MD; ham, S; eam, MD; eom, MD.—ONorth. am, OMerc. eam (VP), AS. eom.

A-mad, pp. as adj. distracted, mad, MD, S; amed, MD; amadde, pl. MD.—AS. ge-m[]d, pp. of ge-m[]dan, to madden; cp. OHG. ga-meit, foolish. (+A-+6.)

Amaistrien, v. to master, teach, PP; amaistrye, P, HD.—OF. amaistr(i)er; Lat. ad + magistrare. (+A-+7.)

Amalgame, sb. a soft mass, mixture of metal with mercury, NED; malgam NED.—OF. amalgame; Low Lat. amalgama.

Amalgaming, sb. the formation of an amalgam,C3.

Amang; see Amonge.

A-mansien, v. to curse, to excommunicate, MD; amansi, MD; amansy, MD; amonsi, HD; amawns, HD; amansed, pp., S.—Contracted from AS. -mnsumian, to put out of intimacy, from mnsum, familiar, intimate; pp. -mnsumod, also mnsod; see Schmid. (+A-+1.)

A-masen, v. to amaze, stupefy, NED; amased, pp., C3. (+A-+1.)

Ambassade, sb. the function of ambassador, an ambassador and suite, NED; embassades, pl., S3.—OF. ambassade, ambaxade; OSp. ambaxada, from Low Lat. ambaxia, ambactia, office, employment, from ambactus, vassal, retainer, aCeltic word found in Caesar.

Ambassadrie, sb. ambassadorship, NED; embassadrie, S2, C3.—F. ambassaderie.

Ambassage, sb. embassy, NED; ambassages, pl.,S3.

Amblen, v. to move at an easy pace, NED.—OF. ambler; Lat. ambulare, to walk.

Amblere, sb. an ambling horse or mule, C, NED.

Amellen, v. to enamel, MD; ammell, Palsg.; amelled, pp., Palsg.; amelyd, HD; amiled, HD; ameled, NED.—AF. aymeler, OF. esmailler; OHG. smalzjan, to smelt, liquefy; cp. It. smaltare, to enamel (Florio). Cf. En-amelen, Mute.

Amenden, v. to amend, mend, MD, S, S2, C2, W; amended, pp. S2; amendid, W2.—OF. amender; Lat. *ɇ-mendare, from ex + mendum, fault. (+A-+9.)

Amene, adj. pleasant, S3, NED; ameyn, S3.—OF. amene; Lat. amoenum.

Amerant, sb. amaranth, a fadeless flower, S3.—OF. amarante; Lat. amarantum (acc.); Gr. amarantos. (+A-+11.)

Amercy, v. to amerce, fine, P, NED.—AF. amercier; from OF. estre a merci came estre amercie, then amercier.

Amete, _sb._ ant, emmet, NED; amte, W2; emete, Voc.; emote, NED; ematte, Voc.; amtis, _pl._, W2; amptis, NED.—AS. _[]mete_, _mete_. Cp. OHG. _meiza_; from OHG. _, off + _meizan_, to cut, as if 'the cutter or biter off.'

Ametist, sb. amethyst, NED; ametistus, W (Rev. 21. 20); amatyste, HD; amaste, HD; amaffised, MD.—OF. ametiste; Lat. amethystum (acc.); Gr. amethustos. (+A-+11.)

Ameuen, v. to be moved, NED; ameued, pt. s., C2.—OF. esmeuv-, accented stem of esmover; Lat. exmouɇre. (+A-+9.)

Ameyn; see Amene.

A-midde, adv. and prep. amid, S2, C2, PP; amidden, S; amydde, PP.—AS. on middan, on middum. (+A-+2.)

Amirail, sb. a Saracen ruler or commander, an emir, an admiral, MD; amerel, Prompt.; amyralle, MD; amrayl, HD; admirald, S.—OF. amirail, amiral; cp. Arab. amɨr-al-bahr, commander of the sea, amɨr-al-muminɨm, commander of the faithful.

A-mis, adv. amiss, C2; amys, G; onmys, NED. (+A-+2.)

Amome, sb. an odoriferous plant, amomum, NED; amonye, W, HD.—OF. amome (Cotg.); Lat. amomum; Gr. ammon, aname applied to several spice plants.

Amoneste, v. to admonish, warn, HD.—OF. amonester; Late Lat. *admonitare, from Lat. admonitus, pp. of admonere, see Constans. (+A-+7.)

Amonestement, sb. admonishment, S, HD.—OF. amonestement.

Amonestyng, sb. admonishing,CM.

A-monge, prep. and adv. among, in, at intervals, PP; amange, NED; omang, MD; amang, S, S2; among, S, PP. Phr.: eure among, ever among, every now and then, S; ever and among, NED.—AS. on-mang, on-gemang. (+A-+2.)

A-monges, prep. among, S2, S3, C2, C3 G,PP.

A-morewe, on the morrow, S2, W; amor we, HD, PP, S2; amore[gh]e, S; amor[gh]e, S (16. 432).—AS. on morgen. (+A-+2.)

Amountance, sb. amount, NED; mountouns, S2,HD.

Amounten, v. to ascend, rise, amount, mean, S2, C2, PP; amunten, S.—AF. amunter, from Lat. ad + montem. (+A-+7.)

Ampole, sb. a vessel for holding consecrated oil, or for other sacred uses, NED; ampulles, pl., P; ampolles, S2, PP; hanypeles, PP.—OF. ampole; Lat. ampulla.

Ampre, sb. a tumour, flaw, blemish; amper, HD; ampres, pl., S.—AS. ampre, 'varix' (Voc.).

Amte; see Amete.

A-murrin, v. to murder, S; amorthered, pp., MD.—AS. -myrrian (Schmid). (+A-+1.)

Amyable, adj. friendly, lovely, NED; amyabill, S3; amiable, WW.—OF. amiable; Lat. amicabilem.

An, 1 pr. s. I grant, allow, S; on, pr. s., S. See Unnen.

An, num. and indef. art. one, an, S, S2, PP; see Oon.

An, prep. on, upon, in, PP, S, S2; see On.

An, conj. and, if, PP, S, S2; see And.

Anaunter, for an aunter, a chance, S2; see Auenture. [[Addition]]

Anchesoun, sb. occasion, MD; ancheisun, MD; anchaisun, HD.—AF. anchesoun. See Achesoun.

Ancre, sb. an anchorite, recluse, hermit, amonk, anun, NED, S, S2; auncre, S2; anker, S2; ancres, pl., P.—AS. ancra, m. (*ancre, f.); Church Lat. anachoreta; Gr. anachrts.

And, conj. and, also, if, G, S, S2, S3, C2 ant, S, S2; an, S, S2; a, MD.—Phr.: and if,MD.

Ande, sb. breath, H; see Onde. [[Addition]]

Anefeld, sb. anvil, W2; anefelt, NED.—AS. onfilti (Voc.).

An-ent, prep. and adv. on a level with, among, opposite, towards, in respect of, NED; anont, MD; onont, S; onond, S; anende, MD; anonde, MD; ononde, MD; anendes, MD; anentes, NED; anentis, W, W2; anemptis, MD; anempst, NED; anence, H; anens, H; ynentes, H.—AS. on efen, on efn, on emn, on even ground with.

Anentesch; see Anientise.

Aner-ly, adv. only, alone, S2, NED,JD.

Anete, sb. the herb dill, Voc., W, NED.—OF. anet; Lat. anethum (Vulg.); Gr. anthon, dial, form of anison. See Anise.

A-netheren, v. to lower, humiliate, NED; anethered, pp., HD. (+A-+1.) See Anierien.

Anew, sb. ring, wreath; anewis, pl., S3; aneus, links of a chain, NED.—OF. aniaus, pl. of anel, ring; Lat. anellus, dim. of ⱥnulus, dim. of annus, acircuit, year.

Anew, enough, S3. (A- 6.) See Ynow.

A-newe, adv. anew, NED. (+A-+3.) See Of-newe.

Anfald, adj. single, simple, S, HD; see Oone-fold. [[Addition]]

Angel, sb. angel; ongel, S; angles, pl., S; ngles, S; anglene, gen. S.—Lat. angelus. See Engel.

An-gin, sb. beginning, MD; angun, S, NED.

An-ginnen, v. to begin; on gon, pt. s., S.—AS. an-(on-)ginnan.

Angle, sb. a name given to the four astrological 'houses,' NED, S2.—OF. angle; Latin angulum (acc.).

Angles, sb. pl. the English, the people of 'Angul,' adistrict of Holstein, S, NED; Englis, S.—AS. Angle,pl.

Angre, sb. affliction, sorrow, wrath, pain, inflammation, NED, S2, PP; angers, S2.—Icel. angr.

Angren, v. to annoy, injure, make angry, NED; angre, PP.—Icel. angra.

Angwisch, sb. anguish, W2; anguyssh, PP; angoise, S, MD; anguise, MD; anguisse, MD.—OF. angoisse, AF. anguisse; Lat. angustia, tightness, from angere, to squeeze.

Anhed, sb. unity, H; see Oonhed. [[Addition]]

An-hei[gh], adv. on high, S2, PP; an hei, S2; an hey, S2; an hi[gh],W.

An-heten, v. to heat, to become hot; anhet, pr. s. S; anht, pp. S.—AS. onhtan.

An-he[gh]en, v. to exalt, NED; anhe[gh]ed, pp.,S2.

An-hitten, v. to hit against, S,MD.

An-hon, v. to hang (tr.), MD; anho, pr. pl., S; anhonge, pp., MD.—AS. on-hn.

An-hongen, v. tr. and intr. to hang, S, MD; anhonged, pp., MD; anhanged,C2.

Aniente, v. to bring to nought, NED; anyente, PP.—OF. anienter, from a, to + nient; Late Lat. *necentem = nec + entem. (+A-+7.)

Anientise, v. to bring to nought, to destroy, NED; anientice, PP; anentisen, CM; anentesch, PP; anyntische, W2; neentishe, NED; annentissched, pp. CM; anyntischid, W2; enentyscht, H; enentist, H.—OF. anientir (variant of anienter), pr. p.anientissant. (+A-+7.)

Anise, sb. anise, also dill, NED; anys, NED; aneyse, Voc.—OF. anis; Lat. anisum; Gr. anison. Cf. Anete.

A-nierien, _v._ to lower, humiliate, MD; aneered, _pp._ MD, HD.—AS. _ + _nierian_. (+A-+1.)

Anker, sb. anchor, S.—AS. ancor; Lat. ancora; Gr. ankura.

Anlas, sb. a kind of dagger, anlace, MD, C; anelace, HD; anelas, MD, NED.—Cp. Low Lat. anelacius (Ducange), OWelsh anglas.

An-leth, sb. face, countenance, MD, HD, NED; onndlt, MD; onlete, MD.—Icel. andlit (Swed. anlete): AS. and-wlta.

Ann-; see An-.

Annamyllit, pp. enamelled, S3; see Enamelen.

Annuel, adj. yearly; sb. a mass said either daily for a year after, or yearly on the anniversary of a person's death, NED; anuell, S3.—AF. annuel; Late Lat. annualem, for Lat. annⱥlem, from annus, year.

Annueler, sb. a priest who sang an annual, PP, C3,HD.

An-on, adv. at once, instantly, soon, in a short time, S, S2, C3, PP; anan, S, NED; onan, S2; onon, S, S3; anoon, S3, C2, G, W.—AS. on n, into one; on ne, in one (moment).

Anonder; see Anunder.

Anon-ryght, adv. immediately, C3, G; anonrihtes, S; ananriht,S.

An-ouen, adv. above, S, NED; onuuen, NED.—AS. on ufan.

A-nough, adj. (as pred.) enough, CM; anew, S3. (+A-+6.) See Ynow.

Anoy, sb. discomfort, vexation, trouble, MD, S2, PP; anoye, W2; anui, MD; enuye, S.—OF. anoi: OSp. enoyo: OIt. inodio, from the Lat. phrase est mihi in odio; see Diez. Cf. Noye.

Anoyen, v. to annoy, PP, W2, S2, C2, C3; anoiede, pt. s., W; noyede, W; anoyed, pp. W; anuyed, PP; anuid, MD; anud, S; anuy[gh]ed, S2; ennuyed, P.—AF. ennuyer. Cf. Noyen.

Answere, sb. answer, MD; ondswere, S; answare, S; onswere, S; andsware, S.—AS. and-swaru.

Answeren, v. to give an answer, S, PP; ondswerien, S; andswarede, pt. s. S; andswerede, S; ontswerede, S; onswerede, S; onswerde, S; answarede, S; answerede, S.—AS. and-swarian.

Ant, conj. and, also, if, S, S2. See And.

Antem, sb. anthem, C2; antefne, MD.—AS. antefne; Church Lat. antfona (cp. Prov. antfena, It. antfona); for older antiphøna; Gr. antiphna lit. things sounding in response. Cf. Antiphone.

Anticrist, sb. Antichrist, MD; antecrist, W (1John 4.3); ancrist, MD; ancryst, Voc.—Church Lat. antichristus (Vulg.); Gr. antichristos.

Antiphone, sb. antiphon, NED; Church Lat. antiphøna; see Antem.

Antiphonere, sb. anthem-book, C2; antyphonere, Voc.; anfenare, Voc.; amfanere, Voc.—Church Lat. antiphonarius.

Anum, adv. at once, S.—AS. num, dat. of n, one. [The MS. has an, put for anu (=anum)]. See Oon.

An-under, prep. under, S; anonder,S.

An-uppe, prep. and adv. upon, MD; onuppe,S.

An-uppon, prep. upon, S, MD; anuppen,S.

Anwalde, sb. dat. power, S; anwolde, S; see On-wald. [[Addition]]

A-nyghte, adv. by night, C2; ani[gh]t, S; onigt, S. (+A-+2.)

A-nyghtes, adv. at night, nightly,S[gh].

Apalled, pp. made pale, NED; appalled, C, C2.—OF. apalir, apallir; Lat. ad + pallire for pallere. (+A-+7.)

Aparail, sb. apparel, PP; apparaille, C2,PP.

Aparailen, v. to make ready, to fit up, furnish, to dress, attire, PP; apparayleden, pt. pl. S2; aparailed, pp. S; apparailled, P.—OF. apareiller; Late Lat. *adpariculare, to make equal or fit, from Lat. par, equal. (+A-+7.)

Aparaunce, sb. appearance, NED; apparence, C2.—AF. apparence. (+A-+7.)

Apart, adv. apart, aside, C2; aparte, separately, PP, NED.—OF. apart. (+A-+7.)

Apart, v. to set aside, separate, NED; aparte, S3 (24.14).

Apartie, adv. in part, partly, PP, NED. (+A-+2.)

Apayen, v. to satisfy, please, to requite, HD, PP; apayd, pp. S3, C2, C3; apayed, C2, W; apaied, W, PP.—OF. apaier (apayer): Prov. apagar; Lat. ad + pacare, from pacem, peace. (+A-+7.)

Ape, sb. ape, MD, C2, C3, P; fool, HD. Phr.: e olde ape, i.e. the devil, MD; wyn of ape (=OF. vin de singe), wine which makes the drinker pleasant, wanton, or boyish, Cotg., MD, HD.—AS. apa.

Apece, sb. the alphabet, Prompt.; see A-B-C.

Apenden, v. to belong, S2, PP; appenden, S2, PP.—OF. ap(p)endre; Lat. ad + pendere. (+A-+7.)

Aperceyue, v. to perceive, C2, PP; aperseyue, PP.—OF. aperoiv-, accented stem of aperceveir; Late Lat. appercipɇre; Lat. ad + percipere. (+A-+7.)

Aperceyuinges, sb. pl. observations,C2.

Aperen, v. to appear, S, PP; apeeren, PP; aper, S2; appiere, P; apperand, pr.p. S3.—AF. aper-, stem of apert, pr. s. of aparoir; Lat. apparere (ad + parere). (+A-+7.)

Apert, adj. clever, expert, NED; aspert, S3.—OF. aspert, espert; Lat. expertus. (+A-+9.) See Expert.

Apert, adj. open, NED, H, HD; adv. C2. Phr.: in to apert (=Lat. in palam), S2.—OF. apert; Lat. apertus, pp. of aperire, averb with = ab, prefix. (+A-+8.)

Aperteliche, adv. openly, S2; apertly, P, H; appertly,P.

Apertenaunt, pr. p. appertaining, C2.—OF. apertenant.

Apertene, v. to appertain, NED, C3.—OF. apertenir; Lat. ad + pertinere. (+A-+7.)

Apertinent, pr. p. appertaining, C2.—Late Lat. adpertinentem.

Apesen, v. to appease, NED, S3 (3b. 1352), C2, C3; appease, S3 (19a. 295).—OF. apeser, from a + pes; Lat. pacem, peace. (+A-+7.)

Apeyren, v. to harm, diminish, impair, PP, W; apeyre, P, W; appayre, S2, P; apeyred, pp. S2.—OF. ampeirer, empeirer; Lat. in + peiorare, to make worse, from peior, worse. (+A-+10.)

Apeyryng, sb. injuring, S2, W; appairing,S3.

A-piken, v. to trim, adorn, MD; apiked, pp., C. See OF. piquer (Cotg.).

Aplien, v. to apply, devote one's energies to, NED; apply, S3.—OF. aplier; Lat. applicare.

Apointen, v. to come or bring matters to a point, to agree, arrange, to prepare, equip, NED.—OF. apointer, from apoint.

Apointment, sb. agreement, NED; poyntemente, S3.—OF. apointement.

Aposen, v. to question, S2, PP, Prompt.; apposen, C3, PP. Cp. Opposen.

Apostel, sb. apostle, S; appostel, NED; appostil, NED; apostle, W; postlis, pl. NED.—AS. apostol; Church Lat. apostolus (Vulg.); Gr. apostolos, one sent forth, messenger; cp. AF. apostle (OF. apostre).

Apostil-hed, sb. office of apostle,W.

Apotecarie, sb. apothecary, C; potekary, NED.—OF. apotecaire; Late Lat. apothecarium (acc.), from apotheca; Gr. apothk, storehouse.

Apoyson, v. to poison, PP; apoysoned, pp., PP.—OF. apoisoner, for empoisoner. (+A-+10.)

App-; see Ap-.

Appairen, v. to injure; appayre, S2, P; see Apeyren.

Appairing, sb. injuring, S3.

Appel, sb. apple, PP; eppel, MD; applis, pl. W2.—AS. ppel.

Apple-garnade, sb. pomegranate, S2 (garnade). Cf. Garnet-appille.

Aprentis, sb. apprentice, NED; prentis, S2, PP; aprentys, pl. PP.—OF. aprentis (AF. aprentiz), nom. of aprentif, from aprendre, to learn; Lat. apprehendere = ad + prehendere. (+A-+7.)

A-quenchen, v. to quench, PP; acwenchen, S; aqueynte, pt. s. S2; aqueynt, PP.—AS. -cwencan. (+A-+1.)

Aquerne, sb. squirrel, S, NED; acquerne, S.—AS. cwern (Voc.); cp. Icel. korni, G. eichhorn, MDu. ncoren.

Aqueyntaunce, sb. acquaintance, S2, CM, MD.—OF. acointance, AF. aqueyntance. (+A-+7.)

Aqueynten, v. to become known, MD; aquointe, pp. acquainted, NED; aquente, NED; aquynt, S2.—OF. acointer (acuinter); Late Lat. adcognitare, from Lat. ad + cognitum, pp. of cognoscere. (+A-+7.)

Ar, prep., conj. and adv. before, S, S2, G, H, P; see Er.

Ar, pr. pl. are, S2, PP; see Aren.

Arace, v. to pull up by the roots, C2, CM; arache, NED.—AF. aracer, OF. esrachier; Lat. e(x)radicare. (+A-+9.)

Aranye, sb. spider, Prompt.; arain, HD; aranee, HD; eranye, Prompt.; erayne, Prompt.; erayn, H; arane, H; erane, Voc.; yreyne, W2; aran, H; irain, NED; arrans, pl., HD; yreyns, W2.—OF. araigne (iraigne); Lat. aranea.

Arate, v. to correct, blame, rate, PP. Probably a variant of Aretten. Cf. OF. aratter = aretter (Godefroy).

Aray, sb. array, PP; array, S2 (19. 393), C2, C.—OF. arei (arroi).

Arayen, v. to array, NED, PP; arayed, pp. W; arrayed, C2, C3.—AF. arayer; OF. areier, areer: It. arredare (Florio); from Lat. ad + Low Lat. *rɇdo (OF. rei), preparation, of Teutonic origin. (+A-+7.)

Arblaste, sb. a military engine for throwing missiles, MD, S2; alblast, S2.—OF. arbaleste; Late Lat. arcuballista.

Arblaster, sb. an arblast-man,S2.

Arch, sb. arch, Prompt.; arches, pl. court of Arches, P.—OF. arche (Cotg.).

Arch-, prefix, chief; erche-, Church Lat. archi-; Gr. archi-, arch-.

Arch-angel, sb. archangel, S, PP; archangles, pl. S.—Church Lat. archangelus; Gr. archangelos.

Arche-biscop, sb. archbishop, S; erchebissop, S2.—AS. rce-biscop (S); Lat. archi- + AS. biscop.

Archer, sb. archer, S2; archeer, C2; harchere. Voc.—AF. archer. See Ark.

Archi-deken, sb. archdeacon, PP; erchedekene,S2.

Archi-flamyn, sb. high-priest, S2.—Church Lat. archiflamen, archbishop (Ducange), from Lat. flamen.

Archi-triclin, sb. the ruler of the feast, S; architriclyn, W.—Church Lat. architriclinus (Vulg.); Gr. architriklinos.

Arch-wyfe, sb. a wife who rules; arche-wyues, pl. C2,CM.

Are, sb. honour, reverence, also, grace, clemency, MD, NED, S; ore, S, S2, G, HD; happy augury, MD, S.—AS. re (r); cp. OHG. ra, honour (Otfrid).

Are, sb. oar, MD; see Ore. [[Addition]]

A-recchen, v. to explain, expound, to speak, NED.—AS. -reccan. (+A-+1.)

A-rechen, v. to reach, to strike, to reach in thought, to imagine, to be sufficient, NED, S, S (ii. 47), S2, W, PP.—AS. -r[]can. (+A-+1.)

A-reden, v. to declare, to interpret, NED, W; areede, W.—AS. -rdan; cp. G. errathen. (+A-+1.)

A-redy, adj. ready, P, HD, NED; [gh]e-redi, MD. (+A-+6.)

Are-full, adj. compassionate, MD, S.—AS. r-full.

Are-les, adj. merciless, MD; oreleas, S; oreles, S.—AS. r-las.

Aren, v. to show mercy to, S, MD.—AS. rian.

Aren, pr. pl. are, S, PP; arn, MD, C2, PP; are, MD; ar, MD, S2, PP; ere, MD, S2; er, H.—ONorth. aron.

Arende, sb. errand; HD, PP; see Erende.

Arerage, sb. the state of being in arrear, indebtedness, NED, PP; arrerage, C, PP.—OF. arerage, AF. arrerage.

Arere, adv. to the rear, in the rear, PP; Arrere, PP.—AF. arere; Late Lat. ad retro, backward. (+A-+7.)

A-reren, v. to raise, build, to arise, to rear, S2, PP; arearen, S; areride, pt. s., W; arerde, S; arerd, S; arerdon, pl., S; arered, pp., S2, W, W2; arerd, S2.—AS. -r[]ran: Goth. ur-raisjan. Causal of Arisen. (+A-+1.)

A-rest, at rest, PP. (A- 2.)

Arest, sb. stop, S2; arreest, custody, C. Phr.: spere in arest, in rest, C.—OF. areste, stoppage, AF. arest, act of arresting. (+A-+7.)

Aresten, v. int. and tr. to stop, cause to stop, NED, C.—AF. arester; Lat. ad + restare. (+A-+7.)

Aretten, v. to reckon, count, accuse, NED, W, W2; aretted, pp. C; arettid, W, W2; rettid, W.—AF. aretter, OF. areter; a + reter: OSp. reptar, to challenge (Minsheu); Lat. reputare, to count; cp. Late Lat. reptare (Ducange). (+A-+7.) Cf. Retten.

A-reysen, v. to raise, to arouse, NED; areysed, pt. s., S3; areisid, pp., W. (+A-+1.)

Are[gh]th, sb. cowardice; are[gh]the, dat., S. See Arwe.

Arfe, adj. difficult, MD; arefe, S; earfe, MD; arue, NED; erfe, MD.—AS. earfee; cp. earfee, earfo, labour, toil: Goth. arbaiths.

Argoile, sb. the tartar deposited from wines, C3, NED; arguyll, NED; argall, Cotg. (s.v. tartre), ND.—AF. argoil.

Arguen, v. to prove, to reason, PP.—OF. arguer; Late Lat. argutare, from Lat. arguere.

Arguere, sb. reasoner, PP.

Argument, sb. proof, clear proof, proof presumptive, NED; argumens, pl., PP.—AF. argument; Lat. argumentum.

Argumenten, v. to argue, C3,S2.

A-risen, v. to arise, MD; aryse, PP; aris, imp. s. S; arys, PP; arist, pr. s., S, S2, C3; aros, pt. s., S, PP; aroos, PP; arisen, pp., MD; arise, S2.—AS. -rsan. (+A-+1.)

A-rist, sb. rising, resurrection, NED; aristes, gen., S; ariste, dat., S.—AS. []-rst. (+A-+1.)

Ariue, v. to arrive, to come to shore, S; aroue, pt. s., NED; ariuede, pl. S2; aryue, pp., S; aryven, NED.—AF. ariver; Late Lat. arribare, arripare, adripare, from Lat. ad + ripa, shore. (+A-+7.)

Ariue, sb. landing, arrival, C, NED.

A-rixlien, v. to rule; arixlye, S. (+A-+1.)

A-ri[gh]t, adv. in a right way, straightway, S2; aryght, C2; ari[gh]te, S; origt, S. (+A-+2.)

Ark, sb. an ark, chest, MD; arrke, S; arc, S2.—Lat. arca; cp. OF. arche.

Ark, sb. segment of a circle, C2, MD.—OF. arc; Lat. arcum (acc.), abow.

Arles, sb. an earnest, NED, JD, HD.—Probably a plural in form from an OF. *erle, *arle; Lat. *arrhula, dim. of arrha, for arrhabo; Gr. arrabn; Heb. 'rbn. Cp. OF. erres, arres: Sp. arras (Minsheu); Lat. arrhas, pl. acc. of arrha. See Ernes.

Arly, adj. and adv. early, S2, H; see Erly.

Arm, sb. arm, MD; earmes, pl., S, MD; armes, interj. arms! an oath, by God's arms, S3, NED. Phr.: Gog's arms, S3.—AS. earm: Icel. armr: Goth. arms.

Arm, adj. poor, wretched, MD; rm, MD; erme, dat. S; arme, pl. S; earme, MD.—AS. earm: Icel. armr: Goth. arms.

Armen, v. to arm, C3, PP; i-armed, pp., S.—AF. armer; Lat. armare.

Armes, sb. pl. weapons, coat-armour, MD, P.—AF. armes.

Arm-heorted, adj. tender-hearted, S.—Cp. AS. earm-heort.

Arm-hertnesse, sb. compassion,S.

Arminge, sb. the act of arming, putting on of armour,C2.

Armipotent, adj. mighty in arms, C.—Lat. armipotentem.

Armony, sb. harmony, S3.—F. harmonie; Lat. harmonia; Gr. harmonia.

Armure, sb. armour, weapons, P, C2, C3, G; armoure, C2; armuris, pl., W, W2.—AF. armure (armoure), armeure; Lat. armatura.

Arn, sb. eagle, HD; aryn, H; see Ern.

Arnde, pt. s. ran, S; see Rennen.

A-rode, on the rood (the cross), NED, S, S2. (+A-+2.)

A-rowe, adv. in a row, one after another, S; areawe, S; arewe, NED. (+A-+2.)

Arr-; see Ar-.

Arr, sb. scar, wound, NED, JD; ar, HD; see Erre.

Arred, pp. scarred, JD.

Arsenik, sb. arsenic, C3.—OF. arsenic; Lat. arsenicum; Gr. arsenikon, yellow orpiment, orig. the masculine, male, from arsn, amale.

Arskes, pl. newts, S2; see Ask.

Arsmetike, sb. arithmetic, NED; arsmetrike, C.—OF. arismetique: Prov. arismetica; Lat. arithmetica; Gr. arithmtik (techn), the art of counting.

Arst, adj. and adv. superl. first, G, P; see Erst. [[listed under headword Er]]

Art, sb. a quarter of the heaven, point of the compass, NED, S3; airt, NED, JD; airth, NED; airtis, pl., S3.—Gael. ard; OIr. aird, top, height, point.

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