A Journey to America in 1834
by Robert Heywood
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One hundred copies printed for the Editor by J. B. Peace, M.A. at the University Press Cambridge. October, 1919.


(The numbers indicate pages in the Journal)

Bolton (1).

Liverpool to New York, by packet "Britannia." May 1-June 8 (1-23).

New York (23-26).

New York, by steamer and stage via Princeton and Trenton to Philadelphia (26-30).

Philadelphia, by stage via Frankford and Schuylkill and steamer to Baltimore (30-34).

Baltimore to Washington (34-36).

Washington, by stage via Alexandria and Mount Vernon back to Washington (36-37)

Washington, by R. Potomac to Fredericksburg, then stage via Orange Court, Charlottesville, Brookville, over Blue Ridge Mountains to Staunton. Jenning's Gap, Charrodale, Warm Springs, Hot Springs, Sulphur Springs, Lewisburg, Kamley, Deak, Hawk's Nest, R. Kanawha, Charleston to Guyandotte, thence by steamer down R. Ohio to Maysville (38-44).

Maysville, via Hillsburgh, Paris to Lexington (44-45).

Lexington, by stage via Frankford to Louisville (45-47).

Louisville, by steamer up R. Ohio to Cincinnati (47-48).

Cincinnati, by stage via Reading, Lebanon, Wainville and Springfield to Columbus (48-49).

Columbus, by stage via Zanesville, Cambridge to Wheeling (49-50).

Wheeling, by steamer up R. Ohio to Steubenville, thence by stage via Paris and Florence to Pittsburg (51-52).

Pittsburg, by stage via Butler, Meadville and Waterford to Erie (52-53).

Erie, by steamer on lake, via Portland, Dunkirk and Silver Creek to Buffalo (53-54).

Buffalo to Falls of Niagara (54-56).

Niagara, by steamer on lake via York, Toronto, Port Hope, Cobourg, Kingston, Brockville, and Prescot to Montreal (56-59).

Montreal, by steamer on R. St. Lawrence via Cornwall, and Three Rivers to Quebec (60).

At Quebec, Beauport Lake and Montmorency Falls, and back to Montreal (60-62).

Montreal, by steamer via La Prairie, St. John's, Plattsburg (on Lake Champlain) to Ticonderoga (62-64).

Ticonderoga, via Lake St. George to Caldwell (64).

Caldwell, by stage via Glen Falls, Saratoga, Ballston and Schenectady to Albany (64-66).

Albany, by stage via Stockbridge, Seddon, Beckett, Springfield and Worcester to Boston (66-68).

Boston, via Cambridge to Lowell and back to Boston (69-70).

Boston, by stage via Nahant, Pawtucket and Providence to Newport (70-75).

Newport, by steamer to New York (75-76).

New York, by stage to Rockaway and Jamaica and back to New York (76-78).

New York, by stage via Catskill Mountains, Cairo, Hobart, Morrisville, Bloomville to Delhi, Green, Bainbridge to Binghampton, Montrose, Pike, Orrell, Towanda, Berwick, Sugar Mountain, Cherrytown, Columbus, Northumberland, Pottsville, Tuscarora, Tamaqua, Mauch Chunk, Lehigh Gap, Easton to Philadelphia (78-92).

Philadelphia, by steamer to Trenton, thence to Laurenceville and New York (92-94).

New York, by steamer up R. Hudson via West Point on right bank, by Poughkeepsie on left bank and back to New York (95-99).

Sailed from New York to Liverpool in packet "Hibernia," Sept. 16 (99).

Reached Liverpool, October 9 (109) and Bolton (110).



The Britannia, 125 feet long. Number of persons on board: 27 engaged on the vessel, including the Captain, two mates, two cooks, two stewards and a carpenter, with nine passengers, making, with 152 steerage passengers, a total of 188.

The Captain, Wm. Sketchley, an experienced seaman having crossed the Atlantic 132 times—very attentive to the wants of the steerage.

List of passengers:

Mr. Bassnett from Preston, has been a good deal in Canada, also in the West Indies and Holy Land.

Mr. Hamilton, a clergyman of the Irish Epis., decrepit easy Christian.

Mr. Grindrod, a Methodist preacher going to Kingston as a president from England, possessing more activity and apparent piety.

Captain Kenney, an officer on half-pay, had seen a good deal of high life.

Mr. Cayley, a good-looking but rather coxcomical young man, he and his parents had resided at St. Petersburg.

Mr. Webster, a native of the West Indies and had resided there several years, his father more than 30 years, now resided at Cheltenham.

Mr. Seaton, an American, had crossed the Atlantic several times and also been in the West Indies.

Mr. Jackson, of Barnsley, rather deaf, but seemed to have more money than wit; he and his two brothers carry on an extensive manufactory of linen and woollen business.

* * * * *

The Hibernia, 108 feet long.

The Captain, James L. Wilson, of New York, a jolly sort of fellow with more navigation than religion.

List of passengers:

Mr. Street, formerly of Boston, now New York, dealer in dry goods, chiefly Manchester where he had resided three years; a pleasant sensible man, rather touchy.

Mr. Williams, of New York, a rattling talking fellow, not much excepting having got some dollars, now setting off to make a tour through Europe for the benefit of his health; talks of soon learning French and singing; another John Jones.

Mr. D. Holzknecht, of Trieste, a good-natured sort of person; his father bound for his return to Italy.

Mr. Frankland, of Liverpool, a lively intelligent Quaker; been two or three times to Italy, partly pleasure and partly business; left in November and had been to New Orleans and Quebec.

Mr. Hopkins, of Hartford, Mass., a Professor going to London to purchase philosophical instruments, and purposed attending lectures in Paris, but not knowing French I recommended him to Edinburgh which he seemed to approve.



Left home quarter past 10 accompanied by my three friends, Mr. Baker, Mr. John Dean, and Cousin Peter Heywood. Took a walk to the Prince's Dock[1]; found my berth situated near the foot of the staircase. Thence we proceeded to Mr. Thornley's office and met with the kindest attention. Received several letters of introduction and valuable information; recommended me to take dollars; sent a clerk with me to the money exchangers and also lent me L150. Just then I saw James Turner pass by; he got me the money in five minutes. After dinner we drove down with 784 dollars in a bag sealed up, which I deposited in my portmanteau. Embarked at 4 o'clock, got into the river and 1/4 before 6 were towed out by a steamer going to Dundalk. The steamer left us at half-past nine P.M. near the floating lights. Charged L18. 18. 0.; went to tea 1/4 past 8, found nine passengers. Had a good deal of conversation with one of them, an American, who seemed to be acquainted with all the packets. Said he supposed the Britannia cost 40,000 dollars. Called a vessel old after ten years. Another passenger had been in Egypt and seemed familiar with most parts of America; thought I should have ample time in two months to see the most interesting parts of America, including Canada. Recommended a covering during the night to guard against the mosquitoes. Went to bed about eleven. Slept in drawers and stockings with a night-shirt in addition, there being rather scanty narrow bed clothes. The sea placid so as to allow getting comfortably to bed.


Had a good night, wakened by the crowing of cocks, etc. Our live stock very considerable, consisting of a cow for milk, sheep, turkeys, geese, ducks, hens, etc. Got up at 6-1/2, a fine morning. Breakfast at 8, of fish, beef, mutton, omelettes, tea and coffee. A file of New York papers had been left in the night by an American packet. Found the steerage passengers had a place like the Black Hole of Calcutta, the foolish people not consenting to have their trunks, etc., removed below.

Began reading "A Tour through Canada." Found one of the passengers going out to assist at a Methodistic Conference in Canada. This forenoon the Captain told the helmsman to go north about. The wind became favourable. We left the Welsh coast and came along side of the Isle of Man or rather the Calf. Did not attend lunch and had not much relish for dinner. Munched one of mother's cakes and took tea which I liked very much. Had a pleasant chat in the evening; was informed about the watches which are reckoned from twelve at noon ringing every half hour till four, making what is called eight bells; then begins again. Retired to rest about half past ten. Soon after being in my berth found considerable heaves 6 or 8 times, then still whilst I counted 20 or 25, then again heaving as before. This is occasioned by what are called the Swells.


Had another good night; rose soon after seven, found ourselves within 3 miles of the coast of Ireland with Cantyre on our right. Heard the Captain speak to a vessel going to Liverpool telling them to report us all well. Breakfasted very well but soon returned upon deck as we expected soon to lose sight of land. A pretty stiff gale about ten which threw the vessel a good deal on one side. Continued in sight of Ireland till past five when the land and we parted for some weeks. About this time I became qualmish and went to the stern to see if I could hasten the catastrophe by putting down my fingers; this did not avail, therefore I descended to open my store of camomile and black currants; no sooner was this accomplished than I became sick three or four times. I then undressed and rolled into my berth and slept 3 or 4 hours. The ship rolled very much and the water I heard splashing by; it seemed sometimes as if actually going over. Two interesting circumstances occurred last night. I dreamed that my father was actually alive and in his better way. A poor redbreast made his appearance on the vessel—how he had come there we did not know. What must be the situation of the poor steerage passengers, about 100 adults and a numerous set of children? A very happy circumstance for us rather than the proprietors is that we have only nine passengers, so each can have a double berth to himself, a very great comfort indeed, especially when it becomes warm weather.


Passed a tolerable night; attempted to get up to breakfast, but found myself obliged to hurry back to my berth and did not attempt to rise till twelve, and then unable to shave. Sat sometimes in the sunshine and sometimes in the small house, unable to walk and fearful of descending. Took only a little bread and a sip of brandy and water. Descended about 7 to tea, but obliged to hurry into my berth when I vomited, then drank a cup of tea. Last night I dreamed that I actually saw my dear father alive and cheerful. Several birds resembling sparrows flew about the ship and seemed as if they had made an error in their reckoning as they must be nearly four hundred miles from land. I cannot but deeply sympathise with the steerage passengers so crowded, whilst with every attention I cannot but think my own situation miserable.


A pretty good night, but did not rise till ten as I felt sickly. Managed to shave without a glass. Sickly all day and unable to take exercise. Sat in the upper house with a quantity of flannel around my feet; urged by the Captain to take a little chicken broth, did so and to my great surprise found some relish. I also partook of a little chicken; sick several times; descended about 7; again sick, got a cup of tea, took two of the pills. Found my feet very cold, rubbed them warm. Sipped of the currant tea and felt very comfortable.

Morning dawn, crowing of cocks, 7-1/2 bell rung round the cabin. 8 breakfast; coffee, tea, beefsteak, mutton-chops, etc. 12 lunch; shins of beef, tongue, etc. 3 dinner; soup, fish, fowls, beef, mutton, pies, puddings, dessert, oranges, nuts, French plums. 7 tea.


Rise soon after seven. Shaved again without glass, walked on deck, got breakfast in the upper house with my two clerical friends. Talked about the miseries of Ireland which they both ascribed to the bad effects of popery, which Mr. Hamilton said continued in a worse state than in any other part of the world; one great proof was that the evils were worse in Munster. When I mentioned France, they said infidelity prevailed there, which I admitted to be the case in the large cities. Dined above with the two ecclesiastics. A good deal of rain with little wind. Then blew fair but very cold. An attempt made to put up a stove but one of the pipes was missing. Found myself able to read a little; commenced with Watson's "Life[2]," belonging to Mr. Grindrod. Many gulls flying behind the vessel; a ship in sight northwards. A poor hen escaped from the pen and remained shivering at the stern; on attempting to get her she flew off and fell into the sea and thus escaped having her throat cut by getting drowned; we saw her floating a long way. Hope to have got over my sickness. This evening we all appeared below at tea, being the first time since Saturday morning, the sickness continuing from Saturday evening to Tuesday morning. Watched the Captain and Mr. Seaton play chess. No great skill displayed.


Passed a pretty good night with some curious dreams. Well enough to shave by means of a glass. Made an error in reckoning the watch bells. On deck at half-past six. Found we had not progressed much, the wind unfavourable. No tides here, but assisted by the current make about two knots per hour. About ten an improved N.E. wind which continued most of the day. Cough nearly gone, sickness also, breakfasted pretty well and dined heartily. I and my two clerical friends ordered two bottles of champagne. About two observed a vessel ahead nearing us. Came up soon after five, proved the A—— from Havannah bound to St. Petersburgh and had been out 42 days; asked us whence we came and whither bound, also the longitude. Then each parted bidding the other a good voyage. The first really happy day I spent at sea. All the crew appeared to be recovered excepting a Welshman and his wife who could not be prevailed on to leave their hammocks; could not speak a word of English. Found the steerage passengers very respectable poor people from Lancashire, Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, Cheshire, Westmoreland and Yorkshire, some with a pretty good property which they found regularly diminishing. A theological debate with Mr. Hamilton. Read part of Lander's[3] "Travels in Africa."


Slept well, rose at seven, dressed and shaved without difficulty, but I forgot to rinse out my mouth with water according to my invariable practise. Very cold with stiff breeze, going about 8 knots per hour. At dinner a warm discussion about the state of Ireland. I contended that agitation could only prevail where there was distress. See the state of America; what could D. O'Connell do there? About 5 we had what is called a squall of wind. I went on deck and found the vessel on one side, and scudding steadily through the foaming deep. Gulls still accompanying the ship as if expecting a wreck. So cold, 51 deg., that I remained a good deal below, read nearly 200 pages in Fergusson's[4] "Tour in Canada." The Britannia 125 feet long.

Wines, etc., on board furnished by the steward at the following prices:

Madeira wine per bottle $1.50 Sherry " " 1.50 Port " " 1.25 Claret per bottle 1.25 Champagne per bottle 2 Hock or Moselle per bottle 1.50 Brandy, Gin, Rum, or Whisky } per bottle 1 Punch, Cherry Brandy or Rum Cordial } Porter per bottle 0.37-1/2 Cider " .25 Soda Water " .12-1/4 Saratoga " .25


Did not rise till the tinkling of the bell. Had not rested well the first two or three hours, cold feet, and afterwards a good deal of rolling and pitching of the vessel. The conversation this morning at breakfast chiefly on the expense of dress. Mr. Seaton showed us a stout box coat charged ten guineas which was pronounced very cheap, though I cannot but suppose the same might be had at Bolton for L6. 6. 0. Mr. S. said that 400 dollars was not unusually paid in America. The wind still from the north and therefore favourable, but still very cold. After dinner played three games at chess with Mr. Seaton and lost them all. Learned from one of the seamen that the Britannia is about seven years old, and is expected to continue as a packet about two years longer. Squally again towards night with a good deal of heaving. Tried fishing but not successful. After reading a few pages in Watson's "Life" I went to rest soon after ten. One of the sails appeared old and to have a small hole, as the wind increased it enlarged and presently went into ribbands.


Had a very restless night. After 1 o'clock the ship rolled tremendously and between one and two I heard a considerable bump, the vessel lurched and we shipped a heavy sea, that is the water flowed over us. I continued in a state of great suspense hearing all sorts of things tumbling about and my looking glass dashed on to me in my berth; put my knees against one side and my back to the other to prevent being tumbled out. For the first time began to regret coming. Often near asleep and then the vessel so much on one side I could not help fearing it going over. Not being able to sleep I got up before seven A.M. Found the sea very greatly agitated and the atmosphere thick as if occasioned by the foam. Looked over the stern and observed two gulls in pursuit of anything we might throw away. The ocean has the appearance of hills and vales and the heaving on one side I found was occasioned by going up the sides of the hills. Felt qualmish but took some breakfast. After reading Watson's "Life" I turned again into bed till near one P.M. Then went on deck; four disagreeables, cold, no wind and that wrong, rain, and rather sickly. An elderly sailor at the helm said we had a strong gale in the night; but at this time of year it was not much minded and told me it was quite impossible for the ship to go over on one side. Fourteen dismal dirty looking geese turned out to promenade the deck. Saw a ship yesterday. The gale again increased towards evening and I feared a poor night. A very good pancake half way across the Atlantic.


Had a better night, being greatly relieved by the assurance of the impossibility of the ship being blown on one side. Remained awake several hours and afterwards found it assist to lie on one's back when the ship is rolling. Whilst on deck the sea suddenly broke over the side. I escaped by means of the boat hung over the side. Mr. Jackson got a complete drenching. After breakfast I proposed having a religious service which was assented to, and our clerical friends promised to conduct it. At eleven we had the Church of England Service read by Mr. Hamilton, Mr. Grindrod acting as clerk and also closing the service by an appropriate prayer, alluding to our peculiar situation and praying for a safe voyage; and also those in the other parts of the vessel, also the Captain and family. It was intended to have a sermon preached to the whole crew in the afternoon, but the weather proved too cold. The Captain said we had made three degrees of latitude since noon the day before; would not admit that we had got half way but thought in a day or two we should want the hatch windows opened. No ship or porpoises to be seen of all day.


Passed a good night. About five we seemed quite becalmed, but were glad to find this not the case, the breeze had continued moderately through the night. Sensibly warmer and consequently most of the steerage passengers appeared on deck. Much pleased with a number of porpoises swimming alongside of us for a mile or two. A good deal of talk with Captain Kenney about the English nobility, etc., and also with Captain Sketchley, who said he had been more than 40 years at sea, chiefly between Liverpool and New York. His family resides in Liverpool on account of Mrs. S. who could not bear the extremes of the American climate. Find fresh faces on board, most of them have part of their family already gone to America.


Passed a pretty good night though the ship rolled a good deal at times; and I found the sea a good deal agitated. The wind continued to blow hard all day, the vessel rising and falling 10 or 12 yards. Sometimes one side nearly down at the water's edge, and rising up out of boiling foam. Early in the evening the dead-lights[5], those at the stern, were made up lest a sea should rush through; the same with the skylights. The Captain said the gale was very unusual at this season of the year; talked of the vessel being more uneasy than she used to be. Captain Kenney now appeared on deck. During dinner two ducks and sauce were suddenly swept across the table and most of it thrown upon Mr. Cayley. Towards evening the sky became darker and the storm likely to increase during the night; this we found the case and about ten we rolled tremendously; we all seemed depressed; no cards, not much reading; a few conundrums, etc.


Had a restless night not sleeping till four, when more sail was hoisted that steadied the vessel and I rested comfortably till half past seven. Nobody but I and Mr. Grindrod seemed to have been inconvenienced. A delightful change, the wind more favourable and the sea lower, the sun shining. A game called Shuffleboard was introduced with trenchers about 1-1/2 inch thick and 10 in. diameter, counting thus, and the trenchers could be slided within the lines;—claret—2 bottles of champagne being the wagers or results of the game. About twelve I went to lie down, having had so little sleep. Whilst down a ship passed to the west of us. Played two games at Chess with the Captain who beat me though I had quite the game and could have taken his Queen. As heretofore, if successful I became careless, and if the contrary too much depressed. Stopt up with the card party till after eleven. No gulls to be seen.

--- 1 8 6 --- 5 3 7 --- 9 4 2 ---


Had a pleasant night, found little wind and that not favourable; in fact they tell me we are not nearing N.Y. Finished Watson's "Memoirs" 667 octavo pages; a good reply to those who have attempted a defence of slavery from O. and N. Testament. Spent the day very delightfully, being so warm that we preferred the shade. The wind but light and not fair. Tried fishing but not successful.

An old seaman who has been with the Britannia over three years says he never knew a passage from England to America made in less than 30 days.

Played another game at chess with Mr. Seaton, had the worst of it, but called away to dinner. Another play was putting the feet in a swing rope and trying how far they could go, being then chalked on the deck.

After tea went on deck, a beautiful starlight night, a good deal of singing. Jackson had ascended the rigging, was followed by one of the seamen who tied his legs. The usual penalty followed—a bottle of rum; he gave them two and the evening passed merrily.


Passed a very good night, the sea placid, but little wind and that adverse. The wind rising but in no better direction. Played another game with Mr. Seaton, he giving me a Knight, still unsuccessful. Had a slight headache, the atmosphere feeling very damp. Saw one of Mother Carey's chickens or petrel of the ocean; it resembles a swallow and followed us some distance picking up some crumbs of bread thrown to it by the Captain.

The Mate says 28 days the shortest passage he ever made to America. At dinner a warm discussion on the Duke of Newcastle doing "what he liked with his own"; also the advantage of colonies, also the large military and naval expenses. After dinner we fell in with a ship from Vera Cruz to Bordeaux. The wind fair for the first time since we sailed. This evening played another game with the Captain and lost. Went on deck and heard two songs.


Had a good night. Dreamed that I had returned from Liverpool and could not get back in time for sailing; also that I had had three suits of clothes sent in. Was sorry to learn that the wind had died away and that we had only made about 1-1/2 knots per hour. Two vessels seen at a great distance; about two they came within a mile of us; others were also observed. Went down and wrote a few lines; the vessel did not come near enough for us to speak to them. Another ship passed in the afternoon but more distant. At dinner Mr. Seaton said he had known Madeira wine sell for more than eleven dollars a bushel. Very good pancakes indeed. In the evening Mr. Seaton, talking of horses said he himself had two horses which he drove eleven miles an hour for four successive hours; also spoke of the great mercantile house of Parish & Co., Hamburgh and New York. One of the steerage passengers informs me that there are 102 in the fore steerage and 39 in the middle steerage.


Had a pleasant night and rose before seven, and took out my better clothes to remind me more effectually of Sunday. Found the wind had continued moderately favourable. A long discussion at breakfast respecting smoking. Mr. Bassnett said he had smoked thirty cigars for thirty days together, and did not consider it hurtful when taken properly into the lungs. I considered it hurtful, and particularly as generally it was accompanied by drinking. A ship passed us this morning. At half past ten the bell tolled for a religious service and seats were brought on deck. Mr. Hamilton read the Church of England service, and Mr. Grindrod preached a good practical sermon. In the evening the Captain proposed to have an evening service, which was readily acceded to by Mr. Grindrod. Mr. H. read the evening service and Mr. G. preached the sermon. In the morning service the prayer for the royal family had given offence to some of the crew, and therefore on the recommendation of the Captain, the prayer was altered into all chief magistrates and governors.


Dreamed a good deal and particularly about my late dear father, who is now still more in my remembrance, and I have frequently to check the expectation of seeing him on my return. A truly delightful morning with an improved breeze. Passed what is called a black fish[6]. Played a game with Mr. Bassnett and beat him. A most delightful and favourable breeze continued. Immediately after dinner I observed a current of yellow water about the breadth of the ship's length, and about 1/2 or 3/4 mile on each side, and after passing over it I went to tell the Captain who was just then looking over the side; he made haste to the stern along with others and he expressed very great surprise, almost seemed desirous to turn the vessel about to look more closely. He had never seen the like before, and should have been alarmed had he seen it at the head; could only explain it by supposing that an iceberg with a quantity of mud had melted in that neighbourhood[7]. Had fiddle and dancing particularly well done by the steward, cook, and some of the sailors. Played another game at chess with Mr. B. and beat him. Although we have had a good fair breeze all day we have not seen a single ship.


Had a good wind all night which continued till near ten, when a heavy shower of rain came on and the wind became unfavourable. A ship seen at a distance; passed two others early this morning. The wind continued unfavourable all day, also colder so that we all appeared depressed. Played two games with Mr. Bassnett and lost, then went on deck about ten and found the wind abated, but quite ahead. The Captain said he was quite sick of it. The curious phenomenon yesterday of the coloured water, is explained by some of the seamen supposing it to be the spawn of a whale.

Much breakage of glasses at dinner; my decanter tossed off the table and broken; also a tumbler and champagne glass. One gull seen yesterday and two stormy petrels follow us a long way. A very dull day with all of us, partly occasioned by the unfavourable wind and coldness. Had some affecting conversation with Mr. G. respecting my late dear father. A fine evening, the wind changed and almost became a calm. The ship gradually turned round to get on another tack.


Rested pretty well, but found we had made little way. A good deal of conversation at breakfast respecting various kinds of fruit. America it seems is well supplied with tropical fruit. Finished Lander's "Travels in Africa"; also read before Fergusson's "Canadian Tour." The breeze refreshing though not altogether favourable, much better than a calm. Mr. Bassnett proposed as a wager, that he would throw doublets ones to sixes in succession in ten minutes, which he accomplished in seven; he also surprised us by taking up the dice by means only of the boxes. The wind continued favourable all day. Played another game with Mr. B. and lost it. Did not see a ship or fish throughout the day. Have great difficulty in preventing myself from thinking of meeting my late dear father on my return.


Did not sleep so well though tolerably comfortable. Found the wind slight but for the first time quite fair in a due east, all the sails squared and also the stunsail out. Saw a fish. The wind about one, changed more south. A long sit and chat upon the helm house with Mr. Grindrod. A very good breeze all day. Remarkable that we saw not a vessel all day excepting before breakfast and at a great distance. Frequently do I find some trouble in checking the expectation of meeting again my dear father.


Got up before six having not been able to sleep since 2 o'clock, such noises, pitching and rockings as surely never were heard before. Found the sea greatly agitated and much foam. I asked one of the seamen if he did not call this a stiff gale; he said it was a fresh breeze. The Captain admitted that it blew hard; he was up all night. Cold all day and the wind quite contrary. Six or seven stormy petrels seen at once, and now and then a gull. Towards evening we discerned a brig which we found was sailing before us; she had little sail, and appeared to wish to speak to us, but did not come sufficiently near. It has been one of the disagreeable days, very cold with adverse wind and all our spirits depressed; several of our passengers are out of health. Mr. Webster complained of a boil on his ear; also Mr. Jackson of earache; Captain Kenney has a bad cold, and Mr. Bassnett a bad digestion. In the morning the Captain persuaded me to go to rest again and I lay down after dinner.


I passed a much better night and got up at half past six; was gratified to learn from the Mate who is not usually encouraging, that we had been making way in the night; pointed out a vessel passing us on the east. The Captain is making his 132nd passage across the Atlantic, say 62 voyages; been at sea 45 years, 35 in the American trade. A very, very cold, though sunny day. A score of petrels flying about. A day of business amongst the steerage passengers exchanging provisions. Much warmer on deck after dinner. Had some conversation in French with one of the sailors who is a Frenchman from Bordeaux. Been upon deck and greatly pleased with the numerous petrels chirping on all sides of the ship. Find the seamen are only engaged at New York to Liverpool and back, their wages paid during that time; this is the same even with the cook. The Captain every Saturday night sends a glass of whiskey to all the cabin passengers.


Passed the night very comfortably till six, when a sudden squall arose that tossed and rolled us about exceedingly. On going upon deck the sea was much agitated, it rained so heavily that I was obliged to descend. These sudden changes are not unusual in what is called the Gulf Stream; but I feel truly thankful that the storm did not come on earlier; it continued to blow hard all day. Seated at the stern watching the petrels and feeding them with bits of fat mutton. A ship seen this morning and another in the evening. A fine rolling sea and warm enough to sit out and enjoy it. The Church of England Service read in the cabin and a prayer made by Mr. Grindrod.


Passed a comfortable night till five, when the vessel began to roll about. Got up before seven, found a dead calm which was the cause of the motion, which continued all forenoon.

Amused myself with reading Mr. Bassnett's voyage to Syria; and also at looking at some amusing caricatures of Cruickshank's. The wind fair but very little of it, yesterday a gale but in a wrong direction; in fact we have only had once a really fair wind and that for a short time. A great many gulls to be seen, most of them with pointed tails, and few petrels. Had we gone over the banks we might have had some diversion in fishing, but the Captain was afraid of encountering the ice.

In the Gulf there is not only a stream against us but generally very foggy weather and changeable, either calms or storms. This has been a very unpleasant day, a calm with dull hazy weather, no fish or ships, or even Mother Carey's chickens, but only a few gulls. A good deal of champagne taken to-day by Jackson, very foolish.


Passed a pretty good night though occasionally the ship rolled and pitched more than I expected. When I went upon deck I was agreeably surprised; a very good wind from the north bearing us on very well.

The scene diversified by a grampus[8] 8 to 10 feet long, and a flying fish which is rather larger than a swallow. About ten spoke to a vessel from Jamaica to London. Finished reading Bassnett's manuscript tour, Syria, Egypt, etc. Much depressed by the recollection of my dear father's departure; told Mr. Grindrod the cause, which led to some serious and at the same time consolatory remarks. At dinner Mr. Jackson enquired what was the matter, upon which Mr. G. very kindly explained the cause. Commenced reading B. H.'s[9] Notes on Chili, Peru, etc., he is a very pleasing and agreeable writer. The measles broke out about this time.


Passed a quiet night, found it raining which we fear may lead to a change of the wind which still continues rather favourable. Continued heavy rain till nearly eleven then cleared up and the wind increased, but not favourable taking us too much to the south instead of crossing the Gulf Stream. It is usual to go over the banks of Newfoundland but the Captain feared the icebergs. The Captain said if there was anything done by the Almighty which he could wish altered it would be the Gulf Stream; there is not only a current against us, but great uncertainty as to calms and storms. Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy and her sister dined with us to-day. Jackson more than usually foolish. Some of the passengers trying to put their legs over an American flour cask, and so raise themselves over it upon their feet. Went upon deck and was much pleased with the appearance of the sea; the ship was sailing through liquid fire; the sides of the vessel being quite illuminated with the foam, and the ocean was covered apparently by fire occasioned by the breakers. Passed the day without seeing either sail or fish.


Passed another comfortable night, found we had been getting on pretty well; nearly out of the Stream with the intention of shooting across the first fair wind.

The wind continues pretty favourable. A child died aged nine months. A stone with two lumps of iron are tied up to sink the child. At six the bell tolled, the little thing was placed upon a door and when the Minister, Mr. H. came to that part of committing the body to the deep it was slid off into the ocean and immediately disappeared, to be eaten by fish instead of worms. The mother did not come upon deck, her name Johnson, has 7 or 8 other children with her; the husband I believe in America.

Jackson told the Captain last night that he lost his father last 29th May, surely this circumstance will help him to a little more steadiness but this was hardly the case, excepting as occasioned by yesterday's debauch. Mr. Seaton says bastardy is not so common in America but always charged to the father. Mr. Cayley takes no exercise, says he never walks on ship, eats a good deal of animal food; a very bad system, either exercise or abstinence is essentially necessary.


Passed another good night though dreaming more of home and the warehouse; was delighted to find a fair wind and that it had been the same during the night; continued so all day but the rolling of the ship on going to breakfast made me rather sickly most of the forenoon; in fact we pitched and tossed more than ever with heavy rain a good part of the day, so that but for the wind being favourable we should consider it the most unpleasant day we have had; no ships, no fish or anything to divert the tedium.

This morning two of the sails were torn to ribbands. Frequent jelly-like substances floating on the ocean of various colours formed like a cockscomb commonly called Portuguese men-of-war.


Another good night, found the wind favourable but not much of this most of the night. A warm political discussion; I stated that America and not Dan O'Connell was the great political agitator. Speaking of the immense salaries paid in England I said the Government was more in fault in granting them, it being only human nature to receive. Captain Kenney said he should like to subscribe to send the radicals out of the country. I thought it would be better to employ the subscriptions in getting all the democrats away. A dense mist continued on the surface of the ocean till eleven, when it suddenly disappeared. A ship discovered by Mr. Grindrod.

I cannot forget that this is the anniversary of the interment of my dear father. Finished the second volume of Hall's "Journal of a Voyage to Chili, etc." Learned from Captain Kenney that the journey from London to Moscow by Hamburgh, Luebeck, St. Petersburgh may be done in a week for about L34; that there is no difficulty with regard to passports, but that you must advertise every district visited in the "St. Petersburgh Gazette," and that you are leaving there in three weeks; you can then stop that time but no longer in one place. At dinner we had some interesting discussion on phrenology, and also respecting future punishment and the different degrees; the latter I was glad to find was the creed of Mr. G. between whom and Mr. B. the conversation was carried on. On going on deck I was surprised to find that the Captain did not approve of such discussions.


Passed a very comfortable night; found we had at length crossed the Gulf Stream; sensibly colder. The wind had not been favourable since last night. A very considerable mist occasioned by the warm water in the Stream coming in contact with the cold atmosphere—very cold.

The morning service according to the Church of England read by Mr. H. but not so many present on account of the cold—again in the evening with a sermon from Mr. G. from John, 14th chap., 15th verse, "If ye love me keep my commandments." Captain K. said he did not consider himself a gambler though he had lost 1, 2, 3 or L400 a night; once at Paris he lost a good deal. Since then he had made it a rule not to give checks, but merely stake what he had with him; when he lost the large sums they were out of his winnings. Talked of some wines that would not do for sea, port for instance; had several bottles changed because not so clear. This has been a disagreeable day, cold and a contrary wind; all the crew seemed to be getting out of spirits. Mr. Jackson said he cost his father L3000 for the 2-3/4 years he was learning the spinning business; he admitted he had been very gay.


A very good night, dreamed of home and my intention of going again to America. Delighted to find the weather milder and the wind favourable; it continued thus all day; rain came on about three; after dinner there was thick mist which continued all afternoon. Spent several hours with the helmsman and others.

Mr. Jackson does business with Gore, Honiball and Harrison. Mentioned Coates with whom they did as much as 10,000 pieces annually. Commenced reading "The Refugee in America," a work by Mrs. Trollope[10].


Did not sleep, as in the early part of the evening feared we might run foul of some vessel, and after four we had a good deal of rolling. On getting up I was greatly disappointed to find the wind had been west all night, and also very cold indeed. Passed two fishing boats, also saw the spouting of a whale every now and then like foam from a breaker. Several other fishing boats seen on each side of us, engaged in cod fishing off the banks of Nova Scotia, so that we are now within soundings.

Mr. Bassnett mounted the rigging and saw land. The wind continued hard and cold; by "hard" is meant that no change can be expected till it dies naturally away. Another child is dead of the measles. Mr. Grindrod and I engaged in reading together "The Refugee." No fish to be seen. The day has been very cold and comfortless, very unfavourable for the poor children afflicted with measles.


Had a pleasant night, but found we had made little progress, the wind still unfavourable. Another child dead of the measles. To reconcile the mother to interment in the deep, a coffin was ordered. About one both children were placed upon a sort of door, where a part of the bulwark had been taken away. Mr. G. officiated in consequence of Mr. H.'s indisposition, and on committing them to the deep the coffin did not sink. A great many passengers ran immediately to the stern whence it was observed for more than ten minutes, one passenger protesting that he still saw it, after others had declared that it had sunk; so that what was intended as a kindness proved otherwise, as the other body had sunk instantly.

Almost a dead calm all day till half past six, but being so much warmer we were all in better spirits. A most glorious sunset this evening. The cook considered to be very quarrelsome; quarrelled this evening with some of the sailors and got a bloody face. Jackson took more to drink than usual. They continued playing at whist till after eleven.


Got up at half past six, was delighted to find the wind had continued favourable all night.

After breakfast assisted the Captain in assorting 2430 letters, many of them double, treble, etc., besides some hundreds of parcels, with a great many newspapers most of them Willmer & Co. Immediately, i.e. half past eleven, a sudden squall came on, a great part of the sail was immediately taken in—rain and much colder, also much rocking of the ship; we have to be thankful that it has happened now, rather than in the night and especially when nearer land. Immediately after dinner one of the most terrible rolls we have ever had, I suppose more glasses were broken this day than on any former one. About two we had quite a thunder storm with very heavy rain. After dinner we went to the stern and had the most terrible heave, and such a sea as we had never beheld before and all this at the end of the fifth week. Sounded and found 40 fathoms, tried to fish for cod or hollypot (halibut) but not successful. Yesterday a calm, to-day almost a hurricane. The wind went down about four but the sea continued rolling; in fact it must have blown harder from some other part to have raised the sea so much.


Did not sleep much till after four in consequence of the ship rolling so much. Most truly delighted to find that we had had favourable wind since eleven, and now with this wind from N.E. which is likely to be more permanent we may fully expect to get in to-morrow. About ten there came on a heavy squall which settled into a stiff breeze, so that it became necessary to take in a good deal of sail; a larger sea broke over than any I had yet seen. About two it lessened and the sail was again increased. After dinner, about five, the delightful word "Land" was announced which made us all truly delighted. Immediately I went on deck and was just able to discern the shore of Long Island. What a most agreeable contrast; only this morning a greater sea broke over the ship than I had seen before, and now at six we are sailing in smooth water.

After the first transports of joy on seeing land, my feelings became saddened by the recollection of never again beholding my dear father, and these no doubt will be my sensations when I get back to my native land. Another most glorious sunset, a cloud covering the upper part of the low coast of Long Island, the lower part of the sun's disk made it have the appearance of a bright line for several seconds with beautiful clouds above, equal to any Italian sky I have beheld.


A most delightful morning but hardly a breath of air to help us on. At noon another child died and was interred. Very hot. The Jersey coast seen this morning. Mr. Seaton, a moderate smoker, said he had used 56/- worth this voyage. Paid 4 dollars and 2/6 to steward—also wine bill 10 dollars and 60 cents. Mr. Jackson's bill 77 dollars besides 16 lost at cards. Many ships in sight and a good deal of the coast. Long Island a very low sandy shore. Unfavourable breeze till after dinner when all at once it changed. A beautiful sight, 15 or 16 vessels on each side, and one from Ireland filled with emigrants. An officer rowed by five men from a revenue cutter boarded us a little before eight; took an account of the cases of merchandise and passengers; he appeared a pleasant sharp-looking young man, Mr. Seaton said a lieutenant. One of the seamen sounded ringing the number of fathoms. A little before ten a pilot came on board, said they could not get down sooner for want of wind, had been towed out some part by a steamer. Several pilots came in one boat, and brought two newspapers. Let go the anchor soon after ten to stem the tide. The cow seemed to recognize the land, poking out her head and snuffing the land breeze.


A delightful morning; found the anchor had been let down about half past six. A fine view of Staten Island. The pilot says we are about 14 miles off the quarantine—got Mr. Grindrod to inform my friends per the Royal William, Londonderry, bound to Liverpool, that I had arrived safe.

Many porpoises seen inside the Hook. So calm that we have to anchor to stem the tide. Mr. Bassnett very ill; about two, became delirious. Saw a steam boat I proposed joining at the expense, but Mr. Seaton seemed to think it could not be done without offending the Captain. I ventured to mention it to him, mentioning Mr. B.'s illness. He said he could have no objection and would join us. The flag was hoisted, but either he was previously engaged or refused to assist us. Got into the boat hanging on the side of our ship and observed upwards of 40 sail on each side of us. As we come close to the shore the cow lows. Many porpoises. Got on shore at Staten Island at seven o'clock; stept across the Hercules, an immense steamer; the land quite strange to my feet, the air quite fragrant and the grass delightfully green; a large vine with much bloom. Took tea with fifteen others, very good bread and butter, also turnips, radishes, and strawberry preserves. Walked out and saw many fire-flies and heard all sorts of noises from grasshoppers, frogs, etc. Went to the hospital for a doctor to attend Mr. B.


Passed a pleasant night, rose soon after six, a most brilliant morning. Called upon poor Bassnett, found him very ill, had slept only two hours, but thought this caused by a powerful medicine. On walking or still more on standing still, I feel as it were the motion of the ship.

Plenty of wood for fires, also many of the houses built with shingles.

Took a boat to fetch our foul linen to be washed at the hospital washhouse. Only four-wheel carriages. Large dragon-flies. 95 degrees in the shade. A couple of oxen drawing a cart. Paid 12-1/2 cents for washing the clothes, 17 articles. For one day's entertainment at the Nautilus Hotel, 1 dol. 75c. Took part of a most delicious cyder, also a plate of strawberries. Found the helm of the steamboat worked ahead, instead of at the stern. A fine pineapple 37 cents. Hair cut 25 cents. Called upon Francis Hall on account of Mr. Grindrod.

At Bunker's Hotel all black waiters, the charges the same, whether one attends the meals or not. Set off to call upon Thomas Dean; found him ill of the erysipelas and Mrs. D. just going into the straw. Complained of business being very bad and likely to be so for the next two months. Rent of the house 500 dollars. Missed my way on my return by taking the wrong turn in Broadway, so that on enquiring I was 2-1/2 miles from the Hotel. On getting in, found the table set out, partook of a little ham, and went to bed, pretty well tired. T. D. cautioned me against over exertion.


Rested very well though I had some fear at the beginning of the night. I also awoke, found myself very warm and feared I had done too much. However soon fell asleep. Rose soon after six—another brilliant morning.

Orders are communicated to the servants by signal bells. At half past seven a gong sounded, the same repeated at eight, the latter being the signal for breakfast. A long table with bread, all sorts of fish, meat, cakes, strawberries, attended by eight black waiters. Called upon T. Dean and he very kindly assisted in getting my portmanteau, and also in exchanging my dollars which are at par or 4s. 6d. making 2-3/4 in my favour. Went to the auction and am told that the greatest part of British goods are disposed of in this way; when once advertised they must be sold as people will not lose their time in inspection; all depends on the scarcity with regard to pieces, therefore requires great care in watching the turns of the market. Took a glass of soda-water made palatable with sweet lemon juice. Arranged matters in my portmanteau. Dined with upwards of 70 persons of both sexes. All sorts of meat cooked in all ways; the peas sweetened as in Italy. Dessert chiefly oranges and strawberries.

Strolled by Broadway, examined the two churches, also the City Hall. Attended one of the courts trying a ship insurance case; conducted like those in England excepting that there are no gowns or wigs. The Judge also in plain clothes but addressed as His Honour; the witnesses are sworn as with us, standing near the Judge and the Jury 13. Coming out of the Court it began to rain a little, afterwards a good deal of lightning with some thunder.


Rose at six; found the air cooler and very refreshing. Walked down to the shore, saw the Philadelphia packet off. Immense quantity of wood put under the boiler. Bathed in the floating bath, not very tidy. Just in time for a most sumptuous breakfast. Sailed to Staten Island; had a most delightful walk to Factoryville; a pleasant breeze. Very large cherry trees. Found Ward in humble circumstances, a shoemaker; built a house costing 650 dollars, let the upper part for 100 dollars and occupied the base himself with a second wife, his former wife and child being dead.

Found Mr. Bassnett improving. Expect to see him again in Buffalo. Called upon T. D. and found 400 dollars in 5's, 10's with particulars as to their legal tender, etc., by Mr. Bliss. Then dined and afterwards called upon Robert Wood at Franklin Square; promised to see him on my return. Then proceeded to Dr. Griscome, 110 Henry St. but did not find him; mentioned that I purposed calling upon my return. Bought beautiful oranges at 1/2d., also a pine for 10d. Then called at the American Hotel, found Jackson who insisted on my taking a glass of wine with him. Mr. Webster and Captain Kenney both very civil. After tea, walked up and down Broadway; into two booksellers' shops where some books were sold very low. Paid my bill and got everything nicely packed up, managed to put all into my portmanteau excepting two coats which I put into the bag.


Got up a little before six, a fine morning. Left in the People's line of Packet at seven. Paid for breakfast ticket 50 cents, also to Princeton 150 cents. Most of the houses on Staten Island are built by fishermen who take large quantities of oysters. The grass is cut and placed upon stakes to prevent it being washed or blown away, as it cannot be carted away till frost comes.

Met with a gentleman, Lieutenant Higby, on the steamer returning from Charleston who showed me great attention, also presented me with a stick of orange wood. On leaving the steamer the road was so steep that but for an elderly lady who seemed so composed I should have been frightened. On the road, a field or two was cleared, the rest was forest, till on reaching Princeton the farms appeared larger. Here I engaged a gig for 150 cents. Curious sound occasioned by locusts, 17 years since their last visit. Saw a beautiful white cottage which proved to be the residence of our friend W. B.; found all well. W. was quite astonished to see me and threw his head upon my shoulders. Mrs. B. greatly surprised, also Jonathan whom we found in the fields. On going to the door I saw the driver had tumbled down the bag and portmanteau, and set off without asking for anything for himself or the turnpike gate. Walked about in the garden, then took some coffee and lettuce. Walked round the farm about 150 acres which cost him about 7 guineas an acre. The soil good and well cultivated with rye, oats, maize, and bounded on one side by a good road leading to Trenton, and the remainder by a beautiful stream; also good spring water in most of the fields. The estate is beautifully varied by gentle elevations; never troubled by mosquitoes; most of the snakes have been destroyed. They have five horses, 7 cows, 30 pigs, 100 poultry besides pigeons, etc. Very glad to find the B.'s so comfortably settled and steadily applying themselves to the improvement of the farm; very careful, exceedingly diligent, rising at four and working till eight, doing all the carpenter's work, butchering, etc. Stopt up till after eleven talking over old matters, etc.


Slept very well till just before six. Found all busy and breakfast set out, ham, eggs and coffee. Could not get away till I promised to visit them again on my return to N.Y. Driven to Trenton. At twelve I took the steamer down the Delaware to Philadelphia. Several floats of timber on the river, 36 yards long, 6 broad and 6 planks deep. A pleasant sail and view of Philadelphia. Paid 25 cents to one of the Rail line porters. Found Head's Hotel, Mansion House, rather less expensive than Bunker's. After dinner set off with C. D.'s parcel to Ridings in 13 St. a long way. Rain came on, I borrowed an umbrella from an entire stranger, who waited until my return and then accompanied me to Mr. Hulme's. Mr. H. not in, and agreed to call at nine to-morrow morning. Very good coffee that refreshed me. Went to the theatre, spacious and handsome, with gilt pillars. Not one in the pit when I entered. The performers tolerable; the pit seats rise very much. Though twelve o'clock I found the table set out at the hotel, got a little ham and went to bed. The streets all in right lines, but many of the houses of irregular height. A great deal of marble used in the cellar steps of inferior houses. At dinner had only some boiled mutton and peas which I found very good, also a little tart and some strawberries. I think of declining to take wine and I am advised to try cyder, but find it not good, physicy. Took coffee instead of tea, and found it excellent. Two blacks employed in driving away the flies that are getting numerous. A mocking bird that sings most of the night.


Rose half past six. A delightful morning after the rain. Had a walk down street before breakfast.

The horses are protected from flies by netting or thongs. Called upon Mr. Hulme and met with a very gracious reception. After showing me through the lower part of the house and the curious filtering machine, also the mode of getting the water cool, he walked with me to the Mint, where I saw the bar of silver gradually lengthened out, then punched and then put into a machine to letter the edge, then placed under the die and then very quickly ejected in a complete coin. Also a curious process of extracting gold from silver; it only appeared like a dirty sort of revolving vessel, much like a milk basin and the man said its value exceeded 6000 dollars. Thence we went to a saw mill, with machines that planed and grooved the boards leaving them quite ready for laying down. Thence to the water works where the river Schuylkill forces up its own water (rather reddish) into three large reservoirs. Then descended, found five large water wheels at work and preparations for two others. We came back in a stage coach and were charged only 25 cents for both. Went to enquire about the Frankford stage which leaves at nine. Went into a large Quakers' meeting house—both Pilling and John Wood in town, but could not manage to meet them. Visited the Exchange, a handsome edifice built of white marble. Another balloon in the sky.

Walked towards the shipping, found much wood used though there is much coal of a kind very black and shining like pitch, and giving out heat without blaze. The evening was truly beautiful, the sky so clear that the stars seemed nearer and the moon as if it imparted heat as well as light.


Got up a little after seven. Breakfast at half past eight; the best bread and butter in the world; good fish and eggs. Two blacks driving away the flies. All rooms gloomy, the verandahs or shutters closed to keep out the heat. Called upon Mr. Hulme and walked with him and two Miss Hulmes. A beautiful chapel of white marble with a fine range of steps and columns, the inside equally neat, the pulpit in a recess, a column on each side and an inscription over "This is life eternal." Mr. Furness preached an excellent sermon "Examine Thyself." The singing chiefly by the choir with a good organ. After service walked with Mr. H. to a neat though rather small cemetery. Afterwards called on an interesting old Scotch bachelor who came to dine with us. We spent a pleasant afternoon, went on the railroad to see the inclined plane where an accident had recently happened; walked over a very large wooden bridge covered over and supported upon stone pillars. An interesting discussion respecting Jackson, etc. Took tea and attended the evening service; the text "What is the Almighty that we should serve Him?"


Some rain had fallen in the night that made it very pleasant. Went to see about the Frankford stage, told it would be at half past eight at the Exchange. Looked over some English papers. After waiting some time found the Frankford stage left at 2nd street above High St. Found it did not go till ten. Amused myself at the wharf watching some fishermen, some of them very successful. Coming back I saw turtles some laid on their back to keep them from running away; the snapping turtle very savage, if once it lays hold, nothing but the knife can part it.

Took the stage at ten, arrived (at Frankford) half past eleven. Went to Pilling's Works but could not find Mr. P. or learn anything about my uncle. Went to other works and set off a mile further to a cotton mill, but could not find it nor enquire of anyone. A great noise from the locusts that are still said to come only once in 17 years. Killed two to present to C. D. and Mr. B.

Returned and enquired at several stores but could hear nothing of him. Then set off to see Mr. P. and on the way found his brother who keeps a store. On asking him he seemed to hesitate and went into the house to make further enquiry. He then told me that his uncle had been working at his brother's mill at Hulmesburgh; that he died about three weeks ago having scalded his leg, almost insensible towards the last. This Pilling it appears married a daughter of Abraham Walch. I knew him at first sight. They immediately set the table out and urged me to stop a day or two with them. On my declining he put on another coat and accompanied me on the way, when he disclosed to me the melancholy news of his uncle having cut his throat, then denying it and saying somebody else had done it.


Asked for coffee a little earlier, promised in ten minutes; in less than five, fish (bass) and eggs, etc., ready. Walked up to the stage office and set off at eight; found it carrying the letters. Got to Hulmesburgh 1/4 before ten, paid only 25 cents for ten miles. Walked to the works immediately, found Pilling's brother, learned the following particulars. That uncle had come from New England booking at a Croft, 18th Decr., that since he had worked very regularly not missing a day in 6 or 12 months, spent his money in drink at his lodgings, hardly ever at a public house; much respected and particularly so by P., had grown corpulent, scalded 16th Jan. and only able to work about two days since, was occupied in the dye-house and earned 67 dollars per week, half past four to half past six being a quarter of a day over. Had appeared rather depressed of late and wished to go home, still more so when he heard of my father's death. A subscription was begun among his men to pay his passage as soon as he was fit to go; this seemed to overcome him as his memory had been failing at times. On the 14th May he eat a hearty dinner, smoked his pipe, went upstairs as if to lie down for half an hour. Came out and entered the carpenter's shop, shut the door after him and immediately came out with his throat cut; was told of it by two women who happened to be going by. He denied it and walked towards the pump, a doctor was sent for but no help could be afforded and he died in less than an hour; he seemed to repent of it. I walked to the grave, attended by one of the jurors; he said every respect had been shown by a numerous attendance of his fellow-workmen—had a good coffin.


About one o'clock I heard a rumbling noise, immediately a flash of lightning; this increased so much that though the shutters were closed, and I covered in bed, I could see a blaze of light which continued some time, then louder thunder, so horrible as to throw me into a perspiration, after some time it abated a little, then returned with redoubled fury with heavy rain and I think hail for nearly an hour; it was truly terrific and I was glad to learn that I had seen nearly the worst. This was admitted by Mr. W. and also the driver of the stage who did not think he had seen it worse excepting once. Mr. Walker sent over to Hulmesburgh for one of his carriages, called with my letter to Mr. Taylor, but did not meet him; then went to Mr. Hulme, agreed to go out together at half past three. On returning to the Hotel, met Mr. Jackson and also Captain Kenney; took a piece of beef and a glass of champagne with my old companions. Hastened to Mr. Hulme's; found him and three daughters waiting for me in a carriage, drove to the Penitentiary where vicious youths are endeavoured to be reclaimed by useful occupation, such as nails for sofas, cane-bottomed chairs and book-binding. Thence we visited the State prison; the cells constructed in the octagon form; all seen from the centre; a small yard attached to each to walk in for one hour a day; a sentinel placed serving the whole. Then we went to the Alms or Workhouse which is on a magnificent scale; thence to the Hospital, passed over two large bridges. Returned and took tea and spent the evening at Mr. Hulme's.


Mr. Jackson at breakfast with an old acquaintance from Sicily. Whilst he fetched me the card, I took the opportunity of desiring the old school companion to urge upon his friend more temperance. The streets cleaned by a spray current from a large leathern pipe carried along. Set off at nine for Skoolkill (Schuylkill) to visit John Wood, but found him gone from home to a farm about three miles further to which they were removing in a day or two; only saw his son about 16 years old; enquired about his sister who was very well. Proceeded on to Maryark filled with mills worked by water from the canal; was a desert only 16 years ago. Called upon my return but only saw the same youth. On my way observed the college[11] building by Girard's money and on getting into the city entered two of the splendid banks, also the Mayor's Court, and heard two trials, one horse-stealing and the other a lad for stealing a biscuit-cutter; both found guilty, the latter recommended to mercy on account of ill-treatment by his mother. The Judge, Mr. Keen, very clever. Thence to the Museum to look at the Mammoth, a good collection of animals, birds, etc., also some good portraits of distinguished people, amongst them Priestley and Paine. Called upon Mr. James Taylor, invited to tea as I was going so soon and intended being with Dr. Furness on Sunday. Thence to the great ship 74 by 20 yards and 20 yards high. Called again upon Ridings, also James Mason and then to Mr. Taylor's and finished at the Hulmes's—12 o'clock.


Slept very soundly, called up exactly at 5, the steamer sailed soon after six. A vast crowd of people some to N.Y. and others to Baltimore. Took breakfast soon after seven, the steamer 50 by 19 yards. Met with Richard Crook. A very extraordinary dust over the city of Baltimore; a very great wind soon came to the steamer so that it was hardly possible to stand upon deck.

After dinner called upon a young man at Hofman's who kindly walked with me through the city. Greatly disappointed with the Cathedral, only a very plain edifice with two good pictures; charged 1/4 dollar, by a zealous old Catholic who seemed shocked by the heresy of an old man who wished to go behind the altar. Then we walked to a beautiful fine column of white marble, surmounted by a large figure of Washington. Came to the Court House, better than that at Philadelphia; thence to the Exchange. From the column we had a very delightful view of the country all round. Wrote to Thos. Dean, desiring a letter or newspaper to be forwarded to Washington and again to Quebeck after two or three weeks; mentioned writing home from Washington and Boston.

Bought a large pike for 18 cents. Visited the Museum, also had music and singing and a good imitation of singing birds. Went to bed soon after ten; the bread at Baltimore very good. The horses' tails not cut in this country, being so useful in driving away the flies.


Had a very restless night, not expecting to go to sleep and then heated and feverish, got up soon after five. This hotel six storeys high, a square of nine windows besides outbuildings, above 170 bedrooms, ours No. 76. Called with Miss Crosdale's letter to Mr. Grundy. This hotel more extensive than any. The road to Washington very hilly. Buzzards, a species of eagle soaring high in the air. Some disturbance by Indians, muskets placed in threes and fours. The soldiers and officers in curious working dress, the land generally very poor. Two other buzzards hovering over some carrion that they could smell. Arrived at Washington at two o'clock; passed the Capitol which is a splendid building. After dinner a very heavy close shower of rain with thunder; cleared up soon and the evening proved delightful. Called upon Francis Taylor who keeps an extensive book store and has also a circulating library. He seems a little, shrewd intelligent young man about 22, has been nearly seven years from home. Speaking of this country he said how a man may get on to a certainty if he exerts himself, more a matter of chance in the old country. Gadsby's Hotel very large but not so neat as Bunker's, or Head's, particularly the former; the provisions not nearly so good. Learned there were upwards of 250 rooms, our key being 102. Not feeling very well, partly occasioned by too much exertion in Philadelphia.


Passed a very good night, not seeing the lightning which R. Crook said had been very vivid.

Francis Taylor called upon us and walked with us to the Capitol, a beautiful pile of buildings though defaced by painting. Heard a sermon Matthew vi and verse 2, in the House of Representatives, a beautiful place something like the nisi prius Court at Lancaster. Each member has his own chair with a small desk before him; this space keeps enlarging from the centre where the Speaker is placed; a large gallery behind open to the public, that on the other side for ladies.

Commenced writing a letter, being too warm to walk and there being no particular object. In the course of the afternoon the clouds began to gather, soon after six there were flashes of lightning, which continually increased with thunder, wind and rain truly astonishing. Set off alone to the Unitarian Church, R. C.[12] nothing minding, and in fact the streams would not have suited his morocco boots. Just able to get along between every flash, found no service in consequence of the storm; managed to get safe back, and afterwards engaged in witnessing the sublime spectacle which continued till after nine; very fortunate that it came on so early as our sleep was not disturbed, but made pleasanter by the coolness of the atmosphere. The staircases to the galleries of Congress and many places covered with tobacco spitting.


Passed a comfortable night, walked out before breakfast and had a pleasant chat with F. T. During breakfast two or three boys driving away the flies by means of large ostrich feathers. Find that it is not common to sell slaves by public auction. F. T. said it was believed that if made free next winter, one third would die for want; but on mentioning St. Domingo he could make no reply, he said they were a different race of men. At ten we were taken in a coach by Mr. White, M.P. for New York, to see the President[13]; waited a short time in an ante-room with others, then were ushered into a large room furnished with books and papers. A tall, straight, old, thin-faced man with grey hair rose, and on my name being mentioned he bowed and shook hands. After a little conversation about losing his teeth by attempting artificial ones, which had dragged the remainder out until only his wise teeth remained, we left him, bowing and shaking hands again. Walked into parts of the house or palace; saw a very noble room where about 1500 attend five or six times a year. Rode in the same carriage to the Capitol; and were shown into the Hall of Representatives; a great many members present but not easily heard in consequence of the muttering in the House. Thence walked through the Dome containing several pictures, the Declaration of Independence, Surrender of Burgoyne and Cornwallis, and Washington giving up his Commission. Thence went to the Senate; was introduced to Mr. Clay who could not tell me respecting R. Monks, as the cholera had made terrible ravages last year at Lexington.


Got up 1/4 before 5. Left Washington at 1/4 before 6. Arrived at Alexandria at 7; ran into the Museum till breakfast. The bridge across the Potomack more than a mile long. Got to Mount Vernon at eleven. Very well received by means of a letter brought by R. C. from a Miss Adams of Philadelphia. Shown through the house, saw the key of the Bastille presented to Washington by T. Paine, also the Library as left by W. Then visited the Tomb, a very plain brick front with an iron door more like an oven. Walked through the garden back to the house; partook of some cake and wine.

Some parts of the road very rough; lost our track for some time; very few people, only now and then a negro to ask. Got back just in time to dinner and escaped the rain and thunder being the 4th successive night. Learned that something interesting was going on at the Capitol, as several members were hastening to it. Found the Senate closed against the public. The Representatives' Hall very full and some interesting debates, particularly the notice respecting Lafayette's death, and also remuneration to the families of the French sufferers at Toulon.

R. C. is considered very fond of show—prefers very tight boots, yet has four or five corns on each foot. Thinks we could not do without wigs and gowns in our English Courts of Justice. Wrote to C. D. by R. Crook who will put it into the office at N.Y. Paid for the gig to Mount Vernon, 4 dollars, though the usual charge for a day is only 3. Mentioned writing home to Mr. B. from Boston. R. C. mentioned his uncle Tipping[14] getting L5000 and not spending L500.


Got up at six and walked to F. Taylor's; after breakfast enquired for a letter at the bar, then at the post office but was disappointed. Visited the Patent Office, endless variety of models of all kinds. Then to Pishey Thompson[15] who kindly offered to go with me and also invited me to tea and to bring F. T.

Went with F. T. to the Army Office, and saw a great many likenesses of Indian Chiefs; then to the Naval Office; saw the bags containing conquered flags, and also models of ships. Thence we visited the room containing the original Declaration of American Independence; also several treaties containing the seals and signatures of George 3rd and Bonaparte, Louis Philippe, Bernadotte, etc., etc., and what was still more extraordinary, a drawer containing many gold and silver medals, with a most valuable gold snuff box studded with diamonds presented by the Emperor Alexander[16], valued at L1000; all these things were left open entirely to us, without any other person in the room; this I consider very wrong as leading into temptation and I predict they will soon have some plunderer, either Yankee or foreigner; on going away we expressed our surprise at the want of discretion; they said they had only missed one small gold coin. Thence I drove to the Capitol, visited both Chambers and also the Library which is beautiful and well-furnished. I saw Cobbett's works. On coming to dinner I met my old Scotch friend Rowlandson with a countryman coming out to purchase land. Went again to Congress; heard some animated debates concerning the Indian States. Spent the last evening very pleasantly at Mr. Thompson's where I had the pleasure to meet the Unitarian Minister, Mr. Paulfrey I think, also young Taylor, Mr. Rowlandson and his friend.


Found another person in R. C.'s bed which made a little more precaution necessary. Rose half past four, a very pleasant morning. Tasted the second piece of pineapple last night; very cheap, not more than 8 or 10 cents.

Taken to the boat in an omnibus an hour too soon, this a pretty general practice. Sailed 1/4 past seven, observed some boats not more than one yard across and about 5 yds. long like small canoes. Saw two turtles opposite to Washington Fort; they dived instantly; saw a good deal of grass on the Potomack, which is supposed to be carried off the land by the hurricanes. Thunder and lightning every evening but the last whilst at Washington. Dined at Fredricksburgh; paid 50 cents, and 5 dollars to Charlottesville, the road so far splendid, through woody country. Two intelligent persons in the stage, one addicted to chewing much tobacco and spitting; the matter was argued. Saw the first snake lying dead on the road side, about one yard long. The worm fence generally used. The trees generally ringed, an easy way of clearing the wood. The roads paved in some places by logs of wood thrown across. Stopped at Chestnut Hill for supper nearly half past eleven; had coffee, chickens, honey, and was charged 50 cents; on being complained of they said great uncertainty as to number; had to provide for 10 or 12 and sometimes only two or three came. The driver did not whip much, but spoke to his horses kindly, as Punch, Sammy, Phoebe, etc.

Got to Orange Court 1/4 past one, told we should be called at three; objected to a double-bedded room, afterwards shown another to myself, found the charge only 25 cents. The greater part of the negroes are slaves; one 40 years of age, worth 400 or 450 dollars; not allowed to remain here when freed; frequently bought by dealers who chain them together; the worst are generally disposed of first.


Rested very well; rose at half past three and set off at four; the road worse than any existing coal pit road I ever saw in England, full of ruts with stony rocks and stumps of wood projecting. Arrival at Gordonville to breakfast at six; paid 50 cents which I could not grudge as the coffee was very good. The road generally better, but in one or two places worse than ever I had seen before; many pigs and long-nosed boars with bristles like porcupines, active in discovering snakes; a black snake 2 feet long killed by the coachman's whip; a little farther on a large lizard; a young hare and two partridges; beautiful trees rising very high on both banks; several saw-mills; the planks covering the bridges are loose and some of them slender. Got to Charlottesville at ten; part of the way very sleepy, so that there is danger of falling especially when jolting.

Dined at Brookville, the first Blue Ridge Mountain, good plain dinner with excellent milk and honey. Walked up the mountain, saw great quantities of whinberries; a delightful stream of water near the summit.

Arrived at Staunton at seven, very sleepy the last stage; sometimes the driver and I asleep at the same time, and the road very hilly, quite wonderful that I should have arrived safe. Many of the houses here are built as in Switzerland; trees are just squared and notched, or dove-tailed at the ends; sometimes the interstices are filled with clay or mortar. The wild vine climbs to the top of the highest trees.


Rose at four having slept very soundly, a natural consequence of only two hours the night before and riding outside all day. Disappointed about getting a seat with the driver, which was occupied by a coloured man whom they would not permit to go inside. Found the passengers truly American, asking many questions and lauding the country. Passed through a forest chiefly of oak. A branch of walnut brushed across the coach and left a perfume behind. Paid for supper and bed 75 cents. Arrived 1/4 past seven A.M. Paid for breakfast 50 cents, the usual price in this town because not much frequented except at certain seasons to the spring. Breakfasted at Jenning's Gap. Just before ascending a steep part of the mountain I got out to walk but it began to rain and I had to resume my seat. The streams of mud through which we dashed were quite astounding. On descending we found no rain. Dined at Charrodale on venison taken in the mountains, 50 cents. One of our travellers, a German who plays on the guitar and the pianoforte, along with three others; he sang the "Swiss Boy" to us.

I here mounted the roof of the coach as the blacks were not permitted to enter it; before we got to the foot of the mountain there came on a terrible storm of thunder and lightning with tremendous rain. It cleared up and we had a beautiful drive over the mountain before descending to the warm springs. We descended safely, if the drag chain had snapt we should have been thrown down the precipice. Got to Warm Springs at seven; took coffee. Then took the bath which seemed very hot, though only called the Warm Springs, 96 degrees. Felt very warm in bed though not disagreeably so. Most of the trees are oak and pine.


Slept soundly after the bath so that I did not hear the thunder. The bedroom I hope the smallest I shall meet with; got up at half past four but not able to shave; obliged to sleep in my shirt, as the night-shirt was made wet by crushing a pineapple into the bag. On the road I stept down to feel the Hot Spring which was hot indeed, I did not learn the degrees. Breakfasted at Maurice Hill. Drove over mountains chiefly covered with oaks and pines; the chief danger in crossing these mountains is the snapping of the drag chain. Dined nearly one mile from Sulphur Springs; a good deal of company; ran down to the spring, the water a sulphur taste. Took leave of fellow passengers consisting of an elderly lady and her daughter of the name of Parker of Philadelphia, a family from Baltimore; a gentleman about sixty with his wife and two daughters, one not more than seven years, and a middle-aged lady born in London. We had spent two or three days very pleasantly and parted reluctantly. I received an invitation to their house. Set off to Lewisburgh and arrived a little before six; a little thriving place. The hill before descending to the White Sulphur Spring I find is the back-bone, as the streams flow each way; eastward into the Atlantic, and westward into the Mississippi. For some time past the negroes have been so numerous that whites have appeared rather strange. Some of the trees that are hollow are fired to drive out the squirrels, and others have been fired by lightning and others split by the same means. A double-bedded room.


Rose at half past three. Found my companion to be a member of Congress. There were two others in the stage, also a pleasing lady, wife to one of the members, also a young man, H. C. Hart, a midshipman, who was returning from a sail round the world, also a lively Frenchman. Breakfasted at Kamley. Dined at Deak.

The road as usual very hilly, covered with oak, pines, etc., also a curious honeysuckle and rhododendrons; the Hawk's Nest a jutting rock, 1100 feet high and a magnificent view of the river which does not appear 20 yards wide and is more than 200. Also the hills covered with trees, those below looking mere shrubs.

As we came near the Falls of Kanawha the bridge had been washed down, therefore we were ferried over; the road for some time carried alongside the rocks overhanging the river. Arrived 1/4 before ten at Kanawha, got supper and to bed at 1/4 past ten, to be called up at half past three. Eight beds in a large room; the window wide open, but I selected one of the beds the farthest off and secured my trousers under my pillow. The names of the two M.P.'s were Mr. Doon and Marshall McLatcher. Here I had the first introduction to mosquitoes, but they behaved rather mercifully, or perhaps my blood was not to their taste.


Rose half past three; dressed without a glass. On the road observed two little bears chained; they are fed one or two years and then eaten; these were about two months old. Also saw a quantity of pigs. A beautiful drive along the Kanawha. Indians farm on this side; mountains of fine timber on the other. Breakfasted 16 miles from the Falls, on good coffee and honey. Plenty of bucks' horns hung in the yard. Another young bear chained in a yard to be fed and eaten. 65,000 pigs driven last year through one turnpike gate. Large salt-works, the brine is pumped up and evaporated. Good coals are drawn out of the mountains on both sides of the valley, fine springs of gas escaping out of the surface which ignited on applying a live coal. The negroes said it would continue burning a week or two unless put out by rain.

Waited at Charleston nearly an hour and then found the coach filled with passengers, my seat particularly hot and disagreeable, so that I got outside; the driver refused to have more than one with him. I insisted on the seat, at length the other person went upon the roof, and I had a pleasant ride through hilly country covered with forest trees. On descending the hills one of the horses ran the coach wheel a little on the bank, so as nearly to throw it down the precipice. Again we forded the river in consequence of the bridge being washed away. Arrived at Guyandotte on the Ohio at half past eleven, got some coffee and entered the mail steamboat, where I slept pretty well notwithstanding the lightning and the shaking of the vessel.


Rose half past five at the sound of a bell so that the beds could be adjusted before breakfast; shaved and washed my mouth in iced water. Walked on shore to Portsmouth; saw a basket of offal beef thrown into the river; a warm morning, the ice on the butter steaming, 17 dishes of hot meat besides vegetables for the people. Paid to Maysville including breakfast and bed 3 dollars. Very much pleased with the cabin boy singing about "Father fighting for him and liberty," "Tennessee and liberty."

Arrived at Maysville at half past one.

Took a julep consisting of 1-1/2 glass of wine with plenty of sugar and ice, also several herbs, mint, etc., mingled together, making a richly flavoured beverage. Took some dinner but found nothing good but some cucumber and onion. Paid fare to Lexington, 4 dollars. Passed yesterday a chapel made of squared pines dove-tailed together. At sunset I and Mr. Hart the young midshipman, went and bathed in the Ohio, most delightfully warm and the current very strong. The river rose last winter but one, 63 feet.

Maysville, a very pretty place to stop a day or two. The beach is high and consequently has a fine view of the steam boats, which are often passing up and down this noble river.


Rose soon after six as the stage to proceed in does not come in till eight. Slept pretty well till about twelve, when a negro came to put down the window as he said a storm was coming; presently I heard thunder which became louder and was followed by heavy rain. At the hotel here, three fans were made to move overhead to cool and drive away the flies. It was pulled by a nice black girl. Paid for dinner, supper, bed and breakfast one dollar. The ferryboat moved across by means of six horses revolving round. No cyder to be had here, everyone drinking spirits or ale, the julep is called a hailstorm. Passed over some of the best and worst roads in the U.S. some limestone, and macadam and limestone. Came to the blue or sulphur springs resembling Harrogate; took some lemon juice in the water. Arrived at Hillsburgh at half past seven, having had nothing to eat since breakfast at seven. At Paris I parted with Mr. and Mrs. Marshall, and Mr. Hart the young midshipman, with considerable regret. Mr. M. had to explain on the way to his constituents. Mr. McLatcher continued with me to Lexington where we arrived at ten o'clock. After getting some coffee I hastened to bed, found three beds in the room, only one occupied. On the way yesterday we found a good deal of hemp grown, and much of it manufactured into bagging, etc. The land rolling or undulated is generally well cultivated.


Rose soon after six in expectation of finding out my old friend R. M.; rather disappointed to find from the innkeeper who is an Irishman, that the Monks were dispersed, only one remaining in the neighbourhood. He offered to walk with me to make further enquiry. At daybreak the drums announced the Day of Independence, which I find is to be celebrated in an extraordinary manner at Frankford. A half-brother of Richard Monks was sent for by the innkeeper; by him I learned the melancholy news of his brother's death which happened in Sept. 1832. He had left Lexington and settled at Louisville 3 or 4 months, then bought the half of a brother's estate opposite Troy on the Ohio; there his daughter married and settled at ——. Another son at Louisville keeping a coffee house. Walked with Mr. Monks to the College and heard two orations, vehement and abusive of the old country, lauding France and even Spain, the latter on account of Isabella who patronized Columbus, eulogised Bonaparte and declaimed against Russia for the treatment of the Poles; several negroes were peeping at the three doorways, but not allowed to enter or even to listen to an oration in favour of liberty.

Paid 5-1/2 dollars to Louisville. At home I am considered a quick eater, but here I have not half done before most have left the room. A gentleman I met here said the labour of the negroes in Louisiana cultivating sugar was excessive, so that the women have hardly any children. A factory 5 yards by 8, two storeys, 4 windows on one side, turned by three miserable blind horses. Disappointed that R. Monks' brother did not call, as he kept me waiting all afternoon. Slept two or three hours till the stage left at 12.


Awakened at half past eleven luckily; only two passengers but these took special care of themselves, lying along the seat sleeping all the way. The road exceedingly rough, so as to prevent me having a minute's sleep. Arrived at Frankford at six A.M., a very crowded inn. Never saw more drinking going on, all sorts of spirits, etc.; broken glass on the floor and an immense spitting box. A good road most of the way, limestone macadamised. A good many beech trees with some vines as thick as my leg climbing to the top. Only two passengers from Frankford and an agreeable breeze, so that I could not have done better in my own carriage. On coming out of Frankford we passed over a high old crazy bridge; changeable weather, thunder and rain and still very oppressively hot between the gleams. Arrived at Louisville 1/4 past five P.M. and felt less tired considering that I had not been in any bed but moving on for some days. Went to enquire for Mr. Hulme but found the canal office two miles off, therefore set about to find young Monks, but could learn nothing till I called at the Post Office where I got the information. Took coffee, then called upon him. Found him very busy supplying with spirits, and gave him Mr. Brandreth's letter and promised to call again when he was not so busy. Retired to bed at half past eight.

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