An Account of The Kingdom of Nepal
by Fancis Buchanan Hamilton
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This ebook was transcribed by Les Bowler.

[Picture: View of the Temple of Bouddhama]





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Page INTRODUCTION. 1 CHAPTER FIRST. Of the Tribes inhabiting the Territories of Gorkha. Original InhabitantsHindu Colonies, their 9 periodBrahmans, HistoryColony from ChitaurColony of AsantiSuccess of Colonization in the West, in the EastColony of ChaturbhujaHindu Tribes east from the River KaliLanguageBrahmans, Diet, Festivals, OffspringRajputs, adopted, illegitimateLow TribesGeneral Observations on the Customs of the Mountain Hindus east from the KaliOf the Hindus west from the KaliOf Tribes who occupied the Country previous to the HindusMannersMagarsGurungsJariyasNewarsMurmis KiratasLimbusLapchasBhotiyas CHAPTER SECOND. Nature of the Country. Division into four regions from their relative 61 elevatiomFirst, or Plain Region, or TariyaniSoilProductions, Animal and VegetableCultivationClimateRiversSecond, or Hilly RegionProductionsMineralsForestsBirdsVallies called DunCultivationClimateThird, or Mountainous RegionElevationClimateDiseasesCultivationPasture Sheep and CattleMineralsSpontaneous VegetablesExtentFourth, or Alpine RegionValliesMountainsProductions, Mineral, Animal, and Vegetable CHAPTER THIRD. Laws and Government. Parts east from the KaliCourts, and Forms of 101 ProceedingPunishmentsProvincial GovernmentRevenue and EndowmentsOfficers of StateMilitary EstablishmentDifferences in the parts west from the River KaliRevenue and Civil EstablishmentMilitary Establishment PART SECOND.

ACCOUNT OF THE PARTICULAR STATES WHICH FORMERLY EXISTED, AND OF THE FAMILIES BY WHICH EACH WAS GOVERNED. INTRODUCTION. 117 CHAPTER FIRST. OF THE STATES EAST FROM THE RIVER KALI. SECTION FIRST. Country of Sikim. InhabitantsGovernmentExtentHistoryGeography 118 SECTION II. Dominions of the Family descended from Makanda Sen, Raja of Makwanpur. General HistoryBranch of Lohango which occupied the 128 Country of the KiratasHistoryFormer GovernmentMilitary Force, Police, and Revenue, and JusticePresent StateDistrict of MorangDistrict of ChayenpurDistrict of NaragarhiDistrict of HedangDistrict of MakwanpurWestern Branch, which occupied chiefly the Country of PalpaHistoryDescriptionTanahung Family and its Possessions, and Collateral BranchesRising, Ghiring, and Gajarkot SECTION III. Nepal Proper. NameHistory previous to the Conquest by the 186 GorkhalisExtent and TopographyPopulationBuildingsRevenueTradeCoins WeightsMeasuresAgricultureTenuresCrown LandsLands held for ServiceCharity LandsTenantsImplementsCropsManufacturesPrice of LabourSlavesDiet SECTION IV. The Countries belonging to the Chaubisi and Baisi Rajas. Chaubisi RajasPamar Family, impure BranchBhirkot, 237 Garahang, Dhor, pure BranchNayakotSatahungKaskiLamjunGorkha, Topography, HistoryPrithwi, NarayanSingha PratapBahadur SahiRana BahadurBhim SenRoyal FamilyKala Macwani FamilyGulmi, Khachi, Argha, Dhurkot, Musikot, IsmaFamily of Bhingri and KhungriFamily of PiuthanaFamily of PoinMalihang FamilyThe Samal Family; Malebum; Galkot; Rugum; Musikot; Jajarkot; Bangphi; Gajal; Dharma; Jahari; Satatala; Malaneta; Saliyana; Dang; ChhilliThe Baisi RajasDalu DailekDutiYumilaTaklakot, with the adjacent parts of Thibet subject to China CHAPTER SECOND. Of the Countries west from the River Kali. Kumau; History, StateGarhawal; History, 291 StateSirmaurTwelve LordshipsBesarHanur SUPPLEMENT TO THE ACCOUNT OF NEPAL. Some Information respecting the petty Chiefs who still remain independent to the west of the Dominions of Nepal or Gorkha. KangraHistoryStateKahalurBhomorKottaharYasawal 309 DatarpurGularNurpurChambaKulluMundiSukhet REGISTER OF THE WEATHER, from February 1802 to March 1903 318 CALCULATION OF THE ALTITUDES of some of the Snowy 346 Mountains from the Valley of Nepal. By Colonel CRAWFORD INDEX. 347


I. View of the Temple of Bouddhama, to front the title-page. II. View of Kathmandu, to front page 209. III. Himaliya Mountains, Plate 1. ) IV. Himaliya Mountains, Plate 2. ) V. Do. do. Plate 3. ) at the end of the volume. VI. Do. do. Plate 4. ) VII. Do. do. Plate 5. ) VIII. Map of the Dominions of Gorkha )


This Account, which is intended to describe the country as it stood previously to the war with the British, commencing in the end of the year 1814, is derived chiefly from the following sources.

In the first place, during the years 1802 and 1803, I passed fourteen months in the country, mostly in the vicinity of Kathmandu, the capital; and I was accompanied by Ramajai Batacharji, an intelligent Brahman, from Calcutta, whom I employed to obtain information, so far as I prudently could, without alarming a jealous government, or giving offence to the Resident, under whose authority I was acting.

In the next place, assisted by the same person, I passed two years on the frontier, collecting information, both from the Companys subjects, and from numerous refugees and travellers from the dominions of Gorkha. The following are the persons to whose information I am chiefly indebted:

The account of Sikim is chiefly taken from a Lama, or priest of Buddha, who, with part of his flock, had fled into the district of Puraniya, to escape from the violence of the Gorkhalese, and who constructed a map of the country, which I have deposited in the Companys library. Besides the Lama, I consulted many of the natives of the Companys territory, who had visited the lower parts of Sikim, and several of the Gorkhalese, and other people of Nepal; and Mr Smith, of Nathpur, favoured me with several particulars, collected by a Mr Pagan for the information of government.

Concerning the country between Sikim and Nepal Proper, my information is chiefly derived from the following persons:

1st, Agam Singha, hereditary chief of the Kirats, a tribe bordering immediately on Nepal, and last Chautariya, or prime minister, of the princes who governed that people.

2d, A Brahman, who was the Munsuf, or civil judge of Bahadurgunj, a territory in the district of Puraniya belonging to the Company. His ancestors were hereditary Dewans to the princes who governed the territory between Nepal and Sikim, that is, the Brahmans family managed the princes revenue.

3d, From Narayan Das, a scribe, (Kayastha,) whose ancestor Janardan accompanied Lohanga, founder of the late dynasty; and whose descendants enjoyed the hereditary office of Neb, or second minister to the successors of that chief, until their final expulsion from the mountains.

4th, A slave of the Raja of Gorkha, who entered into my service in order to bring plants from the Alpine regions; but, finding him very intelligent, and a great traveller, I employed him to construct a map, which I have deposited in the Companys library. In order to enable himself to execute this with more care, he refreshed his memory by several journeys in different directions.

5th, A Kirat from Hedang, near the Arun river, gave me another map, which has also been deposited in the Companys library. It contains only the eastern parts of the territory in question.

These two maps, together with that of the Lama, as might be expected, are very rude, and differ in several points; but they coincide in a great many more, so as to give considerable authority to their general structure; and, by a careful examination of the whole, many differences, apparently considerable, may be reconciled. The general authority of the whole is confirmed by our maps, so far as they go, and by the intelligence which Colonel Crawford obtained in Nepal.

The account of Nepal Proper is chiefly derived from my own observations, assisted by those of Ramajai above mentioned and by some communications with which I was favoured by Colonel Crawford, now Surveyor-General in Bengal. He favoured me, in particular, with several drawings of the snowy mountains; and, by orders of the Marquis Wellesley, then Governor-General, I was furnished with copies of Colonel Crawfords valuable geographical surveys and maps of the country.

In one point respecting these maps, I consider myself bound to do justice to the researches of Colonel Crawford. From a treatise on the sources of the Ganges, given by H. T. Colebrooke, Esq. in the 11th volume of the Asiatick Researches, page 429, etc. it might be possibly inferred, although this, perhaps, was not intended to be expressed, that Colonel Colebrooke and his kinsman were induced to reject the authority of DAnville respecting the sources of the Ganges, merely from examining the authorities, upon which the course of the Ganges above Haridwar had been laid down in the geographical charts then in use. Now, the fact is, that Colonel Colebrooke had other grounds for rejecting the authority of DAnville, and especially one of the above-mentioned maps, which had been officially communicated to him by Colonel Crawford. In this map the sources of the Ganges are laid down from the reports of pilgrims; nor has the survey, carried on by the suggestion of Colonel Colebrooke, added any thing material, so far as relates to the general outlines of these sources. By this observation I by no means intend to depreciate the labours of Mr Webb, by whom the survey was conducted; nor the judgment and love of science evinced in the recommendation of Colonel Colebrooke to employ him. So long as the matter rested entirely on the report of pilgrims, doubts would exist; and the survey has not only entirely removed these, but has given us many details of a country previously unknown.

Concerning the country between Nepal Proper and the river Kali, I follow chiefly the authority of the following persons: 1st, a Brahman, named Sadhu Ram Upadhyaya, whose family was in hereditary possession of the office of priest (Purohit) for the Raja of Palpa, one of the principal chiefs in this district; 2d and 3d, Prati Nidhi Tiwari, and Kanak Nidhi Tiwari, two brothers of the sacred order, the former very learned, and the latter a man of business. Their family had been long Mantris, or advisers of the same chiefs, but came originally from Kumau; 4th, Samar Bahadur, uncle to the Raja of Palpa, now in exile.

Two maps of these parts, now in the Companys library, were prepared by Sadhu Ram and Kanak Nidhi, with the assistance of Kamal Lochan, one of the natives attached to the survey of Bengal, on which I was engaged. Although they differ in some points, they agree in so many more, especially in the eastern parts, that considerable reliance may be placed on their giving some tolerable idea of the country.

Finally, concerning the parts west of the river Kali, in the rainy season 1814 I proceeded up the Ganges, with a view of going to Haridwar, where I expected to procure intelligence; but, fortunately, I met at Futtehgur with a person well qualified for the purpose. This was Hariballabh, a Brahman born in Kumau, but who has been long in the service of the Garhawal Rajas, and has travelled much in the adjacent parts. A map of the western parts of the dominions of Gorkha, now also in the Companys library, was composed by Hariballabh, with the assistance of Kamal Lochan. The same person gave me another map explaining the country, which extends some way west from the Sutluj, and of which a short account will be found in the Appendix.

I regret, that, on the banks of the Karanali, there intervenes a space, with which none of my informants were well acquainted, its communications being entirely with the country belonging to the Nawab Vazir.

I shall have very frequent occasion to mention the account of Nepal by Colonel Kirkpatrick; and, although I often differ from him in opinion, and think it my duty to state these points fully, yet no one can be more sensible, knowing well the difficulties he encountered, of the merits of his work, which is, on the whole, perfectly conformable to his well-known thirst for information and judgment in the acquisition of knowledge. I must here, however, in a general way, caution the reader to place little confidence in the names given in the printed work. I have no doubt, that the numerous errors in the names are to be attributed to the printing of the work having been entrusted to some person entirely ignorant of the native language; and who, therefore, could not be led, by a knowledge of this, to read the names in the manuscript with accuracy. But, besides this source of error, in some degree, perhaps, unavoidable, the printer seems to have been uncommonly careless in reading even those names that are known to Europeans. Thus, (in page 131,) speaking of the birds of Nepal, he has as follows: The two last belong to the genus of pheasants, the damphia being of the golden, and the monal of the argheer, or spotted sort. There can be no doubt, that Colonel Kirkpatrick wrote argus, and not argheer, which has no meaning.

The utmost negligence may be also observed in a matter of more importance; for, in the route from Kathmandu to Beni, the capital of Malebum, given in page 290, all the stages from Deoralli 1st, to Ragho Powa, both inclusive, are evidently transposed, as going through the territory of Lamjun and Kaski, after having entered Malebum at Kusmachoor, while both Lamjun and Kaski are between Kathmandu and Malebum. I suspect, also, that the person entrusted with the printing has introduced some matter of his own about the Hindu religion, several passages on that subject being unlike the sentiments of a person of Colonel Kirkpatricks known sense and observation.



Nepal, a name celebrated in Hindu legend, in a strict sense, ought to be applied to that country only which is in the vicinity of Kathmandu, the capital; but at present it is usually given to the whole territory of the Gorkha Rajas, which occupies about thirteen degrees of longitude, and five of latitude. It is my intention now to give an account of the whole of this territory, so far as has come to my knowledge.

East from the territory called Nepal Proper, the mountains were chiefly occupied by a tribe called Kirat or Kichak, who, in remote times, seem to have made extensive conquests in the plains of Kamrup and Matsya, now constituting the districts of Ranggapur and Dinajpur. Although these conquests had long been lost to the Kirats, yet Father Giuseppe, who witnessed the conquest of Nepal by the Gorkhalese, and gives a good account of the horrid circumstances attending that event, {7} considers the Kiratas (Ciratas) in the year 1769 as being an independent nation. Now, although this would not appear to be strictly exact, as the Kirats had then been long subject to Rajput princes; yet the Father is abundantly justifiable in what he has advanced; for the Kirats formed the principal strength of these Rajput chiefs, their hereditary chief held the second office in the state, (Chautariya,) and the Rajputs, who were united with them, did not presume to act as masters, to invade their lands, or violate their customs. These Kirats are frequently mentioned in Hindu legend as occupying the country between Nepal and Madra, the ancient denomination in Hindu writings for the country which we call Bhotan.

Towards the west again, the country between Nepal and Kasmir, over which the present rulers of the former have far extended their dominion, in the ancient Hindu writings is called Khas, and its inhabitants Khasiyas. I am told, that, wherever mentioned in ancient records, like the Kirats, their neighbours to the west, the Khasiyas are considered as abominable and impure infidels.


Original Inhabitants.Hindu Colonies, their period.Brahmans, History.Colony from Chitaur.Colony of Asanti.Success of Colonization in the West,in the East.Colony of Chaturbhuja.Hindu Tribes east from the River Kali.Language.Brahmans, Diet, Festivals, Offspring.Rajputs, adopted, illegitimate.Low Tribes.General Observations on the Customs of the Mountain Hindus east from the Kali.Of the Hindus west from the Kali.Of Tribes who occupied the Country previous to the Hindus.Manners.Magars.Gurungs.Jariyas.Newars.Murmis.Kiratas. Limbus.Lapchas.Bhotiyas.

The numerous valleys among the prodigious mountains, of which Nepal in its extended sense consists, are inhabited by various tribes, that differ very much in language, and somewhat in customs. All that have any sort of pretensions to be considered as aboriginal, like their neighbours of Bhotan to the east, are, by their features, clearly marked as belonging to the Tartar or Chinese race of men, and have no sort of resemblance to the Hindus.

The time when the Hindus penetrated into these regions is very uncertain. Bhim Sen, the son of Pandu, is said to have penetrated into these parts, and probably was the first who introduced any sort of improvement. He still continues to be a favourite object with the rude tribes, not only on the mountains, but in their vicinity. Probably at no great distance from the time of that prince, and about the commencement of our era, Sakya, the last great teacher of the Bouddhists, passed through the country, and settled at Lasa, where he is supposed to be still alive in the person whom we call the Grand Lama. His followers seem to have acquired a great ascendancy over all the tribes of Nepal, as well as in Thibet and Bhotan, which they retained until a subsequent colony of Hindus settled in the first of these countries, and introduced the Brahmans, who have had considerable success in destroying the heretical doctrines, although these have still numerous votaries.

Colonel Kirkpatrick, or perhaps rather his editor, seems to have entertained a very different opinion concerning the period when the Hindus penetrated into Nepal. Speaking of Sambhunath, he says, {10} After all, it is highly probable that the sanctity of this spot might be safely referred to a period very anterior both to the Newar and Khat Bhotiya dynasties (who preceded the Newars) of Nepaul, since the sacred books of the Hindus leave scarcely any room to doubt, that the religion of Brahma has been established from the most remote antiquity in this secluded valley, where there are nearly as many idols as inhabitants, there not being a fountain, a river, or hill within its limits, that is not consecrated to one or other of the Hindu deities. What idea the author may have held of the terms Hindu and religion of Brahma, I cannot say. If he meant by Hindu whatever colonists may have come from the plains, I agree with him, and have stated, that Bhim Sen and Sakya Singha seem, in early ages, to have penetrated into the mountains, and to have introduced civilization. But I think him mistaken, if, by Hindu, he means the followers of the present Brahmans, introduced into India from Saka Dwip by the son of Krishna, contemporary with Bhim Sen; and if, by the religion of Brahma, he means the doctrine taught by these Brahmans, who do not, however, worship that deity. In the first place, I have been assured, that, in the sacred books of the Hindus, that is to say, in the Puranas attributed to Vayasa, the Khas and Kiratas, the ancient inhabitants of the mountains, are always spoken of as impure infidels. Again, the number of idols and places consecrated in Nepal to the Hindu gods is no sort of proof that the doctrines of the Brahmans have existed long in the country; for the Bouddhists, who follow the doctrine of Sakya, admit of the worship of the same inferior deities (Devatas) with the Brahmans, both having probably adopted their worship from sects that had previously existed. Farther, the changes in the names of places, since the Hindu conquest, has been rapid almost beyond conception; for instance, the capitals of the three principalities into which Nepal was divided, and which are now called Kathmandu, Lalita Patana, and Bhatgang, and which, in 1802, I always heard called by these names, were, during the Newar government, which ended in 1767, called Yin Daise, Yulloo Daise, and Khopo Daise. {11} To these circumstances, explanatory of the authors mistake, I must add the statements, which will follow, and which reduce the arrival of the present Hindu colonies to a modern period, or to the fourteenth century of the Christian era.

According to the traditions most commonly current in Nepal, the Hindus of the mountains (Parbatiya) left their own country in consequence of an invasion by the Muhammedan king of Dilli, who wished to marry a daughter of the Raja of Chitor, or Chitaur, celebrated for her beauty. A refusal brought on the destruction of her father and his capital city; and, to avoid a hateful yoke, many of the people fled to the hills. A somewhat similar story, related in the translation of Fereshtah by Dow, would seem to verify the truth of the tradition, and fix its date to the 1306 year of our era.

In opposition to this tradition, very generally received at Kathmandu, and throughout the eastern parts of the Nepalese dominions, Hariballabh contends, that there was a certain Asanti, a prince descended of Shalivahana in the seventh or eighth generation, and who, therefore, should have lived in about the second or third century of the Christian era, but whom Hariballabh supposes to have lived seven or eight hundred years ago, in which case the Shalivahana from whom he was descended must have been different from the prince whose name has been given to an era. Asanti came to these mountains, and established a kingdom extending from Pesaur to Morang, and having for its capital Karuvirpur, a town near Almorha. His descendants were called Suryabangsi Rajputs, and with them came pure Brahmans, whose doctrines gradually gained ground by the addition of colonists, and the progress of generation. This progress would appear to have been very slow, for I cannot find, even in Kumau, the seat of the first colonists, that there are now any other Brahmans, except those called the Brahmans of Kumau, a colony avowedly introduced from Kanoj by Thor Chandra, who lived after the middle of the fifteenth century of the Christian era, and, therefore, subsequent to the colony from Chitaur. The country had previously been inhabited by Jars, Magars, and other impure and infidel tribes, and great numbers of these continued under the descendants of Asanti as cultivators; but, west of the Soyal, there was no Raja who was not of pure birth, although the barbarous chiefs continued to hold most of the country east from thence, tributary, however, to the descendants of Shalivahana. Hariballabh remembers the names of only the three first of Asantis successors, namely, Basanti, Dham Deva, and Brahma Deva; but his descendants continued, for a considerable time, to enjoy a supremacy over the chiefs of the hills, although their power was much reduced by family dissensions, and by appanages granted to collateral branches. Various turbulent chiefs, that successively came from the low country, took advantage of this weakness to reduce the authority of the descendants of Asanti to a jurisdiction nearly nominal; and, in the reign of Akbur, the government of Karuvirpur was totally overturned by the petty chief of Kumau, who pretended to be of the ancient family of the moon, and whose ancestors, a few generations before, had succeeded, by an abominable act of treachery, in obtaining a settlement in the hills. Indeed, it is generally admitted, even by themselves, that all, or at least most of the chiefs, who came from the low country, used similar means, that is, entered into the service of the mountaineers, and, having gained their confidence by a superior knowledge and polish of manners, contrived to put them to death, and to seize their country.

This conduct is justified, in their opinion, by their having abolished the impure and abominable customs that previously existed among the mountaineers; and, in conformity with this common principle, all the chiefs west of the river Kali glory in having either totally expelled or extirpated the original inhabitants, and in having established, in its full height, the purity of the Hindu doctrines.

To the east of the Kali river, the chiefs have not been actuated by so pure a zeal, and not only have permitted many of the mountain tribes to remain and practise their abominations, but have themselves relaxed, in many essential points, from the rules of cast, and have debased their blood by frequent intermixtures with that of the mountaineers; while such of these as chose to embrace the slender degree of purity required in these parts, have been admitted to the high dignities of the military order.

Perhaps, in the parts west from the river Kali, the Hindus from the south have not, in fact, been so bad as they pretend; and, although no one is willing to acknowledge a deficiency of zeal, or a descent from barbarians, yet, in fact, they may have permitted to remain such of the cultivators as chose to adopt the rules of purity, and to take the name of Sudras. I have not seen a sufficient number of the people from that part of the country to enable me to judge how far this may have been the case; for all the original tribes of the mountains, as already stated, have strongly marked Chinese or Tartar countenances, when the breed has not been improved by a mixture with people of more elegant features.

According to Sadu Ram and Samar Bahadur, when the colony from Chitaur, mentioned above, arrived at the mountains east from the Kali, in the beginning of the fourteenth century of the Christian era, they found the whole occupied by impure or infidel tribes, nor for some time did any of the sacred order, nor any descendants of the colony, extend beyond the limits of their conquests. Gradually, however, the descendants of the colony, and especially the members of the sacred order, who indulged very much in promiscuous amours, spread wide over the mountainous region, and multiplied exceedingly, introducing everywhere, as much as possible, the modern doctrines of purity and law, modified, however, a good deal, to accommodate it to the licence which the mountaineers exercised in the intercourse of the sexes, and in eating. In this conversion the Brahmans have had great success, and most of the chiefs of the highland tribes have adopted the rules of purity, and are called Rajputs, while various fables and genealogies have been contrived to gratify their vanity, by connecting their history with Hindu legend.

Concerning the colony from Chitaur I received another account, from the Mahanta, or prior of the convent of Janmasthan, at Ayodhya. He alleges, that Chaturbhuja, a prince of the Sisaudhiya tribe, having left Chitaur, conquered Kumau and Yumila, where he established his throne, from whence his family spread to Palpa Tanahung and the Kirats. The supremacy very lately admitted by all the eastern mountain chiefs to the Rajas of Yumila, is a strong presumption in favour of this opinion. Many chiefs, and especially the Palpa Tanahung and Makwanpur families, pretend to be descended of the Chitaur princes; but it is very doubtful whether they have any claim to a descent so illustrious, for the Mahanta said, that, after some generations, all the hill chiefs rebelled, and paid only a nominal obedience to the Raja of Yumila, nor does Samar Bahadur, uncle of the Palpa Raja, claim kindred with that chief, while one of the branches of his family still remains impure. But, if this tradition be well-founded, the Yumila, or Kumau principality, or at least its possession by the Rajputs, must have been subsequent to 1306, which will not admit of above twenty-five generations, instead of the fifty or sixty which the Brahmans of that country allot for the arrival of Asanti. This difference may, however, be explained. Chaturbhuja, as well as a fortunate Brahman, who obtained Malebum, as will be afterwards mentioned, may have married the daughter of the former chief of Yumila, and thus succeeded to the power; and the fifty or sixty generations, in both cases, may include both the original family, and those who succeeded by marriage. But, if the Mahanta is right, the Yumila or Karuvir family, in place of being descended of Shalivahana, was descended of the princes of Ajmir and Chitaur.

In giving an account of the tribes now occupying the dominions of Nepal, I shall first commence with these Hindu colonists, as having acquired the predominance; but I must premise, that very considerable differences prevail in their customs in different parts, and especially that those in the countries east from the Kali differ much from those who live west from that river. I shall commence with the former, with whom I am best acquainted.

The language spoken by the mountain Hindus in the vicinity of Kathmandu, is usually called the Parbatiya basha, or mountain dialect; but west from the capital, it is more commonly known by the name of Khas basha, or dialect of the Khas country, because it seems to have been first introduced into the territory of that name. I have lodged in the Companys library a copious vocabulary of this dialect, from whence the learned may judge how far it is probable that it came from Chitor; for there can be no doubt, that it is a dialect of the Hindwi language, and it is making rapid progress in extinguishing the aboriginal dialects of the mountains.

The character in which this language is written is evidently derived from the Nagri, and may be found in Colonel Kirkpatricks Account of Nepaul, opposite to page 220; and in the twenty-eight following pages may be seen a short vocabulary.

East from the Kali, the Brahmans, who are of pure birth, are only few in number, there being no means for their subsistence, as they confine themselves mostly to the duties of the sacred order. They are of the Kanoj nation, and the sect of the Saktis, following chiefly the doctrine of the books called Tantras. Where the chiefs who pretend to have come from Chitaur settled, many of them were men of great learning. In other parts, very few have made any sort of progress in grammar, law, or philosophy; but they are considered as profound astrologers. Although very few have taken service either from men or in temples, they contaminate themselves by uncommon liberties in the gratification of their appetites. They are divided into three ranks that do not intermarry. The highest are called Jayurbedi, from the sacred book which they profess to follow, and they assume the title of Upadhyaya. These are the instructors (Gurus) and priests (Purohits) for Brahmans and Rajputs, and eat goats, sheep, and some kinds of wild fowl, but abstain from venison. The two lower orders are called Kamiya and Purubi, and act as instructors and priests for the lower orders. These not only eat the same animals as those of the highest rank, but many of them rear fowls and swine for their tables.

The sixteen principal festivals observed by the mountain Hindus have been described by Colonel Kirkpatrick, {17} nor have I any additional information to offer.

All the Brahmans may keep widows of their own class as concubines, and the spurious offspring of such connections are called Jausis. These, having betaken themselves to agriculture and commerce, have become exceedingly numerous, and are reduced to perform every kind of drudgery. Among the poor people whom I observed coming to the markets in the Gorakhpur district, loaded with goods even from the distant hills of Malebum, at least a half stated themselves to be of this class. These, although of illegitimate extraction, are not called Khas; but, until the present dynasty seized on the government, were considered as entitled to all the immunities and privileges of the sacred order, as were also the children of Brahmans by widows of their own rank.

The descendants of Brahmans by women of the lower tribes, although admitted to be Khas, or impure, are called Kshatris or Khatris, which terms are considered as perfectly synonymous, and have now formed two tribes, Pauriyal and Sili; but some proper Khatris, called Dewkotas and Lahauriyas, from Bareli and Lahaur, have settled in the country, and intermarry with the Pauriyal and Sili, all of whom wear the thread, and are considered as belonging to the military tribes.

The Rajputs that are, or that even pretend to be, descended of the colony which came from Chitaur, are very few in number; but the families of the mountain chiefs, who have adopted the Hindu rules of purity, and even some who have neglected to do so, are now universally admitted to be Rajputs; and the Chitaur family have so often married the daughters of the former, that several members of it have acquired the Tartar countenance, while some of the mountain families, by intermarriages with pure but indigent Rajputs, have acquired oval faces and high noses. Not only the colony, therefore, from Chitaur, if the Palpa family be such, but all the descendants of the hill chiefs, are now called Rajputs; and, until the absorption of all power in the Gorkha family, the Rajputs held all the principal civil and military offices of the petty states into which the country was subdivided. It would also appear, that, when the princes of the mountaineers were persuaded to follow the doctrines of the Brahmans, many of their subjects or clans were induced to follow the example of their chiefs, and thus have established tribes called Thapas, Ghartis, Karkis, Majhis, Basnats, Bishtakos, Ranas, and Kharkas, all of whom are called Khasiyas, or natives of Khas, but they wear the thread, and live pure like Kshatris, and, in fact, are included among the fencibles or military power of the country, and are very much employed in the government of the family of Gorkha, under which some of them enjoy the highest dignities of the state; for Bhim Sen, who is now vested with the whole power of the kingdom, is by birth a Thapa, as is also Amar Singha Karyi, who commands the army beyond the Yamuna. Among those called Khasiyas, thus adopted into the military order, there may be many others, of which I did not hear; but it would not appear, even when they adopted fully the rules of purity, that the whole of these tribes obtained so elevated a rank, which is almost equal to that of the sacred bastards. The Thapas, for instance, are of two kinds, Khas and Ranggu; yet the latter, although they live pure, and have pure Brahmans to give them instruction, and to perform their ceremonies, are not permitted to wear the military badge, nor to intermarry with those who enjoy this privilege. The Ghartis, also, are of two kinds, Khas and Bhujal. The former are admitted to the military dignity; but the latter wallow in all the abominations of the impure Gurungs, and do not speak the Khas language. The Ranas, also, are divided into two kinds, the Khas and Magar. The latter are a branch of the Magar tribe, and totally neglect the rules of Hindu purity. It is not even, as I have said, all the Rajputs that have adopted the rules of purity, and some branches of the same families were pure, while others rejected the advice of the sacred order, and eat and drank whatever their appetites craved.

All these military tribes, including the Khasiyas, descended of Brahmans or Khatris, who are more numerous than all the others, the Rajputs, Thapas, etc. have again had children by widows of their own cast, and by concubines of lower tribes, and these children are also called Khasiyas, who, although they live equally pure, and observe equally the laws of the Brahmans, are not permitted to wear the thread of distinction; but must toil in ignoble professions. They are considered as of so little consequence, that, of whatever descent they may be by the male line, they may all freely intermarry. They speak the Khas language.

The low tribes, which also speak this language, are all supposed to form part of the colony from Chitaur; but here there is a considerable number of a tribe called Khawas, who are slaves, and accompanied the chief as his domestic servants, having been in slavery at Chitaur. They are reckoned a pure tribe, and their women are not abandoned to prostitution like the slaves of the mountain tribes called Ketis. The Khawas adhered to the chiefs of the Chitaur family, and were employed in confidential offices, such as stewards; while these chiefs soon indulged in the luxury of having mountain slaves round their persons. Next in rank, in the following order, are,

1. Nai, or barbers. A Brahman may drink their water.

2. Karmi, who build and thatch houses, and Chunra, or carpenters. These have degraded Brahmans as instructors.

3. Kami, miners and workers in iron and copper; Sarki, tanners and shoemakers; Damai, tailors and musicians. All these are vile, and have no priests but of their own cast. Any Musulman or Christian, however, who should cohabit with a Damai woman, would suffer death, and the woman would be severely punished; but, according to the Hindu law, a female, however low in rank, cannot for any crime be deprived of life. When any woman has been discovered with a Musulman, the whole kingdom is thrown into confusion. Even if she has been of the lowest cast, she may have given water to some person of the cast immediately above her own. He may again have given it to a higher, and thus the whole inhabitants may have been involved in sin and disgrace. This can only be expiated by a ceremony called Prayaschitta, in which the prince washes in the river with great ceremony, and bestows large sums on the Brahmans, who read the expiatory prayers proper on the occasion. The expense of an expiation of this kind, which was performed during our stay in this country, was, by my Brahman, estimated at two thousand rupees; but the natives alleged that it amounted to ten times this sum.

Colonel Kirkpatrick {21a} mentions the Dhewars as husbandmen and fishers of the western district, from which circumstance we may conclude that they belong to the Hindu colony; but I did not hear of them, as my account of the Parbatiya tribes was chiefly derived from the central parts. From the condition of similar tribes on the plains, these Dhewars probably belong to the third of the ranks above enumerated, although the Majhis, (Mhanjhees,) whom Colonel Kirkpatrick joins with the Dhewars, were represented to me as a tribe of original Khas, which has been converted by the Hindus, and admitted into the military order.

Colonel Kirkpatrick then states, {21b} That Nepaul, having been ruled for many centuries past by Rajput princes, and the various classes of Hindus appearing in all periods to have composed a great proportion of its population, we are naturally prepared to find a general resemblance in manners and customs between this part of its inhabitants, and kindred sects established in adjacent countries; accordingly, the differences are so faint as to be scarcely discernible in a single instance. Now, I must here observe, that Nepal, in the proper sense of the word, when Colonel Kirkpatrick wrote, had not been governed for half a century by chiefs, who even pretended to be descended of a Hindu colony, for the Rajas of Nepal were Newars, who deny this extraction. They indeed called themselves Rajputs, that is, the descendants of princes, but so does the king of Ava, although no one ever imagined that he is descended of the Rajputs in Hindustan. I shall afterwards have occasion to show, that the various classes of Hindus, that is, of the natives of India, who have adopted the Brahmans for spiritual guides, have not in all periods composed a great proportion of the population, nor have even entered any part of the country as residents. At present, indeed, in most parts of the kingdom, except in Nepal itself, they, or converts to their doctrine, form a large proportion of the inhabitants; and the more recent the importation, I should expect the greater resemblance between the colonists and the inhabitants of the plains of India; but, in fact, the resemblance, though strong, is not so complete as Colonel Kirkpatricks short stay amongst them induced him to suppose, as will appear from what I shall afterwards state.

These mountain Hindus appear to me a deceitful and treacherous people, cruel and arrogant towards those in their power, and abjectly mean towards those from whom they expect favour. Their men of rank, even of the sacred order, pass their nights in the company of male and female dancers and musicians, and, by an excessive indulgence in pleasure, are soon exhausted. Their mornings are passed in sleep, and the day is occupied by the performance of religious ceremonies, so that little time remains for business, or for storing their minds with useful knowledge. Except a few of the Brahmans, they are, in general, drunkards, which, joined to a temper uncommonly suspicious, and to a consciousness of having neglected the conjugal duties, works them up to a fury of jealousy that frequently produces assassination. For this they are all prepared, by wearing a large knife in their girdle, and the point of honour requires them never to rest, until they have shed the blood of the man who has been suspected of a criminal intercourse with their wives. The jealous man watches his opportunity for months, and even for years, should his adversary be on his guard; and, having at length found a favourable time, with one stroke of his knife in the throat of his rival, he satisfies his revenge. This is considered as so commendable, that, at Kathmandu, the police, in other respects very strict, does not at all interfere, although the murderer is often actuated merely by suspicion.

The higher ranks, whenever not compelled by the most urgent necessity, conceal their women; and their widows ought to burn themselves with their husbands corpse. Many, however, refuse, nor did I learn that force is ever used. The custom seems, however, more prevalent than in any part of India where I have been, the vicinity of Calcutta excepted.

The appearance and dress of the lower orders of these Parbatiya Hindus is represented in the plate opposite to page 40 of Kirkpatricks Nepaul, where the figure, behind those seated, is a porter of this tribe.

In these eastern parts of the dominions of Nepal, the mountain Hindus are far from having extirpated the aboriginal tribes, most of which, until the accession of the Gorkha family, enjoyed their customs and religion with little or no disturbance, and they are still numerous and powerful, as will be afterwards mentioned; but, west from the Kali river, there is a great difference. The whole people in Kumau, and Garhawal at least, as well as their language, are called Khasiyas, as having settled in the Khas country; but all pretend to be descended of colonists from the south, and disclaim every connection with the original impure barbarians. West from Garhawal, the term Khas is altogether rejected, and it is pretended that this impure race never held the country. Each cast, west from the Kali, preserves its race with the utmost care; nor are widows of the high cast permitted to become concubines. Except in a very few places, near the passes through the snowy mountains, the aboriginal inhabitants are alleged to have been obliged entirely to conform to the rules of Hindu purity, and to reject their ancient forms of worship; for I hope that the colonists from the south are not so bad as they pretend, and that religious zeal has not had such a victory over humanity as they allege; for the fear of being thought in any degree contaminated by the infidel Khas, would make them carefully conceal whatever indulgence humanity may have wrung from intolerance. To such a height is caution on this subject required, that the people, who have settled near the passes in the snowy mountains, although acknowledged as of the same tribes with those nearer the plain, and although they use the same language and manners, are called Bhotiyas, and are no longer permitted to intermarry with the people who can have no intercourse with these impure infidels. On account of this strictness, the Rajputs of the western districts are as much courted by those of the plains, as those east from the Kali are scouted.

The mountain tribes, which I consider aboriginal, as I have said, have Chinese or Tartar faces, but each spoke a peculiar language. Some used a written character altered from the Nagri, so as to enable it to express their utterance; others had not the use of letters. Before the arrival of Hindu colonies, they had no idea of cast; but some of the tribes confined their marriages to their own nation, while others admitted of intermarriages with strangers. The women in all seem to enjoy great indulgence, and are allowed, as in Europe, to form a choice for themselves, after they have arrived at mature years.

In all these hill tribes the women were weavers, and seem to have enjoyed great privileges; but the plurality of husbands had not been introduced with the religion of Thibet. Until the arrival of the Rajputs, they seem all to have eaten every kind of animal food, and still do so whenever they are at liberty to indulge their inclinations. They still continue to drink spirituous liquors. Each tribe appears originally to have had a priesthood and deities peculiar to itself, although the worship of Bhim Sen, the son of Pandu, seems to be very general, and to have been that which preceded the doctrine of the Buddhas; but first the Lamas, or, perhaps, rather the Zogis, and then the Brahmans, have made encroachments, and at the same time introduced many new customs. They have not yet introduced the custom of inoculation for the small-pox, and those who are seized are put into a separate hut, to which the friends daily convey water and food, but do not enter; and the sick is allowed to take his chance. They are all very slovenly and dirty.

The tribes, which, on the arrival of the colonies from Hindustan, occupied the country east from the Kali river, (for those to the west have been extirpated or abolished,) were chiefly Magars, Gurungs, Jariyas, Newars, Murmis, Kirats, Limbus, Lapchas, and Bhotiyas. Colonel Kirkpatrick {25} mentions also people called Nuggerkoties and Hawoos, of whom I have not heard. All these tribes he calls Hindus of the meanest cast; but on what foundation, unless that they are Pagans, and neither Christians nor Muhammedans, I do not know.

The Magars, called Mungurs by Colonel Kirkpatrick, occupied a great proportion of the lower hills in the western parts, seem to have received the Rajput chiefs with much cordiality, and have now adopted a great part of the ferocious customs of these mountain Hindus. They eat copiously the flesh of hogs, goats, sheep, ducks, and fowls, but now abstain from beef. They are much addicted to intoxication, and are excessively cruel and treacherous; but they are men of great bodily vigour and mental activity. They have, in general, submitted to the guidance of the same Brahmans and Sannyasis that instruct the Rajputs; but formerly had priests of their own tribe called Damis, and seemed to have worshipped chiefly ghosts. They marry only one wife.

The family of Gorkha which now governs Nepal, although it pretends to come from Chitaur, according to Sadu Ram, a good authority, is, in reality, of the Magar tribe; and, at any rate, these people are now firmly attached to its interests, by having largely shared in the sweets of conquest; and by far the greatest part of the regular troops of that family is composed of this nation. Colonel Kirkpatrick {26a} has given a short vocabulary of its language, which has no affinity to the Parbatiya or Sangskrita. In the vocabulary which I have deposited in the Companys library, will be seen a more full specimen of the Magar language, which now, at least, is written in the Nagri character. By many of the soldiery, owing to their frequent absence from home, for the purpose of attending at court, it has been entirely forgotten. In a short time, therefore, it is highly probable that this people may unite with the mountain Hindus, and be considered as one of their casts. When I was at Kathmandu, indeed, I found that many people were then of this opinion; and Colonel Kirkpatrick {26b} includes them among the Kshatriya or military cast. But hitherto the tribe has been so powerful, that many people in the west speak its language although they do not belong to it; and by far the greatest number adhere to the original impurity of life which their ancestors embraced. Before the arrival of the Rajputs, it is said, that this nation consisted of twelve Thums, or clans, the whole members of each being supposed to have a common extraction in the male line; and a man and woman of the same blood could not intermarry. Each Thum was governed by a chief, considered as the head of a common family.

Near the Magars was settled a numerous tribe named Gurung, whose wealth chiefly consisted in sheep, but whose manners are, in most respects, nearly the same with those of the Magars, except that, in the course of their pastoral life, they frequent the Alpine regions in summer, and return to the valleys in winter. The men also employ themselves in weaving blankets; but they are a tribe addicted to arms. A chief who pretended to be of the Hindu colony, and who was Raja of Kaski, having either settled where these Gurungs were the most predominant tribe, in the districts of Gangrong Postong and Argong, or being, in fact, of the Gurung tribe,these people were strongly attached to his descendants, by whom they were not disturbed in their religious opinions or customs, and they continued to follow the doctrines of Sakya, as explained to them by Lamas of their own tribe, who were supposed qualified to give them instruction, and to direct their ceremonies. These persons are said never to have given themselves the trouble of studying the language of Thibet, and, therefore, were probably not very conversant in the doctrines of Sakya, which they professed to teach. The Gurungs remain in these parts in great numbers, and still adhere to the Lamas; nor do I hear that any of them have been admitted to the dignity of Khasiya, although perhaps the Ghartis, above mentioned as belonging to that class of Hindus, may be of this race, as one part of the Ghartis, that still remains impure, is said to live among the Gurungs, and to have similar manners. There are, at any rate, several tribes of Gurungs, such as Nisi, Bhuji, Ghali, and Thagsi. The latter live nearest the snow; but all the Gurungs require a cold climate, and live much intermixed with the Bhotiyas on both sides of the snow-covered peaks of Emodus, and in the narrow valleys interposed, which, in the language of the country, are called Langna. The Gurungs cultivate with the hoe, and are diligent traders and miners. They convey their goods on sheep, of which they have numerous flocks.

The Jariyas formed a very numerous tribe, occupying much of the lower hilly region between the Kali and Nepal Proper, south from the Gurungs, and intermixed with the Magars. There can be little doubt that the Malebum family was of the Jariya tribe; but one of the chiefs having an only daughter, gave her in marriage to a Brahman, and from this source spring the families of Malebum, and its numerous collateral branches, with a large proportion of the Rajputs of this part of the country; although, where not of a chiefs family, the offspring of a Brahman by a Sudra is reckoned a Khasiya. I have not heard that any of the Jariyas continue to be viewed as impure; and I think it probable, that they have all obtained the rank of Khas, although it is generally admitted, that they had a dialect peculiar to themselves; but of this I could procure no specimen.

The Khas Ranas, there is no doubt, were originally Magars; but whether the Thapas, Karkis, Majhis, Basnats, Bishtakos, and Kharkas, all now considered as Hindus of the Khas tribe, were branches of the Magar race, or Jariyas, or Gurungs, I cannot take upon myself to say. I can only observe, that, in this vicinity, I heard of no tribes but the Magars, Jariyas, and Gurungs, that spoke languages different from the Khas, and that there is no reason to suppose the Thapas, etc. to have come from Chitaur; although, on adopting the religion and laws of that country, they have also adopted its language, but many of them still speak the Magar tongue.

The more fertile part of what is called Nepal Proper, was chiefly occupied by the Newars, a race addicted to agriculture and commerce, and far more advanced in the arts than any other of the mountain tribes. Their style of building, and most of their other arts, appear to have been introduced from Thibet, and the greater part still adhere to the tenets of the Buddhs; but they have adopted the doctrine of cast, have rejected the Lamas, and have a priesthood of their own called Bangras. Their own chiefs, of a family called by the common title of Mal, at the time when conquered by the Raja of Gorkha, had divided into three branches, governing Kathmandu, Lalita-Patan, and Bhatgang. During the government of these chiefs a good many of the Newars had rejected the doctrine of Sakya, and adopted the worship of Siva, but without changing their manners, which are chiefly remarkable for a most extraordinary carelessness about the conduct of their women; neither have they adopted the Brahmans as their priests. Some of themselves, with the title of Achar, have assumed the manners and authority of the sacred order.

Thus the Newars, in point of religion, are divided into two sects. A very small portion has forsaken the doctrine of Buddha, while by far the most numerous class adhere to the doctrines taught by Sakya Singha.

Colonel Kirkpatrick {29} seems to think, that the worshippers of Buddha among the Newars, whom he calls Bahauras, (Bangras,) are only a trifling portion, who have apostatized in a certain degree from the religious creed of their countrymen at some period subsequent to their conquest of Nepaul, or, at least, to have grafted upon it a considerable portion of the idolatry of Thibet. If this had been the case, we should have found the greater part of the Newars adhering to the Brahmans, which is not the case; and the portion which has adopted the doctrine of the Vedas, rejecting the sacred order of the Hindus, have the Achars as priests of their own. The probable cause of Colonel Kirkpatricks supposing the followers of Buddha among the Newars to be small in number is explained by another passage, {30} where the Bangras are called Bhanras, and are stated to be a sort of separatists from the Newars, and to amount to about 5000. He does not seem to have been aware, that these were merely the priests of this sect, and that such a number in the priesthood implies a very large proportion of the sect.

The worshippers of Siva among the Newars in their religious opinions follow the doctrine of the Vedas, as explained by Sankara Acharya; but they do not receive the Brahmans as their Gurus, or instructors, and in spirituals are subordinate to a class of Newars, who are called Achars or Doctors, who are both their instructors (Gurus) and priests, (Purohits,) and who differ in birth and name only from the Brahmans.

Among the Sivamarg Newars, or those who worship Maha Deva, the Achars are considered as the highest cast; but their superiority is not acknowledged by those who worship Bouddha. They officiate as priests (Pujaris) in the temples of Siva and of the Saktis, and read the prayers (Mantras) that are appointed to accompany sacrifices; but they do not kill the animal that is offered. The Achars have among them certain men who perform the ceremonies necessary to free from sin the souls of those who die on certain unfortunate days. This ceremony they call Hom. The Brahmans perform similar rites, which they call Pushkarasanti. The Hindus believe, that if this ceremony is neglected, all the relations of the deceased will perish. By this ceremony the officiating priest is supposed to take upon himself the sin of the departed soul; and if, in its performance, he commits any mistake, he incurs certain destruction from the wrath of the Deity. The office is therefore shunned by men of high rank, both as sinful and dangerous. The Achars who perform this ceremony are called Gulcul, and cannot intermarry with those of the first rank. This inferior order performs also any ceremonies that may be wanted by Newars, who are at a distance from home, and the purity of whose extraction cannot therefore be ascertained. Poor Achars cultivate the land with their own hands, from which they are not deterred by a fear of distressing the ox, as the plough is not used by the Newars. Their women spin and weave, which is the only point in which they seem to differ from the Brahmans; the two casts, however, consider themselves as entirely distinct.

Among the Newars, the Bangras, or Baryesu, are the head of the sect of Buddhmargas, and are much more numerous than the Achars. They are divided into two classes. The first are the Gubal Bangras, who are the instructors, (Gurus,) priests, (Purohits,) and philosophers, (Pandits,) of all the sect, and are priests (Pujaris) at the temples of Buddh, and of some of the Saktis. When they perform any ceremony, they wear a thread like the Brahmans or Achars. They neither eat nor intermarry with any person of inferior rank. The Bakali Bangras work in gold, silver, and copper, and are traders and cultivators. We may thus observe, that the doctrine of cast, and the nature of the priesthood, are essential differences between the religion of the Burmas and that professed by the followers of Buddh in Nepal. The doctrines of these people appeared so shockingly impious to my Brahman, that I could not induce him to converse on the subject with their learned men. These doctrines also are essentially different from those taught by the Rahans, or priests of Ava. The Bangras believe in a supreme being, called Sambhu, or Swayambhu, from whom have proceeded many Buddhs, or Intelligences, which, by the Tartars, are called Bourkans. Among these Matsyendranath has the chief superintendence over the affairs of the world. Under him are a great many Devatas, or spirits of vast power, among whom Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Siva the destroyer of this earth, do not bear a very distinguished rank. These spirits are the Tengri of the Tartars, and the Nat of the Burmas, of which the worship is execrated by the followers of Buddha in Ava; but is eagerly followed by most of the Bangras, and still more so by the lower casts of Newars. Sakya Singha is considered one of the Buddhs, who came on earth to instruct man in the true worship, and in Nepal is commonly believed to be still alive at Lasa. His images entirely resemble those of Gautama. As this teacher has admitted the worship of all the Nat, or Devatas, among whom are placed the deities worshipped by the followers of the Vedas, we can readily account for the appearance of these in the temples of the Chinese. The followers of Buddh in Ava reject altogether the worship of these beings, so that, when I was in that country, and was unacquainted with the doctrines of any other sect of Buddhists, I was led into an erroneous opinion concerning the religion of the Chinese, from knowing that they worshipped the same Gods with the Brahmans. This, we see, is allowed by the doctrine of Sakya Singha, nor, on account of finding the images of Vishnu, Siva, or Brahma, in any temple, can we conclude, that it was not built by a follower of Buddh. In fact, even in Swayambhunath, the temple of the supreme deity of the Buddhists, there are a great many images of Siva.

A kind of mixed breed of Newars are, by the Sivamargas, acknowledged as of very high rank. I shall, therefore, mention them in this place, although their pretensions are disputed by the Bangras. They are called Jausi, and are the only cast that ought to practise medicine; but at present all ranks profess that art. The Jausis are descended from the offspring of a Brahman by a Newar woman; and if their mother has been a Bangra, or an Achar, they wear the thread, and act as instructors (Gurus) and priests (Purohits) for their brethren of mixed descent. These privileges are not allowed to such as are descended from low mothers. In imitation of their fathers, the Jausis are mostly Sivamargas; but in other matters, they follow the customs of the Newars.

The next in rank among the Newars are the Srishtas, who form a small cast. They can serve as cooks for all Newars, the Achars and Bangras excepted, which is a sure mark of their transcendent rank. The Buddhmargas and Sivamargas of this cast eat together; but a woman, for her first paramour, always chooses a person of her own persuasion. The highest rank of Srishtas are called Sira, and are mostly traders. A lower class, called Sual, act as porters; and a still lower, called Bagul, cultivate the ground. All these eat together; nor is the difference of class any restriction in their amours.

The persons of the remaining casts are almost entirely Buddhmargas; but, being low and ignorant, they will worship almost any thing that is called a God, which is, indeed, usual with all Hindus of their rank. Some of our Seapoys, who were Brahmans, immediately on our arrival at Swayambhunath, took flowers and consecrated water, and went round the hill offering some to every image which they saw, and, among others, to that of Sakya Singha. I happened to be standing near it with Ramajaya, my Brahman, who asked them if they knew what they were doing, and informed them that they were worshipping Buddh. At this the poor fellows were much ashamed. However, an old Havildar (serjeant) comforted them, by observing, that, on the march to Bombay, under General Goddard, they had often seen this deity, and that their worshipping him seemed to have been very lucky, as the army had great success.

I shall enumerate the lower casts, according to their respective dignities.

The Jopu Newars were originally all cultivators; but some of them have now become traders and porters.

The Uda were all originally traders, and are nearly of the same rank with the Jopus.

The Bhat procure a living by proclaiming the titles of great men, and singing their praises on all public occasions,a vanity in which the men of power in India take great delight. The Bhat also beg in the name of the Gods, which, among the Hindus, is always a profession of some dignity.

The three next casts, Got, Kurmi, and Now, are nearly of the same rank.

The Got are gardeners, and one of them, named Balabhadra, whom I employed as a collector of plants, repeatedly told me the following curious circumstances: He said that the Got do not acknowledge the Achars, or Bangras, as their instructors, (Gurus,) but have certain persons of their own cast, who, among their brethren, enjoy this privilege. At certain temples dedicated to Bhawani, which word means merely the Goddess, the Got attend to dance in masks; and, on these occasions, ten of them represent Singhini, Vyaghrini, Indrani, Bhairavi, Bhawani, Varahi, Vaishnavi, Kumari, Brahmani, and Ganesa, while four others represent Mahakal, Nandiswar, Vindhyiswar, and Nasadeva, who are the instructors (Gurus) of the other ten deities. From those who come to worship at the temple, the Got that represent these deities accept of spirituous liquors, which they drink out of human skulls till they become elevated, and dance in a furious manner, which is supposed to proceed from inspiration. In the same manner, they drink the blood of the animals which are offered as sacrifices. In these temples the priests (Pujaris) are Achars, who at the sacrifices read the forms of prayer (Mantras) proper for the occasion, but retire when the animal is about to be killed by the Got who represents Bhairavi. The shrine, in which the images of the gods are kept, is always shut, and no person is allowed to enter but the priest (Pujari) and the Gots, who personate in masks these deities. Once in twelve years the Raja offers a solemn sacrifice. It consists of two men, of such a rank that they wear a thread; of two buffaloes, two goats, two rams, two cocks, two ducks, and two fishes. The lower animals are first sacrificed in the outer part of the temple, and in the presence of the multitude their blood is drank by the masked Gots. After this, the human victims are intoxicated, and carried into the shrine, where the mask representing Bhairavi cuts their throats, and sprinkles their blood on the idols. Their skulls are then formed into cups, which serve the masks for drinking in their horrid rites. I questioned the man repeatedly on the subject, and he always related the circumstances without variation, and declared, that at the last sacrifice, which had been offered nine years previous to our arrival in Nepal, he had represented Bhairavi, and with his own hands had cut the throats of the human victims. My Brahman, however, inquired of several persons, who ought to have known the truth, and who denied altogether the human sacrifices at this ceremony, which is performed in the Ashtami in the month Aswin. All ranks of the natives of Nepal pay so very little attention to the observance of veracity, that I remain in suspense concerning this circumstance. Balabhadra was a mild attentive creature; and although he spoke of the human sacrifice with considerable glee, as being attended with copious potations of spirituous liquor, he was shocked when I asked him if two bulls made a part of the offering.

The Karmi are bricklayers and carpenters.

The Nau are barbers.

Next follow three casts of nearly the same rank.

Songat, or washermen.

Japu, or potmakers.

Hial, or Sial, who are cow-herds.

Nearly of the same rank are the persons, by the Newars called Dhui, but whom the Parbatiyas call Putaul. They are the persons who carry the palanquins of the Raja, and of his family. None but Bakali Bangras will condescend to act as instructors (Gurus) for a cast so low as this is.

All the casts yet enumerated are considered as pure, and Hindus of any rank may drink the water which they have drawn from a well; but the following casts are impure, and a person of any considerable dignity will be defiled by their touch.

The Salim are oil-makers, and weavers of garlands, at which art the Newars are very dexterous, and there is a great demand for their work, as both sexes, of all ranks in Nepal, ornament their hair with flowers.

The Kasulia are musicians, and have a vast variety of ear-rending instruments. The Hindu music, especially that of the martial kind, is said by the natives to be in great perfection in Nepal; and in this holy land are still to be found all the kinds that were to be found in the army of Rama.

Still lower than these are the Kasai, who are butchers, and palanquin bearers for the vulgar. The Chhipi, or dyers, are nearly of the same rank.

Lower again are the two following casts.

Kow, or ironsmiths.

Gotoo, or coppersmiths.

Then follow two military tribes.

Kosar, who are said originally to have been robbers.

Tepai, who can marry, or keep as concubines any Hindu women that have lost cast by eating unclean things.

Then follow three exceedingly low casts.

Puria, fishermen and basketmakers.

Bala, who remove offals and nastiness.

Chamkal, who are dressers of leather and shoemakers.

These casts can scarcely venture to draw near any other Hindu, but would consider themselves as much degraded, by eating, drinking, or cohabiting with a Musulman or Christian; and any of their women who should venture to commit an act of such uncleanness, would be severely punished, as would also be the infidel by whom she had been corrupted. This, however, does not prevent Hindu women of all ranks and casts from being sold as slaves to either Musulmans or Christians. A master or a parent has the power of selling his slave or child, whose consent is not asked, who thereby loses cast, and who has no alternative, but to adopt the religion of her new master. Such incongruities may astonish a person unacquainted with Hindus; and what may add to his surprise is, that, while at Kathmandu, several Hindus, of high cast, among our followers, chose to embrace the Musulman faith, and thereby subjected themselves to severe restrictions and disgrace.

Musulmans have become pretty numerous, and are increasing, as they are zealous in purchasing girls, and in propagating their sect. Christianity has not been equally successful; and, on our arrival, we found the church reduced to an Italian Padre, and a native Portuguese, who had been inveigled from Patna by large promises, which were not made good, and who would have been happy to have been permitted to leave the country.

These are the various casts of Newars. I shall now give an account of the customs that are common to the whole nation.

All the Newars burn the dead; all eat buffaloes, sheep, goats, fowls, and ducks; and all drink spirituous liquors, to the use of which, indeed, they are excessively addicted. The highest of the Sivamargas kill animals with their own hands; but the higher orders of the Buddhmargs abstain from shedding blood, and from eating pork. They all live in towns or villages, and their houses are built of brick with clay mortar, and covered with tiles. These houses are three stories high, the ground floor being appropriated for the cattle and poultry, the second floor for servants, and the third for the family of the owner. This is in the houses of the wealthy. Among the poor, a number of families live under one roof. The rooms are exceeding low, as I could not stand upright in the principal apartment of what was reckoned the best house in Kathmandu, the palace excepted. At first sight, however, the houses look well, especially to a person coming from the towns of Hindustan. In Nepal, they have numerous large windows, which are shut by wooden lattices curiously carved, and which, in some measure, hang over the street, the upper end of the lattice projecting much more than the lower. Within, the houses are exceedingly mean and dirty, and swarm with vermin, which, added to all manner of filth, including the offals of the shambles, and the blood of sacrifices, that is allowed to corrupt in the streets, renders an abode in any of their towns utterly disgusting.

The following account of the Nepalese, or rather Newar, architecture, I have taken from papers communicated by Colonel Crawford.

The Nepalese possess a great advantage in having an excellent clay for making bricks and tiles; and their workmen are very expert. They use moulds nearly of the size and shape of our common bricks, and have also others for the bricks that are used in cornices and other ornaments. For the fronts and ornamental parts of their best houses, they make smooth glazed bricks, that are very handsome. Their bricklayers and masons are also good workmen, but labour under a great disadvantage, the want of lime. The tiles are flat, of an oblong form, and have two longitudinal grooves, one above and another below, which fit into the adjacent tiles, and the whole are put on with great neatness.

The houses of towns are in general three stories high, though some in the cities and large towns rise to four. The lower story has no windows, and the smoke of their kitchens comes out by the door, which renders the outside, even of their houses, very black and dirty. The windows of the second story are always small and nearly square. In each, a wooden trellis, which is highly ornamented by carving, but which cannot be opened and shut, admits the air and light, but prevents strangers from seeing into the apartment. The third or upper story has large windows, extending a great part of the length of each sitting apartment. Most of these windows have in front a wooden balcony composed of lattice work, in general much carved. This slopes outwards from a bench that is a little elevated from the floor, and joins the edge of the roof, which projects considerably beyond the wall. The bench is the favourite seat of the people, who, from thence, command a view of the street. The rooms are always narrow, the difficulty of carrying large timber from the mountains, per-venting them from procuring beams of sufficient dimensions. The beams, which can be usually procured, are fir of about six inches square. These are placed at about a foot distant from each other, and their ends project beyond the walls, so that from the street you can tell the number of beams in each house. The larger houses are square, with an open court in the centre.

In the villages, the houses are built of unburnt bricks, and often also consist of three stories disposed of in the same manner as in towns; but the windows of the upper story are not provided with balconies. Those of two stories are also very common, and one of them is represented by Colonel Kirkpatrick in the plate opposite to page 160.

The temples are of two kinds. One, constructed of solid brick, and peculiar to the worshippers of Buddha, resembles the temples of the same sect in Ava. The other is common to the Bouddhists and followers of the Vedas, and has a strong resemblance to the temples of the Chinese. The temples of this kind are destined to contain idols, and are squares consisting of from two to five stories, each of which is of smaller dimensions than the one below, and the last ends in a point. Each story has a sloping roof, and in some fine temples, these roofs are covered with gilded copper. The lower [Picture: Temple bell] story is surrounded by a rude wooden colonnade. From the corners, and sometimes all round the edges of these roofs, are suspended small bells with slender clappers, which are considerably longer than the bells, and end in a thin plate shaped like the ace of hearts, so that a strong wind occasions all the bells to ring. The roofs are supported by posts, which [Picture: Temple] project from the middle of the upright wall to the edge of the slope, and are carved with all the distorted figures of Hindu mythology. In the larger temples, these posts on the second story are covered with planks, and on these are fastened all the various offerings that have been made to the Deity, and which form a strange and ridiculous assemblage of swords and shields, pots, pans, spinning-wheels, mugs, jars, buffaloes horns, looking-glasses, knives, bracelets, etc. etc.

The view given by Colonel Kirkpatrick {41a} of Kathmandu affords a good idea of the place, and shows the strong resemblance of its temples to those of Thibet and China. I cannot but therefore wonder, when he says, {41b} These edifices appeared to differ nothing in their figure or construction from the wooden Mundups, occasionally met with in other parts of India. I have never in India seen any such, either in structure or in materials, every considerable temple there being either of brick or stone.

The Newar women are never confined. At eight years of age, they are carried to a temple, and married, with the ceremonies usual among Hindus, to a fruit called Bel, (Ęgle Marmelos, Roxb.) When a girl arrives at the age of puberty, her parents, with her consent, betroth her to some man of the same cast, and give her a dower, which becomes the property of the husband, or rather paramour. After this, the nuptials are celebrated with feasting, and some religious ceremonies. Among the higher casts, it is required that girls should be chaste till they have been thus betrothed; but in the lower casts, a girl, without scandal, may previously indulge any Hindu with her favours; and this licentiousness is considered a thing of no consequence. Whenever a woman pleases, she may leave her husband; and if, during her absence, she cohabit only with men of her own cast, or of a higher one, she may at any time return to her husbands house, and resume the command of his family. The only ceremony or intimation that is necessary, before she goes away, is her placing two betel-nuts on her bed. So long as a woman chooses to live with her husband, he cannot take another wife, until she becomes past child-bearing; but a man may take a second wife, when his first chooses to leave him, or when she grows old; and at all times he may keep as many concubines as he pleases. A widow cannot marry again; but she is not expected to burn herself; and may cohabit with any Hindu as a concubine. The children, by the betrothed wife, have a preference in succession to those by concubines; the latter, however, are entitled to some share. A man can be betrothed to no woman except one of his own cast; but he may keep a concubine of any cast, whose water he can drink. If the womans cast be lower than his, the children are called Khas, and are considered as belonging to the cast of the mother, but are somewhat elevated on account of their fathers birth.

A custom of the Newars, which was observed on the 11th of August by Colonel Crawford, deserves to be mentioned on account of its oddity. Each man on that day purchases a small quantity of boiled rice, mashed into a soft substance, and carries it to the field which he has cultivated. He then searches the field for frogs, and to every one that he can discover he gives a small portion of the boiled rice, at the same time uttering a prayer, and requesting the frog to watch over and protect his crop.

The Newars are a peaceable people, and not so much addicted to assassination as the Parbatiyas; but possess all the other vices of that barbarous race.

Colonel Kirkpatrick {43} doubts, whether the Newars have at any period been a warlike nation; but the long resistance which they made against Prithwi Narayan appears to me to indicate abundant courage, while his success seems to have been more owing to his cunning, and to his taking advantage of their internal dissensions, than to a superiority in the art of war.

One vile custom of the Newars of Kathmandu has been described by Colonel Crawford, from whose papers I have taken the following account. About the end of May, and beginning of June, for fifteen days, a skirmish takes place between the young men and boys, of the north and south ends of the city. During the first fourteen days it is chiefly confined to the boys or lads; but on the evening of the fifteenth day it becomes more serious. The opposing parties are drawn up in the broad, level, sandy bed of the river, which runs between the city and Swayambhunath. In the rear of each is a rising ground, which prevents either party from being hard pushed; for, the only weapons used being stones, the ascent gives such an advantage, that the pursuit of the victorious party is usually checked on their reaching the hill of their adversaries. The fight begins about an hour before sunset, and continues until darkness separate the combatants. In the one which we saw, four people were carried off much wounded, and almost every other year one or two men are killed: yet the combat is not instigated by hatred, nor do the accidents that happen occasion any rancour. Formerly, however, a most cruel practice existed. If any unfortunate fellow was taken prisoner, he was immediately dragged to the top of a particular eminence in the rear of his conquerors, who put him to death with buffalo bones. In remembrance of this custom, the bones are still brought to the field, but the barbarous use of them has for many years been abolished. The prisoners are now kept until the end of the combat, are carried home in triumph by the victors, and confined until morning, when they are liberated.

The origin of this custom is attributed to two causes. Some allege, that at one time Kathmandu was subject to two Rajas, and that the skirmishings first arose among their respective followers, and have ever since been continued. Others, with more probability, think that the combat is meant to commemorate a battle between a son of Maha Deva, and a Rakshas, or evil spirit. Colonel Crawford justly gives a preference to this opinion, for, if one of the parties obtain the victory, every thing favourable, seasonable rains, plentiful crops, and fine weather, is augured for the remainder of the year; the reverse is expected should the opposite party gain an advantage.

The territory anciently called Mithila, comprehending much of the northern parts of the district of Puraniya, and all those of Tirahut, belonged for many ages to a dynasty of princes called Janaka, who resided at Janakipur in the low country subject to Gorkha. Long afterwards, in that part of the country there had arisen a dynasty, the seat of whose government was at Gar Samaran, through the extensive ruins of which, the present boundary between the Company and the Gorkhalese passes. In the year 1802, when in this vicinity, I heard an imperfect account concerning this dynasty, and have mentioned them in the observations on Nepal, which I then composed. Anxious to procure more accurate information, in 1810 I sent an intelligent Brahman to inquire after traditions, who discovered a person residing at Chotoni, whose ancestors had been registers of Tirahut, and who gave him the following account. In the year of the Bengal era 496, (A.D. 1089,) Nanyop Dev, of the Kshatria tribe, acquired the sovereignty of Tirahut, and was the founder of a dynasty, the princes of which succeeded from father to son in the following order.

Nanyopdev governed 36 years. Ganggadev 14 Narasingha dev 52 Ramsingha dev 92 Sakrasingha dev 12 Harisingha dev 20 —- 226

This person had great power, and is universally acknowledged to have settled the customs which are now observed by the Brahmans of Mithila. After his death there was an interegnum of thirty-four years. The greatest difficulty in this accession arises from the two enormous reigns of fifty-two and ninety-two years held in succession by father and son. It is just possible that a grandfather and grandson might reign such a number of years, and the minute distinction of grandson and son may naturally enough have escaped the notice of Hindu genealogist; but there is reason to suspect, that the accession of Nanyop dev is antedated, for the same authority states, that he took possession of Tirahut on the death of Lakshman Sen king of Bengal, who, it is well known, had conquered it in the 1104th year of our era, or twenty-five years after the accession given to Nanyop, and probably governed it for a good many years. On the death of that warlike prince, it is very likely that Nanyop may have wrested Tirahut, or the western parts of Mithila, from his successor, and may have been the Raja of Oriswa, against whom Lakshmam II. erected the works of Majurni Khata, for the learned DAnville places Oriswa in these parts. When the length of these reigns is thus curtailed, the story may be sufficiently exact.

The account of this dynasty given by Colonel Kirkpatrick {46} differs considerably from that which I have above stated. He makes Hari Singha (Hurr Sinha) the last king of Gar Samaran, and states, that he was driven from this to Nepal in 1323 by the Patan king Secunder Lodi; but, at that time, according to Dows translation of Ferishta, Yeas ul deen Tuglick Shaw was the Muhammedan king of India; and the people of Mithila assert, that Hari Singha, their prince, died in quiet possession of his birthright. The predecessors of Hari Singha at Gar Samaran, according to Colonel Kirkpatrick, were,

Nan Dev, (Nanyop Dev,) who began to reign in the year Sambat 901, (A.D. 843.)

Kamuk Dev, (Gangga Dev.)

Nersingh Dev, (Narasingha Dev.)

Ramsing Dev, (RamSingha Dev.)

Bhad Sing Dev.

Kurm Sing Dev.

Nan Dev, the founder of this dynasty, according to Colonel Kirkpatrick, was descended of Bamdeb of the Surijbunsi, (Suryabangsi,) princes of Oude, (Ayodhya;) but in the Pauranic lists of these princes I can find nothing like Bamdeb, unless it be Bhanu or Bhanuman, mentioned both in the Sri Bhagawata and Bangsa Lots, among the later descendants of Ramachandra. The objections to this chronology are still stronger than to that which I received, in so much as it makes it commence still earlier.

There is, therefore, great room to doubt, whether in reality Nanyopdev was a Kshatriya. The Brahmans of Mithila, indeed, are totally unwilling to admit, that a person of any lower rank could have authority to settle their customs; but in Bengal a person of the medical tribe obtained this power; and the chiefs of the low tribe called Bhawar trace their origin to a Nanyopdev who brought the stud of the king of Dilli to pasture in the plains of Mithila, then entirely waste. Certain it is, that the Bhawars, about that time, extended their dominion over the Gorakhpur district as well as Tirahut, and that many petty chiefs of that tribe continued to occupy the parts adjacent to the hills until long after; and many of them continue to this day to be objects of worship among the low tribes. These may have been the descendants of collateral branches of the Rajas family, or of the chief officers of their government; and it must be remarked, that many of them assumed the title of Dev, as all the princes descended of Nanyop had done.

After the death of Hari Singha it is in Mithila generally admitted, that a Sivai Singha succeeded; and, although the Bhavans probably then formed the chief population of Gar Samaran and Tirahut, it is probable, as is asserted, that Sivai Singh vas a military Brahman of the tribe called Aniwar. It is alleged by the people of Tirahut, that Sivai having had a dispute with a brother, this unnatural relation fled to Dilli, and, having procured an army from the Musulman king, he advanced towards Gar Samaran with an intention of dethroning his brother. Before he had reached the Gandaki, Sivai Singha, having heard of the approach of an army of men that eat beef, was seized with a panic, and after having reigned twenty-two years, resigned his kingdom to Kangkali, the tutelar deity of his capital city. He then dedicated his life to God, and, having assumed the character of a religious mendicant, he passed his days in wandering about the places which are esteemed holy.

It is said, that about this time the unnatural brother of Sivai Singha died, and that the Musulman army, after a fruitless attempt on Gar Samaran, were obliged to retreat, owing, as the Hindus suppose, to the powerful influence of the tutelar deity. The Musulmans, however, seem to have seized on all the country near the Ganges, which afterwards continued subject to them till the establishment of the Companys authority.

About the same time, the inhabitants deserted Gar Samaran, for what reason is not explained. They took with them the image of Kangkali, and retired with an intention of going to Nepal. On the route they were in danger of perishing from hunger, when Kangkali appeared to one of their chiefs in a dream, and told him, that in the morning she would grant a supply of provisions, and that she gave them permission ever afterwards to use the kind of food which she was about to send. Accordingly, in the morning, a large herd of buffaloes appeared, and were killed by the people, who ever since have indulged in that kind of food, which, according to the precepts of their religion, they had formerly considered unclean. They afterwards settled in the valley of Nepal, and are the people now called Newars.

From Dows translation of Ferishta, {49} we learn, that Yeas ul deen Tuglick Shaw, king of Dilli, in the year of Christ 1322, on returning from an expedition into Bengal, was passing near the hills of Turhat, (Tirahut,) when the raja of these parts appearing in arms, was pursued into the woods. Having cut down these, the royal army arrived at a fort surrounded by a wall, and by seven ditches filled with water. After a siege of three weeks the place was taken, and the government of Turhat conferred upon Achmet Chan. That this is the same story with that contained in the traditions concerning Sivai Singha and Gar Samaran, I think there can be little doubt, and the Musulman chronology is that upon which most reliance can be placed. Some of the Hindu traditions make Sivai Singha the son of Hari Deva, others make him of another family which succeeded after an anarchy of 34 years; but in both cases the period between 1315, the supposed era of Hari Devas death, and 1322, the time of Gar Samarans capture, is too short, and the difference between it and the actual time has probably been added, to make up part of the enormous reigns of Narasingha and Ramsingha. At any rate, if the people of Gar Samaran retired to Nepal, and became the Newars, then 1322 (or 1323, as Colonel Kirkpatrick has it,) {50a} is the most probable date of the event. There is nothing improbable in the circumstance, and the doctrine of cast prevailing among the Newars is a strong confirmation of their having come from Hindustan.

It must, however, be confessed, that the Newars themselves totally deny this origin, and allege, that the only foundation for it is the resemblance between the names Newar and Aniwar. They consider themselves as the aboriginal inhabitants of the country which they now occupy, and their houses have a great resemblance to those of the Bhotiyas, or people of Thibet, as described by Captain Turner, while in many points their customs resemble those of the other tribes of the Chinese race. It must be, however, observed, that their features are not clearly marked as of that origin, and that many of them have high features, large eyes, and oval faces; but considering the manners of their women, little reliance can be put on this mark, and the truth will be best discovered by an examination of their language, of which I have deposited a copious vocabulary in the Companys library. I think, indeed, that I can trace many coincidences between it and the language of the Murmis, a tribe undoubtedly of the Chinese race, and it appears to me radically different from the Hindwi language, although religion has no doubt introduced some Sangskrita words.

A short vocabulary of this language has been given by Colonel Kirkpatrick, {50b} and may perhaps suffice to decide the language to which it has the greatest affinity. The character in which it is written is evidently derived from the Nagri of India, and will be found opposite to page 220 in Colonel Kirkpatricks Account of Nepaul.

In treating of the Newars, Colonel Kirkpatrick observes, {51} That this people differ essentially, so as to prove abundantly that they are an insulated race of men, whose origin is not to be traced to any of the nations immediately surrounding them. Now, if they came from Samaran, as he supposes, they must have been Hindus; and, if they are descendants of Thibetians, intermixed with Hindus, as I suppose, still their origin is to be derived from the nations immediately contiguous. He goes on to observe, That the Newars are of a middle size, with broad shoulders and chest, very stout limbs, round and rather flat faces, small eyes, low and somewhat spreading noses; yet he cannot agree with those who affirm, that there is in the general physiognomy of these people any striking resemblance to the Chinese features. For my part, I do not well know in what other terms the Chinese features could be better defined, than in the description of the Newars thus given by Colonel Kirkpatrick; and, for a confirmation of a considerable resemblance between the two people, I may refer to the figures given by this author opposite to pages 185 and 187, which, although called merely natives of Nepal, represent in fact Newars. In reality, if the morals of the Newar women had been more strict, I believe that the resemblance between the Chinese or Thibetians and Newars would have been complete; but since the conquest, the approach to Hindu countenance is rapidly on the increase, women in most cases giving a decided preference to rank, especially if connected with arms or religion. Until the conquest, there was probably little intermixture, except in the descendants of the governing family, which probably was of a mixed breed between a Thibetian lady and a raja of Banaras, as will be afterwards mentioned; and this family had, I believe, multiplied exceedingly, and composed a numerous and warlike gentry, which, of course, contributed largely to the propagation of the nation.

The assumption of the military dignity, and of the thread, one of its badges among the Hindus, and the title Rajput given to all the chiefs of the mountaineers, seems to have induced Colonel Kirkpatrick to suppose, that the Kshatriya tribe of India formed a large portion of the inhabitants in Nepal. Yet he had with accuracy observed, {52} that the progeny of a Newar female and one of these Kshatriyas may almost be taken for a Malay, that is, a mixed breed between people of a Chinese race with Hindus and Arabs; and farther, he accurately noticed, that illegitimate persons of the reigning family by Newar women, although he supposes their fathers to have been Rajputs, approach nearer than their mothers to the Tartars or Chinese. The reason of this, I would say, is, that the royal family are in fact Magars, a Thibetian race.

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