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A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Volume VI - Early English Voyages Of Discovery To America
by Robert Kerr
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A GENERAL HISTORY AND COLLECTION OF VOYAGES AND TRAVELS.

ARRANGED IN SYSTEMATIC ORDER:

FORMING A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF NAVIGATION, DISCOVERY, AND COMMERCE, BY SEA AND LAND, FROM THE EARLIEST AGES TO THE PRESENT TIME.

BY

ROBERT KERR, F.R.S. & P.A.S. EDIN.

ILLUSTRATED BY MAPS AND CHARTS.

VOL. VI.

CONTENTS OF VOL. VI.

PART II. BOOK II. CONTINUED.

CHAP. XI. Early English voyages of discovery to America. Introduction.

SECT. I. Discovery of Newfoundland by John and Sebastian Cabot in 1497, in the service of Henry VII. of England.

II. Discourse by Galeacius Butrigarius, Papal Legate in Spain, respecting the Discoveries in America, by Sebastian Cabot.

III. Notice concerning Sebastian Cabot by Ramusio, in the Preface to the third Volume of his Navigations.

IV. Notice respecting the voyage of Sebastian Cabot to the north-west, from Peter Martyr ab Angleria.

V. Testimony of Francisco Lopez de Gomara, concerning the discoveries of Sebastian Cabota.

VI. Note respecting the discoveries of Sebastian Cabot; from the latter part of Fabians Chronicle.

VII. Brief notice of the discovery of Newfoundland, by Mr Robert Thorne.

CHAP. XI SECT. VIII. Grant by Edward VI. of a Pension and the Office of Grand Pilot of England to Sebastian Cabot.

IX. Voyage of Sir Thomas Pert and Sebastian Cabot about the year 1516, to Brazil, St Domingo, and Porto Rico.

X. Brief note of a voyage by Thomas Tison to the West Indies, before the year 1526.

CHAP XII. The Voyages of Jacques Cartier from St Maloes to Newfoundland and Canada, in the years 1534 and 1535.

Introduction.

SECT. I. The first voyage of Jacques Cartier to Newfoundland and Canada, in 1534.

II. The second voyage of Jacques Cartier, to Canada, Hochelega, Saguenay, and other lands now called New France; with the Manners and Customs of the Natives.

III. Wintering of Jacques Cartier in Canada in 1536, and return to France in 1537.

BOOK III. Continuation of the Discoveries and Conquests of the Portuguese in the East; together with some account of the early voyages of other European Nations to India.

CHAP. I. Discoveries, Navigations, and Conquests of the Portuguese in India, from 1505 to 1539, both inclusive, resumed from Book I. of this Part.

SECT. I. Course of the Indian Trade before the Discovery of the Route by the Cape of Good Hope, with some account of the settlement of the Arabs on the East Coast of Africa.

CHAP. I.

SECT. II. Voyage of Don Francisco de Almeyda from Lisbon to India, in quality of Viceroy, with an account of some of his transactions on the Eastern coast of Africa and Malabar.

III. Some Account of the state of India at the beginning of the sixteenth Century, and commencement of the Portuguese Conquests.

IV. Continuation of the Portuguese Transactions in India, during the Viceroyalty of Almeyda.

V. Transactions of the Portuguese in India under the Government of Don Alfonso de Albuquerque, from the end of 1509, to the year 1515.

VI. Portuguese Transactions in India, under several governors, from the close of 1515, to the year 1526.

VII. Continuation of the Portuguese Transactions in India; from 1526 to 1538.

CHAP. II. Particular Relation of the Expedition of Solyman Pacha from Suez to India against the Portuguese at Diu, written by a Venetian Officer who was pressed into the Turkish Service on that occasion. Introduction.

SECT. I. The Venetian Merchants and Mariners at Alexandria are pressed into the Turkish service, and sent to Suez. Description of that place. Two thousand men desert from the Gallies. Tor. Island of Soridan Port of Kor.

II. Arrival at Jiddah, the Port of Mecca. The islands of Alfas, Kamaran, and Tuiche. The Straits of Bab-al-Mandub.

III. Arrival at Aden, where the Sheikh and four others are hanged. Sequel of the Voyage to Diu.

CHAP. II. SECT. IV. The Castle of Diu is besieged by the Moors. The Turks plunder the City, and the Indian Generals withdraw in resentment. The Pacha lands. A man 300 years old. Women burn themselves. The Fleet removes.

V. A Bulwark Surrenders to the Turks, who make Galley-slaves of the Portuguese Garrison; with several other incidents of the siege.

VI. Farther particulars of the siege, to the retreat of the Turks, and the commencement of their Voyage back to Suez.

VII. Continuation of the Voyage back to Suez, from the Portuguese factory at Aser, to Khamaran and Kubit Sharif.

VIII. Transactions of the Pacha at Zabid, and continuation of the Voyage from Kubit Sarif.

IX. Continuation of the Voyage to Suez, along the Arabian Shore of the Red Sea.

X. Conclusion of the Voyage to Suez, and return of the Venetians to Cairo.

CHAP. III. The Voyage of Don Stefano de Gama from Goa to Suez, in 1540, with the intention of Burning the Turkish Gallies at that port. Written by Don Juan de Castro, then a Captain in the Fleet; afterwards governor-general of Portuguese India.

Introduction.

SECT. I. Portuguese Transactions in India, from the Siege of Diu by the Turks, to the Expedition of Don Stefano de Gama to Suez.

II. Journal of the Voyage from Goa to the Straits of Bab-el-Mandub.

III. Continuation of the Voyage, from the Straits of Bab-el-Mandub to Massua.

CHAP. III. SECT. IV. Digression respecting the History, Customs, and State of Abyssinia.

V. Continuation of the Journal of De Castro from Massua to Swakem.

VI. Continuation of the Voyage from Swakem to Comol.

VII. Continuation of the Voyage from the Harbour of Comol to Toro or Al Tor.

VIII. Continuation of the Voyage from Toro or Al Tor to Suez.

IX. Return Voyage from Suez to Massua.

X. Return of the Expedition from Massua to India.

XI. Description of the Sea of Kolzum, otherwise called the Arabian Gulf, or the Red Sea. Extracted from the Geography of Abulfeda.

POSTSCRIPT.—Transactions of the Portuguese in Abyssinia, under Don Christopher de Gama.

CHAP. IV. Continuation of the Portuguese transactions in India, after the return of Don Stefano de Gama from Suez in 1541, to the Reduction of Portugal under the Dominion of Spain in 1581.

SECT. I. Incidents during the Government of India by Don Stefano de Gama, subsequent to his Expedition to the Red Sea.

II. Exploits of Antonio de Faria y Sousa in Eastern India.

III. Transactions during the Government of Martin Alfonso de Sousa, from 1542 to 1543.

IV. Government of India by Don Juan de Castro, from 1545 to 1548.

V. Transactions of the Portuguese in India, from 1545 to 1564, under several Governors.

VI. Continuation of the Portuguese Transactions in India, from 1564 to the year 1571.

VII. Portuguese Transactions in India from 1571 to 1576.

CHAP. IV. SECT. VIII. Transactions of the Portuguese in Monomotapa, from 1569 to the end of that separate government.

IX. Continuation of the Portuguese Transactions in India, from 1576 to 1581; when the Crown of Portugal was usurped by Philip II. of Spain on the Death of the Cardinal King Henry.

X. Transactions of the Portuguese in India, from 1581 to 1597.

XI. Continuation of the Portuguese Transactions in India, from 1597 to 1612.

XII. Continuation of the Portuguese Transactions, from 1512 to 1517.

A GENERAL HISTORY AND COLLECTION OF VOYAGES AND TRAVELS.



PART II. BOOK II. CONTINUED.



CHAPTER XI.

EARLY ENGLISH VOYAGES OF DISCOVERY TO AMERICA.

INTRODUCTION.

Although we have already, in the Introduction to the Second Chapter of this Book, Vol. III. p. 346. given some notices of the voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot to America in the service of Henry VII. and VIII. it appears proper on the present occasion to insert a full report of every thing that is now known of these early navigations: As, although no immediate fruits were derived from these voyages, England by their means became second only to Spain in the discovery of America, and afterwards became second likewise in point of colonization in the New World. The establishments of the several English colonies will be resumed in a subsequent division of our arrangement.

It has been already mentioned that Columbus, on leaving Portugal to offer his services to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain for the discovery of the Indies by a western course through the Atlantic, sent his brother Bartholomew to make a similar offer to Henry VII. King of England, lest his proposals might not have been listened to by the court of Spain. Bartholomew, as has been formerly related, was taken by pirates; and on his arrival in England was forced to procure the means of living, and of enabling himself to appear before the king, by the construction and sale of sea-charts and maps, in which he had been instructed by his brother. Owing to this long delay, when he at length presented himself to King Henry, and had even procured the acceptance of his brothers proposals, so much time had been lost that Isabella queen of Castille had already entered into the views of his illustrious brother, who had sailed on his second voyage to the West Indies, while Bartholomew was on his journey through France to announce to him that Henry King of England had agreed to his proposals.

The fame of the astonishing discovery made by Columbus in 1591, soon spread throughout Europe; and only four years afterwards, or in 1595, a patent was granted by Henry VII. to John Cabot, or Giovani Cabota, a Venetian citizen, then resident in England, and his three sons, Lewis, Sebastian, and Sancius, and their heirs and deputies, to sail to all parts countries and seas of the east west and north, at their own cost and charges, with five ships; to seek out discover and find whatsoever islands, countries, regions, or provinces belonging to the heathen and infidels, were hitherto unknown to Christians, and to subdue, occupy, and possess all such towns, cities, castles, and islands as they might be able; setting up the royal banners and ensigns in the same, and to command over them as vassals and lieutenants of the crown of England, to which was reserved the rule, title, and jurisdiction of the same. In this grant Cabot and his sons, with their heirs and deputies, were bound to bring all the fruits, profits, gains, and commodities acquired in their voyages to the port of Bristol; and, having deducted from the proceeds all manner of necessary costs and charges by them expanded, to pay to the king in wares or money the fifth part of the free gain so made, in lieu of all customs of other dues; of importation on the same. By these letters patent; dated at Westminster on the 5th of March in the eleventh year of Henry VII. all the other subjects of England are prohibited from visiting or frequenting any of the continents, islands, villages, towns, castles, or places which might be discovered by John Cabot, his sons, heirs, or deputies, under forfeiture of their ships and goods[1].

[Footnote 1: Hakluyt, III. 26.]

No journal or relation remains of the voyages of Cabot and his sons in consequence of this grant, and we are reduced to a few scanty memorials concerning them; contained in the third volume of Hakluyt's Collection of the Early Voyages, Travels, and Discoveries of the English Nation. We quote from the new edition, with additions, published at London in 1810.

Two years after the before-mentioned letters patent, or on the 18th of February 1497, a licence was granted by the same king of England, Henry VII. to John Cabot, to take six English ships in any haven or havens of England, being of 200 tons burden or under, with all necessary furniture; and to take also into the said ships all such masters, mariners, or other subjects of the king as might be willing to engage with him.

It would appear that the patent of 1495 had never been acted upon; but in consequence of this new licence, John Cabot and his son Sebastian proceeded from the port of Bristol and discovered an island somewhere on the coast of America to which they gave the name of Prima Vista, probably the island of Newfoundland. The short account of this voyage of discovery left to us by Hakluyt, is said to have been inserted in Latin on a map constructed by Sebastian Cabot, concerning his discovery in America, then called the West Indies; which map, engraved by Clement Adams, was to be seen in the time of Hakluyt in the private gallery of Queen Elizabeth at Westminster, and in the possession of many of the principal merchants in London. This memorandum, translated into English, is as follows[2].

[Footnote 2: Id. III. 27.]

SECTION I.

Discovery of Newfoundland by John and Sebastian Cabot in 1497, in the service of Henry VII. of England.

"In the year 1497, John Cabot a Venetian and his son Sebastian, discovered on the 24th of June, about five in the morning, that land to which no person had before ventured to sail, which they named Prima Vista[3], or, first-seen, because as I believe it was the first part seen by them from the sea. The island which is opposite[4] he named St Johns Island, because discovered on the day of St John the Baptist. The inhabitants of this island use the skins and furs of wild beasts for garments, which they hold in as high estimation as we do our finest clothes. In war they use bows and arrows, spears, darts, clubs, and slings. The soil is sterile and yields no useful production; but it abounds in white bears and deer much larger than ours. Its coasts produce vast quantities of large fish, among which are great seals, salmons, soles above a yard in length, and prodigious quantities especially of cod, which are commonly called bacallaos[5]. The hawks, partridges, and eagles of this island are all black."

[Footnote 3: Presuming that this discovery was Newfoundland, a name nearly of the same import, perhaps the land first seen was what is now called Cape Bonavista, in lat. 48 deg. 50' N. long. 62 deg. 32' W. from London. In the text, there is every reason to believe that it is meant to indicate, that Cabot named the island he discovered St Johns, and only the first seen point of land Prima-Vista.—E.]

[Footnote 4: By this phrase is probably to be understood, the island behind this first-seen cape named Prima-Vista.—E.]

[Footnote 5: Vulgari Sermoni, is translated by Hakluyt, in the language of the savages; but we have given it a different sense in the text, that used by Hakluyt having no sufficient warrant in the original.—E.]

Besides the foregoing memorandum on the ancient map, Hakluyt gives the following testimonies respecting the discovery of the northern part of America, by Cabot.

SECTION II.

Discourse by Galeacius Butrigarius, Papal Legate in Spain, respecting the Discoveries in America, by Sebastian Cabot[6].

Do you know how to sail for the Indies towards the northwest, as has been lately done by a Venetian citizen, a valiant man and so learned in all things pertaining to navigation and cosmography, that no one is permitted to sail as pilot to the West Indies who has not received his licence, he being pilot-major of Spain? This person, who resides in the city of Seville, is Sebastian Cabot, a native of Venice, who is most expert in these sciences, and makes excellent sea-charts with his own-hands. Having sought his acquaintance, he entertained us in a friendly manner, showing us many things, and among these a large map of the world containing sundry navigations, both those of the Spaniards and Portuguese. On this occasion he gave us the following information.

[Footnote 6: Hakluyt, III. 27. from the second volume of Ramusio.]

His father went many years since from Venice to England, where he followed the profession of a merchant, taking this person his son along with him to London, then very young, yet having received some tincture of learning, and some knowledge of the sphere. His father died about the time when news was spread abroad that Don Christopher Columbus, the Genoese, had discovered the coasts of the Indies by sailing towards the west, which was much admired and talked of at the court of King Henry VII. then reigning in England, so that every one affirmed that it was more attributable to divine inspiration than human wisdom, to have thus sailed by the west unto the east, where spices grow, by a way never known before. By these discourses the young man, Sebastian Cabot, was strongly incited to perform some notable and similar action; and conceiving by the study of the sphere that it would be a shorter route for going to India, than that attempted by Columbus, to sail by the north-west, he caused the king to be informed thereof, who accordingly gave orders that he should be furnished with two ships, properly provided in all things for the voyage. He sailed with these from England in the beginning of summer 1496, if I rightly remember, shaping his course to the north-west, not expecting to find any other land intervening between and Cathay or Northern China. He was much disappointed by falling in with land running toward the north, the coast of which he sailed along to the lat. of 56 deg. N. and found it still a continent. Finding the coast now, to turn towards the east, and despairing to find the passage to India and Cathay of which he was in search, he turned again and sailed down the coast towards the equinoctial line, always endeavouring to find a passage westwards for India, and came at length to that part of the continent which is now called Florida[7]. And his victuals running short, he bore away for England; where he found the country in confusion preparing for war with Scotland, so that no farther attention was paid to his proposed discoveries.

[Footnote 7: Florida is here to be taken in the extended sense as at first applied to the whole eastern coast of North America, to the north of the Gulf of Mexico. The commencement of this voyage appears to have been in search of a north-west passage; but Sebastian must have gone far above 56 deg. N. to find the land trending eastwards: He was probably repelled by ice and cold weather.—E.]

He went afterwards into Spain, where he was taken into the service of Ferdinand and Isabella, who furnished him with ships at their expence, in which he went to discover the coast of Brazil, where he found a prodigiously large river, now called the Rio de la Plata, or Silver River, up which he sailed above 120 leagues, finding every where a good country, inhabited by prodigious numbers of people, who flocked from every quarter to view the ships with wonder and admiration. Into this great river a prodigious number of other rivers discharged their waters. After this he made many other voyages; and waxing old, rested at home discharging the office of chief pilot, and leaving the prosecution of discovery to many young and active pilots of good experience.

SECTION III.

Notice concerning Sebastian Cabot by Ramusio, in the Preface to the third Volume of his Navigations.[8]

In the latter part of this volume are contained certain relations of Giovani de Varanzana of Florence, of a certain celebrated French navigator, and of two voyages by Jacques Cartier a Breton, who sailed to the land in 50 deg. north latitude, called New France; it not being yet known whether that land join with the continent of Florida and New Spain, or whether they are separated by the sea into distinct islands, so as to allow of a passage by sea to Cathay and India. This latter was the opinion of Sebastian Cabota, our countryman, a man of rare knowledge and experience in navigation, who wrote to me many years ago, that he had sailed along and beyond this land of New France in the employment of Henry VII. of England. He informed me that, having sailed a long way to the north-west, beyond these lands, to the lat. of 67-1/2 deg. N. and finding the sea on the 11th of June entirely open and without impediment, he fully expected to have passed on that way to Cathay in the east; and would certainly have succeeded, but was constrained by a mutiny of the master and mariners to return homewards. But it would appear that the Almighty still reserves this great enterprise of discovering the route to Cathay by the north-west to some great prince, which were the easiest and shortest passage by which to bring the spiceries of India to Europe. Surely this enterprise would be me most glorious and most important that can possibly he imagined, and would immortalize him who succeeded in its accomplishment far beyond any of those warlike exploits by which the Christian nations of Europe are perpetually harassed.

[Footnote 8: Hakluyt, III. 28.]

SECTION IV. Notices respecting the voyage of Sebastian Cabot to the northwest, from Peter Martyr ab Algeria[9].

These northern seas have been searched by Sebastian Cabot, a Venetian, who was carried when very young to England by his parents, who, after the manner of the Venetians, left no part of the world unsearched to obtain riches. Having fitted out two ships in England at his own expence, with three hundred men, he first directed his course so near the north pole, that on the 11th of July he found monstrous heaps of ice swimming in the sea, and a continual day, so that the land was free from ice, having been thawed by the perpetual influence of the sun. By reason of this ice he was compelled to turn southwards along the western land, till he came unto the latitude of the Straits of Gibraltar[10]. In the course of this north-west voyage he got so far to the west as to have the island of Cuba on his left hand, having reached to the same longitude[11]. While sailing along the coast of this great land, which he called Baccalaos[12], he found a similar current of the sea towards the west[13] as had been observed by the Spaniards in their more southerly navigations, but more softly and gently than had been experienced by the Spaniards. Hence it may be certainly concluded that in both places, though hitherto unknown, there must be certain great open spaces by which the waters thus continually pass from the east to the west; which waters I suppose to be continually driven round the globe by the constant motion and impulse of the heavens, and not to be alternately swallowed and cast up again by the breathing of Demogorgon, as some have imagined on purpose to explain the ebb and flow of the sea. Sebastian Cabot himself named these lands Baccalaos, because he found in the seas thereabout such multitudes of certain large fishes like tunnies, called baccalaos by the natives, that they sometimes stayed his ships. He found also the people of these regions clothed in the skins of beasts, yet not without the use of reason. He says also that there are great numbers of bears in those countries, which feed on fish, and catch them by diving into the water; and being thus satisfied with abundance of fish, are not noisome to man. He says likewise that he saw large quantities of copper among the inhabitants of these regions. Cabot is my dear and familiar friend, whom I delight to have sometimes in my house. Being called out of England by the Catholic king of Castille, on the death of Henry VII. of England, he was made one of the assistants of our council respecting the affairs of the new found Indies, and waits in daily expectation of being furnished with ships in which to discover these hidden secrets of nature.

[Footnote 9: Hakluyt, III. 29. quoting P. Martyr, Dec. III. Ch. vi.]

[Footnote 10: The Straits of Gibraltar are in lat. 36 deg. N. which would bring the discovery of the eastern coast of North America by Cabot, all the way from 67-1/2 deg. N. beyond Hudsons Bay, to Albemarle Sound on the coast of North Carolina—E.]

[Footnote 11: The middle of the island of Cuba is in long. 80 deg. W. from Greenwich, which would have carried Cabot into the interior of Hudsons Bay, to which there is no appearance of his having penetrated, in the slight notices remaining of his exploratory voyage.—E.]

[Footnote 12: We have before seen that he named the country which he discovered, the island of St John, and that he gave the name in this part of the text, baccalaos, to the fish most abundant in those seas, which we name cod.—E.]

[Footnote 13: It is probable this applies to the tide of flood setting into the Gulf of St Lawrence or Hudsons Bay or both; which led Cabot to expect a passage through the land to the west—E.]

SECTION V.

Testimony of Francisco Lopez de Gomara, concerning the discoveries of Sebastian Cabota[14].

Sebastian Cabota, who came out of England into Spain, brought most certain information of the country and people of Baccalaos. Having a great desire to traffic for spices, like the Portuguese, he fitted out two ships with 300 men, at the cost of Henry VII. of England, and took the way towards Iceland from beyond the Cape of Labradore, until he reached the lat. of 58 deg. N. and better. Even in the month of July, the weather was so cold and the ice in such quantities, that he durst not proceed any farther. The days were so long as to have hardly any night, and what little there was, was very clear. Being unable to proceed farther on account of the cold, he turned south; and, having refreshed at Baccalaos, he sailed southwards along the coast to the 38 deg. of latitude[15], from whence he returned into England.

[Footnote 14: Hakluyt, III. 30. quoting Gomara, Gen. Hist. of the W. Indies, Book II. Ch. iv.]

[Footnote 15: By this account the progress of Cabot to the south along the eastern coast of North America, reached no farther than coast of Maryland.—E.]

SECTION VI.

Note respecting the discoveries of Sebastian Cabot; from the latter part of Fabians Chronicle[16].

IN the 13th year of Henry VII. by means of John Cabot, Venetian, who was very expert in cosmography and the construction of sea-charts, that king caused to man and victual a ship at Bristol, to search for an island which Cabot said he well knew to be rich and replenished with valuable commodities. In which ship, manned and victualled at the kings expence, divers merchants of London adventured small stocks of goods under the charge of the said Venetian. Along with that ship there went three or four small vessels from Bristol, laden with slight and coarse goods, such as coarse cloth, caps, laces, points, and other trifles. These vessels departed from Bristol in the beginning of May; but no tidings of them had been received at the time of writing this portion of the chronicle of Fabian.

[Footnote 16: Hakluyt, III. 30. quoting from a MS. in possession of Mr John Stow, whom he characterizes as a diligent collector of antiquities.]

In the 14th year of the king however, three men were brought from the New-found-Island, who were clothed in the skins of beasts, did eat raw flesh, and spoke a language which no man could understand, their demeanour being more like brute beasts than men. They were kept by the king for some considerable time; and I saw two of them about two years afterward in the palace of Westminster, habited like Englishmen, and not to be distinguished from natives of England, till I was told who they were; but as for their speech, I did not hear either of them utter a word.

SECTION VII.

Brief notice of the discovery of Newfoundland, by Mr Robert Thorne.[17]

As some diseases are hereditary, so have I inherited an inclination of discovery from my father, who, with another merchant of Bristol named Hugh Eliot, were the discoveries of the Newfoundlands. And, if the mariners had followed the directions of their pilot, there can be no doubt that the lands of the West Indies, whence all the gold cometh, had now been ours; as it appears by the chart that all is one coast.

[Footnote 17: Hakluyt, III. 31. quoting a book by Mr Robert Thorne, addressed to Doctor Leigh.]

SECTION VIII. Grant by Edward VI. of a Pension, and the Office of Grand Pilot of England to Sebastian Cabot[18]

Edward the Sixth, by the Grace of God king of England, France, and Ireland, to all believers in Christ to whom these presents may come, wisheth health. Know ye, that in consideration of the good and acceptable service, done and to be done to us by our well-beloved servant Sebastian Cabot, we of our special grace, certain knowledge and goodwill, and by the councel and advice of our most illustrious uncle Edward Duke, of Somerset, governor of our person, and protector of our kingdoms, dominions, and subjects, and by advice of the rest of our councillors, have given and granted, and by these presents give and grant to the said Sebastian Cabot a certain annuity or yearly revenue of one hundred and sixty-six pounds, thirteen shilling and fourpence sterling[19], to have, enjoy, and yearly to receive during his natural life from our treasury at the receipt of our exchequer at Westminster, by the hands of our treasurers and chamberlains for the time being, by equal portions at the festivals of the annunciation of the blessed virgin, the nativity of St John the Baptist, of St Michael the Archangel, and the nativity of our Lord. And farther, as aforesaid, we grant by these presents so much as the said annuity would amount to from the feast of St Michael the Archangel last past unto this present time, to be received by said Sebastian from our foresaid treasurers and chamberlains in free gift, without account or any thing else to be yielded, paid or made to us our heirs or successors for the same. In witness whereof, &c. Done by the King at Westminster on the 6th of January 1548, in the second year of his reign.

[Footnote 18: Hakluyt, id. ib. Supposing Sebastian to have been sixteen years of age in 1495, when he appears to have come to England with his father, he must have attained to seventy years of age at the period of this grant—E.]

[Footnote 19: At the rate of six for one, as established by the Historian of America for comparing sums of money between these two periods, this pension was equal to L.1000 in our time.—E.]

SECTION IX.

Voyage of Sir Thomas Pert and Sebastian Cabot about the year 1516, to Brazil, St Domingo, and Porto Rico.

That learned and painefull writer Richard Eden, in a certain epistle of his to the Duke of Northumberland, before a work which he translated out of Munster in 1553, called A Treatise of New India, maketh mention of a voyage of discoverie undertaken out of England by Sir Thomas Pert and Sebastian Cabota, about the eighth year of Henry VIII. of famous memorie, imputing the overthrow thereof unto the cowardice and want of stomack of the said Sir Thomas Pert, in manner following:

If manly courage, saith he, (like unto that which hath bene seene and proved in your Grace, as well in forreine realmes, as also in this our country) had not bene wanting in others in these our dayes, at such time as our souereigne lord of famous memorie king Henry VIII. about the same yeere of his raigne, furnished and sent out certaine shippes under the governance of Sebastian Cabot yet living, and one Sir Thomas Pert, who was vice-admiral of England and dweleth in Poplar at Blackwall, whose faint heart was the cause that the voyage took none effect. If, I say, such manly courage, whereof we have spoken, had not at that time beene wanting, it might happily have come to passe, that that rich treasurie called Perularia, (which is nowe in Spaine in the citie of Seville, and so named, for that in it is kept the infinite riches brought thither from the newfoundland kingdom of Peru) might long since have beene in the tower of London, to the kings great honour and the wealth of this realme.

Hereunto that also is to bee referred which the worshipfull Mr Robert Thorne wrote to the saide king Henry VIII. in the yeere 1527, by Doctor Leigh his ambassador sent into Spaine to the Emperour Charles V. whose worries bee these:

Now rest to be discovered the north parts, the which it seemeth unto me is onely your highnes charge and dutie; because the situation of this your realme is thereunto neerest and aptest of all other: and also, for that already you have taken it in hand. And in mine opinion it will not seeme well to leave so great and profitable an enterprise, seeing it may so easily and with so little cost, labour, and danger be followed and obteined. Though hitherto your grace have made thereof a proofe, and found not the commoditie thereby as you trusted, at this time it shal be none impediment: for there may be now provided remedies for things then lacked, and the inconveniences and lets remooved, that then were cause your graces desire tooke no full effect: which is the courses to be changed, and to follow the aforesayd new courses. And concerning the mariners, ships, and provision, an order may be devised and taken meete and convenient, much better than hitherto: by reason whereof, and by Gods grace, no doubt your purpose shall take effect.

And where as in the aforesayd wordes Mr Robert Thorne sayth, that he would have the old courses to bee changed, and the new courses [to the north] to be followed: It may plainely be gathered that the former voyage, whereof twise or thrise he maketh mention, wherein it is like that Sir Thomas Pert and Sebastian Cabot were set foorth by the king, was made towards Brazil and the south parts. Moreover it seemeth that Gonzalvo de Oviedo, a famous Spanish writer, alludeth unto the sayde voyage in the beginning of the 13. chapter of the 19. booke of his generall and natural historie of the West Indies, agreeing very well with the time about which Richard Eden writeth that the foresayd voyage was begun. The authors wordes are these, as I finde them translated into Italian by that excellent and famous man Baptista Ramusio[21].

[Footnote 21: At this place Hakluyt gives the Italian of Ramusio; we are satisfied on the present occasion with his translation.—E.]

In the year 1517, an English rover under the colour of travelling to discover, came with a great shippe unto the parts of Brazill on the coast of the firme land, and from thence he crossed over unto this island of Hispaniola, and arrived near unto the mouth of the haven of this citie of San Domingo, and sent his shipboate full of men on shoare, and demaunded leave to enter into this haven, saying that hee came with marchandise to traffique. But at that very instant the governour of the castle, Francis de Tapia, caused a tire of ordinance to be shot from the castle at the shippe, for she bare in directly with the haven. When the Englishmen sawe this, they withdrew themselves out, and those that were in the shipboate got themselves with all speede on shipboard. And in trueth the warden of the castle committed an oversight: for if the shippe had entered into the haven, the men thereof could not have come on lande without leave both of the citie and of the castle. Therefore the people of the shippe seeing how they were received, sayled toward the Island of St John de Puerto Rico, and entering into the port of St Germaine, the Englishmen parled with those of the towne, requiring victuals and things needful to furnish their ship, and complained of the inhabitants of the city of St Domingo, saying that they came not to doe any harme, but to trade and traffique for their money and merchandise. In this place they had certain victuals, and for recompence they gave and paid them with certain vessels of wrought tinne and other things. And afterwards they departed toward Europe, where it is thought they arrived not, for we never heard any more news of them.

Thus farre proceedeth Gonzalvo de Oviedo, who though it please him to call the captain of this great English ship a rover, yet it appeareth by the Englishmens owne words, that they came to discover, and by their traffique for pewter vessels and other wares at the town of St Germaine in the iland of San Juan de Puerto Rico, it cannot bee denied but they were furnished with wares for honest traffique and exchange. But whosoever is conversant in reading the Portugal and Spanish writers of the East and West Indies, shall commonly finde that they account all other nations for pirats, rovers and theeves, which visite any heathen coast that they have once sayled by or looked on. Howbeit their passionate and ambitious reckoning ought not to bee prejudiciall to other mens chargeable and painefull enterprises and honourable travels in discoverie.

SECTION X.

Brief note of a voyage by Thomas Tison to the West Indies, before the year 1526[22].

It appears from a certain note or memorandum in the custody of me Richard Hakluyt, taken out of an old ledger-book formerly belonging to Mr Nicholas Thorne senior, a respectable merchant of Bristol, written to his friend and factor Thomas Midnall and his servant William Ballard, at that time residing at San Lucar in Andalusia; that before the year 1526, one Thomas Tison an Englishman had found his way to the West Indies, and resided there as a secret factor for some English merchants, who traded thither in an underhand manner in those days. To this person Mr Nicholas Thorne appears to have sent armour and other articles which are specified in the memorandum or letter above mentioned—This Thomas Tison, so far as I can conjecture, appears to have been a secret factor for Mr Thorne and other English merchants, to transact for them in these remote parts; whence it is probable that some of our merchants carried on a kind of trade to the West Indies even in those ancient times; neither do I see any reason why the Spaniards should debar us from it now.

[Footnote 22: Hakluyt, III. 595.]



CHAPTER XII

THE VOYAGES OF JACQUES CARTIER FROM ST MALOES TO NEWFOUNDLAND AND CANADA, IN THE YEARS 1534 AND 1535[23].

INTRODUCTION

These voyages are to be considered as among the early discoveries of the New World, and are therefore inserted in this place. The only edition of them which we have been able to procure, is that which is inserted in the ancient and curious collection of voyages by Hakluyt, which appears to have been abridged from the original in French, published at Rouen in 8vo 1598[24]of this voyage, the author of the Bibliotheque des Voyages gives the following notice. "So early as the year 1518, the baron De Levi had discovered a portion of Canada, and Jacques Cartier not only added to this first discovery, but visited the whole country with the judgment of a person well instructed in geography and hydrography, as is apparent in the relation of his voyages; which contain an exact and extended description of the coasts, harbours, straits, bays, capes, rivers, and islands which he visited, both in his voyages on the river St Lawrence, and in his excursions by land into the interior of Canada. To this day navigators use most of the names which he affixed to the various parts which he explored with indefatigable industry." In the present edition, the only freedom used is reducing the antiquated language of Hakluyt to the modern standard.——Ed.



[Footnote 23: Hakluyt, III. 250.]

[Footnote 24: Bibl. Univ. des Voy. VI. 15.]

SECTION I.

The first Voyage of Jacques Cartier to Newfoundland and Canada, in 1534.

The Chevalier de Mouy lord of Meylleraye and vice-admiral of France, having administered the oaths of fidelity to the king, and of obedience to M. Cartier, to the captains, masters, and mariners of the ships employed in this expedition, we left the port of St Maloes on the 20th of April 1534, with two ships of 60 tons, and having sixty-one chosen men. Having prosperous weather, we reached Newfoundland on the 10th of May, making Cape Bonavista, in lat. 48 deg. 30' N[25]. Owing to the great quantities of ice on the coast, we were obliged to go into port St Catherine [26], which is about five leagues S.S.E. from the harbour of Cape Bonavista, in which we remained ten days waiting fair weather, and employed ourselves in repairing and fitting out our boats.

[Footnote 25: In our most recent maps Cape Bonavista is laid down in lat. 48 deg. 58' N.—E.]

[Footnote 26: Named in English charts Catalina Harbour, in lat. 48 deg. 44' N.—E.]

On the 21st of May we set sail with the wind at west, steering N. and by E. from Cape Bonavista till we came to the Isle of Birds, which we found environed by ice, but broken and cracked in many places. Notwithstanding the ice, our two boats went to the island to take in some birds, which are there in such incredible numbers that no one would believe unless he had seen them. The island is only a league in circuit, and so swarms with birds as if they had been strewed on purpose; yet an hundred times as many are to be seen hovering all around. Some of these are black and white, as large as jays, and having beaks like crows, which lie always on the sea, as they cannot fly to any height on account of the smallness of their wings, which are not larger than the half of ones hand; yet they fly with wonderful swiftness close to the water. We named these birds Aporath, and found them very fat. In less than half an hour we filled two boats with them; so that, besides what we eat fresh, each of our ships salted five or six barrels of them to aid our sea stock. Besides these, there is another and smaller kind, which hovers in the air, all of which gather themselves on the island, and put themselves under the wings of the larger birds. These smaller birds we named Godetz. There was also another kind, which we called Margaulx, considerably larger and entirely white, which bite like dogs. Although this island is 14 leagues from the main[27], yet the bears swim off to it to eat the birds, and our men found one there as large as an ordinary cow, and as white as a swan. This monstrous animal leapt into the sea to avoid our men; and upon Whitson Monday, when sailing towards the land, we fell in with it swimming thither as fast almost as we could sail. We pursued in our boats, and caught it by main strength. Its flesh was as good eating as a steer of two years old. On the Wednesday following, the 27th of May, we came to the Bay of the Castles; but, on account of bad weather and the great quantities of ice, we were obliged to anchor in a harbour near the entrance of that bay, which we named Carpunt. We were forced to remain there till the 9th of June, when we departed, intending to proceed beyond Carpunt, which is in lat. 51 deg. N[28]

[Footnote 27: This island of birds, judging by the course steered and its distance from the main of Newfoundland, appears to be that now called Funk Island, in lat. 50 deg. N. 15 leagues N.E. from Cape Freels.—E.]

[Footnote 28: From the latitude in the text, Carpunt appears to have been what is now called Carouge Harbour, and the Bay of the Castles may be that now named Hare Bay, 6-1/2 leagues farther north.—E.]

The land between Cape Razo and Cape Degrad[29], which lie N.N.E. and S.S.W. from each other, is all parted into islands so near each other, that there are only small channels like rivers between them, through most of which nothing but small boats can pass; yet there are some good harbours among these islands, among which are those of Carpunt and Degrad. From the top of the highest of these islands, two low islands near Gape Razo may be seen distinctly; and from Cape Razo to Port Carpunt, the distance is reckoned 25 leagues. Carpunt harbour has two entries, one of which is on the east side of the island, and the other on the south. But the eastern entrance is very unsafe, as the water is very shallow and full of shelves. The proper entry is to go about the west side of the island, about a cables length and a half, and then to make the south entrance of Carpunt. It is likewise necessary to remark, that there are three shelves under water in this channel, and towards the island on the east side in the channel, the water is three fathoms deep with a clear bottom. The other channel trends E.N.E. and on the west you may go on shore.

[Footnote 29: Capes Rouge and De Grat. The former being the north head land of Carouge Bay, the latter the north-eastern extremity of Newfoundland, in lat. 51 deg. 40' N.—E.]

Going from Point Degrad, and entering the before-mentioned Bay of the Castles, we were rather doubtful of two islands on the right hand, one of which is 3 leagues from Cape Degrad and the other seven. This last is low and flat, and seemed part of the main land. I named it St Catherines Island. Its north-east extremity is of a dry soil, but the ground about a quarter of a league off is very foul, so that it is necessary to go a little round. This island and the Bay of the Castles trend N.N.E. and S.S.W. 15 leagues distant from each other. The port of the Castles and Port Gutte, which is in the northern part of the bay, trend E.N.E and W.S.W. distant 12-1/2 leagues. About two leagues from Port Balance, or about a third part across the bay, the depth of water is 38 fathoms. From Port Balance to Blanc Sablon, or the White Sands, it is 15 leagues W.S.W. but about 3 leagues from the White Sands to the S.W. there is a rock above water like a boat. The White Sands is a road-stead quite open to the S. and S.E. but is protected on the S.W. by two islands, one of which we called the Isle of Brest, and the other the Isle of Birds, in which there are vast numbers of Godetz, and crows with red beaks and red legs, which make their nests in holes under ground like rabbits. Passing a point of land about a league beyond the White Sands, we found a port and passage which we called the Islets, which is a safer place than the White Sands, and where there is excellent fishing. The distance between the Islets and a port named Brest is about 10 leagues. The port of Brest is in lat. 51 deg. 55'[30]. Between it and the Islets there are many other islands, and the said port of Brest is among them, being surrounded by them for above three leagues farther. All these small islands are low, and the other lands may be seen beyond them. On the 10th of June we went into the port of Brest, to provide ourselves with wood and water; and on St Barnabas Day, after hearing divine service, we went in our boats to the westwards, to examine what harbours there might be in that direction.

[Footnote 30: If right in the latitude in the text, Cartier seems now to have got upon the coast of Labradore, to the north-west of Newfoundland; yet from the context he rather appears to have been on the north-end of Newfoundland, about Quirpon Harbour, the Sacred Isles, or Pistolet Bay.—E.]

We passed through among the small islands, which were so numerous that they could not be counted, as they extended about 10 leagues beyond that port. We rested in one of them all night, where we found vast quantities of duck eggs, and the eggs of other birds which breed there. We named the whole of this group the Islets. Next day, having passed beyond all these small isles, we found a good harbour which we named Port St Anthony. One of two leagues beyond this we found a little river towards the S.W. coast, between two other islands, forming a good harbour. We set up a cross here, and named it St Servans Port. About a league S.W. from this port and river there is a small round island like an oven, surrounded with many little islands, and forming a good mark for finding out Port St Servan. About two leagues farther on we came to a larger inlet, which we named James River, in which we caught many salmon. While in this river we saw a ship belonging to Rochelle, which intended to have gone a fishing in Port Brest, but had passed it as they knew not whereabout they were. We went to her with our boats, and directed them to a harbour about a league west from James River, which I believe to be one of the best in the world, and which therefore we named James Cartiers Sound. If the soil of this country were as good as its harbours, it would be a place of great consequence: But it does not deserve the name of the New-found-land, but rather the new stones and wild crags, and is a place fit only for wild beasts. In all the north part of the island I did not see a cart load of good earth, though I went on shore in many places. In the island of White Sand there is nothing growing but moss and stunted thorn bushes scattered here and there, all dry and withered. In short, I believe this to have been the land which God appointed for Cain. There are however, inhabitants of tolerable stature, but wild and intractable, who wear their hair tied upon the top of their heads, like a wreath of hay, stuck through with a wooden pin, and ornamented with birds feathers. Both men and women are clothed in the skins of beasts; but the garments of the women are straiter and closer than those of the men, and their waists are girded. They paint themselves with a roan or reddish-brown colour. Their boats are made of birch bark, with which they go a fishing, and they catch great quantities of seals. So far as we could understand them, they do not dwell all the year in this country, but come from warmer countries on the main land, on purpose to catch seals and fish for their sustenance.

On the 13th of June we returned to our ships, meaning to proceed on our voyage, the weather being favourable, and on Sunday we had divine service performed. On Monday the 15th, we sailed from Brest to the southwards, to explore some lands we had seen in that direction, which seemed to be two islands. On getting to the middle of the bay, however, we found it to be the firm land, being a high point having two eminences one above the other, on which account we called it Double Cape. We sounded the entrance of the bay, and got ground with a line of 100 fathoms. From Brest to the Double Cape is about 20 leagues, and five or six leagues farther on we had ground at 40 fathoms. The direction between Port Brest and Double Cape is N.E. and S.W. Next day, being the 16th, we sailed 35 leagues from Double Cape S.W. and by S. where we found very steep and wild hills, among which we noticed certain small cabins, resembling what are called granges in our country, on which account we named these the Grange Hills. The rest of the coast was all rocky, full of clefts and cuts, having low islands between and the open sea. On the former day we could not see the land, on account of thick mists and dark fogs, but this evening we espied an entrance into the land, by a river between the Grange Hills and a cape to the S.W. about 3 leagues from the ships. The top of this cape is blunt, but it ends towards the sea in a sharp point, on which account we named it Pointed Cape. On its north side there is a flat island. Meaning to examine if there were any good harbours at this entrance, we lay to for the night; but on the next day we had stormy weather from the N.E. for which reason we stood to the S.W. till Thursday morning, in which time we sailed 37 leagues. We now opened a bay full of round islands like pigeon-houses, which we therefore named the Dove-cots. From the Bay of St. Julian to a cape which lies S. and by W. called Cape Royal, the distance is 7 leagues; and towards the W.S.W. side of that cape there is another, the lower part of which is all craggy, and the top round. On the north side of this cape, which we called Cape Milk, there is a low island. Between Cape Royal and Cape Milk there are some low islands, within which there are others, indicating that there are some rivers in this place. About two leagues from Cape Royal we had 20 fathom water, and found cod in such abundance, that, while waiting for our consort we caught above a hundred in less than an hour.

Next day, the 18th, the wind turned against us with such fury that we were forced back to Cape Royal; and, sending the boats to look for a harbour, we found a great deep gulf above the low islands, having certain other islands within it. This gulf is shut up on the south, and the low islands are on one side of the entrance, stretching out above half a league to seawards; it is in lat. 48 deg. 30' N. having an island in the middle of the entrance. The country about is all flat, but barren. Finding we could not get into any harbour that night, we stood out to sea, leaving Cape Royal towards the west. From that time to the 24th of the month, being St Johns Day, we had such stormy weather, with contrary winds and such dark mists, that we could not see the land; but on that day we got sight of a cape, about 35 leagues S.W. from Cape Royal, which we named Cape St John. On that day and the next the weather still continued so foggy and dark, with wind, that we could not come near the land; yet we sailed part of the 25th to the W.N.W. and lay too in the evening, about 7-1/2 leagues N.W. and by W. of Cape St John. When about to make sail, the wind changed to the N.W. and we accordingly sailed S.E. After proceeding about 15 leagues in that direction, we came to three islands, two of which are as steep and upright as a wall, so that it is impossible to climb them, and a small rock lies between them. These islands were closely covered over with birds, which breed upon them; and in the largest there was a prodigious number of those white birds we named Margaulx, larger than geese. Another of the islands, which was cleft in the middle, was entirely covered with the birds called Godetz; but towards the shore, besides Godetz, there were many Apponatz[31], like those formerly mentioned. We went ashore on the lower part of the smallest island, where we killed above a thousand godetz and apponatz, putting as many as we pleased into our boats; indeed we might have loaded thirty boats with them in less than an hour, they were so numerous and so tame. We named these the Islands of Margaulx. About five leagues west from these islands, we came to an island two leagues long and as much in breadth, where we staid all night to take in wood and water, which we named Brions Island. It was full of goodly trees, verdant fields, and fields overgrown with wild-corn and pease in bloom, as thick and luxuriant as any we had seen in Brittany, so that it seemed to have been ploughed and sown; having likewise great quantities of gooseberries, strawberries, roses, parsely, and many other sweet, and pleasant herbs; on the whole it had the best soil of any we had seen, and one field of it was more worth than the whole of Newfoundland. The whole shore was composed of a sandy beach, with good anchorage all round in four fathom water; and the shore had great numbers of great beasts, as large as oxen, each of which have two large tusks like elephants teeth[32]. These animals live much in the sea. We saw one of them asleep on the shore, and went towards it in our boats in hopes of taking it, but as soon as he heard us, he threw himself into the sea and escaped. We saw also wolves and bears on this island, and there were considerable lakes about it towards the S.E. and N.W. As far as I could judge, there must be some passage between this island and Newfoundland, and if so it would save much time and distance, if any useful purpose is to be had in these parts.

[Footnote 31: This word has not been used before, but is probably meant for the same bird formerly called Aparath. These names of birds in Newfoundland are inexplicable.—E.]

[Footnote 32: Probably the Morse, vulgarly called the sea-horse.—E.]

About four leagues W.S.W. from Brions Island we saw some other land surrounded by small isles of sand, which we believed to be an island, and to a goodly cape on this land we gave the name of Cape Dauphin, as the good grounds begin there. We sailed along these lands to the W.S.W. on the 27th of June, and at a distance they seemed to be composed of low lands with little sand-hills; but we could not go near, as the wind was contrary. This day we sailed 15 leagues. Next day we went about 10 leagues along this land, which is all low, till we came to a cape composed of red and craggy rocks, having an opening which fronts to the north, and we noticed a pool or small lake, having a field between it and the sea. About 14 leagues farther on we came to another cape, the shore between forming a kind of semicircular bay, and the beach was composed of sand thrown up like, a mound or dike, over which the whole country appeared nothing but marshes and pools of water as far as the eye could reach. Just before coming to the first of these capes, which we named St Peter, there are two small islands, very near the main land. About 5 leagues from the second cape toward the S.W. there is a high pointed island which we named Alezai. From Brions Island to Cape St Peter there is a good anchorage on a sandy bottom in 25 fathoms water five leagues from shore; a league off the land the depth is 12 fathom, and 6 fathom very near the shore, seldom less, and always good ground. Next day, the 29th of June, with the wind S. and by E. we sailed westwards, till the following morning about sunrise without being able to see any land, except that about sunset we saw some land about 9 or 10 leagues W.S.W. which we believed to be two islands. All next day we sailed westwards about 40 leagues, when we discovered that what we had taken for islands was the main land; and early next morning we came to a good point of land, which we named Cape Orleans; the whole of the land being low and plain, full of fine trees and meadows, and very pleasant to behold. This coast trends S.S.E. and N.N.W. but on this great extent of coast we could find no harbour, it being everywhere full of shelves and sand-banks. We went on shore in many places with our boats, and in one place we entered a fine river, very shallow, which we named Boat River, because we saw some boats full of savages crossing the river. We had no intercourse with these people; for the wind came from the sea, and beat our boats in such a manner against the shore, that we were forced to put off again to the ships. Till next morning, the 1st July, at sunrise, we sailed N.E. when we struck our sails in consequence of thick mists and squalls. The weather cleared up about two in the afternoon, when we got sight of Cape Orleans, and of another about 7 leagues N. and by E. from where we were, which we named Cape Savage. On the north side of this cape, there is a very dangerous shelf and a bank of stones about half a league from shore. While off this cape and our boats going along shore, we saw a man running after the boats and making signs for us to return to the cape; but on pulling towards him he ran away. We landed and left a knife and a woollen girdle for him on a little staff, and returned to our ships. On that day we examined nine or ten leagues of this coast for a harbour, but found the whole shore low and environed with great shelves. We landed, however, in four places, where we found many sweet-smelling trees, as cedars, yews, pines, white-elms, ash, willow, and many others unknown, but without fruit. Where the ground was bare of trees, it seemed very fertile, and was fall of wild-corn, pease, white and red gooseberries, strawberries, and blackberries, as if it had been cultivated on purpose. The wild-corn resembled rye. This part of the country enjoyed a better temperature than any we had seen, and was even hot. It had many thrushes, stock-doves, and other birds, and wanted nothing but good harbours.

Next day, 2d July, we had sight of land to the north, which joined the coast already mentioned, having a bay which we named St Lunario, across which our boats went to the north cape and found the bay so shallow that there was only one fathom water a league off shore. N.E. from this cape, and 7 or 8 leagues distant, there is another cape, having a triangular bay between, compassed about with shelves and rocks about ten leagues from land. This bay has only 2 fathoms water, but appeared to penetrate far into the land towards the N.E. Passing this cape, we observed another head-land N. and by E. All that night we had very bad weather and heavy squalls, so that we could carry very little sail. Next morning, 3d July, the wind was from the west, and we sailed north that we might examine the coast, where we found a gulf or bay about 15 leagues across, and in some places 55 fathoms deep. From the great depth and breadth of this gulf, we were in hopes of finding a passage through, like that of the Castles before mentioned. This gulf lies E.N.E. and W.S.W. The land on the south side of this gulf is of good quality and might be easily cultivated, full of goodly fields and meadows, quite plain, and as pleasant as any we had ever seen. The north side is altogether hilly, and full of woods containing large trees of different kinds, among which are as fine cedars and firs as are to be seen anywhere, capable of being masts for ships of three hundred tons. In two places only of this side we saw open meadows, with two fine lakes. The middle of this bay is in lat. 47 deg. 30' N. We named the southern cape of this bay Cape Esperance, or the Cape of Hope, as we expected to have found a passage this way.

On the 4th of July we went along the northern coast of this bay to look for a harbour, where we entered a creek which is entirely open to the south, having no shelter from the wind when in that quarter. We named this St Martins Creek, in which we remained from the 4th to the 12th of July; and on the 6th, going in one of our boats to examine a cape or head-land on the west side, about 7 or 8 leagues from the ships, and having got within half a league of the point, we saw two fleets of canoes of the savages, 40 or 50 in all, crossing over from one land to another, besides which there were a great number of savages on shore, who made a great noise, beckoning to us to come to land, and holding up certain skins on pikes or poles of wood, as if offering them for barter. But as we had only one boat and they were very numerous, we did not think it prudent to venture among them, and stood back towards the ships. On seeing us go from them, some savages put off in two canoes from the shore, being joined by five other canoes of those which were crossing, and made towards us, dancing and making many signs of joy, as if inviting us to their friendship. Among other expressions we could distinctly make out the following words, Napeu tondamen assurtah, but knew not what they meant. We did not incline to wait their civilities, as we were too few in case they chose to assail us, and made signs therefore for them to keep at a distance. They came forwards notwithstanding, and surrounded our boat with their canoes; on which we shot off two pieces[33] among them, by which they were so much alarmed that they immediately took to flight towards the point, making a great noise. After remaining there some time, they came again towards us and surrounded our boat as before. We now struck at them with two lances, which again put them in fear and put them to flight, after which they followed us no more. Next day, a party of the savages came in nine canoes to the point at the mouth of the creek, where our ships were at anchor; on which we went ashore to them in our boats. They appeared much alarmed at our approach, and fled to some distance, making signs as if they wished to traffic with us, holding up to our view the skins of which they make their apparel, which are of small value. We likewise endeavoured to explain by signs that we had no intention to injure them; and two of our men ventured to land among them, carrying some knives and other iron ware, and a red hat for their chief. Encouraged by this confidence, the savages likewise landed with their peltry, and began to barter with them for our iron wares, which they seemed to prize much, and shewed their satisfaction by dancing and many other ceremonies, throwing at times sea-water from their hands on their heads. They gave us every thing they had, so that they went away almost naked, making signs that they would return next day with more skins.

[Footnote 33: The nature of these is not explained, but they must have been fire-arms of some kind.—E.]

On Thursday the 8th of July, as the wind was contrary for using our ships, we proceeded in our boats to explore the bay, and went that day 25 leagues within it. As the next day was fine, with a fair wind, we sailed till noon, in which time we had explored most part of this bay, the shore of which consisted of low land, beyond which were high mountains. Finding no passage through the bottom of the bay, we turned, back along the coast, and at one place saw a good many of the savages on the shore of a lake among the low grounds, where they had kindled some fires. As we proceeded, we noticed that a narrow creek or channel communicated between the bay and the lake, into which creek our boats went. The savages came towards us in one of their canoes, bringing some pieces of boiled seals flesh, which they laid down on pieces of wood, and then retired, making signs that they gave them to us. We sent two men to them with hatchets, knives, beads, and such wares, with which they were much pleased; and soon afterwards great numbers of them came to where we were in canoes, bringing skins and other things, to barter for our commodities. There were at least 300 of them collected at this place, including women and children; some of the women who remained on the other side of the inlet, were seen up to their knees in the water, singing and dancing; while other women, who were on the same side with us, came up to us in a friendly manner, rubbing our arms with their hands, and then holding up their hands towards heaven, as if in token of admiration and joy. So much confidence was established on both sides, that the savages bartered away every thing they possessed, which was indeed of small value, and left themselves entirely naked. These people might easily be converted to our religion. They wander about from place to place, subsisting entirely by fishing, for which they have stated seasons. The country is warmer even than Spain, and exceedingly pleasant, being entirely level, and though sandy, it is everywhere covered with trees. In some places where there are no trees, it is luxuriantly covered with wild corn or pease. The corn resembles oats, but with an ear like that of rye; and the pease are small, but as thick as if the ground had been ploughed and sown. It produces, likewise, white and red gooseberries, strawberries, blackberries, white and red roses, and many other sweet-smelling flowers. The whole country is interspersed with fine grass meadows, and lakes abounding in salmon. In their language, a hatchet is named cochi and a knife bacon. We named this fine bay, Baye de Chaleur, or the Warm Bay[34].

[Footnote 34: Chaleur Bay on the north-eastern coast of Nova Scotia is probably meant; though, from the changes of names, we have not been able to trace the course of Cartier from the northern extremity of Newfoundland to this part of the Gulf of St Lawrence. He probably returned to the south, along the eastern coast of Newfoundland, and then sailed west, along the south coast of that island into the Gulf of St Lawrence, probably in search of a passage to the Pacific.—E.]

Having ascertained that there was no passage through this bay, we set sail from St Martins Creek on Sunday the 12th July, to proceed on farther discoveries beyond, going eastwards about 18 leagues along the coast, till we came to Cape Prato, where we found shallow water, with a great tide and stormy sea, so that we had to draw close in shore, between that cape and an island about a league to the eastwards, where we cast anchor for the night. Next morning we made sail to explore the coast to the N.N.E. But the wind, which was contrary, rose almost to a storm, and we were forced to return to our former anchorage. We sailed again next day, and came to a river five or six leagues to the northward of Cape Prato, where the wind became again contrary, with thick fogs, by which we were obliged on the 14th to take shelter in the river, where we remained till the 16th. On that day, the wind became so boisterous that one of our ships lost an anchor, and we had to run 7 or 8 leagues up the river for shelter, where we found a good harbour, in which we remained till the 25th July. While there, we saw many of the savages fishing for mackerel, of which they caught great numbers. They had about 40 boats or canoes, and after some time they became so familiar with us as to come with their canoes to our ships in perfect confidence receiving knives, combs, glass-beads, and other trifles from us, for which they were exceedingly thankful, lifting up their hands to heaven, and dancing and singing in their boats. These people may truly be called savages, as they are the poorest wretches that can be imagined; as the value of every thing they had among them all, besides their canoes and nets, was not worth five farthings. They go entirely naked, except their parts of shame, over which they had small pieces of skin; besides which they only had a few old pieces of skin to shelter their bodies from the weather. They differ entirely both in language and appearance from those we had seen before. Their heads are close shaven, except one lock on the crown, as long as a horse tail, which they bind up into a knot with leather thongs. Their only dwelling-places are their boats or canoes turned keel upwards, under which they sleep on the bare ground. They eat their fish and flesh almost raw, only heating it a little on the embers. We went freely on shore among these people, who seemed much pleased with our company, all the men singing and dancing around, in token of joy; but they made all their women retire into a wood at some distance, two or three excepted, to each of whom we gave a comb and a small tin bell, with which they were much delighted, shewing their gratitude to our captain by rubbing his breast and arms with their hands. The reception of these presents occasioned all the other women to return from the wood, that they likewise might participate; for which purpose they surrounded the captain, to the number of about twenty, touching and rubbing him with their hands, as soliciting him for such trinkets as he had given the others. He accordingly gave each of them a small bell, on which they all fell a singing and dancing. We here found great quantities of mackerel, which they take on the shore by means of nets which they construct of a species of hemp. This grows in the part of the country where they principally reside, as they come only to the sea side during the fishing season. So far as I could understand, they have likewise a kind of millet, or grain, as large as pease, like the maize which grows in Brasil, which serves them instead of bread. Of this they have great abundance, and it is called kapaige in their language. They have also a kind of damsin plumbs, which they call famesta. They possess likewise, figs, nuts, apples, and other fruits, and beans which they call sahu; their name for nuts is cahehya. When we shewed them any thing which they had not or were unacquainted with, they used to shake their heads, saying nohda! nohda! implying their ignorance or want of that article. Of those things which they had, they explained to us by signs how they grew, and in what manner they used to dress them for food. They use no salt, and are very great thieves, stealing every thing they could lay their hands on.

On the 24th of July, we made a great cross thirty feet high, which we erected on a point at the entrance of our harbour, on which we hung up a shield with three flowers de luce; and inscribed the cross with this motto, Vive le roy de France. When this was finished in presence of all the natives, we all knelt down before the cross, holding up our hands to heaven, and praising God. We then endeavoured to explain to these savages by means of signs, that all our salvation depended only on him who dwelleth in the heavens; at which they shewed much admiration, looking at one another, and then at the cross. After our return to the ships, their chief came off in a canoe accompanied by his brother and two sons. Keeping at an unusual distance, he stood up in the canoe, where he made a long oration, pointing frequently to our cross, and making a cross with his two fingers; he then pointed out to all the country round about, as if shewing that all was his, and that we must not erect any more crosses without his leave. When he concluded his speech, we shewed him an axe, making him believe that we would give it to him for an old bears skin which he wore; on which he gradually came near our ship, and one of our men who was in the boat along side, took hold of their canoe; into which he, and three or four more of our men leapt, and obliged them all to come on board our ship, to their great astonishment and dismay. Our captain immediately used every means to assure them of being in perfect safety, and entertained them in a friendly manner, giving them to eat and drink. After this, we endeavoured to explain to them by signs, that the sole use of the cross we had erected was to serve as a land mark for finding out the harbour, and that we should soon return to them with great plenty of iron wares and other commodities; but that in the mean time we would take two of his sons along with us, whom we would bring back again to the same place. We accordingly clothed two of the lads in shirts and coloured coats, with red caps, putting a copper chain round each of their necks, with which they seemed much pleased, and remained willingly along with us, giving their old garments to the rest who went back to the land. We gave to each of the three who returned, a hatchet and some knives, with which they seemed well content. When these had told their companions on shore what had happened in the ship, six canoes came off to us in the afternoon, having five or six men in each, who came to take farewell of the two lads we had detained, and brought them some fish. They spoke a great deal that we did not understand, making signs that they would not remove our cross.

The weather becoming fair next day, the 25th July, we left that port[35], and after getting out of the river, we sailed to the E.N.E. the land forming a semicircular bay, the extremities lying S.E. and N.W. From Monday the 27th of the month, we went along this land, till on Wednesday the 29th we came to another cape, after which the land turned to the east for about 15 leagues, and then turned to the north. We sounded about three leagues from this cape, and had ground at 24 fathoms. The land on this part of the coast seems better and freer of woods, than any we had seen, having fine green fields and fair meadows. We named this land Cape St Alvise, because first seen on the day of that saint. It is in lat. 49 deg. 30' N. On Wednesday morning, being to the east of that cape, whence we sailed N.W. till night, keeping near the land, which trends from south to north for about 15 leagues to another cape, which we named Memorancie, after which the coast trends to the N.W. About 3 leagues from this cape we tried soundings, but had no bottom with a line of 150 fathoms. We went along this coast to the lat. of 50 deg. N. At sunrise of Saturday 1st August, we had sight of other land lying north and north-east, which was high, craggy, and mountainous, having low land interposed, with woods and rivers. We continued along this coast, still trending N.W. to look for a gulf or passage, till the 5th of the month; but we had great difficulty to advance five miles in all that time, the wind and tide being both adverse. At the end of these five miles, we could plainly see land on both sides, which appeared to spread out; but as we were unable to work up to windward, we proceeded to another cape to the southward, being the farthest out to sea within sight, and about five leagues from us. On coming up to this head-land, we found it nothing but rocks, stones, and craggy cliffs, such as we had not seen the like of since leaving Cape St Johns. The tide being now in our favour carried our ships to the westwards against the wind, when suddenly one of our boats struck on a rock and overset, so that our people had to leap out and set it to right again. After going along this coast for two hours, the tide turned against us, so that it was impossible to advance any farther with all our oars. We went therefore to land, leaving 10 or 12 of our people to keep the boats, and going by land to the cape, we observed the land beyond to trend S.W. After this we returned to our boats, and then to the ships, which had drifted four leagues to leeward of the place where we left them.

[Footnote 35: In a side-note, Hakluyt expresses an opinion that this harbour is what is now called Gaspay, or Gaspe Bay in lat. 48 deg. 44' N., near Cape Rosiers, the south cape of the river St Lawrence.—E.]

On our return to the ships, we convened a council of all the officers and experienced mariners, to have their opinion of what was best for us to do in the farther execution of our instructions. The general opinion was, considering that the east winds seemed now set in, and that the currents were so much against us, we could not expect to advance to any purpose in exploring the coast; and as storms and tempests began to prevail in Newfoundland, where we were so far from home, we must resolve either to return to France immediately, or to remain where we were during the winter. Having duly weighed the various opinions, we resolved to return home. The place where we now were, we named St Peters Straits[36], in which we found very deep water; being in some places 150 fathoms, in others 100, and near the shore 60, with clear ground. From thence for some days we had a prosperous gale of wind, so that we trended the said north shore east, south-east, west-north-west[37], for such is the situation of it, except one cape of low land, about 25 leagues from St Peters Strait, which bends more towards the south-east. We noticed smoke on that cape, made by the natives; but as the wind blew fresh toward the coast, we did not venture to approach them, and twelve of the savages came off to us in two canoes. They came freely on board, and gave us to understand that they came from the great gulf under a chief named Tiennot, who was then on the low cape, and were then about to return loaded with fish to their own country, whence we had come with our ships. We named the low head land Cape Tiennot, after the name of their chief. The land in this place was all low and pleasant, with a sandy beach for about 20 leagues, intermixed with marshes and shallow lakes. After this it turned from west to E.N.E. everywhere environed with islands two or three leagues from shore; and as far as we could see, many dangerous shelves extended above four or five leagues out to sea.

[Footnote 36: Cartier seems now to have returned to the south coast of Newfoundland, but the relation of his voyage is too vague to be followed with any tolerable certainty.—E.]

[Footnote 37: The sentence in italics is given in the precise words of Hakluyt, probably signifying that the coast extended from E.S.E. to W.N.W.—E.]

During the three following days we had a strong gale from the S.W. which obliged us to steer E.N.E. and on the Saturday we came to the eastern part of Newfoundland, between the Granges and Double Cape[38]. The wind now blew a storm from the east, on which account we doubled that cape to the N.N.W. to explore the northern part, which is all environed with islands, as already stated. While near these islands and the land, the wind turned to the south, which brought us within the gulf, so that next day, being the 9th of August, we entered by the blessing of God within the White Sands. Thus ended our discoveries in this voyage. On the feast of the Assumption of our Lady, being the 15th of August, after hearing divine service, we departed from the White Sands with a prosperous gale, directing our course across the sea which lies between Newfoundland and Brittany. In this passage we were much tossed during three days by a heavy tempest from the east, which we weathered by the blessing of God. After this we had fair weather, and arrived on the 5th of September in the port of St Maloes.

[Footnote 38: Probably that now called Mistaken Points, near Cape Race, which latter is the south-eastern point of Newfoundland—E.]



Specimen of the language of Newfoundland.

The sun, isnez Heaven, camet Night, aiagla Water, ame Sand, estogaz A sail, aganie The head, agonaze The throat, conguedo The nose, hehonguesto The teeth, hesangue The nails, agetascu The feet, ochedasco The legs, anoudasco A dead man, amocdaza A skin, aionasca That man, yca A hatchet, asogne A cod fish, gadagoursere Good to be eaten, guesande Almonds, anougaza Figs, asconda Gold, henyosco An arrow, cacta A green tree, haveda An earthen dish, undaco Brass, aignetaze The brow, ausce A feather, yco The moon, casmogan The earth, conda Wind, canut Rain, ocnoscon Bread, cacacomy The sea, amet A ship, casaomy A man, undo The hairs, hoc hosco Red cloth, caponeta The eyes, ygata A knife, agoheda The mouth, heche A mackarel, agedoneta The ears, hontasco Nuts, caheya The arms, agescu Apples, honesta A woman, enrasesco Beans, sahe A sick man, alouedeche A sword, achesco Shoes, atta

SECTION II.

The second voyage of Jacques Cartier, to Canada, Hochelega, Saguenay, and other lands now called New France; with the Manners and Customs of the Natives.

On Whitsunday, the 16th of May 1535, by command of our captain, Jacques Cartier, and by common consent, we confessed our sins and received the holy sacrament in the cathedral of St Maloes; after which, having all presented ourselves in the Quire, we received the blessing of the lord bishop, being in his robes. On Wednesday following, the 19th of that month, we set sail with a favourable gale. Our squadron consisted of three ships. The great Hermina of an hundred to an hundred and twenty tons, of which Jacques Cartier was captain and general of the expedition, Thomas Frosmont chief master, accompanied by Claudius de Pont Briand, son to the lord of Montceuell cupbearer to the Dauphin, Charles de Pomeraies, John Powlet, and other gentlemen. In the second ship of sixty tons, called the Little Hermina, Mace Salobert and William Marie were captains under the orders of our general. The third ship of forty tons, called the Hermerillon, was commanded by William Britton and James Maingare. The day after we set sail, the prosperous gale was changed into storms and contrary winds, with darksome fogs, in which we suffered exceedingly till the 25th of June, when our three ships lost sight of each other, and never rejoined again till after our arrival at Newfoundland. We in the generals ship continued to be tossed about by contrary winds till the 7th of July, when we made the island of Birds[39], 14 leagues from the main of Newfoundland. This island is so full of birds that our ships might have been loaded with them, and the quantity taken away not missed. We took away two boat loads, to increase our sea stores. The Isle of Birds is in lat. 49 deg. 40' N.

[Footnote 39: Already supposed to be that now called Funk Island, in lat. 50 deg. N.—E.]

We left this island with a fair wind on the eighth of July, and came to the harbour of White Sands, or Blanc Sablon, in the Grand Bay or Baye des Chateaux, where the rendezvous of the squadron had been appointed. We remained here till the 26th of July, when both of the other ships joined us, and we then laid in a stock of wood and water for enabling us to proceed on our voyage. Every thing being in readiness, we set sail from the White Sands early in the morning of the 29th, and sailing along the northern coast, which runs from S.W. to N.E. we passed by two islands, lying farther out than the others, which we named St Williams Islands, being twenty leagues or more from the port called Brest. All the coast from the Bay of Castles to that place, lies E. and W.—N.E. and S.W. off which there are sundry small islands, the whole being stony and barren, without soil or trees, except in a few narrow vallies. Next day, we sailed twelve leagues and a half westwards, in search of other islands, among which there is a great bay towards the north, all full of islands and great creeks, among which there seemed to be many good harbours. We named these the Islands of St Martha, off which, about a league and a half farther out to sea, there is a dangerous shallow, and about seven leagues from the islands of St Martha, on the east and on the west, as you pass to these islands, there are five rocks. We passed these about one in the afternoon; and from that time till midnight, we sailed about 15 leagues, passing to the south-eastwards of a cape of the lower islands, which we named St Germans Islands; about three leagues from which cape there is a very dangerous shallow. Likewise between Cape St Germans and Cape St Martha, about two leagues from the before-mentioned islands, there is a bank of sand on which the water is only four fathoms deep. On account of the dangerous nature of this coast, we struck sail and came to anchor for the rest of the night.

Next day, being the last of July, we went along all that part of the coast which runs east and west, or somewhat south-easterly, all of which is beset with islands and dry sands, and is consequently of very dangerous navigation. The distance from Cape St Germans to these islands is about 17-1/2 leagues, beyond which is a goodly plot of ground[40], surrounded by large tall trees; but all the rest of the coast is encompassed with sand-banks, without any appearance of harbours till we come to Cape Thiennot, about 7 leagues north-west from these islands. Having noted this cape in our former voyage, we sailed on all this night to the west and west-north-west till day; and as the wind then became contrary, we looked out for a harbour in which to shelter our ships, and found one for our purpose which we named Port St Nicholas. This port lies amid four islands off the main-land, and we set up a cross on the nearest of these islands as a land-mark or beacon. In entering Port St Nicholas, this cross must be brought to bear N.E. and passed on the left hand of the steersman, by which means you find six fathom water in the passage, and four within the port. Care must be taken however to avoid two shelves which stretch out about half a league to seawards.

[Footnote 40: From the context, I suspect the author here means that there was good anchorage at this place.—E.]

The whole of this coast is full of dangerous shoals, yet having the deceitful appearance of many good havens. We remained at Port St Nicholas till Sunday the 7th of August, when we made sail and approached the land southwards by Cape Rabart, which is twenty leagues from Port St Nicholas S.S.W. Next day the wind became boisterous and contrary, and as we could not find any haven to the southward, we coasted along northward about ten leagues beyond Port St Nicholas, where we found a goodly great gulf, full of islands, passages and entrances, answerable for any wind whatever. This gulf may easily be known by a great island resembling a cape, stretching somewhat farther out than the other islands, and about two leagues inland there is a hill which resembles a corn rick. We named this the Gulf of St Lawrence. On the 12th of the month, we sailed westwards from this gulf, and discovered a cape of land toward the south, about 25 leagues W. and by S. from the Gulf of St Lawrence. The two savages whom we took with us on our former voyage, informed us that this cape formed part of the great southern coast; and that, by the southern part of an island which they pointed out, was the way to Canada from Honguedo, whence we took them last year. They said farther, that at two days journey from this cape and island the Kingdom of Saguenay began. On the north shore of this island, extending towards Canada, and about three leagues off this cape, there are above 100 fathoms water; and I believe there never were as many whales seen at once as we saw that day around this cape. Next day, the 15th of August, having passed the strait, we had notice of certain lands which we had left towards the south, which are full of extensive high hills. We named the before-mentioned cape the Island of Assumption; from which one cape of the before-mentioned high country trends E.N.E. and W.S.W. distant 25 leagues. The northern country, for more than thirty leagues in length, is obviously higher than that which is to the southwards. We coasted along the southern lands till noon of the 17th, when the wind came round to the west; after which we steered for the northern coast which we had before seen, and found it low toward the sea, and the northern range of mountains within this low land stretch from east to west one quarter south. Our two savages informed us that Saguenay began here, which is an inhabited land producing copper, which they call caignetdaze. The distance between the southern and northern lands is about 30 leagues, and the gulf between is above 200 fathoms deep. The savages informed us likewise that the great river Hochelega[41] began here, by which was the direct way to Canada; and which river becomes always narrower as we approach towards Canada, where the water is fresh. They said farther that it penetrates so far inland that they had never heard of any one who had reached its head. On considering their account, our captain resolved to proceed no farther at this time, more especially as they said there was no other passage, meaning to examine in the first place the northern coast between the Gulf of St Lawrence and this great river, to see if any other passage could be discovered.

[Footnote 41: The river now called the St Lawrence.—E.]

We accordingly turned back on Wednesday the 18th of August along the northern coast, which trends from N.E. to S.W. like half of a bow, and is very high land, yet not so high as the southern coast. Next day we came to seven high round islands, which we named the Seven Isles, which stretch 3 or 4 leagues out to sea, and are 40 leagues from the southern shore of the gulf. Over against these, the northern shore consists of good low grounds full of fine trees, having various sand-banks almost dry at low water, and reaching two leagues from shore. At the farther extremity of these low lands, which, continue for ten leagues, there is a river of fresh water which runs with such rapidity into the sea that the water is quite fresh a league from its mouth. Entering this river with our boats, we had about a fathom and half water at its mouth. In this river we found many fishes resembling horses, which our savages told us lay all day in the water and went on shore at night. We set sail at day-break of the 21st, continuing our progress along the northern coast of the gulf which we traced the whole of that day to the north-east, and then stood over to the Island of Assumption[42], being assured that no passage was to be found in that direction. Returning to the harbour at the Seven Islands, which has 9 or 10 fathoms water, we were detained there by mists and contrary winds till the 24th, when we stood over to the southern coast, and came to a harbour about 80 leagues from these islands. This harbour is over against three flat islands in the middle of the river, between which islands and the harbour there is a very great river which runs between high and low lands. For more than three leagues out to sea there are many dangerous shelves, leaving not quite two fathoms water, so that the entrance is very dangerous; yet near these shelves the water is from 15 to 20 fathoms deep from shore to shore. All the northern[43] coast runs from N.E. and by N. to S.W. and by S. This haven is but of small value, as it is only formed by the tide of flood, and is inaccessible at low water. We named the three small flat islets St Johns Isles, because we discovered them on the day of St John the Baptists decapitation. Before coming to this haven, there is an island about 5 leagues to the eastward, between which and the land there is no passage except for small boats. The best station for ships in this harbour is to the south of a little island and almost close to its shore. The tide here flows at least two fathoms, but ships have to lie aground at low water.

[Footnote 42: The island here called Assumption, certainly is that now called Anticosti, a term formed or corrupted from the native name Natiscotec.—E.]

[Footnote 43: It is probable that we should here read the southern coast.—E.]

Leaving this harbour on the 1st of September, we proposed sailing for Canada; and at about 15 leagues W.S.W. we came to three islands, over against which is a deep and rapid river, which our two savages told as leads to the country and kingdom of Saguenay[44]. This river runs between very high and steep hills of bare rock, with very little soil; yet great numbers of trees grow among these rocks, as luxuriantly as if upon level and fertile land, insomuch that some of them would make masts for vessels of 30 tons. At the mouth of this river we met four canoes full of savages, who seemed very fearful of us, and some of them even went away. One of the canoes however, ventured to approach within hail, when one of our savages spoke to the people, telling his name, on which they came to us. Next day, leaving that river we proceeded on for Canada; and in consequence of the rapidity of the tide, we found the navigation very dangerous; more especially as to the southward of that river there are two islands, around which for above three leagues there are many rocks and great stones, and only two fathoms water. Besides the direction of the tide among these islands and rocks is very uncertain and changeable; so that if it had not been for our boats, we had been in great danger of losing our pinnace. In coasting along, we found above 30 fathoms water just off shore, except among these rocks and islands. About 5 leagues beyond the river Saguenay, to the S.W. there is another island on the north side containing high land, where we proposed to have come to anchor in waiting for the next tide of flood, but we had no ground with a line of 120 fathom only an arrow-shot from shore; so that we were obliged to return to that island, where we had 35 fathoms. We set sail again next morning to proceed onwards; and this day we got notice of a strange kind of fish which had never been seen before, which are called Adhothuys by the natives. They are about the bigness of a porpoise, but no way like them, having well proportioned bodies and heads like a greyhound, their whole bodies being entirely white without spot. There are great numbers of them in this river, and they always keep in the water, the natives saying that they are very savoury and good eating, and are nowhere else to be found but in the mouth of this river. On the 6th of September we proceeded about 15 leagues farther up the river, where we found an island having a small haven towards the north, around which there were innumerable large tortoises. There are here likewise vast numbers of the fish called Adhothuys, already mentioned; and the rapidity of the tide at this place is as great as it is at Bourdeaux in France. This island is about three leagues long and two broad, all of rich fertile soil, having many fine trees of various kinds; among which were many filbert trees, full of nuts, which we found to be larger and better than ours but somewhat harder, on which account we named it Isle aux Condres, or Filbert Island.

[Footnote 44: The Saguenay river runs into the north-west side of the St Lawrence, in lat. 48 deg. 7' N. long. 69 deg. 9' W.—E.]

On the 7th of the month we went seven or eight leagues up the river from Filbert Island to 14 other islands, where the country of Canada begins. One of these islands is ten leagues long and five broad, thickly inhabited by natives who live entirely by fishing in the river[45]. Having cast anchor between this island and the northern coast, we went on shore accompanied by our two savages, whose names were Taignoagny and Domagaia. At first the inhabitants of the island avoided us, till at length our two savages got speech of some of them, telling who they were, on which the natives seemed much rejoiced, dancing and singing and shewing many other ceremonies; many of their chief men came now to our boats, bringing great numbers of eels and other fishes, likewise two or three burdens of great millet or maize, and many very large musk-melons. On the same day many canoes filled with natives, both men and women, came to visit our two savages, all of whom were received in a kindly manner by our captain, who gave them many things of small value with which they were much gratified. Next day the lord of Canada came to our ships with twelve canoes and many people; but causing ten of his canoes to go back again, he came up to our ships with only two canoes and sixteen men. The proper name of this person was Donnacona, but his dignified name, as a lord or chief, was Agouhanna. On coming near the smallest of our ships, he stood up in his canoe and made a long oration, moving his body and limbs in an extraordinary manner, which among them pass for signs of friendship and security. He then came up towards the generals ship, in which were Taignoagny and Domagaia, with whom he entered into conversation. These men related to him all that they had seen in France, and what good treatment they had received in that country, at all which Agouhanna seemed much pleased, and desired our captain to hold out his arm for him to kiss. Our captain now went into Agouhannas canoe, and made bread and wine be handed down to him, which he offered to the chief and his followers, with which they were much gratified. When all this was over, our captain came again on board, and the chief went with his canoes to his own abode.

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