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A New Voyage to Carolina
by John Lawson
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A New Voyage to Carolina By John Lawson

[British Surveyor-General of North Carolina. d. 1711.]



A New VOYAGE to CAROLINA; Containing the Exact Description and Natural History of that COUNTRY: Together with the Present State thereof. And A JOURNAL Of a Thousand Miles, Travel'd thro' several Nations of INDIANS. Giving a particular Account of their Customs, Manners, &c.

By John Lawson, Gent. Surveyor-General of North Carolina.



[Dedication]



To His Excellency WILLIAM Lord CRAVEN, Palatine; The most Noble, HENRY Duke of BEAUFORT; The Right Hon-ble JOHN Lord CARTERET; The Hon-ble MAURICE ASHLEY, Esq; Sir JOHN COLLETON, Baronet, JOHN DANSON, Esq;

And the rest of the True and Absolute LORDS-PROPRIETORS of the Province of Carolina in America.

My Lords,

As Debts of Gratitude ought most punctually to be paid, so, where the Debtor is uncapable of Payment, Acknowledgments ought, at least, to be made. I cannot, in the least, pretend to retaliate Your Lordships Favours to me, but must farther intrude on that Goodness of which I have already had so good Experience, by laying these Sheets at Your Lordships Feet, where they beg Protection, as having nothing to recommend them, but Truth; a Gift which every Author may be Master of, if he will.

I here present Your Lordships with a Description of your own Country, for the most part, in her Natural Dress, and therefore less vitiated with Fraud and Luxury. A Country, whose Inhabitants may enjoy a Life of the greatest Ease and Satisfaction, and pass away their Hours in solid Contentment.

Those Charms of Liberty and Right, the Darlings of an English Nature, which Your Lordships grant and maintain, make you appear Noble Patrons in the Eyes of all Men, and we a happy People in a Foreign Country; which nothing less than Ingratitude and Baseness can make us disown.

As Heaven has been liberal in its Gifts, so are Your Lordships favourable Promoters of whatever may make us an easy People; which, I hope, Your Lordships will continue to us and our Posterity; and that we and they may always acknowledge such Favours, by banishing from among us every Principle which renders Men factious and unjust, which is the hearty Prayer of,

My Lords, Your Lordships most obliged, most humble, and most devoted Servant, JOHN LAWSON.



PREFACE.



'Tis a great Misfortune, that most of our Travellers, who go to this vast Continent in America, are Persons of the meaner Sort, and generally of a very slender Education; who being hir'd by the Merchants, to trade amongst the Indians, in which Voyages they often spend several Years, are yet, at their Return, uncapable of giving any reasonable Account of what they met withal in those remote Parts; tho' the Country abounds with Curiosities worthy a nice Observation. In this Point, I think, the French outstrip us.

First, By their Numerous Clergy, their Missionaries being obedient to their Superiors in the highest Degree, and that Obedience being one great Article of their Vow, and strictly observ'd amongst all their Orders.

Secondly, They always send abroad some of their Gentlemen in Company of the Missionaries, who, upon their Arrival, are order'd out into the Wilderness, to make Discoveries, and to acquaint themselves with the Savages of America; and are oblig'd to keep a strict Journal of all the Passages they meet withal, in order to present the same not only to their Governors and Fathers, but likewise to their Friends and Relations in France; which is industriously spread about that Kingdom, to their Advantage. For their Monarch being a very good Judge of Mens Deserts, does not often let Money or Interest make Men of Parts give Place to others of less Worth. This breeds an Honourable Emulation amongst them, to outdo one another, even in Fatigues, and Dangers; whereby they gain a good Correspondence with the Indians, and acquaint themselves with their Speech and Customs; and so make considerable Discoveries in a short time. Witness, their Journals from Canada, to the Missisipi, and its several Branches, where they have effected great Matters, in a few Years.

Having spent most of my Time, during my eight Years Abode in Carolina, in travelling; I not only survey'd the Sea-Coast and those Parts which are already inhabited by the Christians, but likewise view'd a spatious Tract of Land, lying betwixt the Inhabitants and the Ledges of Mountains, from whence our noblest Rivers have their Rise, running towards the Ocean, where they water as pleasant a Country as any in Europe; the Discovery of which being never yet made publick, I have, in the following Sheets, given you a faithful Account thereof, wherein I have laid down every thing with Impartiality, and Truth, which is indeed, the Duty of every Author, and preferable to a smooth Stile, accompany'd with Falsities and Hyperboles.

Great Part of this pleasant and healthful Country is inhabited by none but Savages, who covet a Christian Neighbourhood, for the Advantage of Trade, and enjoy all the Comforts of Life free from Care and Want.

But not to amuse my Readers any longer with the Encomium of Carolina, I refer 'em to my Journal, and other more particular Description of that Country and its Inhabitants, which they will find after the Natural History thereof, in which I have been very exact, and for Method's sake, rang'd each Species under its distinct and proper Head.



INTRODUCTION.



In the Year 1700, when People flock'd from all Parts of the Christian World, to see the Solemnity of the Grand Jubilee at Rome, my Intention, at that Time, being to travel, I accidentally met with a Gentleman, who had been Abroad, and was very well acquainted with the Ways of Living in both Indies; of whom, having made Enquiry concerning them, he assur'd me, that Carolina was the best Country I could go to; and, that there then lay a Ship in the Thames, in which I might have my Passage. I laid hold on this Opportunity, and was not long on Board, before we fell down the River, and sail'd to Cowes; where, having taken in some Passengers, we proceeded on our Voyage 'till we sprung a-leak, and were forc'd into the Islands of Scilly. Here we spent about 10 Days in refitting; in which Time we had a great deal of Diversion in Fishing and Shooting on those rocky Islands. The Inhabitants were very courteous and civil, especially the Governor, to whose good Company and Favour, we were very much oblig'd. There is a Town on one of these Islands, where is good Entertainment for those that happen to come in, though the Land is but mean, and Flesh-meat not Plenty. They have good Store of Rabbits, Quails, and Fish; and you see at the poor Peoples Doors great Heaps of Perriwinkle-shells, those Fish being a great Part of their Food. On the 1st Day of May, having a fair Wind at East, we put to Sea, and were on the Ocean (without speaking to any Vessel, except a Ketch bound from New England to Barbadoes, laden with Horses, Fish, and Provisions) 'till the latter End of July, when the Winds hung so much Southerly, that we could not get to our Port, but put into Sandyhook-bay, and went up to New York, after a pinching Voyage, caus'd by our long Passage. We found at the Watering-Place, a French Man of War, who had on Board Men and Necessaries to make a Colony, and was intended for the Messiasippi River, there to settle. The Country of New-York is very pleasant in Summer, but in the Winter very cold, as all the Northern Plantations are. Their chief Commodities are Provisions, Bread, Beer, Lumber, and Fish in abundance; all which are very good, and some Skins and Furrs are hence exported. The City is govern'd by a Mayor, (as in England) is seated on an Island, and lies very convenient for Trade and Defence, having a regular Fort, and well mounted with Guns. The Buildings are generally of a smaller Sort of Flemish Brick, and of the Dutch Fashion, (excepting some few Houses:) They are all very firm and good Work, and conveniently plac'd, as is likewise the Town, which gives a very pleasant Prospect of the neighbouring Islands and Rivers. A good Part of the Inhabitants are Dutch, in whose Hands this Colony once was. After a Fortnight's Stay here, we put out from Sandyhook, and in 14 Days after, arriv'd at Charles-Town, the Metropolis of South Carolina, which is soituate in 32, 45 North Latitude, and admits of large Ships to come over their Bar up to the Town, where is a very commodious Harbour, about 5 Miles distant from the Inlet, and stands on a Point very convenient for Trade, being seated between two pleasant and navigable Rivers. The Town has very regular and fair Streets, in which are good Buildings of Brick and Wood, and since my coming thence, has had great Additions of beautiful, large Brick-buildings, besides a strong Fort, and regular Fortifications made to defend the Town. The Inhabitants, by their wise Management and Industry, have much improv'd the Country, which is in as thriving Circumstances at this Time, as any Colony on the Continent of English America, and is of more Advantage to the Crown of Great Britain, than any of the other more Northerly Plantations, (Virginia and Maryland excepted.) This Colony was at first planted by a genteel Sort of People, that were well acquainted with Trade, and had either Money or Parts, to make good Use of the Advantages that offer'd, as most of them have done, by raising themselves to great Estates, and considerable Places of Trust, and Posts of Honour, in this thriving Settlement. Since the first Planters, abundance of French and others have gone over, and rais'd themselves to considerable Fortunes. They are very neat and exact in Packing and Shipping of their Commodities; which Method has got them so great a Character Abroad, that they generally come to a good Market with their Commodities; when oftentimes the Product of other Plantations, are forc'd to be sold at lower Prizes. They have a considerable Trade both to Europe, and the West Indies, whereby they become rich, and are supply'd with all Things necessary for Trade, and genteel Living, which several other Places fall short of. Their co-habiting in a Town, has drawn to them ingenious People of most Sciences, whereby they have Tutors amongst them that educate their Youth a-la-mode.

Their Roads, with great Industry, are made very good and pleasant. Near the Town is built a fair Parsonage-house, with necessary Offices, and the Minister has a very considerable Allowance from his Parish. There is likewise a French Church in Town, of the Reform'd Religion, and several Meeting-houses for dissenting Congregations, who all enjoy at this Day an entire Liberty of their Worship; the Constitution of this Government, allowing all Parties of well-meaning Christians to enjoy a free Toleration, and possess the same Priviledges, so long as they appear to behave themselves peaceably and well: It being the Lords Proprietors Intent, that the Inhabitants of Carolina should be as free from Oppression, as any in the Universe; which doubtless they will, if their own Differences amongst themselves do not occasion the contrary.

They have a well-disciplin'd Militia; their Horse are most Gentlemen, and well mounted, and the best in America, and may equalize any in other Parts: Their Officers, both Infantry and Cavalry, generally appear in scarlet Mountings, and as rich as in most Regiments belonging to the Crown, which shews the Richness and Grandeur of this Colony. They are a Fronteer, and prove such troublesome Neighbours to the Spaniards, that they have once laid their Town of St. Augustine in Ashes, and drove away their Cattle; besides many Encounters and Engagements, in which they have defeated them, too tedious to relate here. What the French got by their Attempt against South Carolina, will hardly ever be rank'd amongst their Victories; their Admiral Mouville being glad to leave the Enterprize, and run away, after he had suffer'd all the Loss and Disgrace he was capable of receiving. They are absolute Masters over the Indians, and carry so strict a Hand over such as are within the Circle of their Trade, that none does the least Injury to any of the English, but he is presently sent for, and punish'd with Death, or otherwise, according to the Nature of the Fault. They have an entire Friendship with the neighbouring Indians of several Nations, which are a very warlike People, ever faithful to the English, and have prov'd themselves brave and true on all Occasions; and are a great Help and Strength to this Colony. The Chief of the savage Nations have heretofore groan'd under the Spanish Yoke, and having experienc'd their Cruelty, are become such mortal Enemies to that People, that they never give a Spaniard Quarter; but generally, when they take any Prisoners, (if the English be not near to prevent it) sculp them, that is, to take their Hair and Skin of their Heads, which they often flea away, whilst the Wretch is alive. Notwithstanding the English have us'd all their Endeavours, yet they could never bring them to leave this Barbarity to the Spaniards; who, as they alledge, use to murder them and their Relations, and make Slaves of them to build their Forts and Towns.

This Place is more plentiful in Money, than most, or indeed any of the Plantations on the Continent; besides, they build a considerable Number of Vessels of Cedar, and other Wood, with which they trade to Cuirassau, and the West Indies; from one they bring Money, and from the other the Produce of their Islands, which yields a necessary Supply of both to the Colony. Their Stocks of Cattle are incredible, being from one to two thousand Head in one Man's Possession: These feed in the Savannas, and other Grounds, and need no Fodder in the Winter. Their Mutton and Veal is good, and their Pork is not inferior to any in America. As for Pitch and Tar, none of the Plantations are comparable for affording the vast Quantities of Naval Stores, as this Place does. There have been heretofore some Discoveries of rich Mines in the mountanous Part of this Country; but being remote from the present Settlement, and the Inhabitants not well vers'd in ordering Minerals, they have been laid aside 'till a more fit Opportunity happens. There are several noble Rivers, and spacious Tracts of rich Land in their Lordships Dominions, lying to the Southward, which are yet uninhabited, besides Port Royal, a rare Harbour and Inlet, having many Inhabitants thereon, which their Lordships have now made a Port for Trade. This will be a most advantageous Settlement, lying so commodiously for Ships coming from the Gulph, and the Richness of the Land, which is reported to be there. These more Southerly Parts will afford Oranges, Limons, Limes, and many other Fruits, which the Northerly Plantations yield not.

The Merchants of Carolina, are fair, frank Traders. The Gentlemen seated in the Country, are very courteous, live very nobly in their Houses, and give very genteel Entertainment to all Strangers and others, that come to visit them. And since the Produce of South and North Carolina is the same, unless Silk, which this Place produces great Quantities of, and very good, North Carolina having never made any Tryal thereof as yet, therefore I shall refer the natural Produce of this Country, to that Part which treats of North Carolina, whose Productions are much the same. The Christian Inhabitants of both Colonies pretty equal, but the Slaves of South Carolina are far more in Number than those in the North. I shall now proceed to relate my Journey thro' the Country, from this Settlement to the other, and then treat of the natural History of Carolina, with other remarkable Circumstances which I have met with, during my eight Years Abode in that Country.



A JOURNAL of A thousand Miles Travel among the Indians, from South to North Carolina.



{Saturday.} On December the 28th, 1700, I began my Voyage (for North Carolina) from Charles-Town, being six English-men in Company, with three Indian-men, and one Woman, Wife to our Indian-Guide, having five Miles from the Town to the Breach we went down in a large Canoe, that we had provided for our Voyage thither, having the Tide of Ebb along with us; which was so far spent by that Time we got down, that we had not Water enough for our Craft to go over, although we drew but two Foot, or thereabouts. This Breach is a Passage through a Marsh lying to the Northward of Sullivans Island, the Pilot's having a Look out thereon, lying very commodious for Mariners, (on that Coast) making a good Land-Mark in so level a Country, this Bar being difficult to hit, where an Observation hath been wanting for a Day or two; North East Winds bringing great Fogs, Mists, and Rains; which, towards the cool Months of October, November, and until the latter End of March, often appear in these Parts. There are three Pilots to attend, and conduct Ships over the Bar. The Harbour where the Vessels generally ride, is against the Town on Cooper's River, lying within a Point which parts that and Ashley-River, they being Land lock'd almost on all Sides.

At 4 in the Afternoon, (at half Flood) we pass'd with our Canoe over the Breach, leaving Sullivans Island on our Starboard. The first Place we design'd for, was Santee River, on which there is a Colony of French Protestants, allow'd and encourag'd by the Lords Proprietors. At Night we got to Bell's-Island, a poor Spot of Land, being about ten Miles round, where liv'd (at that Time) a Bermudian, being employ'd here with a Boy, to look after a Stock of Cattle and Hogs, by the Owner of this Island. One Side of the Roof of his House was thatch'd with Palmeto-leaves, the other open to the Heavens, thousands of Musketoes, and other troublesome Insects, tormenting both Man and Beast inhabiting these Islands. {Palmeto-trees.} The Palmeto-trees, whose Leaves growing only on the Top of the Tree, in the Shape of a Fan, and in a Cluster, like a Cabbage; this Tree in Carolina, when at its utmost Growth, is about forty or fifty Foot in Height, and two Foot through: It's worth mentioning, that the Growth of the Tree is not perceivable in the Age of any Man, the Experiment having been often try'd in Bermudas, and elsewhere, which shews the slow Growth of this Vegitable, the Wood of it being porous and stringy, like some Canes; the Leaves thereof the Bermudians make Womens Hats, Bokeets, Baskets, and pretty Dressing-boxes, a great deal being transported to Pensilvania, and other Northern Parts of America, (where they do not grow) for the same Manufacture. The People of Carolina make of the Fans of this Tree, Brooms very serviceable, to sweep their Houses withal.

We took up our Lodging this Night with the Bermudian; our Entertainment was very indifferent, there being no fresh Water to be had on the Island.

The next Morning we set away thro' the Marshes; about Noon we reach'd another Island, call'd Dix's Island, much like to the former, tho' larger; there liv'd an honest Scot, who gave us the best Reception his Dwelling afforded, being well provided of Oat-meal, and several other Effects he had found on that Coast; which Goods belong'd to that unfortunate Vessel, the Rising Sun, a Scotch Man of War, lately arriv'd from the Istmus of Darien, and cast away near the Bar of Ashley River, the September before, Capt. Gibson of Glasco then commanding her, who, with above an hundred Men then on Board her, {Septem. 5. 1700.} were every Soul drown'd in that terrible Gust which then happen'd; most of the Corps being taken up, were carefully interr'd by Mr. Graham, their Lieutenant, who happily was on Shore during the Tempest.

After Dinner, we left our Scotch Landlord, and went that Night to the North East Point of the Island: It being dark ere we got there, our Canoe struck on a Sand near the Breakers, and were in great Danger of our Lives, but (by God's Blessing) got off safe to the Shore, where we lay all Night.

{Monday.} In the Morning we set forwards on our intended Voyage. About two a Clock we got to Bulls Island, which is about thirty Miles long, and hath a great Number of both Cattel and Hogs upon it; the Cattel being very wild, and the Hogs very lean. These two last Islands belong to one Colonel Cary, an Inhabitant of South Carolina. Although it were Winter, yet we found such Swarms of Musketoes, and other troblesome Insects, that we got but little Rest that Night.

{Tuesday.} The next Day we intended for a small Island on the other Side of Sewee-Bay, which joining to these Islands, Shipping might come to victual or careen; but there being such a Burden of those Flies, that few or none cares to settle there; so the Stock thereon are run wild. We were gotten about half Way to Racoon-Island, when there sprung up a tart Gale at N.W. which put us in some Danger of being cast away, the Bay being rough, and there running great Seas between the two Islands, which are better than four Leagues asunder, a strong Current of a Tide setting in and out, which made us turn Tail to it, and got our Canoe right before the Wind, and came safe into a Creek that is joining to the North End of Bulls Island. We sent our Indians to hunt, who brought us two Deers, which were very poor, and their Maws full of large Grubs.

{Wednesday.} On the Morrow we went and visited the Eastermost Side of this Island, it joining to the Ocean, having very fair sandy Beeches, pav'd with innumerable Sorts of curious pretty Shells, very pleasant to the Eye. Amongst the rest, we found the Spanish Oyster-Shell, whence come the Pearls. They are very large, and of a different Form from other Oysters; their Colour much resembles the Tortoise-Shell, when it is dress'd. There was left by the Tide several strange Species of a muciligmous slimy Substance, though living, and very aptly mov'd at their first Appearance; yet, being left on the dry Sand, (by the Beams of the Sun) soon exhale and vanish.

At our Return to our Quarters, the Indians had kill'd two more Deer, two wild Hogs, and three Racoons, all very lean, except the Racoons. We had great Store of Oysters, Conks, and Clanns, a large Sort of Cockles. These Parts being very well furnish'd with Shell-Fish, Turtle of several Sorts, but few or none of the green, with other Sorts of Salt-water Fish, and in the Season, good Plenty of Fowl, as Curleus, Gulls, Gannets, and Pellicans, besides Duck and Mallard, Geese, Swans, Teal, Widgeon, &c.

{Thursday.} On Thursday Morning we left Bulls Island, and went thro' the Creeks, which lie between the Bay and the main Land. At Noon we went on Shore, and got our Dinner near a Plantation, on a Creek having the full Prospect of Sewee-Bay: We sent up to the House, but found none at Home, but a Negro, of whom our Messenger purchas'd some small Quantity of Tobacco and Rice. We came to a deserted Indian Residence, call'd Avendaugh-bough, where we rested that Night.

{Friday.} The next Day we enter'd Santee-River's Mouth, where is fresh Water, occasion'd by the extraordinary Current that comes down continually. With hard Rowing, we got two Leagues up the River, lying all Night in a swampy Piece of Ground, the Weather being so cold all that Time, we were almost frozen ere Morning, leaving the Impressions of our Bodies on the wet Ground. We set forward very early in the Morning, to seek some better Quarters.

{Saturday.} As we row'd up the River, we found the Land towards the Mouth, and for about sixteen Miles up it, scarce any Thing but Swamp and Percoarson, {Percoarson, a Sort of low Land.} affording vast Ciprus-Trees, of which the French make Canoes, that will carry fifty or sixty Barrels. After the Tree is moulded and dug, they saw them in two Pieces, and so put a Plank between, and a small Keel, to preserve them from the Oyster-Banks, which are innumerable in the Creeks and Bays betwixt the French Settlement and Charles-Town. They carry two Masts, and Bermudas Sails, which makes them very handy and fit for their Purpose; for although their River fetches its first Rise from the Mountains, and continues a Current some hundreds of Miles ere it disgorges it self, having no sound Bay or Sand-Banks betwixt the Mouth thereof, and the Ocean. Notwithstanding all this, with the vast Stream it affords at all Seasons, and the repeated Freshes it so often allarms the Inhabitants with, by laying under Water great Part of their Country, yet the Mouth is barr'd, affording not above four or five Foot Water at the Entrance. As we went up the River, we heard a great Noise, as if two Parties were engag'd against each other, seeming exactly like small Shot. {Sewee Indians.} When we approach'd nearer the Place, we found it to be some Sewee Indians firing the Canes Swamps, which drives out the Game, then taking their particular Stands, kill great Quantities of both Bear, Deer, Turkies, and what wild Creatures the Parts afford.

These Sewees have been formerly a large Nation, though now very much decreas'd, since the English hath seated their Land, and all other Nations of Indians are observ'd to partake of the same Fate, where the Europeans come, the Indians being a People very apt to catch any Distemper they are afflicted withal; the Small-Pox has destroy'd many thousands of these Natives, who no sooner than they are attack'd with the violent Fevers, and the Burning which attends that Distemper, fling themselves over Head in the Water, in the very Extremity of the Disease; which shutting up the Pores, hinders a kindly Evacuation of the pestilential Matter, and drives it back; by which Means Death most commonly ensues; not but in other Distempers which are epidemical, you may find among 'em Practitioners that have extraordinary Skill and Success in removing those morbifick Qualities which afflict 'em, not often going above 100 Yards from their Abode for their Remedies, some of their chiefest Physicians commonly carrying their Compliment of Drugs continually about them, which are Roots, Barks, Berries, Nuts, &c. that are strung upon a Thread. So like a Pomander, the Physician wears them about his Neck. An Indian hath been often found to heal an English-man of a Malady, for the Value of a Match-Coat; which the ablest of our English Pretenders in America, after repeated Applications, have deserted the Patient as incurable; God having furnish'd every Country with specifick Remedies for their peculiar Diseases.

{Rum.} Rum, a Liquor now so much in Use with them, that they will part with the dearest Thing they have, to purchase it; and when they have got a little in their Heads, are the impatients Creatures living, 'till they have enough to make 'em quite drunk; and the most miserable Spectacles when they are so, some falling into the Fires, burn their Legs or Arms, contracting the Sinews, and become Cripples all their Life-time; others from Precipices break their Bones and Joints, with abundance of Instances, yet none are so great to deter them from that accurs'd Practice of Drunkenness, though sensible how many of them (are by it) hurry'd into the other World before their Time, as themselves oftentimes will confess. The Indians, I was now speaking of, were not content with the common Enemies that lessen and destroy their Country-men, but invented an infallible Stratagem to purge their Tribe, and reduce their Multitude into far less Numbers. Their Contrivance was thus, as a Trader amongst them inform'd me.

They seeing several Ships coming in, to bring the English Supplies from Old England, one chief Part of their Cargo being for a Trade with the Indians, some of the craftiest of them had observ'd, that the Ships came always in at one Place, which made them very confident that Way was the exact Road to England; and seeing so many Ships come thence, they believ'd it could not be far thither, esteeming the English that were among them, no better than Cheats, and thought, if they could carry the Skins and Furs they got, themselves to England, which were inhabited with a better Sort of People than those sent amongst them, that then they should purchase twenty times the Value for every Pelt they sold Abroad, in Consideration of what Rates they sold for at Home. The intended Barter was exceeding well approv'd of, and after a general Consultation of the ablest Heads amongst them, it was, 'Nemine Contradicente', agreed upon, immediately to make an Addition of their Fleet, by building more Canoes, and those to be of the best Sort, and biggest Size, as fit for their intended Discovery. Some Indians were employ'd about making the Canoes, others to hunting, every one to the Post he was most fit for, all Endeavours tending towards an able Fleet and Cargo for Europe. The Affair was carry'd on with a great deal of Secrecy and Expedition, so as in a small Time they had gotten a Navy, Loading, Provisions, and Hands ready to set Sail, leaving only the Old, Impotent, and Minors at Home, 'till their successful Return. {They never hearing more of their Fleet.} The Wind presenting, they set up their Mat-Sails, and were scarce out of Sight, when there rose a Tempest, which it's suppos'd carry'd one Part of these Indian Merchants, by Way of the other World, whilst the others were taken up at Sea by an English Ship, and sold for Slaves to the Islands. The Remainder are better satisfy'd with their Imbecilities in such an Undertaking, nothing affronting them more, than to rehearse their Voyage to England.

There being a strong Current in Santee-River, caus'd us to make small Way with our Oars. With hard Rowing, we got that Night to Mons. Eugee's House, which stands about fifteen Miles up the River, being the first Christian dwelling we met withal in that Settlement, and were very courteously receiv'd by him and his Wife.

Many of the French follow a Trade with the Indians, living very conveniently for that Interest. There is about seventy Families seated on this River, who live as decently and happily, as any Planters in these Southward Parts of America. The French being a temperate industrious People, some of them bringing very little of Effects, yet by their Endeavours and mutual Assistance amongst themselves, (which is highly to be commended) have out-stript our English, who brought with 'em larger Fortunes, though (as it seems) less endeavour to manage their Talent to the best Advantage. 'Tis admirable to see what Time and Industry will (with God's Blessing) effect. Carolina affording many strange Revolutions in the Age of a Man, daily Instances presenting themselves to our View, of so many, from despicable Beginnings, which in a short Time arrive to very splended Conditions. Here Propriety hath a large Scope, there being no strict Laws to bind our Privileges. A Quest after Game, being as freely and peremptorily enjoy'd by the meanest Planter, as he that is the highest in Dignity, or wealthiest in the Province. Deer, and other Game that are naturally wild, being not immur'd, or preserv'd within Boundaries, to satisfy the Appetite of the Rich alone. A poor Labourer, that is Master of his Gun, &c. hath as good a Claim to have continu'd Coarses of Delicacies crouded upon his Table, as he that is Master of a greater Purse.

We lay all that Night at Mons. Eugee's, and the next Morning set out farther, to go the Remainder of our Voyage by Land: At ten a Clock we pass'd over a narrow, deep Swamp, having left the three Indian Men and one Woman, that had pilotted the Canoe from Ashly-River, having hir'd a Sewee-Indian, a tall, lusty Fellow, who carry'd a Pack of our Cloaths, of great Weight; notwithstanding his Burden, we had much a-do to keep pace with him. At Noon we came up with several French Plantations, meeting with several Creeks by the Way, the French were very officious in assisting with their small Dories to pass over these Waters, (whom we met coming from their Church) being all of them very clean and decent in their Apparel; their Houses and Plantations suitable in Neatness and Contrivance. They are all of the same Opinion with the Church of Geneva, there being no Difference amongst them concerning the Punctilio's of their Christian Faith; which Union hath propagated a happy and delightful Concord in all other Matters throughout the whole Neighbourhood; living amongst themselves as one Trible, or Kindred, every one making it his Business to be assistant to the Wants of his Country-man, preserving his Estate and Reputation with the same Exactness and Concern as he does his own; all seeming to share in the Misfortunes, and rejoyce at the Advance, and Rise, of their Brethren.

Towards the Afternoon, we came to Mons. L'Jandro, where we got our Dinner; there coming some French Ladies whilst we were there, who were lately come from England, and Mons. L'Grand, a worthy Norman, who hath been a great Sufferer in his Estate, by the Persecution in France, against those of the Protestant Religion: This Gentleman very kindly invited us to make our Stay with him all Night, but we being intended farther that Day, took our Leaves, returning Acknowledgments of their Favours.

About 4 in the Afternoon, we pass'd over a large Ciprus run in a small Canoe; the French Doctor sent his Negro to guide us over the Head of a large Swamp; so we got that Night to Mons. Galliar's the elder, who lives in a very curious contriv'd House, built of Brick and Stone, which is gotten near that Place. Near here comes in the Road from Charles-Town, and the rest of the English Settlement, it being a very good Way by Land, and not above 36 Miles, altho' more than 100 by Water; and I think the most difficult Way I ever saw, occasion'd by Reason of the multitude of Creeks lying along the Main, keeping their Course thro' the Marshes, turning and winding like a Labyrinth, having the Tide of Ebb and Flood twenty Times in less than three Leagues going.

{Monday.} The next Morning very early, we ferry'd over a Creek that runs near the House; and, after an Hour's Travel in the Woods, we came to the River-side, where we stay'd for the Indian, who was our Guide, and was gone round by Water in a small Canoe, to meet us at that Place we rested at. He came after a small Time, and ferry'd us in that little Vessel over Santee River 4 Miles, and 84 Miles in the Woods, which the over-flowing of the Freshes, which then came down, had made a perfect Sea of, there running an incredible Current in the River, which had cast our small Craft, and us, away, had we not had this Sewee Indian with us; who are excellent Artists in managing these small Canoes.

Santee River, at this Time, (from the usual Depth of Water) was risen perpendicular 36 Foot, always making a Breach from her Banks, about this Season of the Year: The general Opinion of the Cause thereof, is suppos'd to proceed from the overflowing of fresh Water-Lakes that lie near the Head of this River, and others, upon the same Continent: But my Opinion is, that these vast Inundations proceed from the great and repeated Quantities of Snow that falls upon the Mountains, which lie at so great a Distance from the Sea, therefore they have no Help of being dissolv'd by those saline, piercing Particles, as other adjacent Parts near the Ocean receive; and therefore lies and increases to a vast Bulk, until some mild Southerly Breezes coming on a sudden, continue to unlock these frozen Bodies, congeal'd by the North-West Wind, dissipating them in Liquids; and coming down with Impetuosity, fills those Branches that feed these Rivers, and causes this strange Deluge, which oft-times lays under Water the adjacent Parts on both Sides this Current, for several Miles distant from her Banks; tho' the French and Indians affir'm'd to me, they never knew such an extraordinary Flood there before.

We all, by God's Blessing, and the Endeavours of our Indian-Pilot, pass'd safe over the River, but was lost in the Woods, which seem'd like some great Lake, except here and there a Knowl of high Land, which appear'd above Water.

We intended for Mons. Galliar's, jun', but was lost, none of us knowing the Way at that Time, altho' the Indian was born in that Country, it having receiv'd so strange a Metamorphosis. We were in several Opinions concerning the right Way, the Indian and my self, suppos'd the House to bear one Way, the rest thought to the contrary; we differing, it was agreed on amongst us, that one half should go with the Indian to find the House, and the other part to stay upon one of these dry Spots, until some of them return'd to us, and inform'd us where it lay.

My self and two more were left behind, by Reason the Canoe would not carry us all; we had but one Gun amongst us, one Load of Ammunition, and no Provision. Had our Men in the Canoe miscarry'd, we must (in all Probability) there have perish'd.

In about six Hours Time, from our Mens Departure, the Indian came back to us in the same Canoe he went in, being half drunk, which assur'd us they had found some Place of Refreshment. He took us three into the Canoe, telling us all was well: Padling our Vessel several Miles thro' the Woods, being often half full of Water; but at length we got safe to the Place we sought for, which prov'd to lie the same Way the Indian and I guess'd it did.

When we got to the House, we found our Comrades in the same Trim the Indian was in, and several of the French Inhabitants with them, who treated us very courteously, wondering at our undertaking such a Voyage, thro' a Country inhabited by none but Savages, and them of so different Nations and Tongues.

After we had refresh'd our selves, we parted from a very kind, loving, and affable People, who wish'd us a safe and prosperous Voyage.

Hearing of a Camp of Santee Indians not far of, we set out intending to take up our Quarters with them that Night. There being a deep Run of Water in the Way, one of our Company being top-heavy, and there being nothing but a small Pole for a Bridge, over a Creek, fell into the Water up to the Chin; my self laughing at the Accident, and not taking good Heed to my Steps, came to the same Misfortune: All our Bedding was wet. The Wind being at N.W. it froze very hard, which prepar'd such a Night's Lodging for me, that I never desire to have the like again; the wet Bedding and freezing Air had so qualify'd our Bodies, that in the Morning when we awak'd, we were nigh frozen to Death, until we had recruited our selves before a large Fire of the Indians.

{Tuesday.} Tuesday Morning we set towards the Congerees, leaving the Indian Guide Scipio drunk amongst the Santee-Indians. We went ten Miles out of our Way, to head a great Swamp, the Freshes having fill'd them all with such great Quantities of Water, that the usual Paths were render'd unpassable. We met in our Way with an Indian Hut, where we were entertain'd with a fat, boil'd Goose, Venison, Racoon, and ground Nuts. We made but little Stay; about Noon, we pass'd by several large Savannah's, wherein is curious Ranges for Cattel, being green all the Year; they were plentifully stor'd with Cranes, Geese, &c. and the adjacent Woods with great Flocks of Turkies. This Day we travell'd about 30 Miles, and lay all Night at a House which was built for the Indian Trade, the Master thereof we had parted with at the French Town, who gave us Leave to make use of his Mansion. Such Houses are common in these Parts, and especially where there is Indian Towns, and Plantations near at hand, which this Place is well furnish'd withal.

These Santee-Indians are a well-humour'd and affable People; and living near the English, are become very tractable. They make themselves Cribs after a very curious Manner, wherein they secure their Corn from Vermin; which are more frequent in these warm Climates, than Countries more distant from the Sun. These pretty Fabricks are commonly supported with eight Feet or Posts, about seven Foot high from the Ground, well daub'd within and without upon Laths, with Loom or Clay, which makes them tight, and fit to keep out the smallest Insect, there being a small Door at the gable End, which is made of the same Composition, and to be remov'd at Pleasure, being no bigger, than that a slender Man may creep in at, cementing the Door up with the same Earth, when they take Corn out of the Crib, and are going from Home, always finding their Granaries in the same Posture they left them; Theft to each other being altogether unpractis'd, never receiving Spoils but from Foreigners.

Hereabouts the Ground is something higher than about Charles-Town, there being found some Quarries of brown free Stone, which I have seen made Use of for Building, and hath prov'd very durable and good. The Earth here is mix'd with white Gravel, which is rare, there being nothing like a Stone to be found, of the natural Produce, near to Ashly-River.

{Wednesday.} The next Day about Noon we came to the Side of a great Swamp, where we were forc'd to strip our selves to get over it, which, with much Difficulty, we effected. {Septem. 5. 1700.} Hereabouts the late Gust of Wind, which happen'd in September last, had torn the large Ciprus-Trees and Timbers up by the Roots, they lying confusedly in their Branches, did block up the Way, making the Passage very difficult.

This Night we got to one Scipio's Hutt, a famous Hunter: There was no Body at Home; but we having (in our Company) one that had us'd to trade amongst them, we made our selves welcome to what his Cabin afforded, (which is a Thing common) the Indians allowing it practicable to the English Traders, to take out of their Houses what they need in their Absence, in Lieu whereof they most commonly leave some small Gratuity of Tobacco, Paint, Beads, &c. We found great Store of Indian Peas, (a very good Pulse) Beans, Oyl, Thinkapin Nuts, Corn, barbacu'd Peaches, and Peach-Bread; which Peaches being made into a Quiddony, and so made up into Loves like Barley-Cakes, these cut into thin Slices, and dissolv'd in Water, makes a very grateful Acid, and extraordinary beneficial in Fevers, as hath often been try'd, and approv'd on by our English Practitioners. The Wind being at N.W. with cold Weather, made us make a large Fire in the Indian's Cabin; being very intent upon our Cookery, we set the Dwelling on Fire, and with much ado, put it out, tho' with the Loss of Part of the Roof.

{Thursday.} The next Day we travell'd on our Way, and about Noon came up with a Settlement of Santee Indians, there being Plantations lying scattering here and there, for a great many Miles. They came out to meet us, being acquainted with one of our Company, and made us very welcome with fat barbacu'd Venison, which the Woman of the Cabin took and tore in Pieces with her Teeth, so put it into a Mortar, beating it to Rags, afterwards stews it with Water, and other Ingredients, which makes a very savoury Dish.

At these Cabins came to visit us the King of the Santee Nation. He brought with him their chief Doctor or Physician, who was warmly and neatly clad with a Match-Coat, made of Turkies Feathers, which makes a pretty Shew, seeming as if it was a Garment of the deepest silk Shag. This Doctor had the Misfortune to lose his Nose by the Pox, which Disease the Indians often get by the English Traders that use amongst them; not but the Natives of America have for many Ages (by their own Confession) been afflicted with a Distemper much like the Lues Venerea, which hath all the Symptoms of the Pox, being different in this only; for I never could learn, that this Country-Distemper, or Yawes, is begun or continu'd with a Gonorrhoea; yet is attended with nocturnal Pains in the Limbs, and commonly makes such a Progress, as to vent Part of the Matter by Botches, and several Ulcers in the Body, and other Parts; oftentimes Death ensuing. I have known mercurial Unguents and Remedies work a Cure, following the same Methods as in the Pox; several white People, but chiefly the Criolo's, losing their Palates and Noses by this devouring Vulture.

It is epidemical, visiting these Parts of America, which is often occasion'd thro' the immoderate drinking of Rum, by those that commonly drink Water at other Times, cold Nights Lodging, and bad open Houses, and more chiefly by often wetting the Feet, and eating such Quantities of Pork as they do, which is a gross Food, and a great Propagator of such Juices as it often meets withal in human Bodies, once tainted with this Malady; which may differently (in some Respects) act its Tragedy; the Change being occasion'd by the Difference of Climates and Bodies, as in Europe. We being well enough assur'd that the Pox had its first Rise (known to us) in this new World, it being caught of the Indian Women, by the Spanish Soldiers that follow'd Columbus in one of his Expeditions to America; who after their Arrival in Old Spain, were hasten'd to the Relief of Naples, at that Time besieg'd by the French. Provisions growing scarce, the useless People were turn'd out of the City, to lessen the Mouths; amongst these, the Curtesans were one Part, who had frequently embrac'd the Spaniards, being well fraught with Riches by their new Discovery. The Leager Ladies had no sooner lost their Spanish Dons, but found themselves as well entertain'd by the French, whose Camp they traded in, giving the Mounsieurs as large a Share of the pocky Spoils within their own Lines, as the Spaniards had, who took the Pains to bring it in their Breeches as far as from America; the large Supplies of Swines Flesh, which that Army was chiefly victuall'd withal, made it rage. The Siege was rais'd; the French and Spaniards retreating to Flanders, which was a Parrade of all Nations; by which Means, this filthy Distemper crowded it self into most Nations of the known World.

Now to return to our Doctor, who in the Time of his Affliction withdrew himself (with one that labour'd under the same Distemper) into the Woods. These two perfected their Cures by proper Vegitables, &c. of which they have Plenty, and are well acquainted with their specifick Virtue.

I have seen such admirable Cures perform'd by these Savages, which would puzzle a great many graduate Practitioners to trace their Steps in Healing, with the same Expedition, Ease, and Success; using no racking Instruments in their Chirurgery, nor nice Rules of Diet and Physick, to verify the Saying, 'qui Medice vivit, misere vivit'. In Wounds which penetrate deep, and seem mortal, they order a spare Diet, with drinking Fountain-water; if they perceive a white Matter, or Pus to arise, they let the Patient more at large, and presently cure him.

After these two had perform'd their Cures at no easier Rate than the Expence of both their Noses, coming again amongst their old Acquaintance so disfigur'd, the Indians admir'd to see them metamorphos'd after that manner; enquir'd of them where they had been all that Time, and what were become of their Noses? They made Answer, That they had been conversing with the white Man above, (meaning God Almighty) how they were very kindly entertain'd by that Great Being; he being much pleas'd with their Ways, and had promis'd to make their Capacities equal with the white People in making Guns, Ammunition, &c. in Retalliation of which, they had given him their Noses. The Verity of which, they yet hold, the Indians being an easy, credulous People, and most notoriously cheated by their Priests and Conjurers, both Trades meeting ever in one Person, and most commonly a Spice of Quackship added to the other two Ingredients, which renders that cunning Knave the Impostor to be more rely'd upon; thence a fitter Instrument to cheat these ignorant People; the Priest and Conjurers being never admitted to their Practice, 'till Years and the Experience of repeated Services hath wrought their Esteem amongst the Nations they belong to.

The Santee King, who was in Company with this No-nos'd Doctor, is the most absolute Indian Ruler in these Parts, although he is Head but of a small People, in Respect to some other Nations of Indians, that I have seen: He can put any of his People to Death that hath committed any Fault which he judges worthy of so great a Punishment. This Authority is rarely found amongst these Savages, for they act not (commonly) by a determinative Voice in their Laws, towards any one that hath committed Murder, or such other great Crime, but take this Method; him to whom the Injury was done, or if dead, the nearest of his Kindred prosecutes by Way of an actual Revenge, being himself, if Opportunity serves his Intent, both Judge and Executioner, performing so much Mischief on the Offender, or his nearest Relation, until such Time that he is fully satisfy'd: Yet this Revenge is not so infallible, but it may be bought off with Beads, Tobacco, and such like Commodities that are useful amongst them, though it were the most sable Villany that could be acted by Mankind.

Some that attended the King, presented me with an odoriferous, balsamick Root, of a fragrant Smell and Taste, the Name I know not; they chew it in the Mouth, and by that simple Application, heal desperate Wounds both green and old; that small Quantity I had, was given inwardly to those troubl'd with the Belly-ach, which Remedy fail'd not to give present Help, the Pain leaving the Patient soon after they had taken the Root.

Near to these Cabins are several Tombs made after the manner of these Indians; the largest and the chiefest of them was the Sepulchre of the late Indian King of the Santees, a Man of great Power, not only amongst his own Subjects, but dreaded by the neighbouring Nations for his great Valour and Conduct, having as large a Prerogative in his Way of Ruling, as the present King I now spoke of.

The manner of their Interment, is thus: A Mole or Pyramid of Earth is rais'd, the Mould thereof being work'd very smooth and even, sometimes higher or lower, according to the Dignity of the Person whose Monument it is. On the Top thereof is an Umbrella, made Ridge-ways, like the Roof of an House; this is supported by nine Stakes, or small Posts, the Grave being about six or eight Foot in Length, and four Foot in Breadth; about it is hung Gourds, Feathers, and other such like Trophies, plac'd there by the dead Man's Relations, in Respect to him in the Grave. The other Part of the Funeral-Rites are thus, As soon as the Party is dead, they lay the Corps upon a Piece of Bark in the Sun, seasoning or embalming it with a small Root beaten to Powder, which looks as red as Vermilion; the same is mix'd with Bear's Oil, to beautify the Hair, and preserve their Heads from being lousy, it growing plentifully in these Parts of America. After the Carcass has laid a Day or two in the Sun, they remove and lay it upon Crotches cut on purpose for the Support thereof from the Earth; then they anoint it all over with the fore-mention'd Ingredients of the Powder of this Root, and Bear's Oil. When it is so done, they cover it very exactly over with Bark of the Pine or Cyprus Tree, to prevent any Rain to fall upon it, sweeping the Ground very clean all about it. Some of his nearest of Kin brings all the temporal Estate he was possess'd of at his Death, as Guns, Bows, and Arrows, Beads, Feathers, Match-coat, &c. This Relation is the chief Mourner, being clad in Moss, and a Stick in his Hand, keeping a mournful Ditty for three or four Days, his Face being black with the Smoak of Pitch, Pine, mingl'd with Bear's Oil. All the while he tells the dead Man's Relations, and the rest of the Spectators, who that dead Person was, and of the great Feats perform'd in his Life-time; all what he speaks, tending to the Praise of the Defunct. As soon as the Flesh grows mellow, and will cleave from the Bone, they get it off, and burn it, making all the Bones very clean, then anoint them with the Ingredients aforesaid, wrapping up the Skull (very carefully) in a Cloath artificially woven of Possums Hair. (These Indians make Girdles, Sashes, Garters, &c. after the same Manner.) The Bones they carefully preserve in a wooden Box, every Year oiling and cleansing them: By these Means preserve them for many Ages, that you may see an Indian in Possession of the Bones of his Grand-father, or some of his Relations of a larger Antiquity. They have other Sorts of Tombs; as where an Indian is slain, in that very Place they make a Heap of Stones, (or Sticks, where Stones are not to be found;) to this Memorial, every Indian that passes by, adds a Stone, to augment the Heap, in Respect to the deceas'd Hero.

We had a very large Swamp to pass over near the House, and would have hir'd our Landlord to have been our Guide, but he seem'd unwilling; so we press'd him no farther about it. He was the tallest Indian I ever saw, being seven Foot high, and a very strait compleat Person, esteem'd on by the King for his great Art in Hunting, always carrying with him an artificial Head to hunt withal: They are made of the Head of a Buck, the back Part of the Horns being scrapt and hollow, for Lightness of Carriage. The Skin is left to the setting on of the Shoulders, which is lin'd all round with small Hoops, and flat Sort of Laths, to hold it open for the Arm to go in. They have a Way to preserve the Eyes, as if living. The Hunter puts on a Match-coat made of Deer's Skin, with the Hair on, and a Piece of the white Part of a Deer's Skin, that grows on the Breast, which is fasten'd to the Neck-End of this stalking Head, so hangs down. In these Habiliments an Indian will go as near a Deer as he pleases, the exact Motions and Behaviour of a Deer being so well counterfeited by 'em, that several Times it hath been known for two Hunters to come up with a stalking Head together, and unknown to each other, so that they have kill'd an Indian instead of a Deer, which hath happen'd sometimes to be a Brother, or some dear Friend; for which Reason they allow not of that Sort of Practice, where the Nation is populous.

Within half a Mile of the House, we pass'd over a prodigious wide and deep Swamp, being forc'd to strip stark-naked, and much a-do to save our selves from drowning in this Fatiegue. We, with much a-do, got thro', going that Day about five Miles farther, and came to three more Indian Cabins, call'd in the Indian Tongue, Hickerau, by the English Traders, the black House, being pleasantly seated on a high Bank, by a Branch of Santee-River. One of our Company, that had traded amongst these Indians, told us, That one of the Cabins was his Father's-in-Law; he call'd him so, by Reason the old Man had given him a young Indian Girl, that was his Daughter, to lie with him, make Bread, and to be necessary in what she was capable to assist him in, during his Abode amongst them.

When we came thither first, there was no Body at Home, so the Son made bold to search his Father's Granary for Corn, and other Provisions. He brought us some Indian Maiz and Peas, which are of a reddish Colour, and eat well, yet colour the Liquor they are boil'd in, as if it were a Lixivium of red Tartar. After we had been about an Hour in the House, where was Millions of Fleas, the Indian Cabins being often fuller of such Vermin, than any Dog-Kennel, the old Man came in to us, and seem'd very glad to see his Son-in-Law.

This Indian is a great Conjurer, as appears by the Sequel. The Seretee or Santee Indians were gone to War against the Hooks and Backhooks Nations, living near the Mouth of Winyan-River. Those that were left at Home, (which are commonly old People and Children) had heard no News a long Time of their Men at Arms. This Man, at the Entreaty of these People, (being held to be a great Sorcerer amongst 'em) went to know what Posture their fighting Men were in. His Exorcism was carry'd on thus: He dress'd himself in a clean white dress'd Deer-Skin; a great Fire being made in the Middle of the Plantation, the Indians sitting all round it, the Conjurer was blind-folded, then he surrounded the Fire several Times, I think thrice; leaving the Company, he went into the Woods, where he stay'd about half an Hour, returning to them, surrounded the Fire as before; leaving them, went the second Time into the Woods; at which Time there came a huge Swarm of Flies, very large, they flying about the Fire several Times, at last fell all into it, and were visibly consum'd. Immediately after the Indian-Conjurer made a huge Lilleloo, and howling very frightfully, presently an Indian went and caught hold of him, leading him to the Fire. The old Wizard was so feeble and weak, being not able to stand alone, and all over in a Sweat, and as wet as if he had fallen into the River. After some Time he recover'd his Strength, assuring them, that their Men were near a River, and could not pass over it 'till so many Days, but would, in such a Time, return all in Safety, to their Nation. All which prov'd true at the Indians Return, which was not long after. This Story the English-man, his Son-in-Law, affirm'd to me.

The old Man stay'd with us about two Hours, and told us we were welcome to stay there all Night, and take what his Cabin afforded; then leaving us, went into the Woods, to some Hunting-Quarter not far off.

{Friday.} The next Morning early we pursu'd our Voyage, finding the Land to improve it self in Pleasantness and Richness of Soil. When we had gone about ten Miles, one of our Company tir'd, being not able to travel any farther; so we went forward, leaving the poor dejected Traveller with Tears in his Eyes, to return to Charles-Town, and travel back again over so much bad Way, we having pass'd thro' the worst of our Journey, the Land here being high and dry, very few Swamps, and those dry, and a little Way through. We travell'd about twenty Miles, lying near a Savanna that was over-flown with Water; where we were very short of Victuals, but finding the Woods newly burnt, and on fire in many Places, which gave us great Hopes that Indians were not far of.

{Saturday 20 Miles.} Next Morning very early, we waded thro' the Savanna, the Path lying there; and about ten a Clock came to a hunting Quarter, of a great many Santees; they made us all welcome; shewing a great deal of Joy at our coming, giving us barbacu'd Turkeys, Bear's Oil, and Venison.

Here we hir'd Santee Jack (a good Hunter, and a well-humour'd Fellow) to be our Pilot to the Congeree Indians; we gave him a Stroud-water-Blew, to make his Wife an Indian Petticoat, who went with her Husband. After two Hours Refreshment, we went on, and got that Day about twenty Miles; we lay by a small swift Run of Water, which was pav'd at the Bottom with a Sort of Stone much like to Tripoli, and so light, that I fancy'd it would precipitate in no Stream, but where it naturally grew. The Weather was very cold, the Winds holding Northerly. We made our selves as merry as we could, having a good Supper with the Scraps of the Venison we had given us by the Indians, having kill'd 3 Teal and a Possum; which Medly all together made a curious Ragoo.

{Sunday 15 Miles.} This Day all of us had a Mind to have rested, but the Indian was much against it, alledging, That the Place we lay at, was not good to hunt in; telling us, if we would go on, by Noon, he would bring us to a more convenient Place; so we mov'd forwards, and about twelve a Clock came to the most amazing Prospect I had seen since I had been in Carolina; we travell'd by a Swamp-side, which Swamp I believe to be no less than twenty Miles over, the other Side being as far as I could well discern, there appearing great Ridges of Mountains, bearing from us W.N.W. One Alp with a Top like a Sugar-loaf, advanc'd its Head above all the rest very considerably; the Day was very serene, which gave us the Advantage of seeing a long Way; these Mountains were cloth'd all over with Trees, which seem'd to us to be very large Timbers.

At the Sight of this fair Prospect, we stay'd all Night; our Indian going about half an Hour before us, had provided three fat Turkeys e'er we got up to him.

The Swamp I now spoke of, is not a miry Bog, as others generally are, but you go down to it thro' a steep Bank, at the Foot of which, begins this Valley, where you may go dry for perhaps 200 Yards, then you meet with a small Brook or Run of Water, about 2 or 3 Foot deep, then dry Land for such another Space, so another Brook, thus continuing. The Land in this Percoarson, or Valley, being extraordinary rich, and the Runs of Water well stor'd with Fowl. It is the Head of one of the Branches of Santee-River; but a farther Discovery Time would not permit; only one Thing is very remarkable, there growing all over this Swamp, a tall, lofty Bay-tree, but is not the same as in England, these being in their Verdure all the Winter long; which appears here, when you stand on the Ridge, (where our Path lay) as if it were one pleasant, green Field, and as even as a Bowling-green to the Eye of the Beholder; being hemm'd in on one Side with these Ledges of vast high Mountains.

Viewing the Land here, we found an extraordinary rich, black Mould, and some of a Copper-colour, both Sorts very good; the Land in some Places is much burthen'd with Iron, Stone, here being great Store of it, seemingly very good: The eviling Springs, which are many in these Parts, issuing out of the Rocks, which Water we drank of, it colouring the Excrements of Travellers (by its chalybid Quality) as black as a Coal. When we were all asleep, in the Beginning of the Night, we were awaken'd with the dismall'st and most hideous Noise that ever pierc'd my Ears: This sudden Surprizal incapacitated us of guessing what this threatning Noise might proceed from; but our Indian Pilot (who knew these Parts very well) acquainted us, that it was customary to hear such Musick along that Swamp-side, there being endless Numbers of Panthers, Tygers, Wolves, and other Beasts of Prey, which take this Swamp for their Abode in the Day, coming in whole Droves to hunt the Deer in the Night, making this frightful Ditty 'till Day appears, then all is still as in other Places.

{Monday.} The next Day it prov'd a small drisly Rain, which is rare, there happening not the tenth Part of Foggy-falling Weather towards these Mountains, as visits those Parts. Near the Sea-board, the Indian kill'd 15 Turkeys this Day; there coming out of the Swamp, (about Sun-rising) Flocks of these Fowl, containing several hundreds in a Gang, who feed upon the Acrons, it being most Oak that grow in these Woods. There are but very few Pines in those Quarters.

Early the next Morning, we set forward for the Congeree-Indians, parting with that delicious Prospect. By the Way, our Guide kill'd more Turkeys, and two Polcats, which he eat, esteeming them before fat Turkeys. Some of the Turkeys which we eat, whilst we stay'd there, I believe, weigh'd no less than 40 Pounds.

The Land we pass'd over this Day, was most of it good, and the worst passable. At Night we kill'd a Possum, being cloy'd with Turkeys, made a Dish of that, which tasted much between young Pork and Veal; their Fat being as white as any I ever saw.

Our Indian having this Day kill'd good Store of Provision with his Gun, he always shot with a single Ball, missing but two Shoots in above forty; they being curious Artists in managing a Gun, to make it carry either Ball, or Shot, true. When they have bought a Piece, and find it to shoot any Ways crooked, they take the Barrel out of the Stock, cutting a Notch in a Tree, wherein they set it streight, sometimes shooting away above 100 Loads of Ammunition, before they bring the Gun to shoot according to their Mind. We took up our Quarters by a Fish-pond-side; the Pits in the Woods that stand full of Water, naturally breed Fish in them, in great Quantities. We cook'd our Supper, but having neither Bread, or Salt, our fat Turkeys began to be loathsome to us, altho' we were never wanting of a good Appetite, yet a Continuance of one Diet, made us weary.

{Wednesday.} The next Morning, Santee Jack told us, we should reach the Indian Settlement betimes that Day; about Noon, we pass'd by several fair Savanna's, very rich and dry; seeing great Copses of many Acres that bore nothing but Bushes, about the Bigness of Box-trees; which (in the Season) afford great Quantities of small Black-berries, very pleasant Fruit, and much like to our Blues, or Huckle-berries, that grow on Heaths in England. Hard by the Savanna's we found the Town, where we halted; there was not above one Man left with the Women, the rest being gone a Hunting for a Feast. The Women were very busily engag'd in Gaming: The Name or Grounds of it, I could not learn, tho' I look'd on above two Hours. Their Arithmetick was kept with a Heap of Indian Grain. When their Play was ended, the King, or Cassetta's Wife, invited us into her Cabin. The Indian Kings always entertaining Travellers, either English, or Indian; taking it as a great Affront, if they pass by their Cabins, and take up their Quarters at any other Indian's House. The Queen set Victuals before us, which good Compliment they use generally as soon as you come under their Roof.

The Town consists not of above a dozen Houses, they having other stragling Plantations up and down the Country, and are seated upon a small Branch of Santee-River. Their Place hath curious dry Marshes, and Savanna's adjoining to it, and would prove an exceeding thriving Range for Cattle, and Hogs, provided the English were seated thereon. Besides, the Land is good for Plantations.

These Indians are a small People, having lost much of their former Numbers, by intestine Broils; but most by the Small-pox, which hath often visited them, sweeping away whole Towns; occasion'd by the immoderate Government of themselves in their Sickness; as I have mention'd before, treating of the Sewees. Neither do I know any Savages that have traded with the English, but what have been great Losers by this Distemper.

We found here good Store of Chinkapin-Nuts, which they gather in Winter great Quantities of, drying them; so keep these Nuts in great Baskets for their Use; likewise Hickerie-Nuts, which they beat betwixt two great Stones, then sift them, so thicken their Venison-Broath therewith; the small Shells precipitating to the Bottom of the Pot, whilst the Kernel in Form of Flower, mixes it with the Liquor. Both these Nuts made into Meal, makes a curious Soop, either with clear Water, or in any Meat-Broth.

From the Nation of Indians, until such Time as you come to the Turkeiruros in North Carolina, you will see no long Moss upon the Trees; which Space of Ground contains above five hundred Miles. This seeming Miracle in Nature, is occasion'd by the Highness of the Land, it being dry and healthful; for tho' this Moss bears a Seed in a Sort of a small Cod, yet it is generated in or near low swampy Grounds.

The Congerees are kind and affable to the English, the Queen being very kind, giving us what Rarities her Cabin afforded, as Loblolly made with Indian Corn, and dry'd Peaches. These Congerees have abundance of Storks and Cranes in their Savannas. They take them before they can fly, and breed 'em as tame and familiar as a Dung-hill Fowl. They had a tame Crane at one of these Cabins, that was scarce less than six Foot in Height, his Head being round, with a shining natural Crimson Hue, which they all have. These are a very comely Sort of Indians, there being a strange Difference in the Proportion and Beauty of these Heathens. Altho' their Tribes or Nations border one upon another, yet you may discern as great an Alteration in their Features and Dispositions, as you can in their Speech, which generally proves quite different from each other, though their Nations be not above 10 or 20 Miles in Distance. The Women here being as handsome as most I have met withal, being several fine-finger'd Brounetto's amongst them. These Lasses stick not upon Hand long, for they marry when very young, as at 12 or 14 Years of Age. The English Traders are seldom without an Indian Female for his Bed-fellow, alledging these Reasons as sufficient to allow of such a Familiarity. First, They being remote from any white People, that it preserves their Friendship with the Heathens, they esteeming a white Man's Child much above one of their getting, the Indian Mistress ever securing her white Friend Provisions whilst he stays amongst them. And lastly, This Correspondence makes them learn the Indian Tongue much the sooner, they being of the French-man's Opinion, how that an English Wife teaches her Husband more English in one Night, than a School-master can in a Week.

We saw at the Cassetta's Cabin the strangest Spectacle of Antiquity I ever knew, it being an old Indian Squah, that, had I been to have guess'd at her Age by her Aspect, old Parr's Head (the Welch Methusalem) was a Face in Swadling-Clouts to hers. Her Skin hung in Reaves like a Bag of Tripe. By a fair Computation, one might have justly thought it would have contain'd three such Carcasses as hers then was. She had one of her Hands contracted by some Accident in the Fire, they sleeping always by it, and often fall into sad Disasters, especially in their drunken Moods. I made the strictest Enquiry that was possible, and by what I could gather, she was considerably above 100 Years old, notwithstanding she smoak'd Tobacco, and eat her Victuals, to all Appearance, as heartily as one of 18. One of our Company spoke some of their Language, and having not quite forgotten his former Intrigues with the Indian Lasses, would fain have been dealing with some of the young Female Fry; but they refus'd him, he having nothing that these Girls esteem'd. At Night we were laid in the King's Cabin, where the Queen and the old Squah pig'd in with us: The former was very much disfigur'd with Tettars, and very reserv'd, which disappointed our fellow Traveller in his Intrigues.

The Women smoak much Tobacco, (as most Indians do.) They have Pipes, whose Heads are cut out of Stone, and will hold an Ounce of Tobacco, and some much less. They have large wooden Spoons, as big as small Ladles, which they make little Use of, lading the Meat out of the Bowls with their Fingers.

{Thursday.} In the Morning we rose before Day, having hir'd a Guide over Night to conduct us on our Way; but it was too soon for him to stir out, the Indians never setting forward 'till the Sun is an Hour or two high, and hath exhall'd the Dew from the Earth. The Queen got us a good Breakfast before we left her; she had a young Child, which was much afflicted with the Cholick; for which Distemper she infus'd a Root in Water, which was held in a Goard; this she took into her Mouth, and spurted it into the Infant's, which gave it ease. After we had eaten, we set out (with our new Guide) for the Wateree Indians. We went over a great deal of indifferent Land this Day. Here begins to appear very good Marble, which continues more and less for the Space of 500 Miles. We lay all Night by a Run of Water, as we always do, (if possible) for the Convenience of it. The Weather was very cold. We went this Day about 30 Miles from the Congerees.

{Friday.} In the Morning we made no Stay to get our Breakfast, but hasted on our Voyage, the Land increasing in Marble and Richness of Soil. At Noon we halted, getting our Dinner upon a Marble-Stone, that rose it self half a Foot above the Surface of the Earth, and might contain the Compass of a Quarter of an Acre of Land, being very even, there growing upon it in some Places a small red Berry, like a Salmon-Spawn, there boiling out of the main Rock curious Springs of as delicious Water, as ever I drank in any Parts I ever travell'd in.

These Parts likewise affords good free Stone, fit for Building, and of several Sorts. The Land here is pleasantly seated, with pretty little Hills and Valleys, the rising Sun at once shewing his glorious reflecting Rays on a great many of these little Mountains. We went this Day about 20 Miles, our Guide walking like a Horse, 'till we had sadl'd him with a good heavy Pack of some Part of our Cloaths and Bedding, by which Means we kept Pace with him.

This Night we lay by a Run-side, where I found a fine yellow Earth, the same with Bruxels-Sand, which Goldsmiths use to cast withal, giving a good Price in England, and other Parts. Here is likewise the true Blood-Stone, and considerable Quantities of Fullers-Earth, which I took a Proof of, by scouring great Spots out of Woollen, and it prov'd very good.

{Saturday.} As we were on our Road this Morning, our Indian shot at a Tyger, that cross'd the Way, he being a great Distance from us. I believe he did him no Harm, because he sat on his Breech afterwards, and look'd upon us. I suppose he expected to have had a Spaniel Bitch, that I had with me, for his Breakfast, who run towards him, but in the Midway stopt her Career, and came sneaking back to us with her Tail betwixt her Legs.

We saw in the Path a great many Trees blown up by the Roots, at the Bottom whereof stuck great Quantities of fine red Bole; I believe nothing inferior to that of Venice or Lemma. We found some Holes in the Earth, which were full of a Water as black as Ink. I thought that Tincture might proceed from some Mineral, but had not Time to make a farther Discovery. About Noon we pass'd over a pleasant stony Brook, whose Water was of a bluish Cast, as it is for several hundreds of Miles towards the Heads of the Rivers, I suppose occasion'd by the vast Quantities of Marble lying in the Bowels of the Earth. The Springs that feed these Rivulets, lick up some Potions of the Stones in the Brooks; which Dissolution gives this Tincture, as appears in all, or most of the Rivers and Brooks of this Country, whose rapid Streams are like those in Yorkshire, and other Northern Counties of England. The Indians talk of many Sorts of Fish which they afford, but we had not Time to discover their Species.

I saw here had been some Indian Plantations formerly, there being several pleasant Fields of clear'd Ground, and excellent Soil, now well spread with fine bladed Grass, and Strawberry-Vines.

The Mould here is excessive rich, and a Country very pleasing to the Eye, had it the Convenience of a navigable River, as all new Colonies (of Necessity) require. It would make a delightful Settlement.

We went eight Miles farther, and came to the Wateree Chickanee Indians. The Land holds good, there being not a Spot of bad Land to be seen in several Days going.

The People of this Nation are likely tall Persons, and great Pilferers, stealing from us any Thing they could lay their Hands on, though very respectful in giving us what Victuals we wanted. We lay in their Cabins all Night, being dark smoaky Holes, as ever I saw any Indians dwell in. This Nation is much more populous than the Congerees, and their Neighbours, yet understand not one anothers Speech. They are very poor in English Effects, several of them having no Guns, making Use of Bows and Arrows, being a lazy idle People, a Quality incident to most Indians, but none to that Degree as these, as I ever met withal.

Their Country is wholly free from Swamps and Quagmires, being high dry Land, and consequently healthful, producing large Corn-Stalks, and fair Grain.

{Sunday.} Next Morning, we took off our Beards with a Razor, the Indians looking on with a great deal of Admiration. They told us, they had never seen the like before, and that our Knives cut far better than those that came amongst the Indians. They would fain have borrow'd our Razors, as they had our Knives, Scissors, and Tobacco-Tongs, the day before, being as ingenious at picking of Pockets, as any, I believe, the World affords; for they will steal with their Feet. Yesterday, one of our Company, not walking so fast as the rest, was left behind. He being out of Sight before we miss'd him, and not coming up to us, tho' we staid a considerable time on the Road for him, we stuck up Sticks in the Ground, and left other Tokens to direct him which way we were gone: But he came not to us that Night, which gave us Occasion to fear some of the Heathens had kill'd him, for his Cloaths, or the savage Beasts had devour'd him in the Wilderness, he having nothing about him to strike Fire withal. As we were debating which way we should send to know what was become of him, he overtook us, having a Waxsaw Indian for his Guide. He told us, he had miss'd the Path, and got to another Nation of Indians, but 3 Miles off, who at that time held great Feasting. They had entertain'd him very respectfully, and sent that Indian to invite us amongst them, wondring that we would not take up our Quarters with them, but make our Abode with such a poor Sort of Indians, that were not capable of entertaining us according to our Deserts: We receiv'd the Messenger with a great many Ceremonies, acceptable to those sort of Creatures. Bidding our Waterree King adieu, we set forth towards the Waxsaws, going along clear'd Ground all the Way. Upon our Arrival, we were led into a very large and lightsome Cabin, the like I have not met withal. They laid Furs and Deer-Skins upon Cane Benches for us to sit or lie upon, bringing (immediately) stewed Peaches and green Corn, that is preserv'd in their Cabins before it is ripe, and sodden and boil'd when they use it, which is a pretty sort of Food, and a great Increaser of the Blood.

These Indians are of an extraordinary Stature, and call'd by their Neighbours flat Heads, which seems a very suitable Name for them. In their Infancy, their Nurses lay the Back-part of their Children's Heads on a Bag of Sand, (such as Engravers use to rest their Plates upon.) They use a Roll, which is placed upon the Babe's Forehead, it being laid with its Back on a flat Board, and swaddled hard down thereon, from one End of this Engine, to the other. This Method makes the Child's Body and Limbs as straight as an Arrow. There being some young Indians that are perhaps crookedly inclin'd, at their first coming into the World, who are made perfectly straight by this Method. I never saw an Indian of a mature Age, that was any ways crooked, except by Accident, and that way seldom, for they cure and prevent Deformities of the Limbs, and Body, very exactly. The Instrument I spoke of before, being a sort of a Press, that is let out and in, more or less, according to the Discretion of the Nurse, in which they make the Child's Head flat, it makes the Eyes stand a prodigious Way asunder, and the Hair hang over the Forehead like the Eves of a House, which seems very frightful: They being ask'd the Reason why they practis'd this Method, reply'd, the Indian's Sight was much strengthened and quicker, thereby, to discern the Game in hunting at larger Distance, and so never miss'd of becoming expert Hunters, the Perfection of which they all aim at, as we do to become experienced Soldiers, learned School-Men, or Artists in Mechanicks: He that is a good Hunter never misses of being a Favourite amongst the Women; the prettiest Girls being always bestow'd upon the chiefest Sports-Men, and those of a grosser Mould, upon the useless Lubbers. Thus they have a Graduation amongst them, as well as other Nations. As for the Solemnity of Marriages amongst them, kept with so much Ceremony as divers Authors affirm, it never appear'd amongst those many Nations I have been withal, any otherwise than in the Manner I have mention'd hereafter.

The Girls at 12 or 13 Years of Age, as soon as Nature prompts them, freely bestow their Maidenheads on some Youth about the same Age, continuing her Favours on whom she most affects, changing her Mate very often, few or none of them being constant to one, till a greater Number of Years has made her capable of managing domestick Affairs, and she hath try'd the Vigour of most of the Nation she belongs to; Multiplicity of Gallants never being a Stain to a Female's Reputation, or the least Hindrance of her Advancement, but the more Whorish, the more Honourable, and they of all most coveted, by those of the first Rank, to make a Wife of. The 'Flos Virginis', so much coveted by the Europeans, is never valued by these Savages. When a Man and Woman have gone through their Degrees, (there being a certain Graduation amongst them) and are allow'd to be House-Keepers, which is not till they arrive at such an Age, and have past the Ceremonies practis'd by their Nation, almost all Kingdoms differing in the Progress thereof, then it is that the Man makes his Addresses to some one of these thorough-paced Girls, or other, whom he likes best. When she is won, the Parents of both Parties, (with Advice of the King) agree about the Matter, making a Promise of their Daughter, to the Man, that requires her, it often happening that they converse and travel together, for several Moons before the Marriage is publish'd openly; After this, at the least Dislike the Man may turn her away, and take another; or if she disapproves of his Company, a Price is set upon her, and if the Man that seeks to get her, will pay the Fine to her Husband, she becomes free from Him: Likewise some of their War Captains, and great Men, very often will retain 3 or 4 Girls at a time for their own Use, when at the same time, he is so impotent and old, as to be incapable of making Use of one of them; so that he seldom misses of wearing greater Horns than the Game he kills. The Husband is never so enrag'd as to put his Adulteress to Death; if she is caught in the Fact, the Rival becomes Debtor to the cornuted Husband, in a certain Quantity of Trifles valuable amongst them, which he pays as soon as discharg'd, and then all Animosity is laid aside betwixt the Husband, and his Wife's Gallant. The Man proves often so good humour'd as to please his Neighbour and gratify his Wife's Inclinations, by letting her out for a Night or two, to the Embraces of some other, which perhaps she has a greater Liking to, tho' this is not commonly practis'd.

They set apart the youngest and prettiest Faces for trading Girls; these are remarkable by their Hair, having a particular Tonsure by which they are known, and distinguish'd from those engag'd to Husbands. They are mercenary, and whoever makes Use of them, first hires them, the greatest Share of the Gain going to the King's Purse, who is the chief Bawd, exercising his Perogative over all the Stews of his Nation, and his own Cabin (very often) being the chiefest Brothel-House. As they grow in Years, the hot Assaults of Love grow cooler; and then they commonly are so staid, as to engage themselves with more Constancy to each other. I have seen several Couples amongst them, that have been so reserv'd, as to live together for many Years, faithful to each other, admitting none to their Beds but such as they own'd for their Wife or Husband: So continuing to their Life's end.

At our Waxsaw Landlord's Cabin, was a Woman employ'd in no other Business than Cookery; it being a House of great Resort. The Fire was surrounded with Roast-meat, or Barbakues, and the Pots continually boiling full of Meat, from Morning till Night. This She-Cook was the cleanliest I ever saw amongst the Heathens of America, washing her Hands before she undertook to do any Cookery; and repeated this unusual Decency very often in a day. She made us as White-Bread as any English could have done, and was full as neat, and expeditious, in her Affairs. It happen'd to be one of their great Feasts, when we were there: The first day that we came amongst them, arriv'd an Ambassador from the King of Sapona, to treat with these Indians about some important Affairs. He was painted with Vermillion all over his Face, having a very large Cutlass stuck in his Girdle, and a Fusee in his Hand. At Night, the Revels began where this Foreign Indian was admitted; the King, and War Captain, inviting us to see their Masquerade: This Feast was held in Commemoration of the plentiful Harvest of Corn they had reap'd the Summer before, with an united Supplication for the like plentiful Produce the Year ensuing. These Revels are carried on in a House made for that purpose, it being done round with white Benches of fine Canes, joining along the Wall; and a place for the Door being left, which is so low, that a Man must stoop very much to enter therein. This Edifice resembles a large Hay-Rick; its Top being Pyramidal, and much bigger than their other Dwellings, and at the Building whereof, every one assists till it is finish'd. All their Dwelling-Houses are cover'd with Bark, but this differs very much; for, it is very artificially thatch'd with Sedge and Rushes: As soon as finish'd, they place some one of their chiefest Men to dwell therein, charging him with the diligent Preservation thereof, as a Prince commits the Charge and Government of a Fort or Castle, to some Subject he thinks worthy of that Trust. In these State-Houses is transacted all Publick and Private Business, relating to the Affairs of the Government, as the Audience of Foreign Ambassadors from other Indian Rulers, Consultation of waging and making War, Proposals of their Trade with neighbouring Indians, or the English, who happen to come amongst them. In this Theater, the most Aged and Wisest meet, determining what to Act, and what may be most convenient to Omit, Old Age being held in as great Veneration amongst these Heathens, as amongst any People you shall meet withal in any Part of the World.

Whensoever an Aged Man is speaking, none ever interrupts him, (the contrary Practice the English, and other Europeans, too much use) the Company yielding a great deal of Attention to his Tale, with a continued Silence, and an exact Demeanour, during the Oration. Indeed, the Indians are a People that never interrupt one another in their Discourse; no Man so much as offering to open his Mouth, till the Speaker has utter'd his Intent: When an English-Man comes amongst them, perhaps every one is acquainted with him, yet, first, the King bids him Welcome, after him the War-Captain, so on gradually from High to Low; not one of all these speaking to the White Guest, till his Superiour has ended his Salutation. Amongst Women, it seems impossible to find a Scold; if they are provok'd, or affronted, by their Husbands, or some other, they resent the Indignity offer'd them in silent Tears, or by refusing their Meat. Would some of our European Daughters of Thunder set these Indians for a Pattern, there might be more quiet Families found amongst them, occasion'd by that unruly Member, the Tongue.

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