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[Transcriber's Note: The five songs marked [**music] were printed with musical notation. The music is available in .png format in the "images" directory accompanying the html version of this text, or as a separate document in .ly format (lilypond, compilable to .pdf).]



A HANDBOOK FOR

LATIN CLUBS

by SUSAN PAXSON

TEACHER of LATIN in the CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL Omaha, Neb.



D. C. Heath & Company, Publishers Boston New York Chicago

Copyright, 1916, By D. C. Heath & Co.

* * * * *

PREFACE

The Latin Club in secondary schools is the result of the incessant demand that our Latin instruction must be vivified. Many teachers feel the need of supplementary work in their Latin teaching, but they have been handicapped because of a lack of material as well as a lack of time. This is especially true of the teacher in the small town. To help meet this demand is the purpose of this book.

The programs have purposely been made too long for one session in order that the teacher may have some choice in selection, and that, in case all references are not accessible, enough may be secured to insure a reasonably varied program.

I would suggest that the Club purchase as many Perry pictures and Berlin photographs of classical subjects as possible and that its members cooeperate with the city library board for the purchase of such books as are essential, in case there is no school fund available for this purpose. Some high school alumnus in whose heart there is appreciation of Rome's gift to us might present a book to his Alma Mater. Another might offer some suitable magazines, properly bound.

Of a Latin Club, as of most school work, it may be said that usus est optimus magister, and especially applicable in this connection are the words of Horace: Dimidium facti, qui coepit.

Omaha, Nebraska,

June, 1916



CONTENTS

PROGRAMS

The Value of Latin Pompeii Ancient Rome The Roman Forum The Roman House Roman Slaves Roman Children Education among the Romans Some Common Professions and Trades among the Romans Roman Doctors The Roman Soldier Caesar Cicero Vergil Horace Roman Literature Some Famous Women of Ancient Rome Roman Holidays Funeral Customs and Burial Places Roman Games Some Famous Buildings of Ancient Rome Some Famous Roman Letters Some Ancient Romans of Fame A Roman Banquet Roman Roads Some Roman Gods Some Famous Temples of Ancient and Modern Rome Some Religious Customs Some Famous Pictures and Sculpture Roman Book and Libraries Ancient Myths and Legends The Ancient Myth in Modern Literature What English Owes to Greek Modern Rome Italy of To-day O Tempora! O Mores!

SELECTIONS THAT MAY BE USED FOR THE PROGRAMS

A Plea for the Classics Eugene Field On an Old Latin Text Book T. W. Higginson St. Augustine's Love of Latin Andrew Lang The Watch of the Old Gods Old and New Rome Herman Merivale The Fall of Rome Arthur Chamberlain A Christmas Hymn Alfred Dommett Roman Girl's Song Mrs. Hemans Capri Walter Taylor Field Palladium Matthew Arnold After Construing A. C. Benson A Roman Mirror Rennell Rodd The Doom of the Slothful John Addington Symonds Hector and Andromache Schiller Tr. Sir E. B. Lytton Enceladus Henry W. Longfellow Nil Admirari John G. Saxe Perdidi Diem Mrs. Sigourney Jupiter and His Children John G. Saxe The Prayer of Socrates John H. Finley By the Roman Road Anonymous A Nymph's Lament Nora Hopper Helen of Troy Nora Hopper An Etruscan Ring J. W. Mackail Orpheus With His Lute William Shakespeare A Hymn in Praise of Neptune Thomas Campion Horace's Philosophy of Life Tr. Sir Theodore Martin An Invitation to Dine Written by Horace to Vergil Tr. Sir Theodore Martin The Golden Mean. Horace Tr. Wm. Cowper To the Reader. Martial Tr. Lord Byron On Portia. Martial Tr. Lamb To Potitus. Martial Tr. John Hay What Is Given To Friends Is Not Lost. Martial To Cotilus. Martial Tr. Elton The Happy Life. Martial Tr. Sir Richard Fanshawe To a Schoolmaster. Martial Tr. John Hay Epitaph on Erotion. Martial Tr. Leigh Hunt Non Amo Te Gratitude Robert Burns A Hymn to the Lares Robert Herrick Elysium. Schiller Tr. Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton Orpheus Robert Herrick Cerberus Oliver Herford The Harpy Oliver Herford Cupid and the Bee Anacreon The Assembly of the Gods. A. Tassoni Tr. A. Werner A Model Young Lady of Antiquity Pliny the Younger Translation Alfred J. Church To Lesbia's Sparrow Catullus Translation Elton Cicero Catullus Translation Charles Lamb De Patientia Thomas a Kempis The Favorite Prayer of Mary Queen of Scots Ultime Thule Seneca Translation The Roman of Old Anonymous Ich bin Dein Malum Opus James A. Morgan Felis Amantis Res Adversae Puer ex Jersey

SONGS THAT MAY BE USED FOR THE PROGRAMS

Flevit Lepus Parvulus Carmen Vitae Longfellow Tr. Benjamin L. D'Ooge Gaudeamus Igitur Lauriger Horatius America Tr. George D. Kellogg Integer Vitae Horace Rock of Ages Toplady Tr. William Gladstone Dies Irae Thomas of Celano Ad Sanctum Spiritus Robert II, King of France Adeste Fideles De Nativitate Domini

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* * * * *

PROGRAMS

* * * * *

THE VALUE OF LATIN

"Latin is the most logically constructed of all the languages, and will help more effectually than any other study to strengthen the brain centres that must be used when any reasoning is required." —Dr. Frank Sargent Hoffman

THE LATIN LANGUAGE. Mosaics in History. Arthur Gilman. Chautauqua. Vol. ii, p. 317. Illustrated History of Ancient Literature. John D. Quackenbos. P. 305.

A SHORT STORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. Jessie A. Chase. Saint Nicholas. Vol. xxvi, p. 593.

THE VALUE OF LATIN. The Advantages which accrue from a Classical Education. Caroline R. Gaston. Education. Vol. xxiii, p. 257. The Study of Caesar. Adeline A. Knight. Education. Vol. viii, p. 188. A Plea for Culture. T.W. Higginson. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. xix, p. 29. The Nature of Culture Studies. R.M. Wenley. School Review. Vol. xiii, p. 441. The Teaching of Second Year Latin. H.W. Johnston. School Review. Vol. x, p. 72.

ESSAY. What I have gained from the Study of Latin.

THE VALUE OF LATIN AS A PREPARATION FOR THE STUDY OF MEDICINE. The Advantages that accrue from a Classical Education. Caroline R. Gaston. Education. Vol. xxiii, p. 351. The Value of Greek and Latin to the Medical Student. Victor C. Vaughan. School Review. Vol. xiv, p. 389. Latin and Greek in American Education. Francis W. Kelsey. Chap. iv.

THE PLACE OF THE HUMANITIES IN THE TRAINING OF ENGINEERS. Latin and Greek in American Education. Francis W. Kelsey. Chap. iv. The Value of the Humanistic Studies as a Preparation for the Study of Engineering. Herbert C. Sadler. School Review. Vol. xiv, p. 400.

THE VALUE OF LATIN AS A TRAINING FOR PRACTICAL LIFE. Latin and Greek in American Education. Francis W. Kelsey. Chap. iv. Bulletin of the Missouri State Normal School (1909). P. 19. The Practical Value of Humanistic Studies. Wm. Gardner Hale. School Review. Vol. xix, p. 657.

THE VALUE OF LATIN TO THE BUSINESS GIRL. Latin as a Vocational Study in the Commercial Course. Albert S. Perkins. The Classical Journal. Vol. x, p.7.

ROME'S GIFT TO US. The Indebtedness of the English Language to the Latin. Federico Garlanda. Chautauqua. Vol. xi, p. 10. A First Year Latin Book. (Introduction.) Wm. Gardner Hale.

THE VALUE OF LATIN AS A TRAINING FOR THE LAWYER. Bulletin of the Missouri State Normal School (1909). P. 17. Will Latin follow Greek out of the High School. Joseph P. Behm. Classical Weekly. Vol. vii, p. 25.

POEM.—A Plea for the Classics. EUGENE FIELD.



POMPEII

"There is nothing on the earth, or under it, like Pompeii." —W. D. Howells

POEM.—Pompeii. Poetical Works. Mrs. Sigourney. P. 270.

THE CITY OF POMPEII BEFORE THE DESTRUCTION. The Last Days of Pompeii. Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton. P. 89.

THE DESTRUCTION OF POMPEII. The Last Days of Pompeii. Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton. P. 366.

POEM.—The Earthquake. Whittier's Complete Poems. P. 487.

A LETTER FROM PLINY THE YOUNGER TO TACITUS. The Eruption of Vesuvius. Pliny the Younger. Century. Vol. lxiv, p. 642. The Eruption of Vesuvius. Translation of Pliny's letter. Readings in Ancient History. Hutton Webster. P. 248. A Doomed City. Arranged from Pliny's Letters. Chautauqua. Vol. xviii, p. 506.

VESUVIUS, DESTROYER OF CITIES. B.F. Fisher. Cosmopolitan. Vol. xxxii, p. 573. Peeps at Many Lands. Italy. John Finnemore. Chap. xiv, p. 61.

A DAY IN POMPEII AS DESCRIBED BY SHELLEY. The Prose Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Harry Buxton Forman. Vol. iv, p. 71. With Shelley in Italy. Anna B. McMahan. P. 187.

A DAY IN POMPEII AS DESCRIBED BY HOWELLS. Italian Journeys. W.D. Howells. Chap. viii.

POEM.—Pompeii. Edgar Fawcett. Cosmopolitan. Vol. xxiv, p. 182.

THE INTERIOR OF A POMPEIAN HOUSE. H.G. Huntington. Cosmopolitan. Vol. xxiv, p. 521.

A MUNICIPAL ELECTION IN A.D. 79. Littell's Living Age. Vol. ccxlii, p. 188.

RECENT EXCAVATIONS AND DISCOVERIES IN POMPEII. John L. Stoddard's Lectures. Naples. Vol. viii.

A DAY IN POMPEII AS DESCRIBED BY DICKENS. Pictures from Italy. Charles Dickens. P. 164.

PROBING POMPEII. Antonio Sogliano. Cosmopolitan. Vol. liii, p. 760.

POEM.—The Eruption of Vesuvius. Poems. Victor Hugo. P. 112.



ANCIENT ROME

"Yet wears thy Tiber's shore A mournful mien— Rome, Rome! Thou art no more As thou hast been." —Mrs. Hemans

ROLL CALL. Quotations referring to Rome from Byron's "Childe Harold" or other poems.

THE TOPOGRAPHY OF ROME. A Day in Ancient Rome. Edgar S. Shumway. P. 5. Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. W. Warde Fowler. Chap. i. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. Chap. iv. Ancient History. Hutton Webster. P. 631.

ROME: THE ETERNAL CITY. The Eternal City. Lyman Abbott. Harper's Magazine. Vol. xliv, p. 1. New Splendors of Old Rome. Dante Vaglieri. Cosmopolitan. Vol. lii, p. 440.

A WALK IN ANCIENT ROME. A Walk in Rome. Oscar Kuhns. Chautauqua. Vol. xxxiv, P. 56.

THE WATERWORKS OF ROME. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 461. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 299.

POEM.—A Roman Aqueduct. Poetical Works. Oliver Wendell Holmes. P. 326.

THE GARDENS. The Gardens of Ancient Rome and What Grew in them. St. Clair Baddely, Littell's Living Age. Vol. ccxxxix, p. 458. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, P. 475, 533.

POEM.—A Roman Garden. Florence Wilkinson. Current Literature. Vol. xliii, p. 570.

THE FOUNTAINS. Roman Fountains. E. McAuliffe. Catholic World. Vol. lxxvii, p. 209. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 464. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. Chapter xvii. The Prose Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Harry Buxton Forman. Vol. iv, p. 96. With Shelley in Italy. Anna B. McMahan. P 99. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. P. 305.

POEM.—The Fountain of Trevi. Poetical Works. Bayard Taylor. P. 91.

HAWTHORNE'S DESCRIPTION OF THE FOUNTAIN OF TREVI. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. P. 65.

POEM.—The Fountain. Poetical Works. James R. Lowell. P. 10.

A STROLL IN ROME AS DESCRIBED BY HORACE. A Day in Ancient Rome. Edgar S. Shumway. P. 51.

THE BURNING OF ROME. Tacitus. Annales. Chap. xv. Readings in Ancient History. Hutton Webster. P. 232. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 192. Illustrated History of Ancient Literature. John D. Quackenbos. P. 414. Foreign Classics in English. William Cleaver Wilkinson. Vol. iv, p. 105.

THE SKY SCRAPERS OF ROME. Rodolfo Lanciani. North American Review. Vol. clxii, p. 45.

POEM.—Nero's Incendiary Song. Poems. Victor Hugo. P. 31.

POEM.—Urbs, Roma, Vale. Littell's Living Age. J.P.M. Vol. cliv, p. 575; vol. clv, p. 447. Blackwood's Magazine. Vol. cxxxii, pp. 176, 490, 781.



THE ROMAN FORUM

"In many a heap the ground Heaves, as if Ruin in a frantic mood Had done its utmost. Here and there appears, As left to show his handiwork, not ours, An idle column, a half-buried arch, A wall of some great temple." —Rogers

THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE FORUM. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 82. A Day in Ancient Rome. Edgar S. Shumway. Pp. 21, 43. The Remains of Ancient Rome. J.H. Middleton. Vol. i, p. 231. Ancient History. Hutton Webster. P. 636.

THE ROMAN CAPITOL. Eugene Lawrence. Harper's Magazine. Vol. xliv, p. 570.

THE ROSTRA. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. Pp. 65, 117. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, P. 356.

THE MAMERTINE PRISON. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 35. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 75. A Day in Ancient Rome. Edgar S. Shumway. P. 22.

DICKENS' DESCRIPTION OF THE MAMERTINE PRISON. A Day in Ancient Rome. Edgar S. Shumway. P. 21.

RECENT EXCAVATIONS IN THE FORUM AS SEEN BY A TRAVELER. Roma Beata. Maud Howe. P. 254.

THE ROMAN FORUM AS CICERO SAW IT. Walter Dennison. The Classical Journal. Vol. iii, p. 318.

CICERO'S HOUSE NEAR THE FORUM. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. P. 249.

A ROMAN STREET SCENE. Gallus. W.A. Becker. P. 43.

POEM.—The Pillar of Trajan. Complete Poetical Works. William Wordsworth. P. 652.

NERO'S GOLDEN HOUSE. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 192. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 342. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 369. The Golden House of Nero. J.G. Winter. Classical Weekly. Vol. vii, p. 163.

THE LAPIS NIGER. Roma Beata. Maud Howe. Pp. 163, 260.

POMPEY'S THEATER. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, P. 374. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 190.

THE ROMAN FORUM AS IT APPEARS TO-DAY. Roman Holidays and Others. W.D. Howells. P. 96.

POEM.—In the Roman Forum Amelia Josephine Burr. Literary Digest. Vol. xlviii, p. 1130.



THE ROMAN HOUSE

"Here is my religion, here is my race, here are the traces of my forefathers. I cannot express the charm which I find here, and which penetrates my heart and my senses." —Cicero: Pro Domo.

THE PLAN OF THE ROMAN HOUSE. Callus. W.A. Becker. P. 237. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 357. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. Chap. vi. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William R. Inge. Chap. x.

THE HEATING AND LIGHTING OF THE HOUSE. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 457. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. Chap. vi. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. Pp. 78, 269.

THE INTERIOR OF THE HOUSE. Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. W. Warde Fowler. Chap. viii. The Interior of a Pompeian House. H.G. Huntington. Cosmopolitan. Vol. xxiv, p. 52.

HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. Gallus. W.A. Becker. P. 295. Society in Rome under the Caesars. W.R. Inge. Chap. x. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. Chap. vi. A Day in Ancient Rome. Edgar S. Shumway. P. 77.

THE PALATINE: HOME OF THE ARISTOCRACY. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara E. Clement. Vol. i, p. 324. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. Pp. 225, 249.

A HAUNTED HOUSE. C. Pliny. Epist. 7, 27, 5-11.



ROMAN SLAVES

"Is not a slave of the same stuff as you, his lord? Does he not enjoy the same sun, breathe the same air, die, even as you do? Then let your slave worship rather than dread you. Scorn not any man. The Universe is the common parent of us all." —Seneca

THE ROMAN SLAVE. Gallus. W.A. Becker. P. 200. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, P. 530. Caesar. A Sketch. James Anthony Froude. Chap. ii. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. Chap. v. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 511. Ancient History. Hutton Webster. P. 596.

THE ROMAN SLAVE AS SEEN IN LITERATURE. Vergilius. Irving Bacheller. P. 38. A Friend of Caesar. William Stearns Davis. Chap. ii, pp. 33, 44.

TREATMENT OF SLAVES. Cato: On Agriculture. Translation in Source Book of Roman History. Dana C. Munro. P. 184. Letter of Pliny the Younger. Translation in Readings in Ancient History. Hutton Webster. P. 245.

THE HOUSEHOLD SLAVE. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 513. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William R. Inge. P. 160.

SLAVES AS PHYSICIANS. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 526. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 71.

TRIMALCHIO'S COOK. Trimalchio's Dinner. Harry Thurston Peck. P. 115.

SENECA'S OPINIONS UPON SLAVERY. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 259.

DIALOGUE.—A Slave Owner and His Slaves. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 90.



ROMAN CHILDREN

"Pueri mei sunt mea ornamenta." —Cornelia

THE ROMAN CHILD. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 67.

HIS PETS AND GAMES. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 73.

HIS PLAYTHINGS. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 71. Second Latin Book. Miller and Beeson. Introduction. P. 20.

A ROMAN BOY AS DESCRIBED BY PETRONIUS. Trimalchio's Dinner. Harry Thurston Peck. P. 112.

CICERO'S SON. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. Alfred J. Church. Chap. ii.

A ROMAN BOY'S BIRTHDAY. Bertha A. Bush. Saint Nicholas. Vol. xxii, p. 38.

THE STORY OF A ROMAN BOY. Second Latin Book. Miller and Beeson. Introduction.

POEM.—A Girl's Funeral in Milan. In the Garden of Dreams. Louise Chandler Moulton. P. 39.

ROMAN CHILDREN ON THEIR WAY TO SCHOOL. Second Latin Book. Miller and Beeson. Introduction. P. 24.

POEM.—To Lesbia's Sparrow.



EDUCATION AMONG THE ROMANS

"Iam tristis nucibus puer relictis Clamoso revocatur a magistro." —Martial

ODE.—To a Schoolmaster. The Epigrams of Martial. Book x: lxii.

EDUCATION AMONG THE ROMANS. A Literary History of Rome. J. Wight Duff. P. 49. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. Chap. iv. Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. W. Warde Fowler. Chap. vi.

WAGES OF SCHOOLMASTERS IN ANCIENT ROME. R.F. Leighton. Education. Vol. iv, p. 506.

THE TROUBLES OF THE ROMAN SCHOOLMASTER. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William R. Inge. Chap. vi.

THE PUNISHMENT OF PUPILS. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. Alfred J. Church. P. 15. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 230.

CATO'S TRAINING OF HIS SON. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 525. Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. W. Warde Fowler. Chap. vi, p. 172.

A LETTER WRITTEN BY CICERO'S SON WHILE AT COLLEGE. Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. W. Warde Fowler. Chap. vi, p. 199. Masterpieces of Latin Literature. Gordon J. Laing. P. 176.

THE BOY POET SULPICIUS: A Tragedy of Roman Education. J. Raleigh Nelson. School Review. Vol. xi, p. 384.



SOME COMMON PROFESSIONS AND TRADES AMONG THE ROMANS

"Rome had her great shopping district (mainly on streets leading into the Forum), and seemingly her 'department stores'; also her class of inveterate shoppers." —Readings in Ancient History. William Stearns Davis, p. 225.

POEM.—Pan in Wall Street. Edmund Clarence Stedman. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. xix, p. 118. The Classic Myths in English Literature. Charles Mills Gayley. Chap. xv, p. 183.

HOW A WELL-TO-DO ROMAN SPENT HIS DAY. Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. W. Warde Fowler. Chap. ix. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. viii. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 308. Ancient History. Hutton Webster. P. 581.

BANKING AND MONEY LENDING. Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. W. Warde Fowler. Chap. iii, p. 80. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 306.

A ROMAN AUTHOR. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. vi. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 296.

THE BAKER. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 521. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 191.

THE FLORIST. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 273.

THE LAWYER. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. vi. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 301.

A ROMAN CRAFT SET AT NOUGHT BY PAUL. Bible. Acts, Chap. xix, v. 21 ff.

SOME BUSINESS ADVERTISEMENTS. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 263.

A BUSINESS PANIC IN ROME. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 222.

THE VEXATIONS OF CITY LIFE. C. Pliny. Epist. i, 6. Translation in Ancient Classics for English Readers. Pliny. W. Lucas Collins. Chap. x, p. 124.



ROMAN DOCTORS

"Mens sana in corpore sano." —Juvenal

THE SANITARY CONDITIONS OF ANCIENT ROME. The Italians of To-day. Rene Bazin. P. 121. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. Chap. vii. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 70.

ROMAN DOCTORS. Gallus. W.A. Becker. P. 207. Society in Rome under the Caesars. W.R. Inge. Chap. vi. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. P. 527.

REMEDIES FOR TOOTHACHE AND HYDROPHOBIA. Illustrated History of Ancient Literature. John D. Quakenbos. P. 404.

ANCIENT MICROBES. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. P. 416. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 52.

THE FAITH CURE. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. Pp. 52, 68.

BAIAE: THE HEALTH RESORT. Society in Rome under the Caesars. W.R. Inge. Chap. ix.

MEDICAL SERVICE IN THE ROMAN ARMY. Medicine in the Roman Army. Eugene Hugh Byrne. Classical Journal. Vol. v, p. 267.

THE STORY OF A ROMAN DOCTOR. Lazy Tours in Spain. Louise Chandler Moulton. P. 103.

THE PUBLIC BATHS. Society in Rome under the Caesars. W.R. Inge. P. 232. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 272.



THE ROMAN SOLDIER

"Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento; hae tibi erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem parcere subiectis, et debellare superbos." —Vergil. Aeneid, vi, 851 ff.

THE ROMAN SOLDIER. Caesar. A Sketch. James Anthony Froude. Chap. xiv.

THE SOLDIER'S ARMOR. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 567. The Genesis of Rome's Military Equipment. Eugene S. McCartney. Classical Weekly. Vol. vi, p. 74.

CAESAR'S ART OF WAR. Caesar's Art of War and of Writing. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. xliv, p. 273.

CAESAR'S CARE FOR HIS SOLDIERS. Caesar. A Sketch. James Anthony Froude. Chap. xxiv.

DEBATE. Resolved that Caesar was justified in subduing Gaul.

DIALOGUE: A Roman Man o' War's Man. Heroic Happenings. E.S. Brooks. P. 63.

THE ITALIAN SOLDIER OF TO-DAY. The Italians of To-day. Rene Bazin. P. 66.

STUDYING CAESAR ON THE AISNE. Literary Digest. Vol. l, p. 919.

POEM.—Gods of War. Literary Digest. Vol. xlix, p. 1022.



CAESAR

"The foremost man of all this world." —Shakespeare

THE BOYHOOD OF CAESAR. Great Captains. Caesar. Theodore A. Dodge. Chap. iii. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. Alfred J. Church. Chap. viii. Caesar. A Sketch. James Anthony Froude. Chap. vi.

HIS PERSONAL APPEARANCE. A History of Roman Literature. Charles Thomas Cruttwell. P. 193. Caesar. A Sketch. James Anthony Froude. Chap. viii.

THE HABITS OF THE GAULS. Great Captains. Caesar. Theodore A. Dodge. Chap. iv. Caesar. A Sketch. James Anthony Froude. Chap. xiii.

CAESAR IN GAUL. Caesar. A Sketch. James Anthony Froude. Pp. 198, 217.

CAESAR'S ARMY AND A MODERN ARMY COMPARED. Great Captains. Theodore A. Dodge. Chaps. xxiii, xlvi.

THE ANIMALS OF THE HERCYNIAN FOREST. Grace G. Begle. School Review. Vol. viii, p. 457.

CAESAR'S FAVORITE HORSE. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 362. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 84. Caesar. A Sketch. James Anthony Froude. P. 537.

OUR ENGLISH FOREFATHERS AS DESCRIBED BY CAESAR. Commentaries. Caesar. Book v, Chaps. xii-xv.

CAESAR A GUEST AT THE HOME OF CICERO. Foreign Classics in English. William Cleaver Wilkinson. Vol. iv, p. 243.

THE DEATH OF CAESAR. Julius Caesar. William Shakespeare. Act iii, scene i.

A NEW VERSION OF THE DEATH OF CAESAR. Harper's Magazine. Vol. cxv, p. 655.

POEM.—The Lads of Liege. The Present Hour. Percy Mackaye. P. 35. New York Times. Sept. 2, 1914.



CICERO

"Caesar alone excepted, no ancient Roman has been so widely, so continuously, and so intensely alive since his death, as has been Marcus Tullius Cicero." —Wilkinson

THE HOUSE WHERE CICERO WAS BORN. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. Alfred J. Church. Chap. vi.

HIS FAVORITE HOUSE. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. Alfred J. Church. P. 121.

CICERO, THE MAN. Cicero. John Lord. Chautauqua. Vol. ii, p. 563. Foreign Classics in English. William Cleaver Wilkinson. Vol. iv. Chap. vii.

CICERO, THE ORATOR. Cicero in the Senate. Harriet Waters Preston. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. lxi, p. 641.

CICERO, THE WIT. Cicero as a Wit. W.L. Collins. Chautauqua. Vol. xi, P. 377. Cicero as a Wit. Francis W. Kelsey. Classical Journal. Vol. iii, p. 3. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. Alfred J. Church. P. 197. Foreign Classics in English. William Cleaver Wilkinson, Vol. iv, p. 235. Humor Repeats Itself. Irene Nye. Classical Journal. Vol. ix, p. 154.

CICERO, THE EXILE. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 621. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. Alfred J. Church. Chap. x.

THE PROSECUTION OF ARCHIAS. Richard Wellington Husband. Classical Weekly. Vol. ix, p. 165.

A COMPARISON: CICERO AND DEMOSTHENES. Illustrated History of Ancient Literature. John D. Quackenbos. P. 286. Foreign Classics in English. William Cleaver Wilkinson. Vol. iv, p. 487.

CICERO IN MAINE. Martha Baker Dunn. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. xciii, p. 253.

DEBATE: Resolved that Cicero was justified in putting the Catilinarian conspirators to death. The conviction of Lentulus. H.C. Nutting. Classical Journal. Vol. iii, p. 186. Catiline as a Party Leader. E.S. Beesly. Fortnightly Review. Vol. i, p. 175.

THE DEATH OF CICERO. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 624.



VERGIL

"The noble sage who knew everything." —Dante

SONG.—Opening Lines of the Aeneid. An Experiment with the Opening Lines of the Aeneid. J. Raleigh Nelson. School Review. Vol. vii, p. 129. Dido. An Epic Tragedy. Miller and Nelson. P. 57.

VERGIL. Outline for the Study of Vergil's Aeneid. Maud Emma Kingsley. Education. Vol. xxiii, p. 148. Vergil. Harper and Miller. Introduction.

IN VERGIL'S ITALY. Frank Justus Miller. Chautauqua. Vol. xxxiv, p. 368.

DIDO: A Character Study. J. Raleigh Nelson. School Review. Vol. xii, p. 408. Vergil. Harper and Miller.

VERGIL'S ESTIMATE OF HIS AENEID. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, P. 636.

POEM.—The Doom of the Slothful. John Addington Symonds.

ESSAY.—Paris and Helen. Adventures among Books. Andrew Lang. P. 235, or Cosmopolitan. Vol. xviii, p. 173.

LEGENDS CONNECTED WITH VERGIL. A History of Roman Literature. Charles Thomas Cruttwell. P. 278.

VERGIL IN MAINE. Martha Baker Dunn. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. c, p. 773.

VERGIL'S INFLUENCE. On Teaching Vergil. H.H. Yeames. School Review. Vol. xx, p. 1.

A TRAVESTY ON THE TAKING OF TROY. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. P. 186. North American Review. Vol. xcvii, p. 255.

ST. PAUL'S VISIT TO VERGIL'S TOMB. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 640.

POEM.—To Vergil. Poetical Works. Alfred Tennyson. P. 511. Littell's Living Age. Vol. clv, p. 2.



HORACE

"Exegi monumentum acre perennius regalique situ pyramidum altius." —Horace. Carmina. III, xxx.

HORACE. Horace: Person and Poet. Grant Showerman. Classical Journal. Vol. vi, p. 158. A History of Roman Literature. Charles Thomas Cruttwell. P. 515.

A GLIMPSE OF HORACE'S SCHOOLDAYS. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. Alfred J. Church. P. 39. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 227.

POEM.—Capri. Walter Taylor Field.

AN INVITATION FROM HORACE TO VERGIL FOR DINNER. Foreign Classics in English. Vol. iv. William Cleaver Wilkinson. P. 183.

SOME TRANSLATIONS OF HORACE'S ODES. Blackwood's Magazine. Vol. civ, p. 150.

POEM.—The Sabine Farm. Michael Monahan. Current Literature. Vol. xlviii, p. 344.

A DIALOGUE FROM HORACE.—The Bore. Sat. i, 9. A Day in Ancient Rome. Edgar S. Shumway. P. 51. Masterpieces of Latin Literature. Gordon J. Laing. P. 295.

POEM.—I sing of myself. (Horace. Book ii, Ode xx.) Louis Untermeyer. Century Magazine. Vol. lxiv, p. 960.

POEM.—Byron's Farewell to Horace. Childe Harold. Byron. Canto iv, lxxvii.



ROMAN LITERATURE

"Haec studia adulescentiam alunt, senectutem oblectant, secundas res ornant, adversis perfugium ac solacium praebent, delectant domi, non impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum, peregrinantur, rusticantur." —Cicero. Pro Archia Poeta, vii.

ROLL CALL.—Gems of Latin Thought. Illustrated History of Ancient Literature. John D. Quackenbos. P. 425.

LATIN MOTTOES AND PROVERBS. Latin Lessons. M.L. Smith. P. 212.

THE LITERATURE OF ROME. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. v. Latin Literature. Nelson G. McCrea. Classical Weekly. Vol. v, p. 194.

CHILDREN IN ROMAN LITERATURE. Childhood in Literature and Art. Horace E. Scudder. Chap. ii, p. 6.

THE CALENDAR. How the Roman Spent his Year. William F. Allen. Lippincott's Magazine. Vol. xxxiii, p. 447. The Ancient City. Fustel De Coulanges. P. 212.

MUSIC IN ANCIENT ROME. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. v.

ROMAN FOLK-LORE. Second Latin Book. Miller and Beeson. P. 52.

ODE TO APOLLO. Complete Poetical Works. Keats. P. 7.



SOME FAMOUS WOMEN OF ANCIENT ROME

"A marked feature of the Roman character, a peculiarity which at once strikes the student of their history as compared with that of the Greeks was their great respect for the home and the mater familias." —Eugene Hecker

THE ROMAN MATRON. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. Chap. vii. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 482.

THE WOMEN OF CICERO'S TIME. Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. W. Warde Fowler. P. 150. A Friend of Caesar. William Stearns Davis. Chap. vi, p. 104.

THE WOMEN OF ULYSSES' TIME. Mischievous Philanthropy. Simon Newcomb. Forum. Vol. i, p. 348.

THE ROMAN WOMAN AS DESCRIBED BY JUVENAL. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 537. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 247.

POEM.—Venus and Vulcan. Poetical Works. John G. Saxe. P. 238.

LOLLIA PAULINA, A WOMAN OF WEALTH AND MISFORTUNE. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 104.

LIVIA, THE POLITICIAN. The Women of the Caesars. Guglielmo Ferrero. Chap. ii.

THE VESTAL VIRGINS. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 3. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 135. A Friend of Caesar. William Stearns Davis. Chap. iii, p. 37.

JULIA, AUGUSTUS' DAUGHTER. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 133. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 81. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 547. The Women of the Caesars. Guglielmo Ferrero. Chap. ii.

MARTIAL'S EPIGRAM ON PORTIA. Book i, xlii.

A CONTRAST: TARPEIA AND VIRGINIA. A Day in Ancient Rome. Edgar S. Shumway. Pp. 14, 40.

THE HISTORY OF WOMEN'S RIGHTS IN ROME. A Short History of Women's Rights. Eugene Hecker. P. 1. Some Roman Examples. Outlook. Vol. xciii, p. 490. Women and Public Affairs under the Roman Republic. Frank Frost Abbott. Scribner's Magazine. Vol. xlvi, p. 357.

POEM.—Our Yankee Girls. Complete Poems. Oliver Wendell Holmes. P. 327.

POEM.—To a Pair of Egyptian Slippers. Sir Edwin Arnold. Oxford Book of Victorian Verse. P. 499.

A ROMAN CITIZEN. Anne C.E. Allinson. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. cxii, p. 263.



ROMAN HOLIDAYS

"Januarias nobis felices multos annos!"

POEM.—January. Henry W. Longfellow. Chautauqua. Vol. xviii, p. 506.

JANUS. Chautauqua. Vol. xviii, p. 365.

NEW YEAR'S DAY IN ROME. How the Roman Spent his Year. William F. Allen. Lippincott's Magazine. Vol. xxxiii, p. 347.

CHRISTMAS HOLIDAYS IN ROME. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. Chap. iv.

A CHRISTMAS HYMN. Alfred Dommett.

THE ROMAN CARNIVAL. Pictures from Italy. Charles Dickens. P. 116.

ST. VALENTINE'S DAY IN ROME. St. Valentine's Day. Keziah Shelton. Chautauqua. Vol. xvi, p. 604.

POEM.—Pompey's Christmas. Carolyn Wells. St. Nicholas. Vol. xxvii, p. 154.

POEM.—A Roman Valentine. Emma D. Banks's Original Recitations. P. 91.

THE LIBERALIA. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 87.

THE LUPERCALIA. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara E. Clement. Vol. i, p. 48. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. Pp. 36, 161. Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities. Harry Thurston Peck. P. 979.

THE SATURNALIA. Gallus. W.A. Becker. P. 193. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. Chap. v. Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. W. Warde Fowler, Chap. x. Christmas Throughout Christendom. O.M. Spencer. Harper's Magazine. Vol. xlvi, p. 241. December and its Festivals. Pamela M. Cole. Chautauqua. Vol. xvi, p. 343.

A ROMAN TRIUMPH. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 83.

THE FLORALIA. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. P. 202. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 57. Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities. Harry Thurston Peck. P. 677.

POEM.—Holy-cross Day. Robert Browning.



FUNERAL CUSTOMS AND BURIAL PLACES

"Reddenda est terra terrae."

THE ROMAN'S BELIEF CONCERNING DEATH. Caesar. A Sketch. James Anthony Froude. Pp. 60, 530. The Ancient City. Fustel De Coulanges. Chap. i.

THE PREPARATION OF THE BODY FOR BURIAL. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 592.

ROMAN FUNERALS. The Old Romans at Home. Benson J. Lossing. Harper's Magazine. Vol. xlvi, p. 183. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara E. Clement. Vol. i, p. 67. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. P. 494. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. Chap. xii. Gallus. W.A. Becker. P. 507.

THE FUNERAL OF GALLUS. Gallus. W.A. Becker. P. 144.

THE FUNERAL OF MISENUS. The Aeneid. Vergil. Book vi, 212 ff.

THE FUNERAL OF JULIUS CAESAR. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 157. Caesar. A Sketch. James Anthony Froude. Chap xxvii.

THE CATACOMBS OF ROME. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 300. The Catacombs of Rome. Wm. Withrow. Chautauqua. Vol. ii, p. 103. Marble Faun. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Chap. iii.

POEM.—The Antique Sepulcher. Poetical Works. Mrs. Hemans. P. 235.

THE BURIAL PLACE OF AUGUSTUS. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 130. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. P. 50. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 254.

THE TOMB OF HADRIAN. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. Pp. 238, 285. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 262.

THE TOMB OF CECILIA METELLA. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 172. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 253. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. P. 342. Childe Harold. Lord Byron. Canto iv, xcix-civ.

THE TOMB OF MINICIA MARCELLA.[1] Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 279.

TOMB INSCRIPTIONS AND MEMORIAL STRUCTURES. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 387. The Old Romans at Home. Benson J. Lossing. Harper's Magazine. Vol. xlvi, p. 184.

THE BURIAL OF A YOUNG ROMAN GIRL. The Old Romans at Home. Benson J. Lossing. Harper's Magazine. Vol. xlvi, p. 183.

EPITAPH ON EROTION, six years of age. Martial.

POEM.—Tartarus. Complete Poetical Works. Oliver Wendell Holmes. P. 196.

[Footnote 1: See Pliny's Letter on Minicia Marcella, p. 109.]



ROMAN GAMES

"Ast ubi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum Admonuit, fugio campum lusumque trigonem." —Horace

ROMAN GAMES. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. Chap. vi. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. Chap. ix. Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. W. Warde Fowler. Chap. x. Roman Games. Vincenzo Fiorentino. Cosmopolitan. Vol. xxxiv, p. 269.

THE GAMES OF THE AMPHITHEATER. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chaps. iii, viii. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. Chap. ix.

COMMON SPORTS IN ANCIENT ROME. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. Chap. xxii. Gallus. W.A. Becker. Pp. 398, 500. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 546.

A DAY OF SPORT IN THE CAMPUS MARTIUS. Second Latin Book. Miller and Beeson. Introduction, p. 36.

THE CHARIOT RACE. Ben Hur. Lew Wallace. Chap. xiv, p. 368.

ANCIENT SPORTS IN ROME TO-DAY. Current Literature. Vol. xxxiii, p. 325.

THE THEATER. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. Chap. viii. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 565. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. P. 222.

"MORRA" ILLUSTRATED. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. P. 123. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. P. 675. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap viii.



SOME FAMOUS BUILDINGS OF ANCIENT ROME

"The world has nothing else like the Pantheon." —Hawthorne

THE PANTHEON. A Day in Ancient Rome. Edgar S. Shumway. P. 9. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 283. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 249. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. P. 541.

LORD BYRON'S DESCRIPTION OF THE PANTHEON. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 251. Childe Harold. Lord Byron. Canto iv, cxlvi.

THE COLISEUM. The Life of the Greeks and the Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 434 Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. Pp. 125, 158. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. Chap. ix. The Marble Faun. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Chap. xvii.

DICKENS' VISIT TO THE COLISEUM. Pictures from Italy. Charles Dickens. P. iii.

HAWTHORNE'S IMPRESSIONS OF THE ARCH OF TITUS. A Day in Ancient Rome. Edgar S. Shumway. P. 54. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 425.

THE COLISEUM, A FRAGMENT OF A ROMANCE. The Prose Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Harry Buxton Forman. Vol. iii, p. 27.



SOME FAMOUS ROMAN LETTERS

"The authors who have lived and written under an Italian sky, are reticent and shy in the foreign schoolroom. But if we transfer ourselves with them to the market and enter their families, then they grow confiding and social." —Shumway

THE WRITING AND SENDING OF LETTERS. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 287. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 530. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 541.

SOME ROMAN LETTERS FROM THE BIBLE. Bible. Acts, Chap. xxiii, 25 ff. Bible. Acts, Chap. xxvii.

A LETTER WRITTEN BY CICERO TO HIS WIFE. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. Alfred J. Church. P. 206.

A LETTER WRITTEN BY CICERO DESCRIBING HIS RETURN FROM EXILE. Foreign Classics in English. William Cleaver Wilkinson. Vol. iv, p. 238.

A LETTER FROM PLINY THE YOUNGER TO TRAJAN, "On the Christians." Illustrated History of Ancient Literature. John D. Quackenbos. P. 418. Readings in Ancient History. Hutton Webster. P. 250.

A LOVE LETTER FROM PLINY THE YOUNGER TO HIS WIFE. Foreign Classics in English. William Cleaver Wilkinson. Vol. iv, p. 287. Readings in Ancient History. Hutton Webster. P. 241.

A FAMOUS LITERARY ANTIQUE.—The Letter of Consolation written by Servius Sulpicius to Cicero upon the death of Tullia. Foreign Classics in English. William Cleaver Wilkinson. Vol. iv, p. 251.

A LETTER BY CICERO DESCRIBING CAESAR'S VISIT AT CICERO'S HOME. Foreign Classics in English. William Cleaver Wilkinson. Vol. iv, p. 244.

LETTER OF A SCHOOLBOY. Source Book of Roman History. Dana C. Munro. P. 197.



SOME ANCIENT ROMANS OF FAME

"They were a great race, not unworthy of their fame,—those ancient Romans; and Alpine flowers of moral beauty bloomed amid the Alpine snow and ice of their austere pride." —Wilkinson, p. 274

ANCIENT NICKNAMES. Ancient Nicknames. W.W. Story. Chautauqua. Vol. xi, p. 241.

A CONVERSATION BETWEEN CICERO AND ATTICUS. A Roman Holiday Twenty Centuries Ago. W.W. Story. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. xliii, p. 273.

HORATIUS, THE PATRIOT. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 16. Poetical Works. Thomas Babington Macaulay. Lays of Ancient Rome, p. 31.

CAIUS VERRES, THE GRAFTER. Caesar. A Sketch. James Anthony Froude. Chap. ix. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. Alfred J. Church. Chap. iv.

POMPEY, FORTUNE'S FAVORITE. A Friend of Caesar. William Stearns Davis. Chap. vi, p. 102. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. Alfred J. Church. Chap. ix. Great Captains: Caesar. Theodore A. Dodge. Chap. ii.

MAECENAS, THE GENTLEMAN OF LEISURE. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 161. Foreign Classics in English. William Cleaver Wilkinson. Vol. iv, p. 177.

POEM.—Perdidi Diem. Poetical Works. Mrs. Sigourney. P. 32.

CATILINE, THE CONSPIRATOR. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. Alfred J. Church. P. 135. Harper's Dictionary of Ancient Literature and Antiquities. Harry Thurston Peck. P. 296.

CATO, THE UPRIGHT. A History of Roman Literature. Charles Thomas Cruttwell. P. 95. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 525. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 97. Great Captains: Caesar. Theodore A. Dodge. Chap. xii.

PLINY THE ELDER AS DESCRIBED BY PLINY THE YOUNGER. A History of Roman Literature. Charles Thomas Cruttwell. P. 403.

PLINY THE YOUNGER AT HOME. Peeps at Many Lands. Italy. John Finnemore. Chap. iii. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. v. Foreign Classics in English. William Cleaver Wilkinson. Vol. iv, p. 279.



A ROMAN BANQUET

"None of my friends shall in his cups talk treason." —Martial

ROMAN COOKERY. The Old Romans at Home. Benson J. Lossing. Harper's Magazine. Vol. xlvi, p. 66. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. Chap. viii. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 501.

THE MEALS AND MENUS. Gallus. W.A. Becker. P. 451. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, pp. 523, 533. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. p. 501.

THE USE OF ICED WATER. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 185.

MARTIAL'S PREPARATION FOR A BANQUET. The Epigrams of Martial. Book x: xlviii.

ENTERTAINMENTS AT BANQUETS. Letter of Pliny the Younger. Translation in Readings in Ancient History. Hutton Webster. P. 247.

TO THEOPOMPUS, A HANDSOME YOUTH BECOME A COOK. The Epigrams of Martial. Book x: lxvi.

DIDO'S BANQUET. The Aeneid. Vergil. Book i, 695-756.

A BANQUET AT THE HOME OF LENTULUS. Gallus. W.A. Becker. Scene 9.

THE COST OF HIGH LIVING IN OLD ROME. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, pp. 524, 527, 535.

AT TRIMALCHIO'S DINNER. (Petronius, Satire 41.) Trimalchio's Dinner. (Translation) Harry Thurston Peck. Masterpieces of Latin Literature. Gordon J. Laing. P. 389.

THE BILL OF FARE AT A BANQUET AT WHICH CAESAR SERVED. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 533.



ROMAN ROADS

"Could the entire history of the construction of Roman military roads and highways be written, it would include romantic tales of hazard and adventure, of sacrifice and suffering, which would lend to the subject a dignity and effectiveness somewhat in keeping with their value to Rome and to the world." —Clara Erskine Clement

MILITARY ROADS. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 104. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 484. Lectures. John L. Stoddard. Vol. viii, p. 301.

THE ROMAN AS A ROAD BUILDER. The Roman Road Builders' Message to America. Archer B. Hulbert. Chautauqua. Vol. xliii, p. 133. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 282. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 341. Source Book of Roman History,. Dana C. Munro. P. 111.

MEANS OF TRAVEL. Gallus. W.A. Becker. Chap. iv. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 280. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 514.

VIA APPIA. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. Pp. 130, 264. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 282. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. Pp. 303, 343. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 486. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 106.

THE ANCIENT STREET-BULLY. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. iii.

LUXURIES ENJOYED BY THE WEALTHY TRAVELER. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 540.



SOME ROMAN GODS.

"There are in Rome more gods than citizens." —Fustel de Coulanges

POEM.—To the Gods of the Country. Helen Redeemed and Other Poems. Maurice Hewlett. P. 193.

THE PAGAN ALTARS. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 149.

THE GREATER AND LESSER GODS. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 22. The Ancient City. Fustel de Coulanges. P. 201. The Classic Myths in English Literature. Charles Mills Gayley. Chap. xvi.

POEM.—Miracles. Two Rivulets. Walt Whitman. P. 102.

DID CAESAR BELIEVE IN GODS? A Friend of Caesar. William Stearns Davis. P. 309.

POEM.—By the Roman Road.

THE GODS OF THE UNDERWORLD. Classic Myths in English Literature. Charles Mills Gayley. Chap. iv.

THE GODS OF THE WATERS. The Classic Myths in English Literature. Charles Mills Gayley. Chap. v.

POEM.—Palladium. Poems. Matthew Arnold. P. 273.

POEM.—What has become of the Gods? Poetical Works. John G. Saxe. P. 22.

HYMN TO APOLLO. Complete Poetical Works. John Keats. P. 7.



SOME FAMOUS TEMPLES OF ANCIENT AND MODERN ROME

"A vast wilderness of consecrated buildings of all shapes and fancies." —Dickens

THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE TEMPLES. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 159. Vol. ii, p. 691. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 297.

THE TEMPLE OF CONCORD. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 77. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 161. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 65. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 312.

THE TEMPLE OF CASTOR AND POLLUX. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. Pp. 80, 150. A Day in Ancient Rome. Edgar S. Shumway. P. 44.

THE TEMPLE OF VESTA. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. Pp. 75, 160. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 689. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 319. Italian Note-Books. Nathaniel Hawthorne. P. 128.

THE TEMPLE OF SATURN. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 77. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 29. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. P. 143.

POEM.—Dedication Hymn. Poems. Nathaniel P. Willis. P. 91.

ST. PETER'S. A Walk in Rome. Oscar Kuhns. Chautauqua. Vol. xxxiv, p. 57. A Night in St. Peter's. T. Adolphus Trollope. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. xl, p. 409.

HAWTHORNE'S VISIT TO ST. PETER'S. Italian Note-Books. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Pp. 64, 143.

DICKENS' IMPRESSIONS OF ROMAN CHURCHES. Pictures from Italy. Charles Dickens. P. 133.

POEM.—Jupiter and His Children. John G. Saxe.



SOME RELIGIOUS CUSTOMS

"In the house of every Greek and Roman was an altar; on this altar there had always to be a small quantity of ashes, and a few lighted coals. The fire ceased to glow upon the altar only when the entire family had perished; an extinguished hearth, an extinguished family, were synonymous expressions among the ancients." —de Coulanges

THE PAGAN RELIGION. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. i. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, Chap. i. Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. W. Warde Fowler. Chap. xi.

SOME ROMAN GODDESSES. Classic Myths in English Literature. Charles Mills Gayley. Chap. x. Vergil. Introduction. Charles Knapp.

THE PENATES. The Ancient City. Fustel De Coulanges. Chap. xvi.

THE BLESSING OF ANIMALS. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. P. 462. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. iii.

CHILDREN'S DAY IN ROME. Heroic Happenings. Elbridge S. Brooks. P. 89.

THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. P. 142. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. i.

EASTER TIME IN ROME. Anne Hollingsworth Wharton. Lippincott's Magazine. Vol. lxxix, p. 528.

A ROMAN CITIZEN. Bible. Acts, xxii, 25.

POEM.—Elysium. Poems and Ballads of Schiller. Tr. Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton. P. 369.

THE INFERNAL REGIONS. Classic Myths in English Literature. Charles Mills Gayley. P. 354. The Aeneid. Vergil. Book vi.



SOME FAMOUS PICTURES AND SCULPTURE

Vita brevis, ars longa.

HOW TO STUDY PICTURES. Charles H. Caffin. Saint Nicholas. Vol. xxxii, p. 23.

ODE.—Upon the Sight of a Beautiful Picture. Complete Poems. William Wordsworth. P. 399.

SCULPTURE IN ANCIENT ROME. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. v.

THE SCULPTURE GALLERY OF THE CAPITOL AT ROME. The Marble Faun. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Chap. i.

POEM.—The Celestial Runaway: Phaeton. Poetical Works. John G. Saxe. P. 233.

DIDO BUILDING CARTHAGE. The Aeneid. Vergil. Book i, 418-440.

BYRON'S IMPRESSION OF THE LAOCOoeN. Childe Harold. Canto iv, clx.

SHELLEY'S IMPRESSION OF THE LAOCOoeN. The Prose Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Harry Buxton Forman. Vol. iii, p. 44.

ATALANTA'S FOOT RACE. Classic Myths in English Literature. Charles Mills Gayley. P. 139. Hellenic Tales. Edmund J. Carpenter. P. 80.

POEM.—Ode on a Grecian Urn. Complete Poetical Works. John Keats. P. 134.

THE FAUN OF PRAXITELES. The Marble Faun. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Chap. i.

POEM.—A Likeness. Willa S. Cather. Literary Digest. Vol. xlviii, p. 219.



ROMAN BOOKS AND LIBRARIES

Vita sine litteris mors est.

ROMAN BOOKS. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 401. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. Pp. 182, 199. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 290.

CICERO'S LIBRARY. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 405. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 180.

PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN ROME. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. i, p. 413. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. Chap. vii. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 531.

THE BOOK MARKETS. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 183. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 529. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. vi.



ANCIENT MYTHS AND LEGENDS

"O antique fables! beautiful and bright, And joyous with the joyous youth of yore; O antique fables! for a little light Of that which shineth in you evermore, To cleanse the dimness from our weary eyes And bathe our old world with a new surprise Of golden dawn entrancing sea and shore. —James Thomson

SONG.—Hymn to the Dawn. Dido: An Epic Tragedy. Miller and Nelson. P. 61.

THE RELATION OF THE CLASSIC MYTHS TO LITERATURE. The Influence of the Classics on American Literature. Paul Shorey. Chautauqua. Vol. xliii, p. 121. Classic Myths in English Literature. C.M. Gayley. Introduction.

THE ORIGIN OF MYTHS. Classic Myths in English Literature. C.M. Gayley. P. 431.

MYTHOLOGY IN ART. Classic Myths in Modern Art. Chautauqua. Vol. xlii, p. 455.

THE MYTH OF ADMETUS AND ALCESTIS. Classic Myths in English Literature. C.M. Gayley. P. 106.

TARPEIA AND THE TARPEIAN ROCK. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. P. 118. The Marble Faun. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Chap. xiii. The Origin and Growth of the Myth about Tarpeia. Henry A. Sanders. School Review. Vol. viii, p. 323.

LAMIA. Complete Poetical Works. John Keats. P. 146.

PLAY.—Persephone. Children's Classics in Dramatic Form. Augusta Stevenson. Vol. iv.

RECITATION.—Mangled Mythology. Literary Digest. Vol. xxxix, p. 1110.



THE ANCIENT MYTH IN MODERN LITERATURE

"The debt of literature to the myth-makers of the Mediterranean has been an endless one starting at Mt. Olympus, and flowing down in fertilizing streams through all the literary ages." —James A. Harrison

ICARUS. Poetical Works. Bayard Taylor. P. 88.

ORPHEUS WITH HIS LUTE. Henry VIII. William Shakespeare. Act. iii, scene i.

IPHIGENIA AND AGAMEMNON. The Shades of Agamemnon and Iphigenia. Poems and Dialogues in Verse. Walter Savage Landor. Vol. i, p. 78.

VENUS AND VULCAN. Poetical Works. John G. Saxe. P. 238.

PANDORA. Poetical Works. Bayard Taylor. P. 203.

THE LEGEND OF ST. MARK. Poetical Works. John G. Whittier. P. 36.

ICARUS: OR THE PERIL OF THE BORROWED PLUMES. Poetical Works. John G. Saxe. P. 229.

LAODAMIA. Complete Poetical Works. William Wordsworth. P. 525.

THE LOTUS EATERS Poetical Works. Alfred Tennyson. P. 51.

THE SHEPHERD OF KING ADMETUS. Complete Poetical Works. James Russell Lowell. P. 44. Classic Myths in English Literature. C.M. Gayley. P. 131.

CERES. Bliss Carman. Literary Digest. Vol. xlv, p. 347.

PERSEPHONE. Poetical Works. Jean Ingelow. P. 181.



WHAT ENGLISH OWES TO GREEK

"We are all Greeks. Our laws, our literature, our religion, our arts, have their root in Greece."

THE INFLUENCE OF GREEK ON ENGLISH. The Iliad in Art. Eugene Parsons. Chautauqua. Vol. xvi. p. 643. The Greek in English. E.L. Miller. School Review. Vol. xiii, p. 390.

THE SOCIAL LIFE OF ANCIENT GREECE. Edward Capps. Chautauqua. Vol. xxiv, p. 290. The Life of the Greeks and Romans. Guhl and Koner. P. 183.

THE MODERN MAID OF ATHENS AND HER BROTHERS OF TO-DAY. William E. Waters. Chautauqua. Vol. xvii, p. 259.

OUR POETS' DEBT TO HOMER. English Poems on Greek Subjects. James Richard Joy. Chautauqua. Vol. xvii, p. 271.

ATHENS AS IT APPEARS TO-DAY. In and about Modern Athens. William E. Waters. Chautauqua. Vol. xvii, p. 131. Skirting the Balkan Peninsula. Robert Hichens. Century Magazine. Vol. lxiv, p. 84.

GREECE REVISITED. Martin L. D'Ooge. Nation. Vol. xcvi, p. 569.

THE INFLUENCE OF GREEK ARCHITECTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. W.H. Goodyear. Chautauqua. Vol. xvi, pp. 3, 131, 259.



MODERN ROME

"What shall I say of the modern city? Rome is yet the capital of the world." —Shelley

POEM.—The Voices of Rome. Poetical Works. Bayard Taylor. P. 202.

THE BEAUTY OF ROME. Rome. Maurice Maeterlinck. Critic. Vol. xlvi, p. 362.

SHELLEY'S IMPRESSION OF ROME. With Shelley in Italy. Anna B. McMahan. P. 70.

A FRENCHMAN'S IMPRESSION OF ROME. The Italians of To-day. Rene Bazin. P. 94.

POEM.—At Rome. Poetical Works. William Wordsworth. P. 749.

HAWTHORNE'S MOONLIGHT WALK IN ROME Italian Note-Books. Nathaniel Hawthorne. P. 173.

THE AMERICAN SCHOOL IN ROME. Howard Crosby Butler. Critic. Vol. xxiii, p. 466.

THE VATICAN. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. P. 534. The City of the Saints. Lyman Abbott. Harper's Magazine. Vol. xlv, p. 169. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. Chap. xvi.

THE PROTESTANT CEMETERY IN ROME. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 512. Roba di Roma. William W. Story. P. 509. Walks in Rome. Augustus J.C. Hare. P. 698. With Shelley in Italy. Anna B. McMahan. Pp. 228, 241. Literary Landmarks of Rome. Laurence Hutton. P. 35.

POEM.—The Grave of Keats. The Poems of Oscar Wilde. Vol. ii, p. 5.

THE TIBER. Rome of To-day and Yesterday. John Dennie. P. 7. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo Lanciani. P. 232. Following the Tiber. Lippincott's Magazine. Vol. xv, p. 30.

POEM.—Roman Antiquities. Poetical Works. William Wordsworth. P. 695.

THE EXPENSE OF LIVING IN ROME. Roma Beata. Maud Howe. Pp. 28, 250.

POEM.—February in Rome. On Viol and Flute. Edmund W. Gosse. P. 53.

POEM.—What he saw in Europe. Current Literature. Vol. xxxvi, p. 365.

POEM.—Rome Unvisited. The Poems of Oscar Wilde. Vol. i, p. 64.

POEM.—Roman Girl's Song. Poetical Works. Mrs. Hemans. P. 227.



ITALY OF TO-DAY

"No sudden goddess through the rushes glides, No eager God among the laurels hides; Jove's eagle mopes beside an empty throne, Persephone and Ades sit alone By Lethe's hollow shore." —Nora Hopper

SONNET.—On Approaching Italy. The Poems of Oscar Wilde. Vol. i, p. 59.

NAPLES. Lectures. John L. Stoddard. Naples. Vol. viii, p. 115. Peeps at Many Lands. Italy. John Finnemore. Chap. xiii.

CERTAIN THINGS IN NAPLES. Italian Journeys. W.D. Howells. P. 80.

A SCHOOL IN NAPLES. Italian Journeys. W.D. Howells. P. 139.

ITALIAN RECOLLECTIONS. More Letters of a Diplomat's Wife. Mary King Waddington. Scribner's Magazine. Vol. xxxvii, p. 204.

THE ITALIAN PEASANTRY. Roma Beata. Maud Howe. P. 34. Peeps at Many Lands. Italy. John Finnemore. Chap. xix.

A STROLL ON THE PINCIAN HILL. The Marble Faun. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Chap. xii.

HOTELS IN ITALY. Roman Holidays and Others. W.D. Howells. Chap. vi, p. 68.

A MODERN ITALIAN FARMYARD AS SEEN BY SHELLEY. The Prose Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Harry Buxton Forman. Vol. iv, p. 43.

SCHOOL LIFE IN ITALY. Glimpses of School Life in Italy. Mary Sifton Pepper. Chautauqua. Vol. xxxv, p. 550. Education in Italy. Alex Oldrini. Chautauqua. Vol. xviii, p. 413.

A NIGHT IN ITALY. Exits and Entrances. Charles Warren Stoddard. P. 41.

POEM.—In Italy. Poetical Works. Bayard Taylor. P. 130.

LIFE IN MODERN ITALY. In Italy. John H. Vincent. Chautauqua. Vol. xviii, p. 387. Life in Modern Italy. Bella H. Stillman. Chautauqua. Vol. xi, p. 6.



O TEMPORA! O MORES!

"The seeds of godlike power are in us still; Gods are we, bards, saints, heroes, if we will!" —Matthew Arnold

POEM.—The Watch of the Old Gods.

POVERTY AMONG THE ANCIENT ROMANS. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. iii. The Private Life of the Romans. H.W. Johnston. P. 305. The Ancient City. Fustel De Coulanges. P. 449.

POVERTY AMONG THE AMERICANS. The Problem of Poverty. Robert Hunter. Outlook. Vol. lxxix, p. 902. The Weary World of Human Misery. World's Work. Vol. xvi, p. 10526. How the Other Half Lives. Jacob Riis. Chap. xxii, p. 255.

THE CRAZE FOR AMUSEMENT AMONG THE ANCIENT ROMANS. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. Chap. ix. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 194.

THE CRAZE FOR AMUSEMENT AMONG THE AMERICANS. What New York spends at the Theaters. Literary Digest. Vol. xlv, p. 19.

LUXURY AND EXTRAVAGANCE IN ANCIENT ROME. Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, pp. 524, 529. Society in Rome under the Caesars. William Ralph Inge. P. 262. Readings in Ancient History. Rome and the West. William Stearns Davis. P. 305.

LUXURY AND EXTRAVAGANCE AMONG AMERICANS. Newport: The City of Luxury. Jonathan T. Lincoln. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. cii, p. 162. Housekeeping on Half-a-million a Year. Emily Harington. Everybody's. Vol. xiv, p. 497. The Passing of the Idle Rich. Frederick Townsend Martin. Chap. ii, p. 23.

POEM.—Tempora Mutantur. Poetical Works. John G. Saxe. P. 98.

* * * * *

SELECTIONS THAT MAY BE USED

FOR THE PROGRAMS

* * * * *

A PLEA FOR THE CLASSICS[1]

A Boston gentleman declares, By all the gods above, below, That our degenerate sons and heirs Must let their Greek and Latin go! Forbid, O Fate, we loud implore, A dispensation harsh as that; What! wipe away the sweets of yore; The dear "amo, amas, amat?"

The sweetest hour the student knows Is not when poring over French, Or twisted in Teutonic throes, Upon a hard collegiate bench; 'Tis when on roots and kais and gars He feeds his soul and feels it glow, Or when his mind transcends the stars With "Zoa mou, sas agapo!"

So give our bright, ambitious boys An inkling of these pleasures, too— A little smattering of the joys Their dead and buried fathers knew; And let them sing—while glorying that Their sires so sang, long years ago— The songs "amo, amas, amat" And "Zoa mou, sas agapo!"

—Eugene Field

[Footnote in original book (published 1916): Copyright. Used by permission of Charles Scribner's Sons.]

ON AN OLD LATIN TEXT BOOK

I remember the very day when the schoolmaster gave it to me.... And I remember that the rather stern and aquiline face of our teacher relaxed into mildness for a moment. Both we and our books must have looked very fresh and new to him, though we may all be a little battered now; at least, my New Latin Tutor is. It is a very precious book, and it should be robed in choice Turkey morocco, were not the very covers too much a part of the association to be changed. For between them I gathered the seed-grain of many harvests of delight; through this low archway I first looked upon the immeasurable beauty of words....

What liquid words were these: aqua, aura, unda! All English poetry that I had yet learned by heart—it is only children who learn by heart, grown people "commit to memory"—had not so awakened the vision of what literature might mean. Thenceforth all life became ideal....

Then human passion, tender, faithful, immortal, came also by and beckoned. "But let me die," she said. "Thus, thus it delights me to go under the shades." Or that infinite tenderness, the stronger even for its opening moderation of utterance, the last sigh of Aeneas after Dido,—

Nec me meminisse pigebit Elissam Dum memor ipse mihi, dum spiritus hos regit artus....

Or, with more definite and sublime grandeur, the vast forms of Roman statesmanship appear: "Today, Romans, you behold the commonwealth, the lives of you all, estates, fortunes, wives and children, and the seat of this most renowned empire, this most fortunate and beautiful city, preserved and restored to you by the distinguished love of the immortal gods, and by my toils, counsels, and dangers."

What great thoughts were found within these pages, what a Roman vigor was in these maxims! "It is Roman to do and suffer bravely." "It is sweet and glorious to die for one's country." "He that gives himself up to pleasure, is not worthy the name of a man."...

There was nothing harsh or stern in this book, no cynicism, no indifference; but it was a flower-garden of lovely out-door allusions, a gallery of great deeds; and as I have said before, it formed the child's first real glimpse into the kingdom of words.

I was once asked by a doctor of divinity, who was also the overseer of a college, whether I ever knew any one to look back with pleasure upon his early studies in Latin and Greek. It was like being asked if one looked back with pleasure on summer mornings and evenings. No doubt those languages, like all others, have fared hard at the hands of pedants; and there are active boys who hate all study, and others who love the natural sciences alone. Indeed, it is a hasty assumption, that the majority of boys hate Latin and Greek. I find that most college graduates, at least, retain some relish for the memory of such studies, even if they have utterly lost the power to masticate or digest them. "Though they speak no Greek, they love the sound on't." Many a respectable citizen still loves to look at his Horace or Virgil on the shelf where it has stood undisturbed for a dozen years; he looks, and thinks that he too lived in Arcadia.... The books link him with culture, and universities, and the traditions of great scholars.

On some stormy Sunday, he thinks, he will take them down. At length he tries it; he handles the volume awkwardly, as he does his infant; but it is something to be able to say that neither book nor baby has been actually dropped. He likes to know that there is a tie between him and each of these possessions, though he is willing, it must be owned, to leave the daily care of each in more familiar hands....

I must honestly say that much of the modern outcry against classical studies seems to me to be (as in the case of good Dr. Jacob Bigelow) a frank hostility to literature itself, as the supposed rival of science; or a willingness (as in Professor Atkinson's case) to tolerate modern literature, while discouraging the study of the ancient. Both seem to commit the error of drawing their examples of abuse from England, and applying their warnings to America.... Because the House of Commons was once said to care more for a false quantity in Latin verse than in English morals, shall we visit equal indignation on a House of Representatives that had to send for a classical dictionary to find out who Thersites was?...

Granted, that foreign systems of education may err by insisting on the arts of literary structure too much; think what we should lose by dwelling on them too little! The magic of mere words; the mission of language; the worth of form as well as of matter; the power to make a common thought immortal in a phrase, so that your fancy can no more detach the one from the other than it can separate the soul and body of a child; it was the veiled half revelation of these things that made that old text-book forever fragrant to me. There are in it the still visible traces of wild flowers which I used to press between the pages, on the way to school; but it was the pressed flowers of Latin poetry that were embalmed there first. These are blossoms that do not fade.

—Thomas Wentworth Higginson

SAINT AUGUSTINE'S LOVE OF LATIN

Andrew Lang, in his Adventures Among Books, writes:

"Saint Augustine, like Sir Walter Scott at the University of Edinburgh, was 'The Greek Dunce.' Both of these great men, to their sorrow and loss, absolutely and totally declined to learn Greek. 'But what the reason was why I hated the Greek language, while I was taught it, being a child, I do not yet understand.' The Saint was far from being alone in that distaste, and he who writes loathed Greek like poison—till he came to Homer. Latin the Saint loved, except 'when reading, writing, and casting of accounts was taught in Latin, which I held not far less painful or penal than the very Greek. I wept for Dido's death, who made herself away with the sword,' he declares, 'and even so, the saying that two and two makes four was an ungrateful song in mine ears, whereas the wooden horse full of armed men, the burning of Troy, and the very Ghost of Creusa, was a most delightful spectacle of vanity.'"

THE WATCH OF THE OLD GODS

Were the old gods watching yet, From their cloudy summits afar, At evening under the evening star, After the star is set, Would they see in these thronging streets, Where the life of the city beats With endless rush and strain, Men of a better mold, Nobler in heart and brain, Than the men of three thousand years ago, In the pagan cities old, O'er which the lichens and ivy grow?

Would they not see as they saw In the younger days of the race, The dark results of broken law, In the bent form and brutal face Of the slave of passions as old as earth, And young as the infants of last night's birth? Alas! the old gods no longer keep Their watch from the cloudy steep; But, though all on Olympus lie dead Yet the smoke of commerce still rolls From the sacrifice of souls, To the heaven that bends overhead.

OLD AND NEW ROME

Still, as we saunter down the crowded street, On our own thoughts intent, and plans and pleasures, For miles and miles beneath our idle feet, Rome buries from the day yet unknown treasures.

The whole world's alphabet, in every line Some stirring page of history she recalls,— Her Alpha is the Prison Mamertine, Her Omega, St. Paul's, without the walls.

Above, beneath, around, she weaves her spells, And ruder hands unweave them all in vain: Who once within her fascination dwells, Leaves her with but one thought—to come again.

So cast thy obol into Trevi's fountain— Drink of its waters, and, returning home, Pray that by land or sea, by lake or mountain, "All roads alike may lead at last to Rome."

—Herman Merivale

THE FALL OF ROME

Rome ruled in all her matchless pride, Queen of the world, an empire-state; Her eagles conquered far and wide; Her word was law, her will was fate.

Within her immemorial walls The temples of the gods looked down; Her forum echoed with the calls To greater conquest and renown.

All wealth, all splendor, and all might The world could give, before her lay; She dreamed not there could come a night To dim the glory of her day.

Rome perished: Legions could not save, Nor wealth, nor might, nor majesty,— The Roman had become a slave, But the barbarian was free.

—Arthur Chamberlain

A CHRISTMAS HYMN

It was the calm and silent night! Seven hundred years and fifty-three Had Rome been growing up to might, And now was queen of land and sea. No sound was heard of clashing wars— Peace brooded o'er the hushed domain: Apollo, Pallas, Jove and Mars Held undisturbed their ancient reign, In the solemn midnight, Centuries ago.

'Twas in the calm and silent night! The senator of haughty Rome Impatient, urged his chariot's flight, From lordly revel rolling home: Triumphal arches, gleaming, swell His breast with thoughts of boundless sway: What recked the Roman what befell A paltry province far away, In the solemn midnight, Centuries ago?

Within that province far away Went plodding home a weary boor; A streak of light before him lay, Falling through a half shut stable-door Across his path. He passed—for naught Told what was going on within: How keen the stars, his only thought— The air how calm, and cold and thin In the solemn midnight, Centuries ago!

Oh, strange indifference! low and high Drowsed over common joys and cares; The earth was still—but knew not why, The world was listening, unawares. How calm a moment may precede One that shall thrill the world forever! To that still moment, none would heed, Man's doom was linked no more to sever— In the solemn midnight, Centuries ago!

It is the calm and silent night! A thousand bells ring out, and throw Their joyous peals abroad, and smite The darkness—charmed and holy now! The night that erst no name had worn, To it a happy name is given; For in that stable lay, new-born, The peaceful prince of earth and heaven, In the solemn midnight, Centuries ago!

—Alfred Dommett

ROMAN GIRL'S SONG

Rome, Rome! thou art no more As thou hast been! On thy seven hills of yore Thou satt'st a queen.

Thou hadst thy triumphs then Purpling the street, Leaders and sceptred men Bow'd at thy feet.

They that thy mantle wore, As gods were seen— Rome, Rome! thou art no more As thou hast been!

Rome! thine imperial brow Never shall rise: What hast thou left thee now?— Thou hast thy skies!

Blue, deeply blue, they are, Gloriously bright! Veiling thy wastes afar, With color'd light.

Thou hast the sunset's glow, Rome, for thy dower, Flushing tall cypress bough, Temple and tower!

And all sweet sounds are thine, Lovely to hear, While night, o'er tomb and shrine Rests darkly clear.

Many a solemn hymn, By starlight sung, Sweeps through the arches dim, Thy wrecks among.

Many a flute's low swell, On thy soft air Lingers, and loves to dwell With summer there.

Thou hast the south's rich gift Of sudden song— A charmed fountain, swift, Joyous and strong.

Thou hast fair forms that move With queenly tread; Thou hast proud fanes above Thy mighty dead.

Yet wears thy Tiber's shore A mournful mien: Rome, Rome! Thou art no more As thou hast been!

—Mrs. Hemans

CAPRI

Rising from the purpling water With her brow of stone, Sprite or nymph or Triton's daughter, Rising from the purpling water, Capri sits alone—

Sits and looks across the billow Now the day is done Resting on her rocky pillow Sits and looks across the billow Toward the setting sun.

Misty visions trooping sadly Glimmer through her tears, Shapes of men contending madly,— Misty visions trooping sadly From the vanished years.

Here Tiberius from his palace On the headland gray Hurls his foes with gleeful malice, Proud Tiberius at his palace Murd'ring men for play.

There Lamarque's recruits advancing Scale yon rocky spot, 'Neath the moon their bright steel glancing, See Lamarque's recruits advancing Through a storm of shot.

But today the goat bells' tinkle And the vespers chime, Vineyards shade each rock-hewn wrinkle, And today the goat bells' tinkle Marks a happier time.

Soft the olive groves are gleaming, War has found surcease, And as Capri sits a-dreaming Soft the olive groves are gleaming, Crowning her with peace.

—Walter Taylor Field

PALLADIUM

Set where the upper streams of Simois flow Was the Palladium, high 'mid rock and wood; And Hector was in Ilium, far below, And fought, and saw it not—but there it stood!

It stood, and sun and moonshine rain'd their light On the pure columns of its glen-built hall. Backward and forward rolled the waves of fight Round Troy,—but while this stood, Troy could not fall.

So, in its lovely moonlight, lives the soul. Mountains surround it, and sweet virgin air; Cold plashing, past it, crystal waters roll; We visit it by moments, ah, too rare!

Men will renew the battle in the plain Tomorrow; red with blood will Xanthus be; Hector and Ajax will be there again, Helen will come upon the wall to see.

Then we shall rust in shade, or shine in strife, And fluctuate 'twixt blind hopes and blind despairs, And fancy that we put forth all our life, And never know how with the soul it fares.

Still doth the soul, from its lone fastness high, Upon our life a ruling effluence send; And when it fails, fight as we will, we die, And while it lasts, we cannot wholly end.

—Matthew Arnold

AFTER CONSTRUING

Lord Caesar, when you sternly wrote The story of your grim campaigns And watched the ragged smoke-wreath float Above the burning plains,

Amid the impenetrable wood, Amid the camp's incessant hum At eve, beside the tumbling flood, In high Avaricum,

You little recked, imperious head, When shrilled your shattering trumpets' noise, Your frigid sections would be read By bright-eyed English boys.

Ah me! Who penetrates today The secret of your deep designs? Your sovereign visions, as you lay Amid the sleeping lines?

The Mantuan singer pleading stands; From century to century He leans and reaches wistful hands, And cannot bear to die.

But you are silent, secret, proud, No smile upon your haggard face, As when you eyed the murderous crowd Beside the statue's base.

I marvel: That Titanic heart Beats strongly through the arid page, And we, self-conscious sons of art, In this bewildering age,

Like dizzy revellers stumbling out Upon the pure and peaceful night, Are sobered into troubled doubt, As swims across our sight,

The ray of that sequestered sun, Far in the illimitable blue,— The dream of all you left undone, Of all you dared to do.

—Arthur Christoher Benson

A ROMAN MIRROR

They found it in her hollow marble bed, There where the numberless dead cities sleep, They found it lying where the spade struck deep A broken mirror by a maiden dead.

These things—the beads she wore about her throat, Alternate blue and amber, all untied, A lamp to light her way, and on one side The toll men pay to that strange ferry-boat.

No trace today of what in her was fair! Only the record of long years grown green Upon the mirror's lustreless dead sheen, Grown dim at last, when all else withered there

Dead, broken, lustreless! It keeps for me One picture of that immemorial land, For oft as I have held thee in my hand The chill bronze brightens, and I dream to see

A fair face gazing in thee wondering wise And o'er one marble shoulder all the while Strange lips that whisper till her own lips smile And all the mirror laughs about her eyes.

It was well thought to set thee there, so she Might smooth the windy ripples of her hair And knot their tangled waywardness or ere She stood before the queen Persephone.

And still it may be where the dead folk rest She holds a shadowy mirror to her eyes, And looks upon the changelessness, and sighs And sets the dead land lilies in her hand.

—Rennell Rodd

THE DOOM OF THE SLOTHFUL

When through the dolorous city of damned souls The Florentine with Vergil took his way, A dismal marsh they passed, whose fetid shoals Held sinners by the myriad. Swollen and grey, Like worms that fester in the foul decay Of sweltering carrion, these bad spirits sank Chin-deep in stagnant slime and ooze that stank.

Year after year forever—year by year, Through billions of the centuries that lie Like specks of dust upon the dateless sphere Of heaven's eternity, they cankering sigh Between the black waves and the starless sky; And daily dying have no hope to gain By death or change or respite of their pain.

What was their crime, you ask? Nay, listen: "We Were sullen—sad what time we drank the light, And delicate air, that all day daintily Is cheered by sunshine; for we bore black night And murky smoke of sloth, in God's despite, Within our barren souls, by discontent From joy of all fair things and wholesome pent:

Therefore in this low Hell from jocund sight And sound He bans us; and as there we grew Pallid with idleness, so here a blight Perpetual rots with slow-corroding dew Our poisonous carcase, and a livid hue Corpse-like o'erspreads these sodden limbs that take And yield corruption to the loathly lake."

—John Addington Symonds

HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE

Andromache

Will Hector leave me for the fatal plain, Where, fierce with vengeance for Patroclus slain, Stalks Peleus' ruthless son? Who, when thou glid'st amid the dark abodes, To hurl the spear and to revere the gods, Shall teach thine Orphan One?

Hector

Woman and wife beloved—cease thy tears; My soul is nerved—the war-clang in my ears! Be mine in life to stand Troy's bulwark!—fighting for our hearths, to go In death, exulting to the streams below, Slain for my father-land!

Andromache

No more I hear thy martial footsteps fall— Thine arms shall hang, dull trophies, on the wall— Fallen the stem of Troy! Thou go'st where slow Cocytus wanders—where Love sinks in Lethe, and the sunless air Is dark to light and joy!

Hector

Longing and thought—yea, all I feel and think May in the silent sloth of Lethe sink, But my love not! Hark, the wild swarm is at the walls! I hear! Gird on my sword—Belov'd one, dry the tear— Lethe for love is not!

—Schiller

ENCELADUS

Under Mount Etna he lies, It is slumber, it is not death; For he struggles at times to arise, And above him the lurid skies Are hot with his fiery breath.

The crags are piled on his breast, The earth is heaped on his head; But the groans of his wild unrest, Though smothered and half suppressed, Are heard, and he is not dead.

And the nations far away Are watching with eager eyes; They talk together and say, "Tomorrow, perhaps today, Enceladus will arise!"

And the old gods, the austere Oppressors in their strength, Stand aghast and white with fear At the ominous sounds they hear, And tremble, and mutter, "At length!"

Ah me! for the land that is sown With the harvest of despair! Where the burning cinders, blown From the lips of the overthrown Enceladus, fill the air.

Where ashes are heaped in drifts Over vineyard and field and town, Whenever he starts and lifts His head through the blackened rifts Of the crags that keep him down.

See, see! the red light shines! 'Tis the glare of his awful eyes! And the storm-wind shouts through the pines, Of Alps and of Apennines, "Enceladus, arise!"

—Henry W. Longfellow

NIL ADMIRARI

When Horace in Venusian groves Was scribbling wit or sipping "Massic," Or singing those delicious loves Which after ages reckon classic, He wrote one day—'twas no vagary— These famous words:—Nil admirari!

"Wonder at nothing!" said the bard; A kingdom's fall, a nation's rising, A lucky or a losing card, Are really not at all surprising; However men or manners vary, Keep cool and calm: Nil admirari!

If kindness meet a cold return; If friendship prove a dear delusion; If love, neglected, cease to burn, Or die untimely of profusion,— Such lessons well may make us wary, But needn't shock: Nil admirari!

Ah! when the happy day we reach When promisers are ne'er deceivers; When parsons practice what they preach, And seeming saints are all believers, Then the old maxim you may vary, And say no more, Nil admirari!

—John G. Saxe

PERDIDI DIEM

The Emperor Titus, at the close of a day in which he had neither gained any knowledge nor conferred benefit, was accustomed to exclaim, "Perdidi diem," "I have lost a day."

Why art thou sad, thou of the sceptred hand? The rob'd in purple, and the high in state? Rome pours her myriads forth, a vassal band, And foreign powers are crouching at thy gate; Yet dost thou deeply sigh, as if oppressed by fate.

"Perdidi diem!"—Pour the empire's treasure, Uncounted gold, and gems of rainbow dye; Unlock the fountains of a monarch's pleasure To lure the lost one back. I heard a sigh— One hour of parted time, a world is poor to buy.

"Perdidi diem!"—'Tis a mournful story, Thus in the ear of pensive eve to tell, Of morning's firm resolves, the vanish'd glory, Hope's honey left within the withering bell And plants of mercy dead, that might have bloomed so well.

Hail, self-communing Emperor, nobly wise! There are, who thoughtless haste to life's last goal. There are, who time's long squandered wealth despise. Perdidi vitam marks their finished scroll, When Death's dark angel comes to claim the startled soul.

—Mrs. Sigourney

JUPITER AND HIS CHILDREN

A Classic Fable

Once, on sublime Olympus, when Great Jove, the sire of gods and men, Was looking down on this our Earth, And marking the increasing dearth Of pious deeds and noble lives, While vice abounds and meanness thrives,— He straight determined to efface At one fell swoop the thankless race Of human kind. "Go!" said the King Unto his messenger, "and bring The vengeful Furies; be it theirs, Unmindful of their tears and prayers, These wretches,—hateful from their birth,— To wipe from off the face of earth!" The message heard, with torch of flame And reeking sword, Alecto came, And by the beard of Pluto swore The human race should be no more! But Jove, relenting thus to see The direst of the murderous three, And hear her menace, bade her go Back to the murky realms below. "Be mine the cruel task!" he said, And, at a word, a bolt he sped, Which, falling in a desert place, Left all unhurt the human race! Grown bold and bolder, wicked men Wax worse and worse, until again The stench to high Olympus came, And all the gods began to blame The monarch's weak indulgence,—they Would crush the knaves without delay! At this, the ruler of the air Proceeds a tempest to prepare, Which, dark and dire, he swiftly hurled In raging fury on the world! But not where human beings dwell (So Jove provides) the tempest fell. And still the sin and wickedness Of men grew more, instead of less: Whereat the gods declare, at length, For thunder bolts of greater strength Which Vulcan soon, at Jove's command, Wrought in his forge with dexterous hand. Now from the smithy's glowing flame Two different sorts of weapons came: To hit the mark was one designed; As sure to miss, the other kind. The second sort the Thunderer threw, Which not a human being slew; But roaring loudly, hurtled wide On forest-top and mountain-side!

MORAL

What means this ancient tale? That Jove In wrath still felt a parent's love: Whatever crimes he may have done, The father yearns to spare the son.

—John G. Saxe

THE PRAYER OF SOCRATES

Socrates

Ere we leave this friendly sky, And cool Ilyssus flowing by, Change the shrill cicala's song For the clamor of the throng, Let us make a parting prayer To the gods of earth and air.

Phaedrus

My wish, O Friend, accords with thine, Say thou the prayer, it shall be mine.

Socrates

This then, I ask, O thou beloved Pan, And all ye other gods: Help, as ye can, That I may prosper in the inner man;

Grant ye that what I have or yet may win Of those the outer things may be akin And constantly at peace within;

May I regard the wise the rich, and care Myself for no more gold, as my earth-share, Than he who's of an honest heart can bear.

—John H. Finley

BY THE ROMAN ROAD

"Poetry and paganism do not mix very well nowadays. The Hellenism of our versifiers is, as a rule, not Greek; it is derived partly from Swinburne and partly from Pater. But now and then there comes a poet who has real appreciation of the beauty of classic days; who can express sincerely and vividly the haunting charm of Greek or Roman culture. Such an one is the anonymous writer of these lines, which appeared in the London Punch."

The wind it sang in the pine-tops, it sang like a humming harp; The smell of the sun on the bracken was wonderful sweet and sharp. As sharp as the piney needles, as sweet as the gods were good, For the wind it sung of the old gods, as I came through the wood! It sung how long ago the Romans made a road, And the gods came up from Italy and found them an abode.

It sang of the wayside altars (the pine-tops sighed like the surf), Of little shrines uplifted, of stone and scented turf, Of youths divine and immortal, of maids as white as the snow That glimmered among the thickets a mort of years ago! All in the cool of dawn, all in the twilight gray, The gods came up from Italy along the Roman way.

The altar smoke it has drifted and faded afar on the hill; No wood-nymphs haunt the hollows; the reedy pipes are still; No more the youth Apollo shall walk in his sunshine clear; No more the maid Diana shall follow the fallow-deer (The woodmen grew so wise, the woodmen grew so old, The gods went back to Italy—or so the story's told!).

But the woods are full of voices and of shy and secret things The badger down by the brook-side, the flick of a woodcock's wings, The plump of a falling fir-cone, the pop of the sunripe pods, And the wind that sings in the pine-tops the song of the ancient gods— The song of the wind that says the Romans made a road, And the gods came up from Italy and found them an abode!

A NYMPH'S LAMENT

O Sister Nymphs, how shall we dance or sing Remembering What was and is not? How sing any more Now Aphrodite's rosy reign is o'er? For on the forest-floor Our feet fall wearily the summer long, The whole year long: No sudden goddess through the rushes glides, No eager God among the laurels hides; Jove's eagle mopes beside an empty throne, Persephone and Ades sit alone, By Lethe's hollow shore. And hear not any more Echoed from poplar-tree to poplar-tree, The voice of Orpheus making sweetest moan For lost Eurydice. The Fates walk all alone In empty kingdoms, where is none to fear Shaking of any spear. Even the ghosts are gone From lightless fields of mint and euphrasy: There sings no wind in any willow-tree, And shadowy flute-girls wander listlessly Down to the shore where Charon's empty boat, As shadowed swan doth float, Rides all as listlessly, with none to steer. A shrunken stream is Lethe's water wan Unsought of any man: Grass Ceres sowed by alien hands is mown, And now she seeks Persephone alone. The gods have all gone up Olympus' hill, And all the songs are still Of grieving Dryads, left To wail about our woodland ways, bereft, The endless summertide. Queen Venus draws aside And passes, sighing, up Olympus' hill. And silence holds her Cyprian bowers, and claims Her flowers, and quenches all her altar-flames, And strikes dumb in their throats Her doves' complaining notes: And sorrow Sits crowned upon her seat: nor any morrow Hears the Loves laughing round her golden chair. (Alas, thy golden seat, thine empty seat!) Nor any evening sees beneath her feet The daisy rosier flush, the maidenhair And scentless crocus borrow From rose and hyacinth their savour sweet. Without thee is no sweetness in the morn, The morn that was fulfilled of mystery, It lies like a void shell, desiring thee, O daughter of the water and the dawn, Anadyomene! There is no gold upon the bearded corn, No blossom on the thorn; And in wet brakes the Oreads hide, forlorn Of every grace once theirs: no Faun will follow By herne or hollow Their feet in the windy morn.

Let us all cry together "Cytherea!" Lock hands and cry together: it may be That she will heed and hear And come from the waste places of the sea, Leaving old Proteus all discomforted, To cast down from his head Its crown of nameless jewels, to be hurled In ruins, with the ruined royalty Of an old world. The Nereids seek thee in the salt sea-reaches, Seek thee; and seek, and seek, and never find: Canst thou not hear their calling on the wind? We nymphs go wandering under pines and beeches, And far—and far behind We hear Paris' piping blown After us, calling thee and making moan (For all the leaves that have no strength to cry, The young leaves and the dry), Desiring thee to bless these woods again, Making most heavy moan For withered myrtle-flowers, For all thy Paphian bowers Empty and sad beneath a setting sun; For dear days done!

The Naiads splash in the blue forest-pools— "Idalia—Idalia!" they cry. "On Ida's hill, With flutings faint and shrill,— On Ida's hill the shepherds vainly try Their songs, and coldly stand their damsels by, Whatever tunes they try; For beauty is not, and Love may not be, On land or sea— Oh, not in earth or heaven, on land or sea, While darkness holdeth thee." The Naiads weep beside their forest-pools, And from the oaks a hundred voices call, "Come back to us, O thou desired of all! Elsewhere the air is sultry: here it cools And full it is of pine scents: here is still The world-pain that has driven from Ida's hill Thine unreturning feet.

Alas! the days so fleet that were, and sweet, When kind thou wert, and dear, And all the loves dwelt here! Alas! thy giftless hands, thy wandering feet! Oh, here for Pithys' sake the air is sweet And here snow falls not, neither burns the sun Nor any winds make moan for dear days done. Come, then: the woods are emptied all of glee, And all the world is sad, desiring thee!"

—Nora Hopper

HELEN OF TROY

I am that Helen, that very Helen Of Leda, born in the days of old: Men's hearts as inns that I might dwell in: Houseless I wander to-night, and cold.

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