A New Orchard And Garden
by William Lawson
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{Transcriber's note:

This etext contains 1. A New Orchard and Garden, by William Lawson 2. The Country Housewifes Garden, by William Lawson 3. A Most Profitable new treatise, from approved experience of the Art of Propagating Plants, by Simon Harwood 4. The Husband Mans Fruitful Orchard

The first edition of "A New Orchard and Garden", which included "The Country Housewifes Garden" appeared in 1618; many further editions appeared over the period to 1695. The "Art of Propagating Plants" and "The Husband Mans Fruitful Orchard" appeared in all editions from 1623. This transcript is taken from the 1631 edition. The transcriber used a modern facsimile of the 1657 edition to clarify some doubtful readings.

The spelling and hyphenation in the original are erratic. No corrections have been made other than those listed at the end of the etext. The formatting of the original tables of contents has been normalised.

Sidenotes are enclosed in braces, prefixed with "SN" and placed before the paragraph in which they appear.

Transcriber's notes in the text are enclosed in braces and prefixed with "TN". }



The best way for planting, grafting, and to make any ground good, for a rich Orchard: Particularly in the North, and generally for the whole kingdome of England, as in nature, reason, situation, and all probabilitie, may and doth appeare.

With the Country Housewifes Garden for hearbes of common vse: their vertues, seasons, profits, ornaments, varietie of knots, models for trees, and plots for the best ordering of Grounds and Walkes.


The Husbandry of Bees, with their seuerall vses and annoyances being the experience of 48 yeares labour, and now the second time corrected and much enlarged, by William Lawson.

Whereunto is newly added the Art of propagating Plants, with the true ordering of all manner of Fruits, in their gathering, carrying home, & preseruation.

{Illustration: Skill and paines bring fruitfull gaines. Nemo sibi natus.}

LONDON, Printed by Nicholas Okes for IOHN HARISON, at the golden Vnicorne in Pater-noster-row. 1631.


Worthy Sir,

When in many yeeres by long experience I had furnished this my Northerne Orchard and Countrey Garden with needfull plants and vsefull hearbes, I did impart the view thereof to my friends, who resorted to me to conferre in matters of that nature, they did see it, and seeing it desired, and I must not denie now the publishing of it (which then I allotted to my priuate delight) for the publike profit of others. Wherefore, though I could pleade custome the ordinarie excuse of all Writers, to chuse a Patron and Protector of their Workes, and so shroud my selfe from scandall vnder your honourable fauour, yet haue I certaine reasons to excuse this my presumption: First, the many courtesies you haue vouchsafed me. Secondly, your delightfull skill in matters of this nature. Thirdly, the profit which I receiued from your learned discourse of Fruit-trees.

Fourthly, your animating and assisting of others to such endeuours. Last of all, the rare worke of your owne in this kind: all which to publish vnder your protection, I haue aduentured (as you see). Vouchsafe it therefore entertainement, I pray you, and I hope you shall finde it not the vnprofitablest seruant of your retinue: for when your serious employments are ouerpassed, it may interpose some commoditie, and raise your contentment out of varietie.

Your Worships most bounden,


THE PREFACE to all well minded.

Art hath her first originall out of experience, which therefore is called the Schoole-mistresse of fooles, because she teacheth infallibly, and plainely, as drawing her knowledge out of the course of Nature, (which neuer failes in the generall) by the senses, feelingly apprehending, and comparing (with the helpe of the minde) the workes of nature; and as in all other things naturall, so especially in Trees; for what is Art more then a prouident and skilfull Collectrix of the faults of Nature in particular workes, apprehended by the senses? As when good ground naturally brings forth thistles, trees stand too thicke, or too thin, or disorderly, or (without dressing) put forth vnprofitable suckers, and suchlike. All which and a thousand more, Art reformeth, being taught by experience: and therefore must we count that Art the surest, that stands vpon experimentall rules, gathered by the rule of reason (not conceit) of all other rules the surest.

Whereupon haue I of my meere and sole experience, without respect to any former written Treatise, gathered these rules, and set them downe in writing, not daring to hide the least talent giuen me of my Lord and Master in Heauen: neither is this iniurious to any, though it differ from the common opinion in diuers points, to make it knowne to others, what good I haue found out in this facultie by long triall and experience. I confesse freely my want of curious skill in the Art of planting. And I admire and praise Plinie, Aristotle, Virgil, Cicero, and many others for wit and iudgement in this kind, and leaue them to their times, manner, and seuerall Countries.

I am not determined (neither can I worthily) to set forth the praises of this Art: how some, and not a few, euen of the best, haue accounted it a chiefe part of earthly happinesse, to haue faire and pleasant Orchards, as in Hesperia and Thessaly, how all with one consent agree, that it is a chiefe part of Husbandry (as Tully de senectute) and Husbandry maintaines the world; how ancient, how profitable, how pleasant it is, how many secrets of nature it doth containe, how loued, how much practised in the best places, and of the best: This hath already beene done by many. I only aime at the common good. I delight not in curious conceits, as planting and graffing with the root vpwards, inoculating Roses on Thornes, and such like, although I haue heard of diuers prooued some, and read of moe.

The Stationer hath (as being most desirous with me, to further the common good) bestowed much cost and care in hauing the Knots and Models by the best Artizan cut in great varietie, that nothing might be any way wanting to satisfie the curious desire of those that would make vse of this Booke.

And I shew a plaine and sure way of planting, which I haue found good by 48. yeeres (and moe) experience in the North part of England: I preiudicate and enuie none, wishing yet all to abstaine from maligning that good (to them vnknowne) which is well intended. Farewell.

Thine, for thy good, W. L.

A Table of the things Contayned in this Booke

CHAP. 1. Of the Gardner his labour and wadges. pag. 1

CHAP. 2. Of the Soyle. p. 3 The kinds of trees. p. 3 Of barren earth. p. 4 Of Grasse. p. 5 Of the Crust of the earth. p. 6

CHAP. 3. Lowe & neere the Riuer. p. 6 Of Windes. p. 8 Of the Sunne. p. 8 Trees against a wall. p. 8

CHAP. 4. Of the quantity. p. 10 Orchards as good as a Corne-field. p. 10 Good as the Vineyard. p. 11 What quantity of ground. p. 11 Want no hinderance. p. 12 How Land-lords by their Tenants may make flourishing Orchards. p. 12

CHAP. 5. The forme of the Orchard. p. 12

CHAP. 6. Of Fences. p. 14 Effects of euill Fencing. p. 14 The kinds of Fencinge. p. 15 Of Pales and Rayles. p. 15 Of Stone-walles. p. 15 Of Quicksets and Moates. p. 16

CHAP. 7. Of Setts. p. 17 Of Slipps. p. 17 Of Burknots. p. 17 Of Small Setts. p. 18 Tying of Trees. p. 19 Signes of diseases. p. 19 Of Suckers. p. 20 A Running plant. p. 20 Of bought Setts. p. 21 The best Sett. p. 22 Times of remouing. p. 23 The manner of setting. p. 26

CHAP. 8. Of the distance of trees. p. 28 The hurts of too neere planting. p. 28 All touches hurtfull. p. 29 The best distance. p. 29 Of wast ground in an Orchard. p. 30

CHAP. 9. Of the placing of trees. p. 31

CHAP. 10. Of Grafting. p. 33 The kinds of Grafting. p. 34 How to Graft. p. 34 What a Graft is. p. 34 The eies of a Graft. p. 34 Time of Grafting. p. 35 Gathering of Grafts. p. 36 Of Incising. p. 37 Of Packing. p. 38 Of Inoculating. p. 39 Grafting in the Scutcheon. p. 39

CHAP. 11. The right dressing of trees. p. 40 Timber-wood euill drest. p. 41 The cause of hurts in wood. p. 42 How to dresse Timber. p. 43 The profit of dressing. p. 43-45 Trees will take any forme. p. 44 How to dresse all Fruit-trees. p. 44 The best times for proyning. p. 47 Faults of euill dressing and the remedies. p. 48 Of water-boughes. p. 49 Barke-pyld. p. 49-56 Instruments for dressing. p. 50

CHAP. 12 Of Foyling. p. 51 Time fit for Foyling. p. 53

CHAP. 13 Of Annoyances. p. 54 Two euills in an Orchard. p. 54 Of galls cankers, mosse &c. p. 55 Of wilfull annoyances. p. 60

CHAP. 14. Of the age of trees. p. 60 The parts of a trees age. p. 61 Of Mans age. p. 62 The age of timber-trees. p. 64 To discerne the age of trees. p. 65

CHAP. 15. Of gathering and keeping Fruit. p. 65

CHAP. 16. The profit of Orchards. p. 67 Of Cydar and Perry. p. 67 Of Fruit, Waters and Conserue. p. 68

CHAP. 17. Of Ornaments. p. 68 Of the delights. p. 69 The causes of delights. p. 70 Of Flowers, Borders, Mounts &c. p. 70 Of Bees. p. 72

THE BEST, SVRE AND READIEST VVAY to make a good Orchard and Garden.


Of the Gardner, and his Wages.

{SN: Religious.} Whosoeuer desireth & endeauoureth to haue a pleasant, and profitable Orchard, must (if he be able) prouide himselfe of a Fruicterer, religious, honest, skilful in that faculty, & therwithall painfull: By religious, I meane (because many think religion but a fashion or custome to go to Church) maintaining, & cherishing things religious: as Schooles of learning, Churches, Tythes, Church-goods, & rights; and aboue all things, Gods word, & the Preachers thereof, so much as he is able, practising prayers, comfortable conference, mutuall instruction to edifie, almes, and other works of Charity, and all out of a good conscience.

{SN: Honest.} Honesty in a Gardner, will grace your Garden, and all your house, and helpe to stay vnbridled Seruingmen, giuing offence to none, not calling your name into question by dishonest acts, nor infecting your family by euill counsell or example. For there is no plague so infectious as Popery and knauery, he will not purloine your profit, nor hinder your pleasures.

{SN: Skilfull.} Concerning his skill, he must not be a Scolist, to make shew or take in hand that, which he cannot performe, especially in so weighty a thing as an Orchard: than the which, there can be no humane thing more excellent, either for pleasure or profit, as shall (God willing) be proued in the treatise following. And what an hinderance shall it be, not onely to the owner, but to the common good, that the vnspeakeble benefit of many hundred yeeres shall be lost, by the audacious attempt of an vnskilfull Arborist.

{SN: Painfull.} The Gardner had not need be an idle, or lazie Lubber, for to your Orchard being a matter of such moment, will not prosper. There will euer be some thing to doe. Weedes are alwaies growing. The great mother of all liuing Creatures, the Earth, is full of seed in her bowels, and any stirring giues them heat of Sunne, and being laid neere day, they grow: Mowles worke daily, though not alwaies alike. Winter herbes at all times will grow (except in extreame frost.) In Winter your young trees and herbes would be lightned of snow, and your Allyes cleansed: drifts of snow will set Deere, Hares, and Conyes, and other noysome beasts ouer your walles & hedges, into your Orchard. When Summer cloathes your borders with greene and peckled colours, your Gardner must dresse his hedges, and antike workes: watch his Bees, and hiue them: distill his Roses and other herbes. Now begins Summer Fruit to ripe, and craue your hand to pull them. If he haue a Garden (as he must need) to keepe, you must needs allow him good helpe, to end his labours which are endlesse, for no one man is sufficient for these things.

{SN: Wages.} Such a Gardner as will conscionably, quietly and patiently, trauell in your Orchard, God shall crowne the labours of his hands with ioyfulnesse, and make the clouds drop fatnesse vpon your trees, he will prouoke your loue, and earne his wages, and fees belonging to his place: The house being serued, fallen fruite, superfluity of herbes, and flowers, seedes, grasses, sets, and besides all other of that fruit which your bountifull hand shall reward him withall, will much augment his wages, and the profit of your bees will pay you backe againe.

If you be not able, nor willing to hire a gardner, keepe your profits to your selfe, but then you must take all the pains: And for that purpose (if you want this faculty) to instruct you, haue I vndertaken these labours, and gathered these rules, but chiefly respecting my Countries good.

CHAP. 2.

Of the soyle.

{SN: Kinds of trees.} {SN: Soyle.} Fruit-trees most common, and meetest for our Northerne Countries: (as Apples, Peares, Cheries, Filberds, red and white Plummes, Damsons, and Bulles,) for we meddle not with Apricockes nor Peaches, nor scarcely with Quinces, which will not like in our cold parts, vnlesse they be helped with some reflex of Sunne, or other like meanes, nor with bushes, bearing berries, as Barberies, Goose-berries, or Grosers, Raspe-berries, and such like, though the Barbery be wholesome, and the tree may be made great: doe require (as all other trees doe) a blacke, fat, mellow, cleane and well tempered soyle, wherein they may gather plenty of good sap. Some thinke the Hasell would haue a chanily rocke, and the sallow, and eller a waterish marish. The soile is made better by deluing, and other meanes, being well melted, and the wildnesse of the earth and weedes (for euery thing subiect to man, and seruing his vse (not well ordered) is by nature subiect to the curse,) is killed by frosts and drought, by fallowing and laying on heapes, and if it be wild earth, with burning.

{SN: Barren earth.} If your ground be barren (for some are forced to make an Orchard of barren ground) make a pit three quarters deepe, and two yards wide, and round in such places, where you would set your trees, and fill the same with fat, pure, and mellow earth, one whole foot higher then your Soile, and therein set your Plant. For who is able to manure an whole Orchard plot, if it be barren? But if you determine to manure the whole site, this is your way: digge a trench halfe a yard deepe, all along the lower (if there be a lower) side of your Orchard plot, casting vp all the earth on the inner side, and fill the same with good short, hot, & tender muck, and make such another Trench, and fill the same as the first, and so the third, and so through out your ground. And by this meanes your plot shall be fertile for your life. But be sure you set your trees, neither in dung nor barren earth.

{SN: Plaine.} {SN: Moyst.} Your ground must be plaine, that it may receiue, and keepe moysture, not onely the raine falling thereon, but also water cast vpon it, or descending from higher ground by sluices, Conduits, &c. For I account moisture in Summer very needfull in the soile of trees, & drought in Winter. Prouided, that the ground neither be boggy, nor the inundation be past 24. houres at any time, and but twice in the whole Summer, and so oft in the Winter. Therefore if your plot be in a Banke, or haue a descent, make Trenches by degrees, Allyes, Walkes, and such like, so as the Water may be stayed from passage. And if too much water be any hinderance to your walks (for dry walkes doe well become an Orchard, and an Orchard them:) raise your walkes with earth first, and then with stones, as bigge as Walnuts: and lastly, with grauell. In Summer you need not doubt too much water from heauen, either to hurt the health of your body, or of your trees. And if ouerflowing molest you after one day, auoid it then by deepe trenching.

Some for this purpose dig the soile of their Orchard to receiue moisture, which I cannot approue: for the roots with digging are oftentimes hurt, and especially being digged by some vnskilfull seruant: For the Gardiner cannot doe all himselfe. And moreouer, the roots of Apples & Peares being laid neere day, with the heate of the Sun, will put forth suckers, which are a great hinderance, and sometimes with euill guiding, the destruction of trees, vnlesse the deluing be very shallow, and the ground laid very leuell againe. Cherries and Plummes without deluing, will hardly or neuer (after twenty yeares) be kept from such suckers, nor aspes.

{SN: Grasse.} Grasse also is thought needfull for moisture, so you let it not touch the roots of your trees: for it will breed mosse, and the boall of your tree neere the earth would haue the comfort of the Sunne and Ayre.

Some take their ground to be too moist when it is not so, by reason of waters standing thereon, for except in soure marshes, springs, and continuall ouerflowings, no earth can be too moyst. Sandy & fat earth will auoid all water falling by receit. Indeed a stiffe clay will not receiue the water, and therefore if it be grassie or plaine, especially hollow, the water will abide, and it wil seeme waterish, when the fault is in the want of manuring, and other good dressing.

{SN: Naturally plaine.} {SN: Crust of the earth.} This plainnesse which we require, had need be naturall, because to force an vneuen ground will destroy the fatnesse. For euery soile hath his crust next day wherein trees and herbes put their roots, and whence they draw their sap, which is the best of the soile, and made fertile with heat and cold, moisture and drought, and vnder which by reason of the want of the said temperature, by the said foure qualities, no tree nor herbe (in a manner) will or can put root. As may be seene if in digging your ground, you take the weeds of most growth: as grasse or docks, (which will grow though they lie vpon the earth bare) yet bury them vnder the crust, and they will surely dye and perish, & become manure to your ground. This crust is not past 15. or 18. inches deepe in good ground, in other grounds lesse. Hereby appeares the fault of forced plaines, viz. your crust in the lower parts, is couered with the crust of the higher parts, and both with worse earth: your heights hauing the crust taken away, are become meerely barren: so that either you must force a new crust, or haue an euill soile. And be sure you leuell, before you plant, lest you be forced to remoue, or hurt your plants by digging, and casting amongst their roots. Your ground must be cleered as much as you may of stones, and grauell, walls, hedges, bushes, & other weeds.

CHAP. 3.

Of the Site.

{SN: Low and neere a Riuer.} There is no difference, that I find betwixt the necessity of a good soile, and a good site of an Orchard. For a good soile (as is before described) cannot want a good site, and if it do, the fruit cannot be good, and a good site will much mend an euill soile. The best site is in low grounds, (and if you can) neere vnto a Riuer. High grounds are not naturally fat.

And if they haue any fatnesse by mans hand, the very descent in time doth wash it away. It is with grounds in this case as it is with men in a common wealth. Much will haue more: and once poore, seldome or neuer rich. The raine will scind, and wash, and the wind will blow fatnesse from the heights to the hollowes, where it will abide, and fatten the earth though it were barren before.

{SN: Psal. 1. 3.} {SN: Ezek. 17. 8.} {SN: Eccl. 39. 17.} {SN: Mr. Markham.} Hence it is, that we haue seldome any plaine grounds, and low, barren: and as seldome any heights naturally fertill. It is vnspeakeable, what fatnesse is brought to low grounds by inundations of waters. Neither did I euer know any barren ground in a low plaine by a Riuer side. The goodnesse of the soile in Howle or Hollowdernes, in York-shire, is well knowne to all that know the Riuer Humber, and the huge bulkes of their Cattell there. By estimation of them that haue seene the low grounds in Holland and Zealand they farre surpasse the most Countries in Europe for fruitfulnesse, and only because they lie so low. The world cannot compare with AEgypt, for fertility, so farre as Nilus doth ouer flow his bankes. So that a fitter place cannot be chosen for an Orchard, then a low plaine by a riuer side. For besides the fatnesse which the water brings, if any cloudy mist or raine be stirring, it commonly falls downe to, and followes the course of the Riuer. And where see we greater trees of bulke and bough, then standing on or neere the waters side? If you aske why the plaines in Holderns, and such countries are destitute of woods? I answer that men and cattell (that haue put trees thence, from out of Plaines to void corners) are better then trees. Neither are those places without trees. Our old fathers can tel vs, how woods are decaied, & people in the roomth of trees multiplied. I haue stood somwhat long in this poynt, because some do condemne a moist soile for fruit-trees.

{SN: Winds. Chap. 13.} A low ground is good to auoide the danger of winds, both for shaking downe your vnripe fruite. Trees the most (that I know) being loaden with wood, for want of proyning, and growing high, by the vnskilfulnesse of the Arborist, must needes be in continuall danger of the South-west, West, and North west winds, especially in September and March, when the aire is most temperate from extreme heat, and cold, which are deadly enemies to great winds. Wherefore chuse your ground low: Or if you be forced to plant in a higher ground, let high and strong wals, houses, and trees, as wall-nuts, plane trees, Okes, and Ashes, placed in good order, be your fence for winds.

The sucken of your dwelling house, descending into your orchard, if it be cleanly conueyed, is good.

{SN: Sunne.} The Sunne, in some sort, is the life of the world. It maketh proud growth, and ripens kindly, and speedily, according to the golden tearme: Annus fructificat, non tellus. Therefore in the countries, neerer approching the Zodiake, the Sunnes habitation, they haue better, and sooner ripe fruite, then we that dwell in these frozen parts.

{SN: Trees against a wall.} This prouoketh most of our great Arborists, to plant Apricockes, Cherries and Peaches, by a wall, and with tackes, and other meanes to spread them vpon, and fasten them to a wall, to haue the benefit of the immoderate reflexe of the Sunne, which is commendable, for the hauing of faire, good & soone ripe fruit. But let them know it is more hurtfull to their trees then the benefit they reape therby: as not suffering a tree to liue the tenth part of his age. It helpes Gardners to worke, for first the wall hinders the roots, because into a dry and hard wall of earth or stone a tree will not, nor cannot put any root to profit, but especially it stops the passage of sap, whereby the barke is wounded, & the wood, & diseases grow, so that the tree becomes short of life. For as in the body of a man, the leaning or lying on some member, wherby the course of bloud is stopt, makes that member as it were dead for the time, till the bloud returne to his course, and I thinke, if that stopping should continue any time, the member would perish for want of bloud (for the life is in the bloud) and so endanger the body: so the sap is the life of the tree, as the bloud is to mans body: neither doth the tree in winter (as is supposed) want his sap, no more then mans body his bloud, which in winter, and time of sleep draws inward. So that the dead time of winter, to a tree, is but a night of rest: for the tree at all times, euen in winter is nourished with sap, & groweth as well as mans body. The chilling cold may well some little time stay, or hinder the proud course of the sap, but so little & so short a time, that in calme & mild season, euen in the depth of winter, if you marke it, you may easily perceiue, the sap to put out, and your trees to increase their buds, which were formed in the summer before, & may easily be discerned: for leaues fall not off, til they be thrust off, with the knots or buds, wherupon it comes to passe that trees cannot beare fruit plentifully two yeares together, and make themselues ready to blossome against the seasonablenesse of the next Spring.

And if any frost be so extreme, that it stay the sap too much, or too long, then it kils the forward fruit in the bud, and sometimes the tender leaues and twigs, but not the tree. Wherefore, to returne, it is perillous to stop the sap. And where, or when, did you euer see a great tree packt on a wall? Nay, who did euer know a tree so vnkindly splat, come to age? I haue heard of some, that out of their imaginary cunning, haue planted such trees, on the North side of the wall, to auoide drought, but the heate of the Sunne is as comfortable (which they should haue regarded) as the drought is hurtfull. And although water is a soueraigne remedy against drought, ye want of Sun is no way to be helped. Wherefore to conclude this Chapter, let your ground lie so, that it may haue the benefit of the South, and West Sun, and so low and close, that it may haue moysture, and increase his fatnesse (for trees are the greatest suckers & pillers of earth) and (as much as may be) free from great winds.

CHAP. 4.

Of the quantity.

{SN: Orchard as good as a corn-field.} {SN: Compared with a vinyard.} {SN: Compared with a garden.} It would be remembred what a benefit riseth, not onely to euery particular owner of an Orchard, but also to the common wealth, by fruit, as shall be shewed in the 16. Chapter (God willing) whereupon must needes follow: the greater the Orchard is (being good and well kept) the better it is, for of good things, being equally good, the biggest is the best. And if it shall appeare, that no ground a man occupieth (no, not the corne field) yeeldeth more gaine to the purse, and house keeping (not to speake of the vnspeakeable pleasure) quantity for quantity, than a good Orchard (besides the cost in planting, and dressing an orchard, is not so much by farre, as the labour and feeding of your corne fields, nor for durance of time, comparable, besides the certainty of the on before the other) I see not how any labour, or cost in this kind, can be idly or wastfully bestowed, or thought too much. And what other things is a vineyard, in those countries where vines doe thriue, than a large Orchard of trees bearing fruit? Or what difference is there in the iuice of the Grape, and our Cyder & Perry, but the goodnes of the soile & clime where they grow? which maketh the one more ripe, & so more pleasant then the other. What soeuer can be said for the benefit rising from an orchard, that makes for the largenesse of the Orchards bounds. And (me thinkes) they do preposterously, that bestow more cost and labours, and more ground in and vpon a garden than vpon an orchard, whence they reape and may reape both more pleasure and more profit, by infinite degrees. And further, that a Garden neuer so fresh, and faire, and well kept, cannot continue without both renewing of the earth and the hearbs often, in the short and ordinary age of a man: whereas your Orchard well kept shall dure diuers hundred yeares, as shall be shewed chap. 14. In a large orchard there is much labour saued, in fencing, and otherwise: for three little orchards, or few trees, being, in a manner, all out-sides, are so blasted and dangered, and commonly in keeping neglected, and require a great fence; whereas in a great Orchard, trees are a mutuall fence one to another, and the keeping is regarded, and lesse fencing serues sixe acres together, than three in seuerall inclosures.

{SN: What quantity of ground.} Now what quantity of ground is meetest for an Orchard can no man prescribe, but that must be left to euery mans seuerall iudgement, to be measured according to his ability and will, for other necessaries besides fruite must be had, and some are more delighted with orchard then others.

{SN: Want is no hinderance.} {SN: How Land-lords by their Tenants may make flourishing Orchards in England.} Let no man hauing a fit plot plead pouerty in this case, for an orchard once planted will maintaine it selfe, and yeeld infinite profit besides. And I am perswaded, that if men did know the right and best way of planting, dressing, and keeping trees, and felt the profit and pleasure thereof, both they that haue no orchards would haue them, & they that haue orchards, would haue them larger, yea fruit-trees in their hedges, as in Worcester-shire, &c. And I think, that the want of planting, is a great losse to our common-wealth, & in particular, to the owners of Lord-ships, which Land lords themselues might easily amend, by granting longer terme, and better assurance to their tenants, who haue taken vp this Prouerbe Botch and sit, Build and flit: for who will build or plant for an other mans profit? Or the Parliament mighte ioyne euery occupier of grounds to plant and mainetaine for so many acres of fruitfull ground, so many seuerall trees or kinds of trees for fruit. Thus much for quantity.

CHAP. 5.

Of the forme.

{SN: The vsuall forme is a square.} The goodnesse of the soile, and site, are necessary to the wel being of an orchard simply, but the forme is so farre necessary, as the owner shall thinke meete, for that kind of forme wherewith euery particular man is delighted, we leaue it to himselfe, Suum cuique pulchrum. The forme that men like in generall is a square, for although roundnesse be forma perfectissima, yet that principle is good where necessity by art doth not force some other forme. If within one large square the Gardner shall make one round Labyrinth or Maze with some kind of Berries, it will grace your forme, so there be sufficient roomth left for walkes, so will foure or more round knots do. For it is to be noted, that the eye must be pleased with the forme. I haue seene squares rising by degrees with stayes from your house-ward, according to this forme which I haue, Crassa quod aiunt Minerua, with an vnsteady hand, rough hewen, for in forming the country gardens, the better sort may vse better formes, and more costly worke. What is needefull more to be sayd, I referre that all (concerning the Forme,) to the Chapter 17 of the ornaments of an Orchard.


A. Al these squares must bee set with trees, the Gardens and other ornaments must stand in spaces betwixt the trees, & in the borders & fences.

B. Trees 20. yards asunder.

C. Garden Knots.

D. Kitchen garden.

E. Bridge.

F. Conduit.

G. Staires.

H. Walkes set with great wood thicke.

I. Walkes set with great wood round about your Orchard.

K. The out fence.

L. The out fence set with stone-fruite.

M. Mount. To force earth for a mount, or such like set it round with quicke, and lay boughes of trees strangely intermingled tops inward, with the earth in the midle.

N. Still-house.

O. Good standing for Bees, if you haue an house.

P. If the riuer run by your doore, & vnder your mount, it will be pleasant.}

CHAP. 6.

Of Fences.

{SN: Effects of euill fencing.} {SN: Let the fence be your owne.} All your labour past and to come about an Orchard is lost vnlesse you fence well. It shall grieue you much to see your young sets rubd loose at the rootes, the barke pild, the boughes and twigs cropt, your fruite stolne, your trees broken, and your many yeares labours and hopes destroyed, for want of fences. A chiefe care must be had in this point. You must therefore plant in such a soile, where you may prouide a conuenient, strong and seemely fence. For you can possesse no goods, that haue so many enemies as an orchard, looke Chapter 13. Fruits are so delightsome, and desired of so many (nay, in a manner of all) and yet few will be at cost and take paines to prouide them. Fence well therefore, let your plot be wholly in your owne power, that you make all your fence your selfe: for neighbours fencing is none at all, or very carelesse. Take heed of a doore or window, (yea of a wall) of any other mans into your orchard: yea, though it be nayld vp, or the wall be high, for perhaps they will proue theeues.

{SN: Kinds of fences, earthen walles.} All Fences commonly are made of Earth, Stone, Bricke, Wood, or both earth and wood. Dry wall of earth, and dry Ditches, are the worst fences saue pales or railes, and doe waste the soonest, vnlesse they be well copt with glooe and morter, whereon at Mighill-tide it will be good to sow Wall-flowers, commonly called Bee-flowers, or winter Gilly-flowers, because they will grow (though amongst stones) and abide the strongest frost and drought, continually greene and flowring euen in Winter, and haue a pleasant smell, and are timely, (that is, they will floure the first and last of flowers) and are good for Bees. And your earthen wall is good for Bees dry and warme. But these fences are both vnseemly, euill to repaire, and onely for need, where stone or wood cannot be had. Whosoeuer makes such Walles, must not pill the ground in the Orchard, for getting earth, nor make any pits or hallowes, which are both vnseemly and vnprofitable. Old dry earth mixt with sand is best for these. This kind of wall will soone decay, by reason of the trees which grow neere it, for the roots and boales of great trees, will increase, vndermine, and ouerturne such walles, though they were of stone, as is apparant by Ashes, Rountrees, Burt-trees, and such like, carried in the chat, or berry, by birds into stone-walles.

{SN: Pale and Raile.} Fences of dead wood, as pales, will not last, neither will railes either last or make good fence.

{SN: Stone walls.} Stone walles (where stone may be had) are the best of this sort, both for fencing, lasting, and shrouding of your young trees. But about this must you bestow much paines and more cost, to haue them handsome, high and durable.

{SN: Quicke wood and Moates.} But of all other (in mine owne opinion) Quickwood, and Moats or Ditches of water, where the ground is leuell, is the best fence. In vnequall grounds, which will not keepe water, there a double ditch may be cast, made streight and leuel on the top, two yards broad for a faire walke, fiue or sixe foot higher then the soyle, with a gutter on either side, two yards wide, and foure foot deepe set with out, with three or foure chesse of Thorns, and within with Cherry, Plumme, Damson, Bullys, Filbirds, (for I loue these trees better for their fruit, and as well for their forme, as priuit) for you may make them take any forme. And in euery corner (and middle if you will) a mount would be raised, whereabout the wood may claspe, powdered with wood-binde: which wil make with dressing a faire, plesant, profitable, & sure fence. But you must be sure that your quicke thornes either grow wholly, or that there be a supply betime, either with planting new, or plashing the old where need is. And assure your selfe, that neither wood, stone, earth, nor water, can make so strong a fence, as this after seuen yeares growth.

{SN: Moates.} Moates, Fish-ponds, and (especially at one side a Riuer) within and without your fence, will afford you fish, fence, and moysture to your trees, and pleasure also, if they be so great and deepe that you may haue Swans, & other water birds, good for deuouring of vermine, and boat for many good vses.

It shall hardly auaile you to make any fence for your Orchard, if you be a niggard of your fruit. For as liberality will saue it best from noysome neighbours, liberality I say is the best fence, so Iustice must restraine rioters. Thus when your ground is tempered, squared, and fenced, it is time to prouide for planting.

CHAP. 7.

Of Sets.

There is not one point (in my opinion) about an Orchard more to be regarded, than the choyce getting and setting of good plants, either for readinesse or hauing good fruite, or for continuall lasting. For whosoeuer shall faile in the choyce of good Sets, or in getting, or gathering, or setting his plants, shall neuer haue a good or lasting Orchard. And I take want of skill in this faculty to be a chiefe hinderance to the most Orchards, and to many for hauing of Orchards at all.

{SN: Slips.} Some for readinesse vse slips, which seldome take roote: and if they doe take, they cannot last, both because their roote hauing a maine wound will in short time decay the body of the tree: and besides that rootes being so weakely put, are soone nipt with drought or frost. I could neuer see (lightly) any slip but of apples onely set for trees.

{SN: Bur-knot.} A Bur-knot kindly taken from an Apple tree, is much better and surer. You must cut him close at the roote ende, an handfull vnder the knot. (Some vse in Summer about Lammas to circumcise him, and put earth to the knots with hay roaps, and in winter cut him off and set him, but this is curiosity, needlesse, and danger with remouing, and drought,) and cut away all his twigs saue one, the most principall, which in setting you must leaue aboue the earth, burying his trunk in the crust of the earth for his root. It matters not much what part of the bough the twig growes out of. If it grow out of or neere the roote end, some say such an Apple will haue no coare nor kirnell. Or if it please the Plantor, he may let his bough be crooked, and leaue out his top end, one foote or somewhat more, wherein will be good grafting, if either you like not, or doubt the fruite of the bough (for commonly your bur-knots are summer fruit) or if you thinke he will not couer his wound safely.

{SN: Vsuall Sets.} {SN: Maine rootes cut.} {SN: Stow sets remoued.} {SN: Generall rule.} {SN: Tying of trees.} {SN: Generall rule.} {SN: Signes of diseases, Chap 13.} The most vsuall kind of sets, is plants with rootes growing of kirnels of Apples, Peares, and Crabbes, or stones of Cherries, Plummes, &c. Remoued out of a Nursery, Wood or other Orchard, into, and set in your Orchard in their due places I grant this kind to be better than either of the former, by much, as more sure and more durable. Herein you must note that in sets so remoued, you get all the roots you can; and without brusing of any; I vtterly dislike the opinion of those great Gardners, that following their Bookes would haue the maine rootes cut away, for tops cannot growe without rootes. And because none can get all the rootes, and remouall is an hinderance, you may not leaue on all tops, when you set them: For there is a proportion betwixt the top and root of a tree, euen in the number (at least) in the growth. If the roots be many, they will bring you many tops, if they be not hindred. And if you vse to stow or top your tree too much or too low, and leaue no issue, or little for sap, (as is to be seene in your hedges) it will hinder the growth of rootes and boale, because such a kind of stowing is a kind of smothering, or choaking the sap. Great wood, as Oke, Elme, Ash, &c. being continually kept downe with sheeres, knife, axe, &c. neither boale nor roote will thriue, but as an hedge or bush. If you intend to graff in your Set, you may cut him closer with a greater wound, and nearer the earth, within a foote or two, because the graft or grafts will couer his wound. If you like his fruite, and would haue him to be a tree of himselfe, be not so bold: this I can tell you, that though you do cut his top close, and leaue nothing but his bulke, because his rootes are few, if he be (but little) bigger than your thumbe (as I with all plants remoued to be) he will safely recouer wound within seuen yeares; by good guidance that is. In the next time of dressing immediatly aboue his vppermost sprig, you cut him off aslope cleanely, to that the sprigge stand on the backe side, (and if you can Northward, that the wound may haue the benefit of Sunne) at the vpper ende of the wound: and let that sprigge onely be the boale. And take this for a generall rule; Euery young plant, if he thriue, will recouer any wound aboue the earth, by good dressing, although it be to the one halfe, and to his very heart. This short cutting at the remoue, saues your plants from Wind, and neede the lesse or no staking. I commend not Lying or Leaning of trees against holds or stayres; for it breedes obstruction of sap and wounds incureable. All remouing of trees as great as your arme, or aboue, is dangerous: though sometime some such will grow but not continue long: Because they be tainted with deadly wounds, either in the roote or top. (And a tree once throughly tainted is neuer good) And though they get some hold in the earth with some lesser taw, or tawes, which giue some nourishment to the body of the tree: yet the heart being tainted, he will hardly euer thriue; which you may easily discerne by the blackenesse of the boughes at the heart, when you dresse your trees. Also, when he is set with moe tops than the rootes can nourish, the tops decaying, blacken the boughes, and the boughs the armes, and so they boile at the very heart. Or this taint in the remouall, if it kill not presently, but after some short time, it may be discerned by blacknesse or yellownesse in the barke, and a small hungred leafe. Or if your remoued plant put forth leaues the next and second summer, and little or few spraies, it is a great signe of a taint, and next yeares death. I haue knowne a tree tainted in setting, yet grow, & beare blossomes for diuers yeares: and yet for want of strength could neuer shape his fruit.

{SN: Suckers good sets.} Next vnto this or rather equall with these plants, are suckers growing out of the roots of great trees, which cherries and plums do seldome or neuer want: and being taken kindly with their roots, will make very good sets. And you may helpe them much by enlarging their rootes with the taws of the tree, whence you take them. They are of two sorts: Either growing from the very root of the tree: and here you must be carefull, not to hurt your tree when you gather them, by ripping amongst the rootes; and that you take them cleane away: for these are a great and continuall annoyance to the growth of your tree: and they will hardly be cleansed. Secondly, or they do arise from some taw: and these may be taken without danger, with long and good rootes, and will soone become trees of strength.

{SN: A running Plant.} There is another way, which I haue not throughly proued, to get not onely plants for graffing, but sets to remaine for trees, which I call a Running Plant: the manner of it is this: Take a roote or kirnell, and put it into the middle of your plot, and the second yeare in the spring, geld his top, if he haue one principall (as commonly by nature they haue) and let him put forth onely foure Cyons toward the foure corners of the orchard, as neere the earth as you can. If he put not foure, (which is rare) stay his top till he haue put so many. When you haue such foure, cut the stocke aslope, as is aforesayd in this chapter, hard aboue the vttermost sprig, & keepe those foure without Cyons cleane and straight, till you haue them a yard and a halfe, at least, or two yards long. Then the next spring in grassing time, lay downe those foure sprayes, towards the foure corners of your Orchard, with their tops in an heape of pure and good earth, and railed as high as the roote of your Cyon (for sap will not descend) and a sod to keepe them downe, leauing nine or twelue inches of the top to looke vpward. In that hill he will put rootes, and his top new Cyons, which you must spread as before, and so from hill to hill till he spread the compasse of your ground, or as farre as you list. If in bending, the Cyons cracke, the matter is small, cleanse the ground and he will recouer. Euery bended bough will put forth branches, and become trees. If this plant be of a burre knot, there is no doubt. I haue proued it in one branch my selfe: and I know at Wilton in Cleeue-land a Peare-tree of a great bulke and age, blowne close to the earth, hath put at euery knot rootes into the earth, and from roote to top, a great number of mighty armes or trees, filling a great roomth, like many trees, or a little Orchard. Much better may it be done by Art in a lesse tree. And I could not mislike this kind, saue that the time will be long before it come to perfection.

{SN: Sets bought.} Many vse to buy sets already grafted, which is not the best way: for first, All remoues are dangerous: Againe, there is danger in the carriage: Thirdly, it is a costly course of planting: Fourthly, euery Gardner is not trusty to sell you good fruite: Fifthly, you know not which is best, which is worst, and so may take most care about your worst trees. Lastly, this way keepes you from practise, and so from experience in so good, Gentlemanly, Scholerlike, and profitable a faculty.

{SN: The best sets.} {SN: Vnremoued how.} The onely best way (in my opinion) to haue sure and lasting sets, is neuer to remoue: for euery remoue is an hinderance, if not a dangerous hurt or deadly taint. This is the way. The plot forme being layd, and the plot appointed where you will plant euery set in your orchard, digge the roomth, where your sets shall stand, a yard compasse, and make the earth mellow and cleane, and mingle it with a few coale-ashes, to auoide wormes: and immediately after the first change of the Moone, in the latter end of February, the earth being a fresh turn'd ouer, put in euery such roomth three or foure kirnels of Apples or Peares, of the best: euery kirnell in an hole made with your finger, finger deepe, a foote distant one from another: and that day moneth following, as many moe, (lest some of the former misse) in the same compasse; but not in the same holes. Hence (God willing) shall you haue rootes enough. If they all, or diuers of them come vp, you may draw (but not digge) vp (nor put downe) at your pleasure, the next Nouember. How many soeuer you take away, to giue or bestow elsewhere, be sure to leaue two of the proudest. And when in your 2. and 3. yeare you Graffe, if you graffe then at all, leaue the one of those two vngraffed, lest in graffing the other you faile: For I find by tryall, that after first or second graffing in the same stocke, being mist (for who hits all) the third misse puts your stocke in deadly danger, for want of issue of sap. Yea, though you hit in graffing, yet may your graffes with winde or otherwise be broken downe. If your graffes or graffe prosper, you haue your desire, in a plant vnremoued, without taint, and the fruite at your owne choyce, and so you may (some little earth being remooued) pull, but not digge vp the other Plant or Plants in that roomth. If your graffe or stocke, or both perish, you haue another in the same place, of better strength to worke vpon. For thriuing without snub he will ouer-lay your grafted stocke much. And it is hardly possible to misse in graffing so often, if your Gardiner be worth his name.

{SN: Sets vngrafted best of all.} It shall not be amisse (as I iudge it) if your Kirnels be of choyce fruite, and that you see them come forward proudly in their body, and beare a faire and broad leafe in colour, tending to a greenish yellow (which argues pleasant and great fruit) to try some of them vngraffed: for although it be a long time ere this come to beare fruit, ten or twelue yeares, or moe; and at their first bearing, the fruit will not seeme to be like his owne kind: yet am I assured, vpon tryall, before twenty yeares growth, such trees will increase the bignesse and goodnesse of their fruite, and come perfectly to their owne kind. Trees (like other breeding creatures) as they grow in yeares, bignes and strength, so they mend their fruit. Husbands and Houswiues find this true by experience, in the rearing of their yong store. More then this, there is no tree like this for soundnes and dureable last, if his keeping and dressing be answerable. I grant, the readiest way to come soone to fruit is graffing: because in a manner, all your graffes are taken of fruit bearing trees.

{SN: Time of remouing.} {SN: Generall rule.} Now when you haue made choise of your sets to remoue, the ground being ready, the best time is, immediatly after the fall of the leafe, in, or about the change of the Moone, when the sap is most quiet: for then the sap is in turning: for it makes no stay, but in the extremity of drought or cold. At any time in winter, may you transplant trees so you put no ice nor snow to the root of your plant in the setting: and therefore open, calme and moist weather is best. To remoue, the leafe being ready to fall and not fallen, or buds apparantly put forth in a moist warme season, for need, sometime may do well: but the safest is to walke in the plaine trodden path.

Some hold opinion that it is best remouing before the fall of the leafe, and I heare it commonly practised in the South by our best arborists, the leafe not fallen: and they giue the reason to be, that the descending of the sap will make speedy rootes. But marke the reasons following and I thinke you shall find no soundnesse, either in that position or practise, at least in the reason.

1. I say, it is dangerous to remoue when the sap is not quiet, for euery remoue giues a maine checke to the stirring sap, by staying the course therof in the body of your plant, as may appeare in trees remoued any time in summer, they commonly dye, nay hardly shall you saue the life of the most young and tender plant of any kinde of wood (scarcely herbes) if you remoue them in the pride of sap. For proud sap vniuersally staied by remoual, euer hinders; often taints and so presently, or in very short time kills. Sap is like bloud in mans body, in which is the life, Cap. 3. p. 9. If the blood vniuersally be cold, life is excluded; so is sap tainted by vntimely remouall. A stay by drought, or cold, is not so dangerous (though dangerous if it be extreme) because more naturall.

2. The sap neuer descends, as men suppose, but is consollidated & transubstantiated into the substance of the tree, and passeth (alwayes aboue the earth) vpward, not onely betwixt the barke and the wood, but also into and in both body & barke, though not so plentifully, as may appeare by a tree budding, nay fructifying two or three yeres, after he be circumcised at the very root, like a riuer that inlargeth his channel by a continual descent.

3. I cannot perceiue what time they would haue the sap to descend. At Midsommer in a biting drought it staies, but descends not, for immediatly vpon moisture it makes second shoots, at (or before rather) Michaeltide, when it shapens his buds for next yeares fruit. If at the fal of leafe, I grant, about that time is the greatest stand, but no descent, of sap, which begins somwhat before the leafe fall, but not long, therfore at that time must be the best remouing, not by reason of descent, but stay of sap.

4. The sap in this course hath his profitable and apparant effects, as the growth of the tree, couering of wounds, putting of buds, &c. Wherupon it follows, if the sap descend, it must needs haue some effect to shew it.

5. Lastly, boughs plasht and laid lower then the root, dye for want of sap descending, except where it is forced by the maine streame of the sap, as in top boughs hanging like water in pipes, or except the plasht bough lying on the ground put rootes of his owne, yea vnder boughs which we commonly call water boughs, can scarcely get sap to liue, yea in time dye, because the sap doth presse so violently vpward, and therefore the fairest shootes and fruits are alwayes in the top.

{SN: Remooue soone.} Obiect. If you say that many so remoued thriue, I say that somewhat before the fall of the leafe (but not much) is the stand, for the fall & the stand are not at one instant, before the stand is dangerous. But to returne.

The sooner in winter you remoue your sets, the better; the latter the worse: For it is very perillous if a strong drought take your Sets before they haue made good their rooting. A Plant set at the fall, shall gaine (in a a manner) a whole yeeres growth of that which is set in the Spring after.

{SN: The manner of setting.} I vse in the setting to be sure, that the earth be mouldy, (and somewhat moist) that it may runne among the small tangles without straining or bruising: and as I fill in earth to his root, I shake the Set easily to and fro, to make the earth settle the better to his roots: and withall easily with my foot I put in the earth close; for ayre is noysome, and will follow concauities. Some prescribe Oates to be put in with the earth. I could like it, if I could know any reason thereof: and they vse to set their Plant with the same side toward the Sunne: but this conceit is like the other. For first I would haue euery tree to stand so free from shade, that not onely the root (which therefore you must keepe bare from graffe) but body, boughes, and branches, and euery spray, may haue the benefit of Sunne. And what hurt, if that part of the tree, that before was shadowed, be now made partaker of the heat of the Sunne? In turning of Bees, I know it is hurtfull, because it changeth their entrance, passage, and whole worke: But not so in Trees.

{SN: Set in the crust.} Set as deepe as you can, so that in any wise you goe not beneath the crust. Looke Chap. 2.

{SN: Moysture good.} We speake in the second Chapter of moysture in generall: but now especially hauing put your remoued plant into the earth, powre on water (of a puddle were good) by distilling presently, and so euery weeke twice in strong drought, so long as the earth will drinke, and refuse by ouerflowing. For moisture mollifies, and both giues leaue to the roots to spread, and makes the earth yeeld sap and nourishment with plenty & facility. Nurses (they say) giue most & best milke after warme drinks.

If your ground be such that it will keepe no moisture at the root of your plant, such plant shall neuer like, or but for a time. There is nothing more hurtfull for young trees then piercing drought. I haue known trees of good stature after they haue beene of diuers yeeres growth, & thriue well for a good time, perish for want of water, and very many by reason of taints in setting.

{SN: Grafts must be fenced.} It is meet your sets and grafts be fenced, till they be as big as your arme, for feare of annoyances. Many waies may sets receiue dammages, after they be set, whether grafted or vngrafted. For although we suppose, that no noysome beast, or other thing must haue accesse among your trees: yet by casualty, a Dog, Cat, or such like, or your selfe, or negligent friend bearing you company, or a shrewd boy, may tread or fall vpon a young and tender plant or graft. To auoid these and many such chances, you must stake them round a pretty distance from the set, neither so neere, nor so thicke, but that it may haue the benefit of Sun, raine, and ayre. Your stakes (small or great) would be so surely put, or driuen into the earth, that they breake not, if any thing happen to leane vpon them, else may the fall be more hurtfull, then the want of the fence. Let not your stakes shelter any weeds about your sets, for want of Sunne is a great hinderance. Let them stand so farre off, that your grafts spreading receiue no hurt, either by rubbing on them, or of any other thing passing by. If your stocke be long, and high grafted (which I must discommend (except in need) because there the sap is weake, and they are subiect to strong wind, and the lighting of birds) tie easily with a soft list three or foure prickes vnder the clay, and let their tops stand aboue the grafts, to auoid the lighting of Crowes, Pyes, &c. vpon your grafts. If you sticke some sharpe thornes at the roots of your stakes, they will make hurtfull things keepe off the better. Other better fences for your grafts I know none. And thus much for sets and setting.

CHAP. 8.

Of the distance of Trees.

{SN: Hurts of too neere planting.} I Know not to what end you should prouide good ground, well fenced, & plant good sets; and when your trees should come to profit, haue all your labours lost, for want of due regard to the distance of placing your trees. I haue seene many trees stand so thicke, that one could not thriue for the throng of his neighbours. If you doe marke it, you shall see the tops of trees rubd off, their sides galled like a galled horses backe, and many trees haue more stumps then boughes, and most trees no well thriuing, but short, stumpish, and euill thriuing boughes: like a Corne field ouer seeded, or a towne ouer peopled, or a pasture ouer-laid, which the Gardiner must either let grow, or leaue the tree very few boughes to beare fruit. Hence small thrift, galls, wounds, diseases, and short life to the trees: and while they liue greene, little, hard, worme-eaten, and euill thriuing fruit arise, to the discomfort of the owners.

{SN: Remedy.} {SN: Generall rule.} {SN: All touches hurtfull.} To preuent which discommodity, one of the best remedies is the sufficient and fit distance of trees. Therefore at the setting of your plants you must haue such respect, that the distance of them be such, that euery tree be not annoyance, but an helpe to his fellowes: for trees (as all other things of the same kind) should shroud, and not hurt one another. And assure your selfe that euery touch of trees (as well vnder as aboue the earth) is hurtfull. Therefore this must be a generall rule in this Art: That no tree in an Orchard well ordered, nor bough, nor Cyon, drop vpon, or touch his fellowes. Let no man thinke this vnpossible, but looke in the eleuenth Chapter of dressing of trees. If they touch, the winde will cause a forcible rub. Young twigs are tender, if boughes or armes touch or rub, if they are strong, they make great galls. No kind of touch therefore in trees can be good.

{SN: The best distance of trees.} {SN: The parts of a tree.} Now it is to be considered what distance amongst sets is requisite, and that must be gathered from the compasse and roomth, that each tree by probability will take and fill. And herein I am of a contrary opinion to all them, which practise or teach the planting of trees, that euer yet I knew, read, or heard of. For the common space betweene tree and tree is ten foot: if twenty foot, it is thought very much. But I suppose twenty yards distance is small enough betwixt tree and tree, or rather too too little. For the distance must needs be as far as two trees are well able to ouer spread, and fill, so they touch not by one yard at least. Now I am assured, and I know one Apple-tree, set of a slip finger-great, in the space of 20 yeares, (which I account a very small part of a trees age, as is shewed Chapter 14.) hath spred his boughes eleuen or twelue yards compasse, that is, fiue or sixe yards on euery side. Here I gather, that in forty or fifty yeares (which yet is but a small time of his age) a tree in good soile, well liking, by good dressing (for that is much auaileable to this purpose) will spread double at the least, viz. twelue yards on a side, which being added to twelue alotted to his fellow, make twenty and foure yards, and so farre distant must euery tree stand from another. And looke how farre a tree spreads his boughes aboue, so far doth he put his roots vnder the earth, or rather further, if there be no stop, nor let by walls, trees, rocks, barren earth and such like: for an huge bulk, and strong armes, massie boughes, many branches, and infinite twigs, require wide spreading roots. The top hath the vast aire to spread his boughs in, high and low, this way and that way: but the roots are kept in the crust of the earth, they may not goe downward, nor vpward out of the earth, which is their element, no more then the fish out of the water, Camelion out of the Aire, nor Salamander out of the fire. Therefore they must needs spread farre vnder the earth. And I dare well say, if nature would giue leaue to man by Art, to dresse the roots of trees, to take away the tawes and tangles, that lap and fret and grow superfluously and disorderly, (for euery thing sublunary is cursed for mans sake) the tops aboue being answerably dressed, we should haue trees of wonderfull greatnes, and infinite durance. And I perswade myselfe that this might be done sometimes in Winter, to trees standing in faire plaines and kindly earth, with small or no danger at all. So that I conclude, that twenty foure yards are the least space that Art can allot for trees to stand distant one from another.

{SN: Waste ground in an Orchard.} If you aske me what vse shall be made of that waste ground betwixt tree and tree? I answer: If you please to plant some tree or trees in that middle space, you may, and as your trees grow contigious, great and thick, you may at your pleasure take vp those last trees. And this I take to be the chiefe cause, why the most trees stand so thicke. For men not knowing (or not regarding) this secret of needfull distance, and louing fruit of trees planted to their handes, thinke much to pull vpp any, though they pine one another. If you or your heires or successors would take vp some great trees (past setting) where they stand too thicke, be sure you doe it about Midsummer, and leaue no maine root. I destinate this space of foure and twenty yards, for trees of age & stature. More then this, you haue borders to be made for walkes with Roses, Berries, &c.

And chiefly consider: that your Orchard, for the first twenty or thirty yeeres, will serue you for many Gardens, for Safron, Licoras, roots, and other herbs for profit, and flowers for pleasure: so that no ground need be wasted if the Gardiner be skillfull and diligent. But be sure you come not neere with such deepe deluing the roots of your trees, whose compasse you may partly discerne, by the compasse of the tops, if your top be well spread. And vnder the droppings and shadow of your trees, be sure no herbes will like. Let this be said for the distance of Trees.

CHAP. 9.

Of the placing of Trees.

The placing of trees in an Orchard is well worth the regard: For although it must be granted, that any of our foresaid trees (Chap. 2.) will like well in any part of your Orchard, being good and well drest earth: yet are not all Trees alike worthy of a good place. And therefore I wish that your Filbird, Plummes, Damsons, Bulesse, and such like, be vtterly remoued from the plaine soile of your Orchard into your fence: for there is not such fertility and easefull growth, as within: and there also they are more subiect to, and can abide the blasts of AEolus. The cherries and plummes being ripe in the hot time of Summer, and the rest standing longer, are not so soone shaken as your better fruit: neither if they suffer losse, is your losse so great. Besides that, your fences and ditches will deuoure some of your fruit growing in or neere your hedges. And seeing the continuance of all these (except Nuts) is small, the care of them ought to be the lesse. And make no doubt but the fences of a large Orchard will containe a sufficient number of such kind of Fruit trees in the whole compasse. It is not material, but at your pleasure, in the said fences, you may either intermingle your seueral kinds of fruit-trees, or set euery kind by himselfe, which order doth very well become your better and greater fruit. Let therefore your Apples, Peares, and Quinches, possesse all the soile of your Orchard, vnlesse you be especially affected to some of your other kinds: and of them let your greatest trees of growth stand furthest from Sunne, and your Quinches at the South side or end, and your Apples in the middle, so shall none be any hinderance to his fellowes. The Warden-tree, and Winter-Peare will challenge the preheminence for stature. Of your Apple-trees you shall finde difference in growth. A good Pippin will grow large, and a Costard-tree: stead them on the North side of your other Apples, thus being placed, the least will giue Sun to the rest, and the greatest will shroud their fellowes. The fences and out-trees will guard all.

CHAP. 10.

Of Grafting.

{SN: Of Grauing or Caruing.} {SN: Grafting What.} {SN: A Graffe.} Now are we come to the most curious point of our faculty: curious in conceit, but indeede as plaine and easie as the rest, when it is plainely shewne, which we commonly call Graffing, or (after some) Grafting. I cannot Etymologize, nor shew the originall of the Word, except it come of Grauing and Caruing. But the thing or matter is: The reforming of the fruite of one tree with the fruit of another, by an artificiall transplacing, or transposing of a twigge, bud or leafe, (commonly called a Graft) taken from one tree of the same, or some other kind, and placed or put to, or into another tree in one time and manner.


{SN: Kinds of grafting.} Of this there be diuers kinds, but three or foure now especially in vse: to wit, Grafting, incising, packing on, grafting in the scutchion, or inoculating: whereof the chiefe and most vsuall, is called grafting (by the generall name, Catahexocen:) for it is the most knowne, surest, readiest, and plainest way to haue store of good fruit.

{SN: Graft how.} It is thus wrought: You must with a fine, thin, strong and sharpe Saw, made and armed for that purpose, cut off a foot aboue the ground, or thereabouts, in a plaine without a knot, or as neere as you can without a knot (for some Stocks will be knotty) your Stocke, set, or plant, being surely stayed with your foot and legge, or otherwise straight ouerthwart (for the Stocke may be crooked) and then plaine his wound smoothly with a sharpe knife: that done, cleaue him cleanly in the middle with a cleauer, and a knocke or mall, and with a wedge of wood, Iron or Bone, two handfull long at least, put into the middle of that clift, with the same knocke, make the wound gape a straw bredth wide, into which you must put your Graffes.

{SN: A Graft what.} The graft is a top twig taken from some other Tree (for it is folly to put a graffe into his owne Stocke) beneath the vppermost (and sometime in need the second) knot, and with a sharpe knife fitted in the knot (and some time out of the knot when need is) with shoulders an ynch downeward, and so put into the stocke with some thrusting (but not straining) barke to barke inward.

{SN: Eyes.} {SN: Generall rule.} Let your graffe haue three or foure eyes, for readinesse to put forth, and giue issue to the sap. It is not amisse to cut off the top of your graffe, and leaue it but fiue or sixe inches long, because commonly you shall see the tops of long graffes die. The reason is this. The sap in graffing receiues a rebuke, and cannot worke so strongly presently, and your graffes receiue not sap so readily, as the naturall branches. When your graffes are cleanely and closely put in, and your wedge puld out nimbly, for feare of putting your graffes out of frame, take well tempered morter, soundly wrought with chaffe or horse dung (for the dung of cattell will grow hard, and straine your graffes) the quantity of a Gooses egge, and diuide it iust, and therewithall, couer your stocke, laying the one halfe on the one side and the other halfe on the other side of your graffes (for thrusting against your graffes) you moue them, and let both your hands thrust at once, and alike, and let your clay be tender, to yeeld easily; and all, lest you moue your graffes. Some vse to couer the clift of the Stocke, vnder the clay with a piece of barke or leafe, some with a sear-cloth of waxe and butter, which as they be not much needfull, so they hurt not, vnlesse that by being busie about them, you moue your graffes from their places. They vse also mosse tyed on aboue the clay with some bryer, wicker, or other bands. These profit nothing. They all put the graffes in danger, with pulling and thrusting: for I hold this generall rule in graffing and planting: if your stocke and graffes take, and thriue (for some will take and not thriue, being tainted by some meanes in the planting or graffing) they will (without doubt) recouer their wounds safely and shortly.

{SN: Time of graffing.} The best time of graffing from the time of remouing your stocke is the next Spring, for that saues a second wound, and a second repulse of sap, if your stocke be of sufficient bignesse to take a graffe from as big as your thumbe, to as big as an arme of a man. You may graffe lesse (which I like) and bigger, which I like not so well. The best time of the yeere is in the last part of February, or in March, or beginning of Aprill, when the Sunne with his heat begins to make the sap stirre more rankely, about the change of Moone before you see any great apparancy of leafe or flowers but onely knots and buds, and before they be proud, though it be sooner. Cheries, Peares, Apricocks, Quinces, and Plummes would be gathered and grafted sooner.

{SN: Gathering graffes.} {SN: Graffes of old trees.} The graffes may be gathered sooner in February, or any time within a moneth, or two before you graffe or vpon the same day (which I commend) If you get them any time before, for I haue knowne graffes gathered in December, and doe well, take heed of drought. I haue my selfe taken a burknot of a tree, & the same day when he was laid in the earth about mid February, gathered grafts and put in him, and one of those graffes bore the third yeere after, and the fourth plentifully. Graffes of old trees would be gathered sooner then of young trees, for they sooner breake and bud. If you keepe graffes in the earth, moisture with the heat of the Sun will make them sprout as fast, as if they were growing on the tree. And therefore seeing keeping is dangerous, the surest way (as I iudge) is to take them within a weeke of the time of your grafting.

{SN: Where taken.} The grafts would be taken not of the proudest twigs, for it may be your stocke is not answerable in strength. And therefore say I, the grafts brought from South to vs in the North although they take and thriue (which is somewhat doubtfull, by reason of the difference of the Clime and carriage) yet shall they in time fashion themselues to our cold Northerne soile, in growth, taste &c.

{SN: Emmits.} Nor of the poorest, for want of strength may make them vnready to receiue sap (and who can tell but a poore graft is tainted) nor on the outside of your tree, for there should your tree spread but in the middest; for there you may be sure your Tree is no whit hindered in his growth or forme. He will stil recouer inward, more then you would wish. If your clay clift in Summer with drought, looke well in the Chinkes for Emmits and Earewigs, for they are cunning and close theeues about grafts you shall finde them stirring in the morning and euening, and the rather in the moist weather. I haue had many young buds of Graffes, euen in the flourishing, eaten with Ants. Let this suffice for graffing, which is in the faculty counted the chiefe secret, and because it is most vsuall it is best knowne.

Graffes are not to be disliked for growth, till they wither, pine, and die. Vsually before Midsummer they breake, if they liue. Some (but few) keeping proud and greene, will not put till the second yeere, so is it to be thought of sets.

The first shew of putting is no sure signe of growth, it is but the sap the graffe brought with him from his tree.

So soone as you see the graft put for growth, take away the clay, for then doth neither the stocke nor the graffe need it (put a little fresh well tempered clay in the hole of the stocke) for the clay is now tender, and rather keepes moistture then drought.

The other waies of changing the naturall fruit of Trees, are more curious then profitable, and therefore I mind not to bestow much labour or time about them, onely I shall make knowne what I haue proued, and what I doe thinke.

{SN: Incising.} {SN: A great stocke.} And first of incising, which is the cutting of the backe of the boale, a rine or branch of a tree at some bending or knee, shoulderwise with two gashes, onely with a sharpe knife to the wood: then take a wedge, the bignes of your graffe sharpe ended, flat on the one side, agreeing with the tree, and round on the other side, and with that being thrust in, raise your barke, then put in your graffe, fashioned like your wedge iust: and lastly couer your wound, and fast it vp, and take heed of straining. This will grow but to small purpose, for it is weake hold, and lightly it will be vnder growth. Thus may you graft betwixt the barke and the tree of a great stocke that will not easily be clifted: But I haue tryed a better way for great trees, viz First, cut him off straight, and cleanse him with your knife, then cleaue him into foure quarters, equally with a strong cleauer: then take for euery Clift two or three small (but hard) wedges iust of the bignesse of your grafts, and with those Wedges driuen in with an hammer open the foure clifts so wide (but no wider) that they may take your foure graffes, with thrusting not with straining: and lastly couer and clay it closely, and this is a sure and good way of grafting: or thus, clift your stocke by his edges twice or thrice with your cleauer, and open him with your wedge in euery clift one by one, and put in your grafts, and then couer them. This may doe well.

{SN: Packing thus.} Packing on is, when you cut aslope a twig of the same bignesse with your graft, either in or besides the knot, two inches long, and make your graft agree iumpe with the Cyon, and gash your graft and your Cyon in the middest of the wound, length-way, a straw breadth deepe, and thrust the one into the other, wound to wound, sap to sap, barke to barke, then tie them close and clay them. This may doe well. The fairest graft I haue in my little Orchard, which I haue planted, is thus packt on, and the branch whereon I put him, is in his plentifull roote.

To be short in this point, cut your graft in any sort or fashion, two inches long, and ioyne him cleanly and close to any other sprig of any tree in the latter end of the time of grafting, when sap is somewhat rife, and in all probability they will close and thriue: thus

{Illustration: The Sprig. The graft. The twig. The graft.}

Or any other fashion you thinke good.

{SN: Inoculating.} Inoculating is an eye or bud, taken barke and all from one tree, and placed in the roome of another eie or bud of another, cut both of one compasse, and there bound. This must be done in Summer, when the sap is proud.

{SN: Graffing in the Scutchion.} Much like vnto this is that, they call grafting in the scutchion, they differ thus: That here you must take an eie with his leafe, or (in mine opinion) a bud with his leaues. (Note that an eie is for a Cyon, a bud is for flowers and fruit,) and place them on another tree, in a plaine (for so they teach) the place or barke where you must set it, must be thus cut with a sharpe knife, and the barke raised with a wedge, and then the eie or budde put in and so bound vp. {TN: a diagram of an H} I cannot denie but such may grow. And your bud if he take will flowre and beare fruit that yeere: as some grafts & sets also, being set for bloomes. If these two kinds thriue, they reforme but a spray, and an vndergrowth. Thus you may place Roses on Thornes, and Cherries on Apples, and such like. Many write much more of grafting, but to small purpose. Whom we leaue to themselues, & their followers; & ending this secret we come in the next Chapter to a point of knowledge most requisite in an Arborist, as well for all other woods as for an Orchard.

CHAP. 11.

Of the right dressing of Trees.

{SN: Necessity of dressing trees.} {SN: Generall rule.} If all these things aforesaid were indeed performed, as we haue shewed them in words, you should haue a perfect Orchard in nature and substance, begunne to your hand; And yet are all these things nothing, if you want that skill to keepe and dresse your trees. Such is the condition of all earthly things, whereby a man receiueth profit or pleasure, that they degenerate presently without good ordering. Man himselfe left to himselfe, growes from his heauenly and spirituall generation, and becommeth beastly, yea deuillish to his owne kind, vnlesse he be regenerate No maruell then, if Trees make their shootes, and put their spraies disorderly. And truly (if I were worthy to iudge) there is not a mischiefe that breedeth greater and more generall harme to all the Orchard (especially if they be of any continuance) that euer I saw, (I will not except three) then the want of the skilfull dressing of trees. It is a common and vnskilfull opinion, and saying. Let all grow, and they will beare more fruit: and if you lop away superfluous boughes, they say, what a pitty is this? How many apples would these haue borne? not considering there may arise hurt to your Orchard, as well (nay rather) by abundance, as by want of wood. Sound and thriuing plants in a good soile, will euer yeeld too much wood, and disorderly, but neuer too little. So that a skilfull and painfull Arborist, need neuer want matter to effect a plentifull and well drest Orchard: for it is an easie matter to take away superfluous boughes (if your Gardner haue skill to know them) whereof your plants will yeeld abundance, and skill will leaue sufficient well ordered. All ages both by rule and experience doe consent to a pruining and lopping of trees: yet haue not any that I know described vnto vs (except in darke and generall words) what or which are those superfluous boughes, which we must take away, and that is the chiefe and most needfull point to be knowne in lopping. And we may well assure our selues, (as in all other Arts, so in this) there is a vantage and dexterity, by skill, and an habite by practise out of experience, in the performance hereof for the profit of mankind; yet doe I not know (let me speake it with the patience of our cunning Arborists) any thing within the compasse of humane affaires so necessary, and so little regarded, not onely in Orchards, but also in all other timber trees, where or whatsoeuer.

{SN: Timber wood euill drest.} {SN: The cause of hurts in woods.} {SN: Dresse timber trees how.} How many forrests and woods? wherein you shall haue for one liuely thriuing tree, foure (nay sometimes 24.) euill thriuing, rotten and dying trees, euen while they liue. And instead of trees thousands of bushes and shrubs. What rottennesse? what hollownesse? what dead armes? withered tops? curtailed trunkes? what loads of mosses? drouping boughes? and dying branches shall you see euery where? And those that like in this sort are in a manner all vnprofitable boughes, canked armes, crooked, little and short boales: what an infinite number of bushes, shrubs, and skrogs of hazels, thornes, and other profitable wood, which might be brought by dressing to become great and goodly trees. Consider now the cause: The lesser wood hath beene spoiled with carelesse, vnskilfull, and vntimely stowing, and much also of the great wood. The greater trees at the first rising haue filled and ouer-loaden themselues with a number of wastfull boughes and suckers, which haue not onely drawne the sap from the boale, but also haue made it knotty, and themselues and the boale mossie for want of dressing, whereas if in the prime of growth they had bene taken away close, all but one top (according to this patterne) and cleane by the bulke, the strength of all the sap should haue gone to the bulke, and so he would haue recouered and couered his knots, and haue put forth a faire, long and streight body (as you see) for timber profitable, huge great of bulke, and of infinite last.

{Illustration: Imagine the roote to be spread farre wider.}

If all timber trees were such (will some say) how should we haue crooked wood for wheeles, courbs, &c.

Answ. Dresse all you can, and there will be enough crooked for those vses.

More than this, in most places, they grow so thicke, that neither themselues, nor earth, nor any thing vnder or neere them can thriue, nor Sunne, nor raine, nor aire can doe them, nor any thing neere or vnder them any profit or comfort.

I see a number of Hags, where out of one roote you shall see three or foure (nay more, such as mens vnskilfull greedinesse, who desiring many haue none good) pretty Okes or Ashes straight and tall, because the root at the first shoote giues sap amaine: but if one onely of them might bee suffered to grow, and that well and cleanely pruned, all to his very top, what a tree should we haue in time? And we see by those rootes continually and plentifully springing, notwithstanding so deadly wounded. What a commodity should arise to the owner, and the Common-wealth, if wood were cherished, and orderly dressed.

{SN: Profit of trees dressed.} {SN: The end of Trees.} The wast boughes closely and skilfully taken away, would giue vs store of fences and fewell, and the bulke of the tree in time would grow of huge length and bignes. But here (me thinkes) I heare an vnskilfull Arborist say, that trees haue their seuerall formes, euen by nature, the Peare, the Holly, the Aspe, &c. grow long in bulke with few and little armes, the Oke by nature broad, and such like. All this I graunt: but grant me also, that there is a profitable end, and vse of euery tree, from which if it decline (though by nature) yet man by art may (nay must) correct it. Now other end of trees I neuer could learne, than good timber, fruit much and good, and pleasure. Vses physicall hinder nothing a good forme.

{SN: Trees will take any forme.} Neither let any man euer so much as thinke, that it vnprobable, much lesse vnpossible, to reforme any tree of what kind soeuer. For (beleeue me) I haue tried it, I can bring any tree (beginning by time) to any forme. The peare and holly may be made to spread, and the Oke to close.

{SN: The end of Trees.} But why do I wander out of the compasse of mine Orchard, into the Forrests and Woods? Neither yet am I from my purpose, if boales of timber trees stand in need of all the sap, to make them great and straight (for strong growth and dressing makes strong trees) then it must needes be profitable for fruit (a thing more immediately seruing a mans need) to haue all the sap his roote can yeeld: for as timber sound, great and long, is the good of timber trees, and therefore they beare no fruite of worth: so fruit, good, sound, pleasant, great and much, is the end of fruit-trees. That gardner therefore shall performe his duty skilfully and faithfully, which shall so dresse his trees, that they may beare such and such store of fruit, which he shall neuer do (dare vndertake) vnlesse he keepe this order in dressing his trees.

{SN: How to dresse a fruit-tree.} A fruit tree so standing, that there need none other end of dressing but fruit (not ornaments for walkes, nor delight to such as would please their eye onely, and yet the best forme can not but both adorne and delight) must be parted from within two foote, or thereabouts, of the earth, so high to giue liberty to dresse his roote, and no higher, for drinking vp the sap that should feede his fruit, for the boale will be first, and best serued and fed, because he is next the roote, and of grenest waxe and substance, and that makes him longest of life, into two, three, or foure armes, as your stocke or graffes yeelde twigs, and euery arme into two or more branches, and euery branch into his seuerall Cyons, still spreading by equall degrees, so that his lowest spray be hardly without the reach of a mans hand, and his highest be not past two yards higher, rarely (especially in the middest) that no one twig touch his fellow. Let him spread as farre as he list without his maister-bough or lop equally. And when any bough doth grow sadder and fall lower, than his fellowes (as they will with weight of fruite) ease him the next spring of his superfluous twigs, and he will rise: when any bough or spray shall amount aboue the rest; either snub his top with a nip betwixt your finger and your thumbe, or with a sharpe knife, and take him cleane away, and so you may vse any Cyon you would reforme, and as your tree shall grow in stature and strength, so let him rise with his tops, but slowly, and earely, especially in the middest, and equally, and in bredth also, and follow him vpward with lopping his vndergrowth and water boughes, keeping the same distance of two yards, but not aboue three in any wise, betwixt the lowest and the highest twigs.

{SN: Benefits of good dressing.} 1. Thus you shall haue well liking, cleane skind, healthfull great, and long-lasting trees.

2. Thus shall your tree grow low, and safe from winds, for his top will be great, broad and weighty.

3. Thus growing broad, shall your trees beare much fruit (I dare say) one as much as sixe of your common trees, and good without shadowing, dropping and fretting: for his boughes, branches, and twigs shalbe many, and those are they (not the boale) which beare the fruit.

4. Thus shall your boale being little (not small but low) by reason of his shortnesse, take little, and yeeld much sap to the fruit.

5. Thus your trees by reason of strength in time of setting shall put forth more blossomes, and more fruite, being free from taints; for strength is a great helpe to bring forth much and safely, whereas weakenesse failes in setting though the season be calme.

Some vse to bare trees rootes in Winter, to stay the setting til hotter seasons, which I discommend, because,

1. They hurt the rootes.

2. It stayes it nothing at all.

3. Though it did, being small, with vs in the North, they haue their part of our Aprill and Mayes frosts.

4. Hinderance cannot profit weake trees in setting.

5. They wast much labour.

6. Thus shall your tree be easie to dresse, and without danger, either to the tree or the dresser.

7. Thus may you safely and easily gather your fruite without falling, bruising or breaking of Cyons.

This is the best forme of a fruit tree, which I haue here onely shadowed out for the better capacity of them that are led more with the eye, than the mind, crauing pardon for the deformity, because I am nothing skilfull either in painting or caruing.

Imagine that the paper makes but one side of the tree to appeare, the whole round compasse will giue leaue for many more armes, boughes, branches, and Cyons.

{Illustration: The perfect forme of a Fruit-tree.}

If any thinke a tree cannot well be brought to this forme: Experto crede Roberto, I can shew diuers of them vnder twenty yeeres of age.

{SN: Time best for proining.} The fittest time of the Moone for proyning is as of grafting, when the sap is ready to stirre (not proudly stirring) and so to couer the wound, and of the yeere, a moneth before (or at least when) you graffe. Dresse Peares, Apricocks, Peaches, Cherries, and Bullys sooner. And old trees before young plants, you may dresse at any time betwixt Leafe and Leafe. And note, where you take any thing away, the sap the next Summer will be putting: be sure therefore when he puts a bud in any place where you would not haue him, rub it off with your finger.

{SN: Dressing betime.} And here you must remember the common homely Prouerbe:

Soone crookes the Tree, That good Camrell must be.

{SN: Faults of euill drest trees, and the remedy.} Beginne betime with trees, and do what you list: but if you let them grow great and stubborne, you must do as the trees list. They will not bend but breake, nor bee wound without danger. A small branch will become a bough, and a bough an arme in bignesse. Then if you cut him, his wound will fester, and hardly, without good skill, recouer: therefore, Obsta principys. Of such wounds, and lesser, of any bough cut off a handfull or more from the body, comes hollownesse, and vntimely death. And therefore when you cut, strik close, and cleane, and vpward, and leaue no bunch.

{SN: The forme altered.} This forme in some cases sometimes may be altered: If your tree, or trees, stand neere your Walkes, if it please your fancy more, let him not breake, till his boale be aboue you head: so may you walke vnder your trees at your pleasure. Or if you set your fruit-trees for your shades in your Groues, then I expect not the forme of the tree, but the comelinesse of the walke.

{SN: Dressing of old trees.} All this hitherto spoken of dressing, must be vnderstood of young plants, to be formed: it is meete somewhat be sayd for the instruction of them that haue olde trees already formed, or rather deformed: for, Malum non vitatur nisi cognitum. The faults therefore of the disordered tree, I find to be fiue:

{SN: Faults are fiue, and their remedies.} 1. An vnprofitable boale. 2. Water-boughes. 3. Fretters. 4. Suckers: And, 5. One principall top.

{SN: 1. Long boale.} {SN: No remedy.} A long boale asketh much feeding, and the more he hath the more he desires, and gets (as a drunken man drinke, or a couetuous man wealth) and the lesse remaines for the fruit, he puts his boughes into the aire, and makes them, the fruit, and it selfe more dangered with windes: for this I know no remedy, after that the tree is come to growth, once euill, neuer good.

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