Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they are listed at the end of the text.
WHEREIN AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO DIVEST TRADITION OF FABLE; AND TO REDUCE THE TRUTH TO ITS ORIGINAL PURITY,
BY JACOB BRYANT, ESQ.
THE THIRD EDITION. IN SIX VOLUMES.
WITH A PORTRAIT AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE AUTHOR;
A VINDICATION OF THE APAMEAN MEDAL;
Observations and Inquiries relating to various Parts of Antient History;
A COMPLETE INDEX,
AND FORTY-ONE PLATES, NEATLY ENGRAVED.
PRINTED FOR J. WALKER; W.J. AND J. RICHARDSON; R. FAULDER AND SON; R. LEA; J. NUNN; CUTHELL AND MARTIN; H.D. SYMONDS; VERNOR, HOOD, AND SHARPE; E. JEFFERY; LACKINGTON, ALLEN, AND CO.; J. BOOKER; BLACK, PARRY, AND KINGSBURY; J. ASPERNE; J. MURRAY; AND J. HARRIS.
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PHOENIX AND PHOENICES.
As there has been much uncertainty about the purport and extent of these terms; and they are of great consequence in the course of history; I will endeavour to state their true meaning. Phoinic, or Poinic, was an Egyptian and Canaanitish term of honour; from whence were formed [Greek: Phoinix, Phoinikes, Phoinikoeis] of the Greeks, and Phoinic, Poinicus, Poinicius of the Romans; which were afterwards changed to Phoenix, Punicus, and Puniceus. It was originally a title, which the Greeks made use of as a provincial name: but it was never admitted as such by the people, to whom it was thus appropriated, till the Greeks were in possession of the country. And even then it was but partially received: for though mention is made of the coast of Phoenice, yet we find the natives called Sidonians, Tyrians, and Canaanites, as late as the days of the Apostles. It was an honorary term, compounded of Anac with the Egyptian prefix; and rendered at times both Phoinic and Poinic. It signified a lord or prince: and was particularly assumed by the sons of Chus and Canaan. The Mysians seem to have kept nearest to the original pronunciation, who gave this title to the God Dionusus, and called him Ph'anac.
Ogygia me Bacchum vocat, Osirin AEgyptus putat, Mysi Phanacem.
It was also conferred upon many things, which were esteemed princely and noble. Hence the red, or scarlet, a colour appropriated to great and honourable personages, was styled Phoinic. The palm was also styled Phoinic, [Greek: Phoinix]: and the antients always speak of it as a stately and noble tree. It was esteemed an emblem of honour; and made use of as a reward of victory. Plurimarum palmarum homo, was a proverbial expression among the Romans, for a soldier of merit. Pliny speaks of the various species of palms; and of the great repute in which they were held by the Babylonians. He says, that the noblest of them were styled the royal Palms; and supposes that they were so called from their being set apart for the king's use. But they were very early an emblem of royalty: and it is a circumstance included in their original name. We find from Apuleius, that Mercury, the Hermes of Egypt, was represented with a palm branch in his hand: and his priests at Hermopolis used to have them stuck in their sandals, on the outside. The Goddess Isis was thus represented: and we may infer that Hermes had the like ornaments; which the Greeks mistook for feathers, and have in consequence of it added wings to his feet. The Jews used to carry boughs of the same tree at some of their festivals; and particularly at the celebration of their nuptials: and it was thought to have an influence at the birth. Euripides alludes to this in his Ion; where he makes Latona recline herself against a Palm tree, when she is going to produce Apollo and Diana.
[Greek: Phoinika Par' habrokoman] [Greek: Entha locheumata semn' elocheusato] [Greek: Lato.]
In how great estimation this tree was held of old, we may learn from many passages in the sacred writings. Solomon says to his espoused, how fair and how pleasant art thou, O Love, for delights: thy stature is like a Palm tree. And the Psalmist for an encouragement to holiness, says, that the righteous shall flourish like the Palm tree: for the Palm was supposed to rise under a weight; and to thrive in proportion to its being depressed. There is possibly a farther allusion in this, than may at first appear. The antients had an opinion, that the Palm was immortal: at least, if it did die, it recovered again, and obtained a second life by renewal. Hence the story of the bird, styled the Phoenix, is thought to have been borrowed from this tree. Pliny, in describing the species of Palm, styled Syagrus, says, Mirum de ea accepimus, cum Phoenice Ave, quae putatur ex hujus Palmae argumento nomen accepisse, iterum mori, et renasci ex seipsa. Hence we find it to have been an emblem of immortality among all nations, sacred and prophane. The blessed in heaven are represented in the Apocalypse by St. John, as standing before the throne in white robes, with branches of Palm in their hands. The notion of this plant being an emblem of royalty prevailed so far, that when our Saviour made his last entrance into Jerusalem, the people took branches of Palm trees, and accosted him as a prince, crying, Hosanna—blessed is the King of Israel.
The title of Phoinic seems at first to have been given to persons of great stature: but, in process of time, it was conferred upon people of power and eminence, like [Greek: anax] and [Greek: anaktes] among the Greeks. The Cuthites in Egypt were styled Royal Shepherds, [Greek: Basileis Poimenes], and had therefore the title of Phoenices. A colony of them went from thence to Tyre and Syria: hence it is said by many writers that Phoenix came from Egypt to Tyre. People, not considering this, have been led to look for the shepherd's origin in Canaan, because they were sometimes called Phoenices. They might as well have looked for them in Greece; for they were equally styled [Greek: Hellenes], Hellenes. Phoenicia, which the Greeks called [Greek: Phoinike], was but a small part of Canaan. It was properly a slip of sea coast, which lay within the jurisdiction of the Tyrians and Sidonians, and signifies Ora Regia; or, according to the language of the country, the coast of the Anakim. It was a lordly title, and derived from a stately and august people. All the natives of Canaan seem to have assumed to themselves great honour. The Philistines are spoken of as Lords, and the merchants of Tyre as Princes; whose grandeur and magnificence are often alluded to in the Scriptures. The prophet Ezekiel calls them the princes of the sea. Then all the princes of the sea shall come down from their thrones, and lay away their robes, and put off their broidered garments. And Isaiah speaks to the same purpose. Who hath taken this counsel against Tyre, that crowning city, whose merchants are princes; whose traffickers are the honourable of the earth? The scripture term by which they are here distinguished is [Hebrew: SHRIM], Sarim: but the title which they assumed to themselves was Ph'anac, or Ph'oinac, the Phoenix of the Greeks and Romans. And as it was a mere title, the sacred writers of the old testament never make use of it to distinguish either the people or country. This part of Canaan is never by them called Phoenicia: yet others did call it so; and the natives were styled Phoenices before the birth of Homer. But this was through mistake; for it was never used by the natives as a provincial appellation. I have shewn that it was a title of another sort, a mark of rank and pre-eminence: on this account it was assumed by other people, and conferred upon other places. For this reason it is never mentioned by any of the sacred writers before the captivity, in order to avoid ambiguity. The Gentile writers made use of it; and we see what mistakes have ensued. There were Phoenicians of various countries. They were to be found upon the Sinus Persicus, upon the Sinus Arabicus, in Egypt, in Crete, in Africa, in Epirus, and even in Attica. [Greek: Phoinikes—genos ti Atheneisi]. There is a race of people called Phoenicians among the Athenians. In short, it was a title introduced at Sidon, and the coast adjoining, by people from Egypt: and who the people were that brought it may be known from several passages in antient history; but particularly from an extract in Eusebius, [Greek: Phoinix kai Kadmos, apo Thebon ton Aiguption exelthontes eis ten Surian, Turou kai Sidonos ebasileuon.] Phoenix and Cadmus, retiring from Thebes, in Egypt, towards the coast of Syria, settled at Tyre and Sidon, and reigned there. It is said, that Belus carried a colony to the same parts: and from what part of the world Belus must be supposed to have come, needs not to be explained. Euripides styles Cepheus the king of Ethiopia, the son of Phoenix: and Apollodorus makes him the son of Belus: hence we may infer, that Belus and Phoenix were the same. Not that there were any such persons as Phoenix and Belus, for they were certainly titles: and, under the characters of those two personages, Colonies, named Belidae and Phoenices, went abroad, and settled in different parts. Their history and appellation may be traced from Babylonia to Arabia and Egypt; and from thence to Canaan, and to the regions in the west. It were therefore to be wished, that the terms Phoenix and Phoenicia had never been used in the common acceptation; at least when the discourse turns upon the more antient history of Canaan. When the Greeks got possession of the coast of Tyre, they called it Phoenicia: and from that time it may be admitted as a provincial name. In consequence of this, the writers of the New Testament do not scruple to make use of it, but always with a proper limitation; for the geography of the Scriptures is wonderfully exact. But the Greek and Roman writers often speak of it with a greater latitude, and include Judea and Palestina within its borders; and sometimes add Syria and Idume. But these countries were all separate and distinct; among which Phoenicia bore but a small proportion. Yet, small as it may have been, many learned men have thought, that all the colonies, which at times settled upon the coast of the Mediterranean, were from this quarter; and that all science was of Phoenician original. But this is not true according to their acceptation of the term. Colonies did settle; and science came from the east: but not merely from the Sidonian. I shall shew, that it was principally owing to a prior and superior branch of the family.
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OF THE PALM TREE.
Phoenix was a colour among horses. They were styled Phoenices, and Phoeniciati, from the colour of the Palm tree, which they resembled; and upon the same account had the name of Spadices. This, according to Aulus Gellius, was a term synonymous with the former. Rutilus, et Spadix Phoenicii [Greek: sunonumos], exuberantiam splendoremque significant ruboris, quales sunt fructus Palmae arboris, nondum sole incocti: unde spadicis et Phoenicei nomen est. Spadix, [Greek: spadix], avulsus est a Palma termes cum fructu. Homer, describing the horses of Diomedes, says, that the one was Phoenix, or of a bright Palm colour, with a white spot in his forehead like a moon.
[Greek: Hos to men allo toson phoinix en, ende metopoi] [Greek: Leukon sem' etetukto peritrochon euete mene.]
Upon this the Scholiast observes, [Greek: Phoinikes to chroma, etoi purrhos]. The horse was of a Palm colour, which is a bright red. We call such horses bays, which probably is a term of the same original. The branch of a Palm tree was called Bai in Egypt; and it had the same name in other places. Baia, [Greek: Baia], are used for Palm-branches by St. John. [Greek: Ta baia ton Phoinikon]. And it is mentioned by the author of the book of Maccabees, that the Jews, upon a solemn occasion, entered the temple. [Greek: Meta aineseos kai baion]. And Demetrius writes to the high priest, Simon, [Greek: Ton stephanon ton chrusoun kai ten Bainen, ha apesteilate, kekomismetha.] Coronam auream et Bainem, quae misistis, accepimus. The Greeks formed the word [Greek: baine] from the Egyptian Bai. The Romans called the same colour Badius. Varro, speaking of horses, mentions,
Hic badius, ille gilvus, ille Murinus.
As the Palm tree was supposed to be immortal; or, at least, if it did die, to revive, and enjoy a second life, the Egyptians gave the name of Bai to the soul: [Greek: Esti men gar to bai psuche.]
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COHEN, [Hebrew: KHN], OF THE HEBREWS.
I have before taken notice that the term Cahen denoted a Priest, or President; and that it was a title often conferred upon princes and kings. Nor was it confined to men only: we find it frequently annexed to the names of Deities, to signify their rule and superintendency over the earth. From them it was derived to their attendants, and to all persons of a prophetical or sacred character. The meaning of the term was so obvious, that one would imagine no mistake could have ensued: yet such is the perverseness of human wit, that we find it by the Greeks and Romans constantly misapplied. They could not help imagining, from the sound of the word, which approached nearly to that of [Greek: kuon] and canis, that it had some reference to that animal: and, in consequence of this unlucky resemblance, they continually misconstrued it a dog. Hence we are told by AElian and Plutarch, not only of the great veneration paid to dogs in Egypt, and of their being maintained in many cities and temples; in which they certainly exceed the truth; but we are moreover assured, that the people of Ethiopia had a dog for their king: that he was kept in great state, being surrounded with a numerous body of officers and guards, and in all respects royally treated. Plutarch speaks of him as being [Greek: semnos proskunomenos], worshipped with a degree of religious reverence. The whole of this notion took its rise from a misinterpretation of the title above. I have mentioned, that in early times Cahen was a title universally conferred upon priests and prophets: hence Lycophron, who has continually allusions to obsolete terms, calls the two diviners, Mopsus and Amphilochus, [Greek: Kunas].
[Greek: Doiaide rheithron Puramou pros ekbolais] [Greek: Autoktonois sphagaisi Derainou KYNES] [Greek: Dmethentes aichmazousi loisthion boan.]
Upon which the Scholiast observes: [Greek: Kunes hoi Manteis]: by Cunes are meant Diviners: and again, [Greek: Kunas Apollonos tous manteis eipein.] The Poet, by [Greek: Kunas], means the ministers and prophets of Apollo. Upon this the learned Meursius observes, that Lycophron had here made use of a term imported from Egypt: so that, I think, we cannot be mistaken about the purport of the word, however it may have been perverted.
The name of the Deity, Canouphis, expressed also Canuphis, and Cnuphis, was compounded with this term. He was represented by the Egyptians as a princely person, with a serpent entwined round his middle, and embellished with other characteristics, relating to time and duration, of which the serpent was an emblem. Oph, and Ouph, signified a serpent in the Amonian language; and the Deity was termed Can-uph, from his serpentine representation. The whole species, in consequence of this, were made sacred to him, and styled Canyphian. To this Lucan alludes, when, in speaking of the Seps, he calls all the tribe of serpents Cinyphias pestes:
Cinyphias inter pestes tibi palma nocendi.
Canuphis was sometimes expressed Anuphis and Anubis; and, however rendered, was by the Greeks and Romans continually spoken of as a dog; at least they supposed him to have had a dog's head, and often mention his barking. But they were misled by the title, which they did not understand. The Egyptians had many emblematical personages, set off with heads of various animals, to represent particular virtues and affections, as well as to denote the various attributes of their Gods. Among others was this canine figure, which I have no reason to think was appropriated to Canuph, or Cneph. And though upon gems and marbles his name may be sometimes found annexed to this character, yet it must be looked upon as a Grecian work, and so denominated in consequence of their mistaken notion. For we must make a material distinction between the hieroglyphics of old, when Egypt was under her own kings; and those of later date, when that country was under the government of the Greeks: at which time their learning was greatly impaired, and their antient theology ruined. Horus Apollo assures us, if any credit may be given to what he says, that this canine figure was an emblem of the earth: [Greek: Oikoumenen graphontes kunokephalon zographousi.] When they would describe the earth, they paint a Cunocephalus. It could not, therefore, I should think, in any degree relate to Canuphis. The same writer informs us, that under the figure of a dog they represented a priest, or sacred scribe, and a prophet; and all such as had the chief management of funerals: also the spleen, the smell, sneezing; rule and government, and a magistrate, or judge: which is a circumstance hardly to be believed. For, as hieroglyphics were designed to distinguish, it is scarce credible that the Egyptians should crowd together so many different and opposite ideas under one character, whence nothing could well ensue but doubt and confusion. Besides, I do not remember, that in any group of antient hieroglyphics the figure of a dog occurs. The meaning of this history, I think, may be with a little attention made out. The Egyptians were refined in their superstitions, above all the nations in the world; and conferred the names and titles of their Deities upon vegetables and animals of every species; and not only upon these, but also upon the parts of the human body, and the very passions of the mind. Whatever they deemed salutary, or of great value, they distinguished by the title of Sacred, and consecrated it to some God. This will appear from words borrowed from Egypt. The Laurel, Laurus, was denominated from Al-Orus: the berry was termed bacca, from Bacchus; Myrrh, [Greek: Murrha] was from Ham-Ourah; Casia, from Chus. The Crocodile was called Caimin and Campsa; the Lion, El-Eon; the Wolf, El-Uc; the Cat, Al-Ourah: whence the Greeks formed [Greek: leon, lukos, ailouros]. The Egyptians styled Myrrh, Baal; balsam, baal-samen; Camphire, Cham-phour, [Greek: kamphoura] of Greece; Opium, Ophion. The sweet reed of Egypt was named Canah, and Conah, by way of eminence; also, Can-Osiris. Cinnamon was denominated from Chan-Amon; Cinnabar, [Greek: kinnabaris], from Chan-Abor; the sacred beetle, Cantharus, from Chan-Athur. The harp was styled Cinnor, and was supposed to have been found out by Cinaras; which terms are compounded of Chan-Or, and Chan-Arez; and relate to the Sun, or Apollo, the supposed inventor of the lyre. Priests and magistrates were particularly honoured with the additional title of Cahen; and many things held sacred were liable to have it in their composition. Hence arose the error of Horus Apollo; who, having been informed that the antient Egyptians distinguished many things which were esteemed holy by this sacred title, referred the whole to hieroglyphics, and gave out that they were all represented under the figure of a dog. And it is possible, that in later times the Grecian artists, and the mixed tribes of Egypt, may have expressed them in this manner; for they were led by the ear; and did not inquire into the latent purport of the theology transmitted to them. From hence we may perceive how little, in later times, even the native Egyptians knew of their rites and history.
Farther accounts may be produced from the same writer, in confirmation of what I have been saying. He not only mentions the great veneration paid by the Egyptians to dogs, but adds, that in many temples they kept [Greek: kunokephaloi], a kind of baboons, or animals with heads like those of dogs, which were wonderfully endowed. By their assistance the Egyptians found out the particular periods of the Sun and Moon. These did not, like other animals, die at once, but by piece-meal; so that one half of the animal was oftentimes buried, while the other half survived. He moreover assures us, that they could read and write; and whenever one of them was introduced into the sacred apartments for probation, the priest presented him with a tablet, and with a pen and ink; and by his writing could immediately find out if he were of the true intelligent breed. These animals are said to have been of infinite use to the antient Egyptians in determining times and seasons; for it seems they were, in some particular functions, the most accurate and punctual of any creatures upon earth: Per aequinoctia enim duodecies in die urinam reddere, et in nocte compertus (Cunocephalus), aequali interstitio servato, Trismegisto ansam dedit diem dividendi in duodecim partes aequales. Such is the history of these wonderful animals. That Apes and Baboons were, among the Egyptians, held in veneration, is very certain. The Ape was sacred to the God Apis; and by the Greeks was rendered Capis, and Ceipis. The Baboon was denominated from the Deity Babon, to whom it was equally sacred. But what have these to do with the supposed Cunocephalus, which, according to the Grecian interpretation, is an animal with the head of a dog? This characteristic does not properly belong to any species of Apes, but seems to have been unduly appropriated to them. The term Cunocephalus, [Greek: Kunokephalos], is an Egyptian compound: and this strange history relates to the priests of the country, styled Cahen; also to the novices in their temples; and to the examinations, which they were obliged to undergo, before they could be admitted to the priesthood. To explain this, I must take notice, that in early times they built their temples upon eminences, for many reasons; but especially for the sake of celestial observations. The Egyptians were much addicted to the study of astronomy: and they used to found their colleges in Upper Egypt upon rocks and hills, called by them Caph. These, as they were sacred to the Sun, were farther denominated Caph-El, and sometimes Caph-Aur, and Caph-Arez. The term Caph-El, which often occurs in history, the Greeks uniformly changed to [Greek: Kephale], Cephale: and from Cahen-Caph-El, the sacred rock of Orus, they formed [Greek: Kunokephale], and [Greek: Kunokephalos]; which they supposed to relate to an animal with the head of a dog. But this Cahen-Caph-El was certainly some royal seminary in Upper Egypt, whence they drafted novices to supply their colleges and temples. These young persons were, before their introduction, examined by some superior priest; and, accordingly as they answered upon their trial, they were admitted, or refused. They were denominated Caph-El, and Cahen-Caph-El, from the academy where they received their first instruction; and this place, though sacred, seems to have been of a class subordinate to others. It was a kind of inferior cloister and temple, such as Capella in the Romish church; which, as well as Capellanus, was derived from Egypt: for, the church, in its first decline, borrowed largely from that country. That there was some particular place of this sort situated upon a rock or eminence, may, I think, be proved from Martianus Capella; and, moreover, that it was a seminary well known, where the youth of Upper Egypt were educated. For, in describing the sciences, under different personages, he gives this remarkable account of Dialectica upon introducing her before his audience. Haec se educatam dicebat in AEgyptiorum Rupe; atque in Parmenidis exinde gymnasium, atque Atticam demeasse. And Johannes Sarisburiensis seems to intimate that Parmenides obtained his knowledge from the same quarter, when he mentions "in Rupe vitam egisse. In this short detail we have no unpleasing account of the birth of science in Egypt, and of its progress thence to Attica. It is plain that this Rupes AEgyptiaca could be nothing else but a seminary, either the same, or at least similar to that, which I have before been describing. As the Cunocephali are said to have been sacred to Hermes, this college and temple were probably in the nome of Hermopolis. Hermes was the patron of Science, and particularly styled Cahen, or Canis: and the Cunocephali are said to have been worshipped by the people of that place. They were certainly there reverenced: and this history points out very plainly the particular spot alluded to. Hermopolis was in the upper region styled Thebais: and there was in this district a tower, such as has been mentioned. It was in aftertimes made use of for a repository, where they laid up the tribute. This may have been the Rupes AEgyptiaca, so famed of old for science; and which was the seat of the Chancephalim, or Cunocephalians.
It is said of the Cunocephali, that when one part was dead and buried, the other still survived. This can relate to nothing else but a society, or body politic, where there is a continual decrement, yet part still remains; and the whole is kept up by succession. It is an enigma, which particularly relates to the priesthood in Egypt: for the sacred office there was hereditary, being vested in certain families; and when part was dead, a residue still survived, who admitted others in the room of the deceased. [Greek: Epean de tis apothanei, toutou ho pais antikatistatai.] The sons, we find, supplied the place of their fathers: hence the body itself never became extinct, being kept up by a regular succession. As to the Cunocephali giving to Hermes the first hint of dividing the day into twelve parts from the exactness, which was observed in their evacuations, it is a surmise almost too trifling to be discussed. I have shewn that the Cunocephali were a sacred college, whose members were persons of great learning: and their society seems to have been a very antient institution. They were particularly addicted to astronomical observations; and by contemplating the heavens, styled Ouran, they learned to distinguish the seasons, and to divide the day into parts. But the term Ouran the Greeks by a strange misconception changed to [Greek: ourein]; of which mistake they have afforded other instances: and from this abuse of terms the silly figment took its rise.
The Cunocephali are not to be found in Egypt only, but in India likewise; and in other parts of the world. Herodotus mentions a nation of this name in Libya: and speaks of them as a race of men with the heads of dogs. Hard by in the neighbourhood of this people he places the [Greek: Akephaloi], men with no heads at all: to whom, out of humanity, and to obviate some very natural distresses, he gives eyes in the breast. But he seems to have forgot mouth and ears, and makes no mention of a nose: he only says, [Greek: Akephaloi, hoi en stethesin ophthalmous echontes.] Both these and the Cunocephali were denominated from their place of residence, and from their worship: the one from Cahen-Caph-El, the other from Ac-Caph-El: each of which appellations is of the same purport, the right noble, or sacred rock of the Sun.
Similar to the history of the Cunocephali, and Acephali, is that of the Cunodontes. They are a people mentioned by Solinus and Isidorus, and by them are supposed to have had the teeth of dogs. Yet they were probably denominated, like those above, from the object of their worship, the Deity Chan-Adon; which the Greeks expressed [Greek: Kunodon], and styled his votaries Cunodontes.
The Greeks pretended, that they had the use of the sphere, and were acquainted with the zodiac, and its asterisms very early. But it is plain from their mistakes, that they received the knowledge of these things very late; at a time when the terms were obsolete, and the true purport of them not to be obtained. They borrowed all the schemes under which the stars are comprehended from the Egyptians: who had formed them of old, and named them from circumstances in their own religion and mythology. They had particularly conferred the titles of their Deities upon those stars, which appeared the brightest in their hemisphere. One of the most remarkable and brilliant they called Cahen Sehor; another they termed Purcahen; a third Cahen Ourah, or Cun Ourah. These were all misconstrued, and changed by the Greeks; Cahen-Sehor to Canis Sirius; P'urcahen to Procyon; and Cahen Ourah to Cunosoura, the dog's tail. In respect to this last name I think, from the application of it in other instances, we may be assured that it could not be in acceptation what the Greeks would persuade us: nor had it any relation to a dog. There was the summit of a hill in Arcadia of this name: also a promontory in Attica; and another in Euboea. How could it possibly in its common acceptation be applicable to these places? And as a constellation if it signified a dog's tail, how came it to be a name given to the tail of a bear? It was a term brought from Sidon, and Egypt: and the purport was to be sought for from the language of the Amonians.
The antient Helladians used upon every promontory to raise pillars and altars to the God of light, Can-Our, the Chan-Orus of Egypt. But Can-Our, and Can-Ourah, they changed to [Greek: kunosoura], as I have shewn: yet notwithstanding this corruption, the true name is often to be discovered. The place which is termed Cunosoura by Lucian, in his Icaromemenippus, is called Cunoura by Stephanus Byzant, and by Pausanias. Cunoura is also used by Lycophron, who understood antient terms full well, for any high rock or headland.
[Greek: En haisi pros kunoura kampulous schasas] [Greek: Peukes odontas.]
[Greek: Pros kunoura, pros tracheias petras.] Scholiast. ibid.
We find the same mistake occur in the account transmitted to us concerning the first discovery of purple. The antients very gratefully gave the merit of every useful and salutary invention to the Gods. Ceres was supposed to have discovered to men corn, and bread: Osiris shewed them the use of the plough; Cinyras of the harp: Vesta taught them to build. Every Deity was looked up to as the cause of some blessing. The Tyrians and Sidonians were famous for the manufacture of purple: the die of which was very exquisite, and the discovery of it was attributed to Hercules of Tyre; the same who by Palaephatus is styled Hercules Philosophus. But some will not allow him this honour; but say, that the dog of Hercules was the discoverer. For accidentally feeding upon the Murex, with which the coast abounded, the dog stained his mouth with the ichor of the fish; and from hence the first hint of dying was taken. This gave birth to the proverbial expression, [Greek: Heurema kunos en he sebaste porphura.] Nonnus mentions the particular circumstance of the dog's staining his mouth:
[Greek: Chioneas porphure pareidas haimati kochlou.]
Such is the story, which at first sight is too childish to admit of credit. It is not likely that a dog would feed upon shell-fish: and if this may at any time have happened, yet whoever is at all conversant in natural history, must know, that the murex is of the turbinated kind, and particularly aculeated; having strong and sharp protuberances, with which a dog would hardly engage. The story is founded upon the same misconception, of which so many instances have been produced. Hercules of Tyre, like all other oriental divinities, was styled Cahen, and Cohen; as was allowed by the Greeks themselves. [Greek: Ton Heraklen phasi kata ten Aiguption dialekton CHONA legesthai.] We are told, that Hercules in the language of the Egyptians is called Chon. This intelligence, however, they could not abide by; but changed this sacred title to [Greek: kuon], a dog, which they described as an attendant upon the Deity.
The Grecians tell us, that the Egyptians styled Hermes a dog: but they seem to have been aware, that they were guilty of an undue representation. Hence Plutarch tries to soften, and qualify what is mentioned, by saying, [Greek: Ou gar kurios ton Hermen KYNA legousin (hoi Aiguptioi)]: by which this learned writer would insinuate, that it was not so much the name of a dog, as the qualities of that animal, to which the Egyptians alluded. Plutarch thought by this refinement to take off the impropriety of conferring so base a name upon a Deity. But the truth is, that the Egyptians neither bestowed it nominally; nor alluded to it in any degree. The title which they gave to Hermes was the same that they bestowed upon Hercules: they expressed it Cahen, and Cohen; and it was very properly represented above by the Greek term [Greek: Chon], Chon. It is said of Socrates, that he sometimes made use of an uncommon oath, [Greek: ma ton kuna, kai ton chena] by the dog and the goose: which at first does not seem consistent with the gravity of his character. But we are informed by Porphyry, that this was not done by way of ridicule: for Socrates esteemed it a very serious and religious mode of attestation: and under these terms made a solemn appeal to the son of Zeus. The purport of the words is obvious: and whatever hidden meaning there may have been, the oath was made ridiculous by the absurdity of the terms. Besides, what possible connection could there have subsisted between a dog and a Deity; a goose and the son of Jove? There was certainly none: yet Socrates, like the rest of his fraternity, having an antipathy to foreign terms, chose to represent his ideas through this false medium; by which means the very essence of his invocation was lost. The son of Zeus, to whom he appealed, was the Egyptian Cahen abovementioned; but this sacred title was idly changed to [Greek: kuna kai chena], a dog and a goose, from a similitude in sound. That he referred to the Egyptian Deity, is manifest from Plato, who acknowledges that he swore, [Greek: ma ton kuna ton Aiguption theon]. By which we are to understand a Cahen of Egypt. Porphyry expressly says, that it was the God Hermes the son of Zeus, and Maia: [Greek: Kata ton tou Dios kai Maias paida epoieito ton horkon].
I cannot account upon any other principle than that upon which I have proceeded, for the strange representation of Apollo, and Bacchus, gaping with open mouths. So it seems they were in some places described. Clemens of Alexandria mentions from Polemon, that Apollo was thus exhibited: [Greek: Polemon de kechenotos Apollonos oiden agalma]. And we are told that a gaping Bacchus was particularly worshipped at Samos. They were both the same as the Egyptian Orus; who was styled Cahen-On, Rex, vel Deus Sol; out of which Cahen-On the Grecians seem to have formed the word [Greek: Chainon]: and in consequence of it, these two Deities were represented with their jaws widely extended. This term was sometimes changed to [Greek: koinos], communis: hence it is that we so often meet with [Greek: koinoi Theoi], and [Greek: koinoi bomoi], upon coins and marbles: also [Greek: koinos Hermes]. And as Hermes was the reputed God of gain, every thing found was adjudged to be [Greek: koinos], or common.
[Greek: All' esidousa] [Greek: Exapines, Hermes koinos, ephe thugater.] [Greek: Koinon einai ton Hermen.]
Notwithstanding this notion so universally received, yet among the Grecians themselves the term [Greek: koinos] was an antient title of eminence. [Greek: Koinos, ho Despotes]. Coinos signifies a lord and master: undoubtedly from Cohinus; and that from Cohen. It would be endless to enumerate all the instances which might be brought of this nature. Of this, I think, I am assured, that whoever will consider the uncouth names both of Deities, and men, as well as of places, in the light recommended; and attend to the mythology transmitted concerning them; will be able by these helps to trace them to their original meaning. It is, I think, plain, that what the Grecians so often interpreted [Greek: kunes], was an antient Amonian title. When therefore I read of the brazen dog of Vulcan, of the dog of Erigone, of Orion, of Geryon, of Orus, of Hercules, of Amphilochus, of Hecate, I cannot but suppose, that they were the titles of so many Deities; or else of their priests, who were denominated from their office. In short, the Cahen of Egypt were no more dogs than the Paterae of Amon were basons: and though Diodorus does say, that at the grand celebrity of Isis, the whole was preceded by dogs, yet I cannot help being persuaded that they were the priests of the Goddess.
By this clue we may unravel many intricate histories transmitted from different parts. In the temple of Vulcan, near mount AEtna, there are said to have been a breed of dogs, which fawned upon good men, but were implacable to the bad. Inde etiam perpetuus ignis a Siculis alebatur in AEtnaeo Vulcani templo, cui custodes adhibiti sunt sacri canes, blandientes piis hominibus, in impios ferocientes. In the celebrated gardens of Electra there was a golden dog, which shewed the same regard to good men, and was as inveterate to others.
[Greek: Chruseos oidainonti kuon sunulaktee laimoi] [Greek: Sainon ethada phota.]
What is more remarkable, there were many gaping dogs in this temple; which are represented as so many statues, yet were endowed with life.
[Greek: Chasmasi poietoisi seseirotes anthereones] [Greek: Pseudaleon skulakon stiches emphrones.]
Homer describes something of the same nature in the gardens of Alcinous.
[Greek: Chruseioi d' hekaterthe kai argureoi kunes esan,] [Greek: Hous Hephaistos eteuxen iduieisi prapidessin,] [Greek: Athanatous ontas, kai ageros emata panta.]
All this relates to the Cusean priests of Vulcan or Hephaistos, and to the priesthood established in his temple: which priesthood was kept up by succession, and never became extinct. What was Cusean, the Greeks often rendered [Greek: Chruseion], as I shall hereafter shew. The same people were also styled Cuthim; and this word likewise among the antients signified gold: from hence these priests were styled [Greek: Chruseioi kunes]. We find the like history in Crete: here too was a golden dog, which Zeus had appointed to be the guardian of his temple. By comparing these histories, I think we cannot fail of arriving at the latent meaning. The God of light among other titles was styled Cahen, or Chan-Ades: but the term being taken in the same acceptation here, as in the instances above, the Deity was changed to a dog, and said to reside in the infernal regions. From hence he was supposed to have been dragged to light by Hercules of Thebes. The notion both of Cerberus and Hades being subterraneous Deities took its rise from the temples of old being situated near vast caverns, which were esteemed passages to the realms below. Such were in Messenia, in Argolis, in Bithynia, and at Enna in Sicily; not to mention divers other places. These temples were often named Kir-Abor; and the Deity Chan-Ades; out of which terms the Greeks formed [Greek: Ton Kerberon kuna hadou]; and fabled, that he was forced into upper air by Hercules, through these infernal inlets. And as temples similar in name and situation were built in various parts, the like history was told of them all. Pausanias takes notice of this event, among other places, being ascribed to the cavern at Taenarus; as well as to one at Troezen, and to a third near the city Hermione. The Poet Dionysius speaks of the feat being performed in the country of the Marianduni, near Colchis.
[Greek: Kai Mariandunon hieron pedon, enth' enepousin] [Greek: Oudaiou Kronidao megan kuna Chalkeophonon] [Greek: Chersin anelkomenon megaletoros Herakleos,] [Greek: Deinon apo stomaton baleein sialodea chulon.]
But however the Deity in all these instances may have been degraded to the regions of darkness, yet he was the God of light, [Greek: Kun-hades]; and such was the purport of that name. He was the same as Apollo, as may be proved from the Cunidae at Athens, who were a family set apart for his service. [Greek: Kunnidai, genos Atheneisin, ex hou ho hiereus tou Kunniou Apollonos.] Hesychius. The Cunnidai are a family at Athens, out of which the priest of Apollo Cunnius is chosen. He styles him Apollo Cunnius: but the Cunidai were more properly denominated from Apollo Cunides, the same as Cun-Ades. Poseidon was expressly styled Cun-Ades; and he was the same Deity as Apollo, only under a different title, as I have shewn. [Greek: Kunades Poseidon Atheneisin etimaito.] Hesychius. Poseidon was worshipped at Athens under the title of Cun-Ades.
Though I have endeavoured to shew, that the term of which I have been treating was greatly misapplied, in being so uniformly referred to dogs, yet I do not mean to insinuate that it did not sometimes relate to them. They were distinguished by this sacred title, and were held in some degree of veneration; but how far they were reverenced is not easy to determine. Herodotus, speaking of the sanctity of some animals in Egypt, says, that the people in every family, where a dog died, shaved themselves all over: and he mentions it as a custom still subsisting in his own time. Plutarch differs from him. He allows that these animals were, at one time, esteemed holy; but it was before the time of Cambyses: from the aera of his reign they were held in another light: for when this king killed the sacred Apis, the dogs fed so liberally upon his entrails, without making a proper distinction, that they lost all their sanctity. It is of little consequence whichever account be the truest. They were certainly of old looked upon as sacred; and esteemed emblems of the Deity. And it was, perhaps, with a view to this, and to prevent the Israelites retaining any notion of this nature, that a dog was not suffered to come within the precincts of the temple at Jerusalem. In the Mosaic law, the price of a dog, and the hire of a harlot, are put upon the same level. Thou shalt not bring the hire of a whore, or the price of a dog, into the house of the Lord thy God for any vow: for both these are an abomination to the Lord thy God.
To conclude: The Dog, in Egypt, was undoubtedly called Cahen, and Cohen; a title by which many other animals, and even vegetables, were honoured, on account of their being consecrated to some Deity. The Greeks did not consider that this was a borrowed appellation, which belonged to the Gods and their Priests; and was from them extended to many things held sacred. Hence they have continually referred this term to one object only: by which means they have misrepresented many curious pieces of history: and a number of idle fables have been devised to the disparagement of all that was true.
* * * * *
[Greek: CHRYSOS] AND [Greek: CHRYSAOR.]
Among the different branches of the great Amonian family which spread themselves abroad, the sons of Chus were the most considerable, and at the same time the most enterprising. They got access into countries widely distant; where they may be traced under different denominations, but more particularly by their family title. This we might expect the Greeks to have rendered Chusos, and to have named the people [Greek: Chusaioi], Chusaei. But, by a fatal misprision, they uniformly changed these terms to words more familiar to their ear, and rendered them [Greek: Chrusos], and [Greek: Chruseios], as if they had a reference to gold. I have before mentioned the various parts of the world where the Amonians settled, and especially this branch of that family. Their most considerable colonies westward were in Ioenia and Hellas; and about Cuma and Liguria in Italy; and upon the coast of Iberia in Spain. They were likewise to be found in Cyrene; and still farther in Mauritania, and in the islands opposite to that coast. In the north they were to be met with at Colchis, towards the foot of Mount Caucasus, and in most regions upon the coast of the Euxine sea. In the histories of these countries the Grecians have constantly changed Chusos, the Gentile name, to Chrusos, [Greek: Chrusos]; and Chus-Or, Chusorus, to [Greek: Chrusor], Chrusor: and, in consequence of this alteration, they have introduced in their accounts of these places some legend about gold. Hence we read of a golden fleece at Colchis; golden apples at the Hesperides; at Tartessus, a golden cup; and, at Cuma, in Campania, a golden branch:
Aureus et foliis, et lento vimine, ramus.
Something similar is observable in the history of Cyrene. The natives were not remarkable for either mines or merchandize: yet, Palaephatus, having mentioned that they were [Greek: kata genos Aithiopes], Ethiopians by extraction, that is, Cuseans, subjoins: [Greek: Eisi de sphodra chrusoi]. Pindar, in celebrating each happy circumstance of the Insulae Fortunatae, mentions, that there were trees with branches of gold: [Greek: Anthema de chrusou phlegei]. The river Phasis, in Colchis, was supposed to have abounded with gold; and the like was pretended of the Hermus and Pactolus in Ioenia. Not only the Poets, but many of the graver historians, speak of their golden sands. Yet there is reason to doubt of the fact: for not one of them produces any good voucher for what they suppose. They do not mention any trade carried on, nor riches accruing from this lucky circumstance: so that there is no reason to think that one grain of gold was gathered from these celebrated streams. Among the several islands occupied by this people were Rhodes and Delos. In the former, the chief city is said to have been blessed with showers of gold. [Greek: Entha pote breche theon Basileus ho megas chrusais niphadessi polin.] At Delos every thing was golden, even the slippers of the God.
[Greek: Chrusea kai ta pedila, poluchrusos gar Apollon.]
And this not only in aftertimes, when the island was enriched with offerings from different nations, but even at the birth of the God; by which is meant the foundation of his temple, and introduction of his rites.
[Greek: Chrusea toi tote panta themeilia geinato, Dele,] [Greek: Chrusoi de trochoessa panemeros errhee limne,] [Greek: Chruseion d' ekomisse genethlion ernos elaies,] [Greek: Chrusoi de plemmure bathus Inopos helichtheis,] [Greek: Aute de chrusoio ap' oudeos heileo paida,] [Greek: En d' ebaleu kolpoisin.]
We find that the very soil and foundations of the island were golden: the lake floated with golden waves: the olive tree vegetated with golden fruit: and the river Inopus, deep as it was, swelled with gold. Homer, in a hymn to the same personage, represents the whole more compendiously, by saying, that the island was weighed down with treasure:
[Greek: Chrusoi d' ara Delos hapasa] [Greek: Bebrithei.]
I have before mentioned that the Amonians settled in Liguria: and, in consequence of it, the Heliadae are represented as weeping, not only amber, but gold. Philostratus, speaking of a particular species of fir-trees in Boetica, says, that they dropped blood, just as the Heliadae upon the Padus did gold.
Chus, by the Egyptians and Canaanites, was styled Or-Chus, and Chus-Or: the latter of which was expressed by the Greeks, analogous to the examples above, [Greek: Chrusor], Chrusor: and we learn in Eusebius, from Philo, that Chrusor was one of the principal Deities of the Phenicians, a great benefactor to mankind; and by some supposed to have been the same as Hephaistus. Both the Tyrians and Sidonians were undoubtedly a mixed race, and preserved the memory of Ham, and Chus, equally with that of Canaan.
This name, so often rendered Chrusos, and Chrusor, was sometimes changed to [Greek: Chrusaor], Chrusaor: and occurs in many places where the Cuthites were known to have settled. We have been shewn that they were a long time in Egypt; and we read of a Chrusaor in those parts, who is said to have arisen from the blood of Medusa.
[Greek: Exethore Chrusaor te megas, kai Pegasos hippos.]
We meet with the same Chrusaor in the regions of Asia Minor, especially among the Carians. In these parts he was particularly worshipped, and said to have been the first deified mortal. The great Divan of that nation was called Chrusaorium; and there was a city Chrusaoris, and a temple of the same name. [Greek: Engus de tes poleos to tou Chrusaoreos Dios koinon hapanton Karon, eis ho suniasi thusantes te kai bouleusamenoi.] This city was properly called Chus-Or, and built in memory of the same person; as the city Chusora, called also Cerchusora, in Egypt. It was undoubtedly founded by some of the same family, who in aftertimes worshipped their chief ancestor; as the Sidonians and Syrians did likewise. For this we have the testimony of Sanchoniathon; who, having mentioned the various benefits bestowed upon mankind by Chrusaor, says, at the conclusion, [Greek: Dio kai hos theon auton meta thanaton esebasthesan;] for which reason, after his death, they worshipped him as a God. The first king of Iberia was named Chrusaor, the reputed father of Geryon; and he is said to have been [Greek: poluchrusos], a person of great wealth: all which is an Egyptian history, transferred from the Nile to the Boetis.
[Greek: Chrusaor d' eteke trikarenon Geruonea,] [Greek: Michtheis Challiroei kourei klutou Okeanoio.]
Geryon of Spain was, according to this mythology of the poet, the son of Chrusaor; and Chrusaor was confessedly of Egyptian original: so that, whatever the fable may allude to, it must have been imported into Boetica from Egypt by some of the sons of Chus. The Grecians borrowed this term, and applied it to Apollo; and from this epithet, Chrusaor, he was denominated the God of the golden sword. Homer accordingly styles him, [Greek: Apollona Chrusaora]: and, speaking of Apollo's infancy, he says, [Greek: Oud' ar' Apollona Chrusaora thesato meter]: and Diana is termed [Greek: Autokasignete Chrusaoros Apollonos.]
This title cannot possibly relate to the implement supposed: for it would be idle to style an infant the God of the golden sword. It was a weapon, which at no time was ascribed to him: nor do I believe, that he is ever represented with one either upon a gem, or a marble. He is described as wishing for a harp, and for a bow.
[Greek: Eie moi kitharis te phile, kai kampula toxa.]
And his mother is said to have been pleased that she produced him to the world an archer:
[Greek: Chaire de Leto,] [Greek: Houneka toxophoron kai karteron huion etikten.]
These habiliments are often specified: but I do not recollect any mention made of a sword, nor was the term Chrusaor of Grecian etymology.
Since then we may be assured that Chus was the person alluded to under the name of Chrusos, Chrubor, and Chrusaor; we need not wonder that his substitute Apollo is so often styled [Greek: Chrusokomes], and [Greek: Chrusoluros]: that the harp, called by the Amonians  Chan-Or, and Cuth-Or, from the supposed inventor, should by the Grecians be denominated [Greek: Chrusea phorminx] [Greek: Apollonos]: that so many cities, where Apollo was particularly worshipped, should be called Chruse, and Chrusopolis, the number of which was of no small amount. Nor is this observable in cities only, but in rivers, which were named in the same manner. For it was usual, in the first ages, to consecrate rivers to Deities, and to call them after their names. Hence many were denominated from Chusorus, which by the Greeks was changed to [Greek: Chrusorrhoas]; and from this mistake they were supposed to abound with gold. The Nile was called Chrusorrhoas, which had no pretensions to gold: and there was a river of this name at Damascus. Others too might be produced, none of which had any claim to that mineral. There was a stream Chrusorrhoas near the Amazonian city Themiscura in Pontus: and the river Pactolus was of old so called, whence probably came the notion of its abounding with gold. [Greek: Paktolos potamos esti tes Ludias——ekaleito de proteron Chrusorrhoas.] It was named Chrusorrhoas first, and in aftertimes Pactolus: whence we may conclude, in respect to gold, that the name was not given on account of any such circumstance; but the notion was inferred from the name.
It is apparent that this repeated mistake arose in great measure from the term Chusus and Chrusus being similar: whence the latter was easily convertible into the former; which to the Grecians appeared a more intelligible, and at the same time a more splendid, title. But there was still another obvious reason for this change. Chus was by many of the eastern nations expressed Cuth; and his posterity the Cuthim. This term, in the antient Chaldaeic, and other Amonian languages, signified gold: hence many cities and countries, where the Cuthites settled, were described as golden, and were represented by the terms Chrusos and Chruse. These, as I have shewn, had no relation to gold, but to Chus, who was reverenced as the Sun, or Apollo; and was looked upon as Dionusus; but may more truly be esteemed Bacchus. Hence, when the poet Dionysius mentions the island Chruse in India, his commentator observes; [Greek: Chruse nesos, legomene houtos, e dia to chruson pherein, e kata ton Dionuson;] and at last concludes, [Greek: Chrusous einai pos dokei ho helios.]
In a former dissertation concerning the Shepherd Kings in Egypt, I have shewn that they were the sons of Chus, who came into that country under the title of Auritae. They settled in a province named from them Cushan, which was at the upper part of Delta; and in aftertimes called Nomos Arabicus. It was in the vicinity of Memphis, and Aphroditopolis, which places they likewise occupied. I have mentioned that Chusos was often expressed Chrusos, and the country of the Cuthim rendered the golden country. If then there be that uniformity in error which I maintain, it may be expected that, in the history of these places, there should be some reference to gold. It is remarkable that all this part of Egypt, conformably to what I have said, was called [Greek: Chruse], Chruse. Here was the campus aureus, and Aphrodite Aurea of the Romans: and all the country about Memphis was styled golden. To this Diodorus, among others, bears witness: [Greek: Ten te Aphroditen onomazesthai para tois enchoriois Chrusen EK PALAIAS PARADOSEOS, kai pedion einai kaloumenon Chruses Aphrodites peri ten onomazomenen Memphin]. When the Cuthite shepherds came into Egypt, they made Memphis the seat of royal residence: and hard by was the nome of Aphrodite, and the Arabian nome, which they particularly possessed: and which, in consequence of it, were both styled the regions of the Cuthim. Hence came the title of Aphrodite Chruse: and hence the country had the name of the Golden District. The island at the point of Delta, where stood the city Cercusora, is called Gieserat Eddahib, or the Golden Island, at this day. Diodorus mentions, that this appellation of Chruse was derived from a very antient tradition. This tradition undoubtedly related to the shepherds, those sons of Chus, who were so long in possession of the country; and whose history was of the highest antiquity.
The Cuthites in the west occupied only some particular spots: but from Babylonia eastward the greatest part of that extensive sea-coast seems to have been in their possession. In the history of these parts, there is often some allusion to gold, as may be seen in the island Chruse, above-mentioned; and in the Chersonesus Aurea, which lay beyond the Ganges: and not only of gold, but sometimes a reference to brass; and this from a similar mistake. For as Chusus was changed to Chrusus, [Greek: Chrusos], gold; so was Cal-Chus, the hill, or place of Chus, converted to Chalcus, [Greek: Chalkos], brass. Colchis was properly Col-Chus; and therefore called also Cuta, and Cutaia. But what was Colchian being sometimes rendered Chalcion, [Greek: Kalkion], gave rise to the fable of brazen bulls; which were only Colchic Tor, or towers. There was a region named Colchis in India: for where the Cuthites settled, they continually kept up the memory of their forefathers, and called places by their names. This being a secret to Philostratus, has led him into a deal of mysterious error. It is well known that this people were styled Oreitae, and Auritae, both in Egypt and in other parts. Philostratus says that Apollonius came to a settlement of the Oreitae upon the Indian Ocean. He also visited their Pegadae; and, what is remarkable, he met with a people whose very rocks were brazen; their sand was brazen: the rivers conveyed down their streams fine filaments of brass: and the natives esteemed their land golden on account of the plenty of brass. Now what is this detail, but an abuse of terms, ill understood, and shamefully misapplied? Philostratus had heard of a region in India; the history of which he would fain render marvellous. The country, whither Apollonius is supposed to go, was a province of the Indo-Cuthites, who were to be met with in various parts under the title of Oreitae. They were worshippers of fire, and came originally from the land of Ur; and hence had that name. The Pegadae of the country are what we now call Pagodas; and which are too well known to need describing. There were in this part of the world several cities, and temples, dedicated to the memory of Chus. Some of these are famous at this day, though denominated after the Babylonish dialect Cutha, and Cuta; witness Calcutta, and Calecut. The latter seems to have been the capital of the region called of old Colchis. This was more truly expressed Cal-Chus; which Philostratus has mistaken for [Greek: Chalkos], brass; and made the very rocks and rivers abound with that mineral. And yet, that the old mistake about gold may not be omitted, he concludes with a strange antithesis, by saying, that the natives esteemed their country Chrusitis, or golden, from the quantity of brass.
It has been my endeavour to prove that what the Grecians represented by Chrusos, Chrusor, and Chrusaor, should have been expressed Chus, Chusos, and Chusor, called also Chus-Orus. Chus was the son of Ham; and though the names of the Grecian Deities are not uniformly appropriated, yet Ham is generally looked upon as [Greek: Helios], the Sun; and had the title Dis, and Dios: hence the city of Amon in Egypt was rendered Diospolis. If then Chrusos, and Chrusor, be, as I have supposed, Chus; the person so denominated must have been, according to the more antient mythology, the son of Helius, and Dios. We find accordingly that it was so. The Scholiast upon Pindar expressly says, [Greek: Dios pais ho Chrusos]. And in another place he is said to have been the offspring of Helius, who was no other than Cham. [Greek: Ek theias kai Huperionos Helios, ek de Heliou ho Chrusos.] Magic and incantations are attributed to Chus, as the inventor; and they were certainly first practised among his sons: hence it is said by Sanchoniathon, [Greek: Ton Chrusor logous askesai kai epoidas, kai manteias]. He was however esteemed a great benefactor; and many salutary inventions were ascribed to him. He had particularly the credit of being the first who ventured upon the seas: [Greek: Proton te panton anthropon pleusai]. Whether this can be said truly of Chus himself, is uncertain: it agrees full well with the history of his sons; who, as we have the greatest reason to be assured, were the first great navigators in the world.
* * * * *
AND OF THE
DERIVATIVE [Greek: KUKNOS].
Lucian tells us, that, reflecting upon the account given of Phaethon, who fell thunderstruck into the Eridanus, and of his sisters, who were changed to poplars weeping amber, he took a resolution, if he should ever be near the scene of these wonderful transactions, to inquire among the natives concerning the truth of the story. It so happened, that, at a certain time, he was obliged to go up the river above mentioned: and he says, that he looked about very wistfully; yet, to his great amazement, he saw neither amber nor poplar. Upon this he took the liberty to ask the people, who rowed him, when he should arrive at the amber-dropping trees: but it was with some difficulty that he could make them understand what he meant. He then explained to them the story of Phaethon: how he borrowed the chariot of the Sun; and being an awkward charioteer, tumbled headlong into the Eridanus: that his sisters pined away with grief; and at last were transformed to trees, the same of which he had just spoken: and he assured them, that these trees were to be found somewhere upon the banks, weeping amber. Who the deuce, says one of the boatmen, could tell you such an idle story? We never heard of any charioteer tumbling into the river; nor have we, that I know of, a single poplar in the country. If there were any trees hereabouts dropping amber, do you think, master, that we would sit here, day after day, tugging against stream for a dry groat, when we might step ashore, and make our fortunes so easily? This affected Lucian a good deal: for he had formed some hopes of obtaining a little of this precious commodity; and began to think that he must have been imposed upon. However, as Cycnus, the brother of Phaethon, was here changed to a swan, he took it for granted that he should find a number of those birds sailing up and down the stream, and making the groves echo with their melody. But not perceiving any in a great space, he took the liberty, as he passed onward, to put the question again to the boatmen; and to make inquiry about these birds. Pray, gentlemen, says he, at what particular season is it that your swans hereabouts sing so sweetly? It is said, that they were formerly men, and always at Apollo's side; being in a manner of his privy council. Their skill in music must have been very great: and though they have been changed into birds, they retain that faculty, and, I am told, sing most melodiously. The watermen could not help smiling at this account. Why, sir, says one of them, what strange stories you have picked up about our country, and this river? We have plied here, men and boys, for years; and to be sure we cannot say that we never saw a swan: there are some here and there towards the fens, which make a low dull noise: but as for any harmony, a rook or a jackdaw, in comparison of them, may be looked upon as a nightingale.
Such are the witty strictures of Lucian upon the story of Phaethon and Cycnus, as described by the poets. Whatever may have been the grounds upon which this fiction is founded, they were certainly unknown to the Greeks; who have misinterpreted what little came to their hands, and from such misconstruction devised these fables. The story, as we have it, is not uniformly told. Some, like Lucian, speak of swans in the plural; and suppose them to have been the ministers, and attendants of Apollo, who assisted at his concerts. Others mention one person only, called Cycnus; who was the reputed brother of Phaethon, and at his death was transformed to the bird of that name. The fable is the same whichever way it may be related, and the purport of it is likewise the same. There is one mistake in the story, which I must set right before I proceed; as it may be of some consequence in the process of my inquiry. Phaethon is represented by many of the poets as the offspring of the Sun, or Apollo: Sole satus Phaethon. But this was a mistake, and to be found chiefly among the Roman poets. Phaethon was the Sun. It was a title of Apollo; and was given to him as the God of light. This is manifest from the testimony of the more early Greek poets, and particularly from Homer, who uses it in this acceptation.
[Greek: Oudepot' autous] [Greek: Eelios Phaethon epiderketai aktinessin.]
In respect to Cycnus and his brotherhood, those vocal ministers of Apollo, the story, which is told of them, undoubtedly alludes to Canaan, the son of Ham; and to the Canaanites, his posterity. They sent out many colonies; which colonies, there is great reason to think, settled in those places, where these legends about swans particularly prevailed. The name of Canaan was by different nations greatly varied, and ill expressed: and this misconstruction among the Greeks gave rise to the fable. To shew this, it will be proper to give an account of the rites and customs of the Canaanites, as well as of their extensive traffic. Among the many branches of the Amonian family, which settled in various parts of the world, and carried on an early correspondence, the Canaanites were not the least respectable. They traded from Sidon chiefly, before that city was taken by the king of Ascalon: and upon their commerce being interrupted here, they removed it to the strong hold of Tyre. This place was soon improved to a mighty city, which was very memorable in its day. The Canaanites, as they were a sister tribe of the Mizraim, so were they extremely like them in their rites and religion. They held a heifer, or cow, in high veneration, agreeably with the customs of Egypt. Their chief Deity was the Sun, whom they worshipped together with the Baalim, under the titles Ourchol, Adonis, Thamuz. It was a custom among the Grecians, at the celebration of their religious festivals, to crown the whole with hymns of praise, and the most joyful exclamations. But the Egyptians were of a gloomy turn of mind, which infected the whole of their worship. Their hymns were always composed in melancholy affecting airs, and consisted of lamentations for the loss of Osiris, the mystic flight of Bacchus, the wanderings of Isis, and the sufferings of the Gods. Apuleius takes notice of this difference in the rites and worship of the two nations: AEgyptiaca numinum fana plena plangoribus: Graeca plerumque choreis. Hence the author of the Orphic Argonautica, speaking of the initiations in Egypt, mentions,
[Greek: Threnous t' Aiguption, kai Osiridos hiera chutla.]
The Canaanites at Byblus, Berytus, Sidon, and afterwards at Tyre, used particularly mournful dirges for the loss of Adonis, or Thamuz; who was the same as Thamas, and Osiris in Egypt. The Cretans had the like mournful hymns, in which they commemorated the grief of Apollo for the loss of Atymnius.
[Greek: Ailina melpein,] [Greek: Hoia para Kretessin anax eligainen Apollon] [Greek: Dakrucheon erateinon Atumnion.]
The measures and harmony of the Canaanites seem to have been very affecting, and to have made a wonderful impression on the minds of their audience. The infectious mode of worship prevailed so far, that the children of Israel were forbidden to weep, and make lamentation upon a festival: [Greek: Einai gar heorten, kai me dein en autei klaiein, ou gar exeinai.] And Nehemiah gives the people a caution to the same purpose: This day is holy unto the Lord your God: mourn not, nor weep. And Esdras counsels them in the same manner: This day is holy unto the Lord: be not sorrowful. It is likewise in another place mentioned, that the Levites stilled all the people, saying, Hold your peace, for the day is holy: neither be ye grieved. Such was the prohibition given to the Israelites: but among the Canaanites this shew of sorrow was encouraged, and made part of their rites.
The father of this people is represented in the Mosaic history, according to our version, Canaan: but there is reason to think that by the Egyptians and other neighbouring nations it was expressed Cnaan. This by the Greeks was rendered [Greek: Chnaas], and [Greek: Chnas]; and in later times [Greek: Chna], Cna. [Greek: Chna, houtos he Phoinike ekaleito—to ethnikon Chnaos.] We are told by Philo from Sanchoniathon, that Isiris the Egyptian, who found out three letters, was the brother of Cna: by which is meant, that Mizraim was the brother of Canaan. I have taken notice more than once of a particular term, [Greek: Uk], Uc; which has been passed over unnoticed by most writers: yet is to be found in the composition of many words; especially such as are of Amonian original. The tribe of Cush was styled by Manethon, before the passage was depraved, [Greek: Ukkousos]. Uch, says this author, in the sacred language of Egypt, signifies a king. Hence it was conferred as a title upon the God Sehor, who, as we may infer from Manethon and Hellanicus, was called Ucsiris, and Icsiris; but by the later Greeks the name was altered to Isiris and Osiris. And not only the God Sehor, or Sehoris was so expressed; but Cnas, or Canaan, had the same title, and was styled Uc-Cnas, and the Gentile name or possessive was Uc-cnaos, [Greek: Uk-knaos: to ethnikon gar Chnaos], as we learn from Stephanus. The Greeks, whose custom it was to reduce every foreign name to something similar in their own language, changed [Greek: Ukknaos] to [Greek: Kukneios], Uc Cnaus to Cucneus; and from [Greek: Uk Knas] formed [Greek: Kuknos]. Some traces of this word still remain, though almost effaced; and may be observed in the name of the Goddess Ichnaia. Instead of Uc-Cnaan the son of Ham, the Greeks have substituted this personage in the feminine, whom they have represented as the daughter of the Sun. She is mentioned in this light by Lycophron: [Greek: Tes Heliou thugatros Ichnaias brabeus]. They likewise changed Thamuz and Thamas of Canaan and Egypt to Themis a feminine; and called her Ichnaia Themis. She is so styled by Homer.
[Greek: Theai d' esan endothi pasai,] [Greek: Hossai aristai esan, Dione te, Rheie te,] [Greek: Ichnaie te Themis, kai agastonos Amphitrite.]
[Greek: Ichnaia] is here used adjectively. [Greek: Ichnaia Themis] signifies Themis, or Thamuz, of Canaan.
There was another circumstance, which probably assisted to carry on the mistake: a Canaanitish temple was called both Ca-Cnas, and Cu-Cnas; and adjectively Cu-Cnaios; which terms there is reason to think were rendered [Greek: Kuknos], and [Greek: Kukneios]. Besides all this, the swan was undoubtedly the insigne of Canaan, as the eagle and vulture were of Egypt, and the dove of Babylonia. It was certainly the hieroglyphic of the country. These were the causes which contributed to the framing many idle legends, such as the poets improved upon greatly. Hence it is observable, that wherever we may imagine any colonies from Canaan to have settled and to have founded temples, there is some story about swans: and the Greeks, in alluding to their hymns, instead of [Greek: Ykknaon asma,] the music of Canaan, have introduced [Greek: kukneion asma,] the singing of these birds: and, instead of the death of Thamuz, lamented by the Cucnaans, or priests, they have made the swans sing their own dirge, and foretell their own funeral. Wherever the Canaanites came, they introduced their national worship; part of which, as I have shewn, consisted in chanting hymns to the honour of their country God. He was the same as Apollo of Greece: on which account, Lucian, in compliance with the current notion, says, that the Cycni were formerly the assessors and ministers of that Deity. By this we are to understand, that people of this denomination were in antient times his priests. One part of the world, where this notion about swans prevailed, was in Liguria, upon the banks of the Eridanus. Here Phaethon was supposed to have met with his downfal; and here his brother Cycnus underwent the metamorphosis, of which we have spoken. In these parts some Amonians settled very early; among whom it appears that there were many from Canaan. They may be traced by the mighty works which they carried on; for they drained the river towards its mouth, and formed some vast canals, called Fossae Philistinae. Pliny, speaking of the entrance into the Eridanus, says, Inde ostia plana, Carbonaria, ac fossiones Philistinae, quod alii Tartarum vocant: omnia ex Philistinae fossae abundatione nascentia. These canals were, undoubtedly the work of the Canaanites, and particularly of some of the Caphtorim, who came from Philistim: and hence these outlets of the river were named Philistinae. The river betrays its original in its name; for it has no relation to the Celtic language, but is apparently of Egyptian or Canaanitish etymology. This is manifest from the terms of which it is made up; for it is compounded of Ur-Adon, sive Orus Adonis; and was sacred to the God of that name. The river, simply, and out of composition, was Adon, or Adonis: and it is to be observed, that this is the name of one of the principal rivers in Canaan. It ran near the city Biblus, where the death of Thamuz was particularly lamented. It is a circumstance taken notice of by many authors, and most pathetically described by Milton.
Thammuz came next behind, Whose annual wound in Lebanon allur'd The Syrian damsels to lament his fate In amorous ditties all a summer's day: While smooth Adonis from his native rock Ran purple to the sea; suppos'd with blood Of Thammuz yearly wounded.
It is said that the Eridanus was so called first by Pherecydes Syrus: and that my etymology is true, may in great measure be proved from the Scholiast upon Aratus. He shews that the name was of Egyptian original, at least consonant to the language of Egypt; for it was the same as the Nile. It is certain that it occurred in the antient sphere of Egypt, whence the Grecians received it. The great effusion of water in the celestial sphere, which, Aratus says, was the Nile, is still called the Eridanus: and, as the name was of oriental original, the purport of it must be looked for among the people of those parts. The river Strymon, in Thrace, was supposed to abound with swans, as much as the Eridanus; and the antient name of this river was Palaestinus. It was so called from the Amonians, who settled here under the name of Adonians, and who founded the city Adonis. They were by the later Greeks styled, after the Ioenic manner, Edonians, and their city Edonis. [Greek: Strumon potamos esti tes Thrakes kata polin Edonida, prosegoreueto de proteron Palaistinos.] The Strymon is a river of Thrace, which runs by the city Edonis: it was of old called the river Palaestinus. In these places, and in all others where any of the Canaanites settled, the Grecians have introduced some story about swans.
Some of them seem to have gained access at Delphi; as did likewise others from Egypt: and by such was that oracle first founded. Egypt, among other names, was called Ait, and Ai Ait, by the Greeks expressed [Greek: Aetia]: [Greek: Eklethe de—kai AETIA.] The natives, in consequence of it, were called [Greek: Aetioi], and [Greek: Aetai]; which was interpreted eagles. Hence, we are told by Plutarch, that some of the feathered kind, either eagles or swans, came from the remote parts of the earth, and settled at Delphi. [Greek: Aetous tinas, e Kuknous, o Terentiane Priske, muthologousin apo ton akron tes ges epi to meson pheromenous eis tauto sumpesein Puthoi peri ton kaloumenon omphalon.] These eagles and swans undoubtedly relate to colonies from Egypt and Canaan. I recollect but one philosopher styled Cygnus; and, what is remarkable, he was of Canaan. Antiochus, the Academic, mentioned by Cicero in his philosophical works, and also by Strabo, was of Ascaloun, in Palestine; and he was surnamed Cygnus, the Swan: which name, as it is so circumstanced, must, I think, necessarily allude to this country.
As in early times colonies went by the name of the Deity whom they worshipped, or by the name of the insigne and hieroglyphic under which their country was denoted, every depredation made by such people was placed to the account of the Deity under such a device. This was the manner in which poets described things: and, in those days, all wrote in measure. Hence, instead of saying that the Egyptians, or Canaanites, or Tyrians, landed and carried off such and such persons; they said, that it was done by Jupiter, in the shape of an eagle, or a swan, or a bull: substituting an eagle for Egypt, a swan for Canaan, and a bull for the city of Tyre. It is said of the Telchines, who were Amonian priests, that they came to Attica under the conduct of Jupiter in the shape of an eagle.
[Greek: Aietos hegemoneue di aitheros antitupos Zeus.]
By which is meant, that they were Egyptian priests; and an eagle was probably the device in their standard, as well as the insigne of their nation.
Some of the same family were to be found among the Atlantes of Mauritania, and are represented as having the shape of swans. Prometheus, in AEschylus, speaks of them in the commission which he gives to Io: You must go, says he, as far as the city Cisthene in the Gorgonian plains, where the three Phorcides reside; those antient, venerable ladies, who are in the shape of swans, and have but one eye, of which they make use in common. This history relates to an Amonian temple founded in the extreme parts of Africa; in which there were three priestesses of Canaanitish race; who, on that account, are said to be in the shape of swans. The notion of their having but one eye among them took its rise from an hieroglyphic very common in Egypt, and probably in Canaan: this was the representation of an eye, which was said to be engraved upon the pediment of their temples. As the land of Canaan lay so opportunely for traffic, and the emigrants from most parts went under their conduct, their history was well known. They navigated the seas very early, and were necessarily acquainted with foreign regions; to which they must at one time have betaken themselves in great numbers, when they fled before the sons of Israel. In all the places where they settled they were famous for their hymns and music; all which the Greeks have transferred to birds, and supposed that they were swans who were gifted with this harmony. Yet, sweet as their notes are said to have been, there is not, I believe, a person upon record who was ever a witness to it. It is, certainly, all a fable. When, therefore, Plutarch tells us that Apollo was pleased with the music of swans, [Greek: mousikei te hedetai, kai kuknon phonais]; and when AEschylus mentions their singing their own dirges; they certainly allude to Egyptian and Canaanitish priests, who lamented the death of Adon and Osiris. And this could not be entirely a secret to the Grecians, for they seem often to refer to some such notion. Socrates termed swans his fellow-servants: in doing which he alluded to the antient priests, styled Cycni. They were people of the choir, and officiated in the temples of the same Deities; whose servant he professed himself to be. Hence Porphyry assures us, [Greek: Hou paizon homodoulous autou elegen tous kuknous (Sokrates)], that Socrates was very serious when he mentioned swans as his fellow-servants. When, therefore, Aristophanes speaks of the Delian and Pythian swans, they are the priests of those places, to whom he alludes. And when it is said by Plato, that the soul of Orpheus, out of disgust to womankind, led the life of a swan, the meaning certainly is, that he retired from the world to some cloister, and lived a life of celibacy, like a priest. For the priests of many countries, but particularly of Egypt, were recluses, and devoted themselves to celibacy: hence monkery came originally from Egypt. Lycophron, who was of Egypt, and skilled in antient terms, styles Calchas, who was the priest of Apollo, a swan. [Greek: Molossou kupeos koitou kuknon.] These epithets, the Scholiast tells us, belong to Apollo; and Calchas is called a swan, [Greek: dia to geraion, kai mantikon]: because he was an old prophet and priest. Hence, at the first institution of the rites of Apollo, which is termed the birth of the Deity, at Delos, it is said that many swans came from the coast of Asia, and went round the island for the space of seven days.
[Greek: Kuknoi de theou melpontes aoidoi] [Greek: Meonion Paktolon ekuklosanto lipontes] [Greek: Hebdomakis peri Delon; epeeisan de locheiei] [Greek: Mousaon ornithes, aoidotatoi peteenon.]
The whole of this relates to a choir of priests, who came over to settle at Delos, and to serve in the newly erected temple. They circled the island seven times; because seven, of old, was looked upon as a mysterious and sacred number.
[Greek: Hebdome ein agathois, kai hebdome esti genethle.] [Greek: Hebdome en protoisi, kai hebdome esti teleie.] [Greek: Hebdomatei de hoi tetelesmena panta tetuktai.] [Greek: Hepta de panta tetuktai en ouranoi asteroenti.]
The birds in the island of Diomedes, which were said to have been originally companions of that hero, were undoubtedly priests, and of the same race as those of whom I have been treating. They are represented as gentle to good men, and averse to those who are bad. Ovid describes their shape and appearance: Ut non cygnorum, sic albis proxima cygnis; which, after what has been said, may, I think, be easily understood.
If then the harmony of swans, when spoken of, not only related to something quite foreign, but in reality did not of itself exist, it may appear wonderful that the antients should so universally give into the notion. For not only the poets, but Plato, Plutarch, Cicero, Pliny, with many others of high rank, speak of it as a circumstance well known. But it is to be observed, that none of them speak from their own experience: nor are they by any means consistent in what they say. Some mention this singing as a general faculty; which was exerted at all times: others limit it to particular seasons, and to particular places. Aristotle seems to confine it to the seas of Africa: Aldrovandus says, that it may be heard upon the Thames near London. The account given by Aristotle is very remarkable. He says, that mariners, whose course lay through the Libyan sea, have often met with swans, and heard them singing in a melancholy strain: and upon a nearer approach, they could perceive that some of them were dying, from whom the harmony proceeded. Who would have expected to have found swans swimming in the salt sea, in the midst of the Mediterranean? There is nothing that a Grecian would not devise in support of a favourite error. The legend from beginning to end is groundless: and though most speak of the music of swans as exquisite; yet some absolutely deny the whole of it; and others are more moderate in their commendations. The watermen in Lucian give the preference to a jackdaw: but Antipater in some degree dissents, and thinks that the swan has the advantage.
[Greek: Loiteros kuknon mikros throos, ee koloion] [Greek: Krogmos.]
And Lucretius confesses, that the screaming of a crane is not quite so pleasing:
Parvus ut est, Cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor:
Which however is paying them no great compliment. To these respectable personages I must add the evidence of a modern; one too of no small repute, even the great Scaliger. He says, that he made a strict scrutiny about this affair, when in Italy; and the result of his observations was this: Ferrariae multos (cygnos) vidimus, sed cantores sane malos, neque melius ansere canere.
* * * * *
The Egyptians were very famous for geometrical knowledge: and as all the flat part of their country was annually overflowed, it is reasonable to suppose that they made use of this science to determine their lands, and to make out their several claims, at the retreat of the waters. Many indeed have thought, that the confusion of property, which must for a while have prevailed, gave birth to practical geometry, in order to remedy the evil: and in consequence of it, that charts and maps were first delineated in this country. These, we may imagine, did not relate only to private demesnes: but included also the course of the Nile in its various branches; and all the sea coast, and its inlets, with which lower Egypt was bounded.
It is very certain, that the people of Colchis, who were a colony from Egypt, had charts of this sort, with written descriptions of the seas and shores, whithersoever they traded: and they at one time carried on a most extensive commerce. We are told, says the Scholiast upon Apollonius, that the Colchians still retain the laws and customs of their forefathers: and they have pillars of stone, upon which are engraved maps of the continent, and of the ocean: [Greek: Eisi de, phesi, kai nomoi par' autois ton Progonon, kai Stelai, en hais ges kai thalasses anagraphai eisi.] The poet, upon whom the above writer has commented, calls these pillars, [Greek: kurbeis]: which, we are told, were of a square figure, like obelisks: and on these, he says, were delineated all the passages of the sea; and the boundaries of every country upon the earth.
[Greek: Hoi de toi graptas pateron hethen eiruontai] [Greek: Kurbeas, hois eni pasai hodoi, kai peirat' easin] [Greek: Hugres te, trapheres te, perix epineissomenoisin.]
These delineations had been made of old, and transmitted to the Colchians by their forefathers; which forefathers were from Egypt.
If then the Colchians had this science, we may presume that their mother country possessed it in as eminent a degree: and we are assured, that they were very knowing in this article. Clemens Alexandrinus mentions, that there were maps of Egypt, and charts of the Nile very early. And we are moreover told, that Sesostris (by which is meant the Sethosians) drew upon boards schemes of all the countries, which he had traversed: and copies of these were given both to the Egyptians, and to the Scythians, who held them in high estimation. This is a curious account of the first delineation of countries, and origin of maps; which were first described upon pillars. We may from hence be enabled to solve the enigma concerning Atlas, who is said to have supported the heavens upon his shoulders. This took its rise from some verses in Homer, which have been strangely misconstrued. The passage is in the Odyssey; where the poet is speaking of Calypso, who is said to be the daughter of Atlas, [Greek: oloophronos], a person of deep and recondite knowledge:
[Greek: Atlantos thugater oloophronos, hoste thalasses] [Greek: Pases benthea oiden, echei de te KIONAS autos] [Greek: Makras, hai Gaian te kai Ouranon amphis echousin.]
It is to be observed, that when the antients speak of the feats of Hercules, we are to understand the Herculeans; under the name of Cadmus is meant the Cadmians; under that of Atlas, the Atlantians. With this allowance how plain are the words of Homer! The Atlantians settled in Phrygia and Mauritania; and, like the Colchians, were of the family of Ham. They had great experience in sea affairs: and the poet tells us, that they knew all the soundings in the great deep.
[Greek: Echei de te Kionas autos] [Greek: Makras, hai Gaien te kai Ouranon amphis echousin.]
They had also long pillars, or obelisks, which referred to the sea; and upon which was delineated the whole system both of heaven and earth; [Greek: amphis], all around, both on the front of the obelisk, and on the other sides. [Greek: Kiones Kosmou] were certainly maps, and histories of the universe; in the knowledge of which the Atlantians seem to have instructed their brethren the Herculeans. The Grecians, in their accounts, by putting one person for a people, have rendered the history obscure; which otherwise would be very intelligible. There is a passage in Eusebius, which may be rendered very plain, and to the purpose, if we make use of the clue above-mentioned. [Greek: Herodotos de legei ton Eraklea mantin kai phusikon genomenon para Atlantos tou Barbarou tou Phrugos diadechesthai tas tou Kosmou Kionas.] This may be paraphrased in the following manner; and with such latitude will be found perfectly consonant to the truth. The Herculeans were a people much given to divination, and to the study of nature. Great part of their knowledge they are thought to have had transmitted to them from those Atlantians, who settled in Phrygia, especially the history of the earth and heavens; for all such knowledge the Atlantians had of old consigned to pillars and obelisks in that country: and from them it was derived to the Herculeans, or Heraclidae, of Greece. The Atlantians were esteemed by the Grecians as barbarous: but they were in reality of the same family. Their chief ancestor was the father of the Peleiadae, or Ionim; of whom I shall hereafter have much to say: and was the supposed brother of Saturn. The Hellenes, though they did not always allow it, were undoubtedly of his race. This may be proved from Diodorus Siculus, who gives this curious history of the Peleiadae, his offspring. [Greek: Tautas de migeisas tois euphuestatois Herosi kai Theois archegous katastenai tou pleistou genous ton anthropon, tekousas tous di' areten Theous kai Heroas onomasthentas.—Parapleseos de kai tas allas Atlantidas gennesai paidas epiphaneis, hon tous men ethnon, tous de poleon genesthai ktistas; dioper ou monon par' eniois ton Barbaron, alla kai para tois Hellesi tous pleistous ton archaiotaton Heroon eis tautas anapherein to genos.] These daughters of Atlas, by their connections and marriages with the most illustrious heroes, and divinities, may be looked up to as the heads of most families upon earth. And from them proceeded all those, who upon account of their eminence were in aftertimes esteemed Gods and Heroes. And having spoken of Maia, and her offspring, the author proceeds to tell us, that the other Atlantides in like manner gave birth to a most noble race: some of whom were the founders of nations; and others the builders of cities: insomuch that most of the more antient heroes, not only of those abroad, who were esteemed Barbari, but even of the Helladians, claimed their ancestry from them. And they received not only their ancestry, but their knowledge also, [Greek: tou kosmou kionas]; all the celestial and terrestrial phenomena, which had been entrusted to the sacred pillars of the Atlantes, [Greek: hai gaien te kai ouranon amphis echousin], which contained descriptions both of the heavens, and the earth. From Phrygia they came at last to Hellas, where they were introduced by Anaximander, who is said, [Greek: Esdounai proton geographikon pinaka], to have been the first who introduced a geographical chart: or, as Laertius expresses it, [Greek: Ges kai Thalattes perimetron], the circumference of the terraqueous globe delineated.