FRAGMENTS FROM THE STAR CITY
LONDON: SAMUEL TINSLEY, 10, SOUTHAMPTON ST., STRAND, 1873.
[The right of Translation is reserved.]
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET, AND CHARING CROSS.
The fact that there is a plurality of worlds, that, in other words, the planets of our solar system are inhabited, has been so generally maintained by modern astronomers, that it almost takes its place among the truths commonly accepted by the large body of educated persons. As two among the many works, which bear directly on the subject, it will be here sufficient to name Sir David Brewster's 'More Worlds than One, the Creed of the Philosopher and the Hope of the Christian,' and Mr. B.A. Proctor's 'Other Worlds than Ours.'
A fragmentary account of some of the ways peculiar to the inhabitants of one of these "star worlds," and of their moral and intellectual condition is contained in the following pages.
When the assertion is made that the account is derived, not from the imagination, but from an actual knowledge of the star, it will at first receive scant credence, and the reader will be at once inclined to class the fragments among those works about imaginary republics and imaginary travels which, ever since the days of Plato, have from time to time made their appearance to improve the wisdom, impose on the credulity, or satirize the follies of mankind.
Nor can the reader's anticipated want of faith be deemed other than natural; for, although tests applied daily during a period extending over nearly a lifetime have proved the source of the fragments to be such as is here represented, the Editor feels bound to say that, notwithstanding much confirmatory evidence, many years passed and many facts were communicated before all doubts were completely removed from his mind.
One great obstacle to the reader's belief that an authentic description of another world is before him will arise from the circumstance that the means by which such extraordinary experience was acquired are not included in the sphere of his knowledge, and that any attempt to explain them at present would only increase his incredulity. He would only see one enigma solved by another apparently more insoluble than itself. The Editor, therefore, would call especial attention to the practical value of the revelations here communicated, convinced as he is that they are so replete with instruction to terrestial mankind, that the difficulty of giving credence to them ought not to be augmented by premature disclosures. Ultimately satisfied as to the origin of the fragments, he entreats the reader not, indeed, to surrender, but simply to suspend his judgment until he has carefully examined them, conceiving that, apart from all external proof, they rest upon an intrinsic evidence, the force of which it will be difficult to resist. Nay, he is even of opinion that an impartial student will find it easier to believe in their planetary origin than in their emanating from an ordinary human brain. The practical value of the facts, considered apart from their source, will excuse his request not to be too hastily judged.
The people to whom the fragments relate are, it will be found, not only human, but constituents of a highly civilized and even polished society. Their notions of good and evil, of happiness and misery correspond to ours, and though they employ different means, the objects they pursue are the same with those sought by terrestrial philanthropists. Health, education, marriage, the removal of disease, the prevention of madness and of crime, the arts of government, the regulation of amusement, the efficient employment of physical forces—themes so often discussed here—have equally occupied the attention of our planetary brethren, although, as will be seen, in the results of our studies we differ not a little. This is not a story of Anthropophagi, or men whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders, which can merely excite wonder, but a record of actual men, who, widely separated from us in the ocean of space, are beings with whom we can sympathise much more than with the inhabitants of the uncivilized portions of our own globe.
The reader will now begin to understand what is meant when the Editor calls attention to the practical value of most of his communications, and invites consideration of the fragments, as suggestive of much that concerns the welfare of mankind, the question as to their source being provisionally left open. The man of science, the poet, the metaphysician, the philanthropist, the musician, the observer of manners, even the general reader who merely seeks to be amused, will, it is hoped, find something interesting in the following pages. Let all, therefore, taste the fruit and judge of its flavour, though they do not behold the tree; profit by the diamonds, though they know not how they were extracted from the mine; accept what is found to be wholesome and fortifying in the waters, though the source of the river is unknown.
Lest, in thus expatiating on the value of his communications, the Editor should be thought to have overstepped the bounds of good taste, he would have it perfectly understood that he is not speaking of his own productions, and that whatever the merit of the fragments may be, that merit does not belong to himself. He is an Editor and an Editor only; and he therefore feels himself as much at liberty to express his opinion of the contents of the following pages as the most impartial critic.
He will even admit that he is not blind to their defects and shortcomings. If the fragments had been less fragmentary, and fuller information had been offered on the various subjects which fall under consideration, he would have been better satisfied. Nevertheless, he reflects that it would be hardly reasonable to expect in facts made known under exceptional circumstances, that fulness of detail which we have a right to demand, when on our own planet we essay to make discoveries at the cost only of labour and research. He looks upon the fragments as "intellectual aerolites," which have dropped here, uninfluenced by the will of man; as varied pieces detached from the mass of facts which constitute the possessions of another planet, and rather as thrown by nature into rugged heaps than as having been symmetrically arranged by the hand of an artist. Want of unity under these circumstances is surely excusable.
One observation as to a matter of mere detail. Words, in the language of the Star, are occasionally given in letters which represent the sounds only, and will often be found to resemble words in some of our ancient and modern languages. The very name of the City "Montalluyah," to which all the fragments refer, is apparently compounded of heterogeneous roots, one of Aryan the other of Semitic origin. These seeming accidents, if such they be, must not be attributed to either carelessness or design on the part of the Editor; nor does he attempt to explain them. The reader may, if he please, account for the causes of resemblance by considering that the number of articulate sounds is limited, and that, therefore, the variety of words cannot be altogether boundless; or he may take higher ground, and assume that in whatever planet spoken, all languages have the Same Divine Origin.
In conclusion: When these revelations or others derived from the same source have succeeded in establishing a confidence between the Editor and his readers, it is more than probable that the secret of the source itself will be disclosed. That disclosure made in due season will bring to light some unprecedented, but most interesting facts, and will establish the important truth, that the soul of man is IMMATERIAL and IMMORTAL.
INTRODUCTION Page xxiii
One of the Star worlds—Strangeness of its customs—The Narrator and his aspirations—Former state of Montalluyah—Wars—Increase of population and decrease of supplies—Can man be brought to seek knowledge as ardently as money?—The Narrator's meditations, labours, and advancement—Faith
The beggar seeks admission to the Palace—The incident which brings him to the Narrator—Some account of Vyora—Appointed Chief of the Character-divers—Reflection
Maturing plans—How received by the Counsellors—Narrator's resolution—Prepares for death—His triumph—Subjects of Legislation
IV.—LIGHT FROM DARKNESS.
Secret powers in Nature—Effectually wielded by the Good only—False Prophets—Narrator carries out his plans without bloodshed—Great feature of the System—Mighty consequences—Evils forced to contribute to Good—Examples—Insects—Hippopotami—The Fever Wind—Lightning—The Sun—Seasons of Darkness—Fears of the People—Darkness changed to Light—The City radiant—Music and rejoicing
Grave duties entrusted to them—Stronghold of evils to be eradicated—Men of Genius following antipathetic occupations—Early eradication of faults and development of qualities—Visits to Schools—Defects—One routine for all characters—Neglecting minor qualities in Boys of Genius—Precept-cramming—Bad habits—Character-divers created—Sole occupation to discover Child's early tendencies—Duties distinct from those of Preceptors or Fathers of Knowledge—Germ of evils destroyed
VI.—CORRECTION OF FAULTS.
Remedies employed vary with characteristics—Absence of violent punishment—Children to be raised, not degraded—Animals not corrected by blows—Example—Pupil not corrected by the imposition of tasks—Child encouraged to regard study as a privilege—Correction effected by gentleness—Time, labour, &c., bestowed unsparingly—Even when fault seems eradicated fresh tests applied—Adult offenders—Child of genius watched with reference to superior refinement—Economy of sparing nothing in educating the future man—Lists of faults occupying attention of the Character-divers—Results—Small beginnings lead to incurable vices and disease
Secondary position of Tutors in former times—Now honoured—Aid given by the Character-divers, &c., to Narrator—Young men of special aptitude educated for the office—Their astuteness—Example—Subjects of tesselated pavements—Zolea—Early evidence of artistic talent often deceptive—Narrator's early talent indicating him as a harpist—Guided to other studies
VIII.—THE STAR CITY.
Power of the Sun—Colours and forms in the sky—Situation of Montalluyah—External World Cities—Reasons for uniting them— Peculiarities—Straight lines—Variety of colour, &c.—Subterranean seas—Great cataract and water-lifts form background of palaces and statues—Hanging bridges—Health studied—Baths—Violet streams— Trees—Birds—Artificial nests—Perfumes—Harmonious sounds—Chariot wheels and horse's hoofs noiseless—Red light—City full of animation—Recurring change of scene
IX.—THE SUSPENDED MOUNTAIN.
Elevation of tides immense—The aerial mountain—Electric agencies—Sea carries away the heart of the mountain—Receding waters leave upper part suspended—Mountain arm stretches out through the air over land below and over the sea—THE GREAT CATARACT—Upper City built on Suspended Mountain—The Middle and Lower Cities built on indent and foot of mountain—PAST CATASTROPHES—Threatened dangers—Terrible consequences—Principle of preventing evils—Stupendous work undertaken—The wonder of Montalluyah
X.—THE MOUNTAIN SUPPORTER.
Dimensions—Thickness of walls—Interior area—How utilised—Means of ascending and descending—Stages constructed at different heights to facilitate works during progress—Materials, provisions, &c., raised by electric power—HUGE HEAVY BLOCKS LIGHTENED BY ELECTRICITY—Ornamentation of the Tower—Ravine-metal—Episodes of the Narrator's reign—Ascent and descent—Great difference of atmosphere above and below—Peculiarity in Electric Telegraph—Colour of atmosphere at different heights—Animalculae and ova—Grandeur of the Mountain Supporter—-Curious effect when viewed from a distance
XI—ELECTRICITY IN MONTALLUYAH.
Important facts formerly unknown—One electricity only supposed to exist—Not then utilised for locomotion, &c.—Paucity of contrivance for collecting electricities—How the scientific men supported their theory—Like causes produce like effects—Many kinds of electricity—Means of drawing out and concentrating electricities discovered—Man, beasts, birds, &c., possess an electricity of their own—All differ—Huge fish—Docks for extracting electricity from—Electric store-house—Non-conducting pouches—The attracting electricity adapted to each body is well known—MODE OF CATCHING WILD BIRDS
Means formerly employed—Vivisection and surgical operations painless—Nerves of sensation only, affected by the luller—Energy of the functions considered essential—Pain-luller, how discovered—The Nebo bird and the child—The broken limbs and absence of pain—Discovery
Properties of optical instruments increased by electricity— CONCENTRATED LIGHT—The illuminated worm—Light attracted by the enticer-machine—Concentrated light in Music—Human voice and musical instruments—Union between the soul and perishable portions of man—Concentrated light within us—Similarity of terms applied to the brain and to vision—Strength to the intellectual powers—EXPERIMENT ON LIVING MAN—Electrical currents in brain—How agitated—Rarity of the experiments—Serious consequences to patient—Conditions imposed, and advantages secured, to him—Not allowed to marry
High rank of Physicians—Former and present duties—Periodical visitations—Microscopes—Perspiration indicating disease—Exact nature of disease not shown—Example—Ordinary appearance of perspiration—Lung disease and consumption—Lung dew—"The Scraper"—The breath
Minute divisions of brain examined by microscope—Former neglect—Early indications rarely noticed—Supposed lunatics often wiser than their keepers—An instance—The man's statements laughed at—World believe him a confirmed madman—Madness not now assumed from seeming absurdities—Thoughts formerly scoffed at, now acknowledged facts—Minute divisions of brain responding to trains of thought—Effectual remedies for earliest symptoms—Cure of developed madness—Former error which prevented cure—The disease does not exist in the overworked portion of the brain
XVI.—THE DEATH SOLACE—INSECTS.
Insects contain valuable electricities—Whole crops destroyed by them—Mode of capturing, &c.—Impurities removed by insects—The DEATH SOLACE
XVII.—INTERNAL CITIES—SUNSHINE PICTURES
Special precautions against excessive heat in the extreme season—Internal cities built in galleries—Their advantages—How light admitted—Flowers—Beauty and odours increased by electricity—Communication between the palaces in the External and Internal World—Narrator's summer-palace—The pictures representing principal events of his reign—Sun power utilised—Sunshine: how fixed on the canvas
Subjects of some of the pictures in the Narrator's "Internal World" Palace
Tendency of her education—Happy and contented—Marked difference in education of the two sexes—Beauty aided by early care—Former practices and consequences—Ravages of time—Women now lovely in age as in youth—Beauty regarded as a precious gift from Heaven—Cosmetics for its "preservation"—Wrinkles—Skin and complexion—Hands and feet—CHOOSING BY HAND—How effected—CHOOSING BY FOOT—Expedients used when hand or foot inclined to coarseness—GIRL'S DORMITORIES—Cleanliness—Separate sleeping-rooms—Reasons—Communication with night-watchers—Precautions—Mode adopted to ensure early rising— Prayer not till after repast—Reason why old custom changed—Careful discipline until marriage—Luxurious habits permitted to married ladies—Instance of the elastic "frame" cushion—The self-acting fan
XX.—CHOICE OF A HUSBAND.
Means taken to secure congenial husband—Marriage councils—Choice of husband, how arranged—Maiden's right to nominate—The thirty-one evenings—The girl, how distinguished—Gentlemen who wish their pretensions to be favourably viewed—The unwilling—Efforts of pretenders—Agitation on the thirty-first evening—How the maiden proclaims her choice—The presentation of flowers—Subsequent meeting of the parties—Betrothal—Consequence of maiden failing to declare preference—Second meeting—Third meeting rare
XXI.—THE DRESS OF SHAME—SUN COLOURS.
Trust reposed in marriage councils never abused—The dress of shame—Rich costumes of married ladies—Brilliant colours imparted by the sun—The silver-green silk—Sun silk—Women instructed in the ART OF PLEASING—Former habits of married women—Example on children—Deceit
LADY'S COSTUME—The waistcoat—Tunic—Trousers—Anklets—Trimmings— Colours—Sandals—HEAD ORNAMENTS—Soles to protect the feet—The fan—Precious stones—Turbans—Canopy—Long veils—Distinctive feature for the unmarried—Elaborate costumes allowed after marriage—GENTLEMAN'S COSTUME
XXIII.—PREPARATIONS FOR THE MARRIAGE.
The civil marriage—Purification of the bride—The hair—The tree-comb—Marriage costume—Marriage ceremony repeated after birth of each child—Religious ceremony—Suspended in case of dissensions—Efforts for reconciliation—Contingencies provided for—An instance
Very beautiful—Their names given to Stars and to Women—Flower language: long conversations carried on by means of Flowers—Instances of Flower Language—Displeasure expressed through the medium of Flowers—Instances of Flowers with meanings attached
XXV.—FLOWERS IMPROVED BY ELECTRICITY.
Mode in which nature operates—Vitality of seed—Consequence of injury—Production of leaves—Of colour—United electricities form gatherings—Important discovery—Sap, the reservoir of electricity—PROCESS FOR CHANGING FORM—PROCESS FOR CHANGING COLOUR—For giving fragrance—THE LUANIA—SUN-FORCING
XXVI.—SONG OF ADMIRATION.
(Explanation of terms used in the Song of Admiration.)
The Spangled Mountain—The reviled beauty—Slander and its promulgators—The Legend of Zacosta—Fall of her Tormentors—Happiness of the higher order of Spirits—Slander regarded with horror—Motives of the Slanderers—The King of the Air—The loving little animal—The ingenious instrument for discovering diamonds—The pet animal—The Meleeta—The Turvee Insect—Shooting Stars—Whale Electricity—The Martolooti—The Flower of Grace—The Chilarti—The Allmanyuka—The perfume of the everlasting gulf—The Hippopotamus hide—Fat of the Serpent's head—The Mestua Mountain—Wet thy feet—Stainers' fount— Water—The Mountain Supporter
XXVIII.—THE YOUNG GIRL RESTORED.
Madness not formerly recognised until violence shown—The GIRL AFFECTED WITH MONOMANIA.
XXIX.—THE LITTLE GOATHERD.
XXX.—DECORATIONS FOR AGE AND MERIT.
Worn as distinctive marks—Age entitles woman to privileges—Age regarded as an honour—Orders of the Matterode, and Mountain Supporter—Qualified decoration, &c.—ADVOCATES of the individual and of society—Privilege belonging to every woman
How ideal of beauty formerly obtained—Not equal to the actual living model—Beauty now the rule—Longevity—Beauty in old age—Summary of expedients—Value of the course adopted—Importance of care from earliest infancy—Subject of babies—Importance of little things—Maladies owing to injudicious treatment of children—March of "small" effects—Precautions now taken
Value of minute precautions—Diseases caused by want of healthy exercises—Accidents to the infant—Blows on the head—The inventions of Drahna—The four sets of machines—The TEETH—The eye—The nostrils—The tongue—Air, &c.
An essential part of the boys' education—Formerly same exercises for all—Now adapted to physical organization—Medical man observes effects—The heat of the brain a test—Bathing—Leaping—TREE-EARTH BATHS—Qualities of the earth about various trees—The oak, the weeping-willow, elm, horse-chestnut, &c.
XXXIV.—THE AMUSEMENT GALLERY.
Description—Girls' amusement gallery—Boys—Different natures and characters revealed—The Character-divers
For Children are short—Services adapted to different ages—Evils attendant on former system—Present course—Subjects of Sermons— Children encouraged in affection to Parents, &c.—Preacher assisted by method of education—Objections to Parrot-like repetitions
XXXVI.—FLOCKS AND HERDS.
Care taken of animals—Change of pasture—Irrigation—Causes of diseases formerly prevalent—Shade—Illness—Great increase of flocks and herds—THE MALE ONLY USED FOR FOOD—Consequences of killing the mother—In slaughtering, all painful process avoided—Mode adopted—Wholesomeness of meat tested by analyzation of blood—PROTECTION OF MEAT FROM INSECTS—Protective Infusion—CRUELTY TO ANIMALS—Punishment
Determination to discover the germ of disease—The people afflicted with a painful malady—Children not attacked—Hypothesis—Stimulating spices—Anatomical examination—Decree forbidding use of favourite condiments—The spices collected—Temporary substitute provided—Meditation and prayer for help—The grafting and the eventual result— Incomplete—The cream-lemon vegetable—Mode of proceeding—The "Insertion"—The root-oil—The little white bud—The anxious watching—The basket and its contents—The testing—Qualities of the Allmanyuka—The people's praise—The Tootmanyoso's gratitude—Results different from any before obtained—Description
Made from leaves of trees—Peculiarities—Process of manufacture— Healthful fragrance—Colour—"Natural" paper—GOLDEN COLOURED PAPER—Its connection with the Allmanyuka—The incident which led to its discovery
Consumption—Why generally beyond cure—Erroneous views—The patient—Examination by the doctors—Their mistake—Narrator's belief—Potion administered—Death—Cause discovered—Mode of detecting and curing the disease in its germ—Assemblage of the multitude—Episode of the mother and the child—The sequel
The principal musical instrument—Description—Four sets of chords—Strings of electricity—Marvellous variation and depression of the notes—Echoes and responses—Diapason changed to an extraordinary extent—Different characters of sound produced—Examples—Harp language; how taught—Accompaniments—Harp beautiful as a work of sculptural art—Movement of birds, flowers, and foliage, and exhalation of perfume in accord with the music—How idea was suggested
Amusements enjoined—Learned men prone to seclusion—Wisdom of requiring studious men to cultivate social relations questioned—Twenty men selected for the experiment—Result—The works of the "Seclusionists" and of the "Society-Sympathisers"—The MONOMANIAC—His eccentricities and cure—Convert to the Narrator's views
Arenas—Electricity—Why arenas open to the sky—Games exhibited— Beautiful effects produced—MAN and HORSE—The FLYING CHILDREN—WILL—DEAF AND DUMB CHILD—The MONKEYS—Tragic Drama—Races and public games—Parties for children—Labouring people—The aged—Districts—The middle-aged—INTRODUCTION of strangers—Ceremony observed—ATTRACTING-MACHINE
Peculiar form and construction—Former shape—Effective model sought—"Swan Ships"—Dangers of navigation—Ship sometimes submerged—Sufferings of the passengers for want of air—Remedy—The swan's head—Captain's quarters—Vessels propelled by electric power—Machinery—Steering and stoppage of the vessel—TIMBER FOR SHIPS—How seasoned—How protected against insects in every part—The COMPASS—The ANCHOR—Peculiarity of its formation: how let out and hauled in—The Bison ropes
XLIV.—PICTURES FROM WATER.
Interesting discoveries—Microscopic pictures transmitted from a distance—Picture made of a landscape and persons afar off—Picture of swan-vessels and passengers—How effected—Bottom of the sea rendered visible
Invaluable—Antipathy to human beings—Hippopotamus' hide—Impervious to water—Resistance to destroying forces—All parts of the animal utilised—Parts subservient to the beautiful—Hippopotamus' land—Numerous herds—Their keepers—How attired—The herb antipathetic to hippopotami—How discovered—Experiment with the young beast—Antipathetic solution keeps animals away from cities—They love fresh-water rivers—The Aoe waters prejudicial to man—Mode of rearing Hippopotami—Precautions adopted—Why they have not been able to rear animal in Western Europe—Recommendations—Habits of the animal—The hippopotami—dance—How the young one is separated from the mother—How a hippopotamus is removed from the herd—The food of the hippopotamus in general
The Serpent—The Boa—Professors to examine medicinal and other properties—Modes of capturing wild beasts—Huntsmen—The iron-work net—The watch-hut—The bait—Dead animals not allowed in the city—Habits of the tiger—THE TIGER AND THE CHILD—THE UNICORN
The palace—Communication with auxiliary tower—Observatory—STAR INSTRUMENT constructed—Secrets revealed—Inhabitants and atmospheres of the stars differ—Invisible beings—The SUN-OCEAN, Mountains, and Continents—Winds—Attracted by the heat—Brilliancy increased by reflection—Every planet has electricity sympathetic or antipathetic—Different appearance in Montalluyah—Fixed stars—Comets—Overflowings of the waters—Waters in space—Conclusion
By introducing the reader to "Another World," the Editor does not lead him into a region to which the Earth has no affinity. The Planet to which the following fragments refer not only belongs to the same solar system as our own, but also presents like physical aspects. In it, as here, are to be found land and water—mountains, rivers, seas, lakes, hills, valleys, ravines, cataracts alternating with each other; though in consequence of more potent electrical agencies the contrasts between these various objects are frequently abrupt and decided to a degree to which we can here offer no comparison. The other world about to be described is, in fact, essentially another Earth—widely differing, indeed, from ours in its details, but still subjected to the same natural laws. Its inhabitants, like devout persons here, look forward with reverent feeling towards the abode of the blest. To a purely spiritual or angelic region these fragments do not relate.
The name of "Montalluyah," which more immediately belongs to the chief city in the planet, is not incorrectly extended so as to include the entire sphere. This new world is not made up of separate countries and mutually independent states like those of the Earth, but, forming one kingdom, is governed by one supreme Ruler, assisted by twelve kings inferior to him in rank and power.
The speaker in the fragments (which may almost be said to take the form of an autobiography) was the son of one of the twelve kings, who by his genius and worth became "Tootmanyoso," or supreme Ruler. In the planet his name is mentioned with even more reverence than, by different peoples, is paid to that of Zoroaster, Solon, Lycurgus, or Alfred; but he has this peculiarity that he does not fade, like many other great legislators, into mythical indistinctness, but is himself the exponent of his own polity.
It must not, however, be supposed that this great legislator was the first to rescue his world from mere barbarism. The founder of civilization in Montalluyah seems to have been a very ancient sage named Elikoia, to whom brief reference is made in the following pages. Prior to the reign of our Tootmanyoso the people had passed through various stages of civilization, under the guidance of many wise and good men. Still the polity was defective, for the country remained subject to crime, misery, and disease.
The proverb that "Prevention is better than cure," to which everybody gives unhesitating assent, but which is often forgotten in practice, lies at the root of most of the reforms, both moral and physical, effected by the Tootmanyoso. The policy of prevention—that is, of destroying maladies of mind and body in the germ, before they had been allowed to spread their poison—was one of his leading principles. Under his influence, the physicians of Montalluyah made it less their duty to cure than to prevent disease, therein differing widely from our practitioners, who are not usually called to exercise their skill until a malady has been developed, and has perhaps assumed large proportions.
Under his influence likewise it was thought better to diminish moral evil by extirpating faults in the child, rather than by punishing crimes in the man.
Another prominent feature in the polity of the great Legislator of Montalluyah is the occupation of every person in the intellectual or physical pursuit for which he has been fitted by natural qualifications, developed and fortified by culture. Nobility, position, and wealth are made to depend on merit alone, ascertained by a mechanism which neither favouritism, ignorance, nor accident can affect. These laws may for an instant seem to partake of a democratic tinge; but it will be clearly perceived that the regulations concerning the institutions of property and marriage are diametrically opposite to those which have rendered the theories of Communists so generally hateful.
Many of the Tootmanyoso's reforms resulted from an application of extraordinary scientific discoveries to the purposes of life. Under the law which determined that the "right man" should, in the most extensive sense of the phrase, always be in the "right place," discoveries were made of which the most acute investigators of earlier times had had no conception, and the newly-acquired ability of wielding electrical, mechanical, and other forces had momentous political consequences. Armed with powers previously unknown, the Tootmanyoso found comparatively easy the successive steps towards the happiness and well-being of his world, where a series of insuperable obstacles would have been presented to the wisest of his predecessors.
Of the physical agencies mentioned in the following pages, that of electricity will be found especially prominent. Both the knowledge and the manipulation of electricity have assumed in Montalluyah proportions far beyond those known to us. The electric fluid is there employed for the most various purposes: for locomotion, for lightening heavy bodies, for increasing the power of optical instruments, for the detection and eradication of the germs of disease, for increasing the efficiency of musical instruments—in a word, for the advancement of the world in all that belongs to morality, science, and art.
To some readers the plural form, "Electricities," which frequently appears in the following pages, might seem a strange innovation. The Editor therefore states, by way of anticipation, that in certain important points the electrical science of Montalluyah differs from, if it is not opposed to, some of the principles accepted here. In Montalluyah it is an ascertained fact that everything organic or inorganic possesses an electricity of its own, each kind differing from the others in one or more important properties. Glimmerings of the progress effected in electricity and other sciences, including the knowledge and application of Sun-power, may be deduced from the facts contained in the fragments. Still, those glimmerings are but as scattered rays of light in the horizon, which, in the belief of the Editor, are mere precursors of other revelations at least equally interesting. It may be said generally that by the fragments here given, showing how the Narrator, uniting in his own person all the highest qualities of a Legislator and a Ruler, occupied himself with the discovery and application of means for the reduction of evils to their smallest possible proportions, not only giving new laws of wondrous grandeur and beauty, but eventually rendering compliance with them easy and even delightful—that by these fragments a truly stupendous polity is but partially revealed.
The Editor has reason to believe, though it cannot be stated with confidence, that Montalluyah is the world known to us as the planet Mars. Even in the following pages indications will be found of physical features harmonizing with observations made here on that planet. On the other hand, there is the seeming objection, that whereas Mars is more distant than the Earth from the Sun, the Sun appears much smaller, and its heat and light are less intense, on the Earth than in Montalluyah. These facts would, in the first instance, seem to indicate, not a longer, but a shorter distance of Montalluyah from the central luminary, and to point rather to Venus or Mercury than to Mars. But, according to the scientific theories of Montalluyah, the amount of light and heat received from the Sun, and the aspect of that luminary, are governed, not so much by proximity, as by the nature and electricity of the recipient planet and its surrounding atmosphere. In illustration of this point the fact is stated in one of the fragments, that in Montalluyah the power of the telescope is regulated, not by the distance, but by the attractive or repulsive electricity of the planet under observation, and that more power is often required to view a nearer planet than one which is far more distant.
The question as to which of the laws and customs of Montalluyah can be beneficially imitated, wholly or partially, on our Earth, and which of them merely pertain to physical accidents or to a peculiar state of society, will afford matter for reflection. It must not be supposed that, by relating the facts revealed to him, the Editor would recommend all the laws which they suggest as capable of imitation here. Although they are based on the principle of securing happiness to the community, more especially to its worthiest members, he would no more think of recommending them for adoption in their entirety than of upholding the "Swan-Ship" of Montalluyah as a model for the steamers that cross the Atlantic. Nevertheless, he trusts that his record of the "regulations" of "Another World," even where they do not admit of imitation, may serve to call attention to the evils which they were intended to remedy in Montalluyah, and which certainly nourish in all their bad luxuriance here.
"You forsake this earthly form which goes to dust, but you still live on for ever and ever....
"This life is but the shadow of what your future lives will be."
The Heavens are studded with stars, works of an Almighty Creator; their pale rays give but a feeble indication of the glorious brightness of worlds, many peopled by beings of a beauty, goodness, and power excelling all that human understanding can conceive.
By the grace of Him whose might embraces the universe, I will speak of a star where the inhabitants are formed like the people of the Earth, and as the dawn of day gradually discloses earth's marvellous beauties, so shall my revelations throw light on the customs of that star-world for whose well-being I worked with devoted love.
Some of my world's ways will appear strange to you. Remember that they belong to another planet, another country, another people, so that like wise travellers in a distant land, you should for a time lull your own world's prejudice, and accompany me in thought to Montalluyah, for such is the name of the city where I lived.
I was the son of one of the twelve kings called Tshialosoli, rulers of the country.
These Tshialosoli are less powerful than kings in your world, there being a ruler with full power over them and the whole State, who is called in our language "Tootmanyoso," or "The Father of the World."
All my youthful zeal and strength were applied to study and deep reflection. The most able men were appointed to superintend my education. I outstripped my masters.
The extent of my knowledge, judgment, and foresight filled with wonder the most learned and powerful in the land. Their approving praise did but encourage me onwards in the search for knowledge.
People related everywhere how wondrous were the gifts of the heaven favoured student.
Early inspired by the desire to benefit my fellow-creatures, I often asked myself why, in a world teeming with blessings, so much suffering existed? and why endless riches in the seas, in the air, in the earth, remained unworked as though they did not exist for the use of man?
At that time the state of civilization and knowledge in Montalluyah was in many respects not unlike that of the most civilized countries of your world. The religion of fire had long been replaced by the worship of the living God, and morality and goodness were respected by most, preached by many, and practised by a few.
Wars were waged with relentless cruelty by brother against brother, bad passions ruled, the rich oppressed the poor, and became in turn the victims of their own excesses, and vice, disease, and misery were rampant throughout the land.
We had money of various metals and precious stones. The greed to possess money was the cause of great crimes and loss of power. I asked myself whether men could not be brought to seek knowledge and goodness as ardently as they sought money?
I could not then answer the question, but saw that, could this be done, the boundaries of intelligence being everywhere extended, the discovery of never-ending fructifying resources would follow, with the means also of multiplying those already known.
Notwithstanding wars and pestilence, the numbers of our people had largely increased, whilst our stocks had seriously diminished, and scarcity and dearth afflicted my world.
The increasing numbers of the population would, I saw, become a means of plenty, by supplying additional numbers and power to the phalanx of nature's workmen, each, with redoubled skill fitly applied, joyfully labouring in his sphere to create abundance and secure the general well-being.
I applied myself with unwavering perseverance to the study of humanity and the arts of government, and soon found that like aspirations had ruled many wise and good men in the different ages of my planet. I applied myself to the knowledge of their great wisdom and many precepts, and sought to discover why, notwithstanding the truthfulness and beauty of the golden lessons of these sages, and the eloquence and persuasion of their words, corruption and ruin still so largely prevailed.
Not content with meditating on what had been done and written, I attended the schools, observed the children's ways, and the mode of educating and rearing the husbandmen of Nature's vineyard. I visited the hospitals for the sick, and the theatres of anatomy. I examined into the causes of disease, and the effects of the existing remedies. I visited the prisons, and studied the results of punishment and the causes of crime. I visited the poor in their hovels, the rich in their palaces; I observed mankind in various phases, and as it were dissected men's minds and passions. I saw everywhere never-ending power in man and nature recklessly wasted or turned against the community.
My labours were rewarded by frequent advancement. Honours did but stimulate me to further exertions; the greater I became the more I applied myself, ever thirsting for knowledge and the power of doing good, till at length, after passing the severest tests, I became Tootmanyoso (Father of the World), and head of the State.
Then indeed my real labours began. Light from Heaven had enabled me to see the causes of the evils afflicting my planet. I had now to apply remedies for changing the poisoned torrents into sources of fertility, refreshment, and delight.
The dangers and obstructions before me were immense. I felt that no unaided mortal power could overcome them; but I was encouraged to believe that, "like a chariot at full speed, which turns a narrow and dangerous corner, so would I pass over my mountains of difficulty, and run free in the wide space beyond."
I resolved with all the concentrated ardour of my soul to persevere.
Day by day I applied myself to the work, and invoked the aid of my Creator.
My harp was my constant companion. I was a great harpist; and when gratitude for some new light choked my utterance, I made the harp speak in accents and in language that gave fresh inspiration to my soul.
[Footnote 1: Musical sounds in Montalluyah have a meaning as easily understood as spoken words. Our harp is different to yours, and will be described hereafter.]
"The humble and the proud are equally subject to the decrees of Heaven; and often one is raised and the other brought low."
The system of education which I early inaugurated soon gave to my hand men of wondrous intelligence, fervid and eloquent emissaries, having at heart the success of my doctrines.
These men, themselves convinced, and earnest to convince others, I sent in all directions to prepare the people, and to discover genius and intelligence under whatever garb concealed, for I had determined that all should be encouraged to use their powers for their own and the general good, and be advanced accordingly.
Many things had happened to strengthen this, my early resolve. One incident I will now relate.
A beggar made many attempts to gain admission to my palace, but was turned away with blows; his prayers that he might speak with me were received with derision,—he was looked upon as a madman, and not allowed to pass the outer gate.
This same beggar—Vyora, by name,—saved the life of a little boy, the child of one of my leading men called Usheemee, "Men of truth."
The child would have been crushed to death under the wheels of a chariot, moved by electricity and drawn by fleet horses, had not this same beggar rushed forward, regardless of peril, and saved the boy.
[Footnote 1: The beauty of our horses, the desire that the chariots should not be cumbersome, and the steep hills everywhere in Montalluyah, are the reasons why electricity is not used alone. When the horses stop, the electric action is suspended, and the momentum is neutralized simultaneously by a governor or regulator.]
The man refused money, and for his sole reward requested that he might be brought into my presence. The father told me of this, which seemed to him the more strange inasmuch as the petitioner refused to say what he required of me.
When brought before me, I asked Vyora what he sought? He replied that his whole desire, his soul's longing, was to be appointed a teacher, that he might instruct youth, and see little children grow wiser around him.
I regarded the man attentively, and put many searching questions. He answered all in a remarkable way, and gave proofs of intellect, knowledge, and perception beyond the masters who had passed through the required ordeals, and was so gentle and modest withal, that it was delightful to speak with him.
The father of Vyora had possessed wealth, but from the cruelty and oppression of an enemy mightier than he, had lost both fortune and life, and at his death left a family dependent on charity.
The widow, a woman of remarkable gifts and keen sensibilities, prostrated by grief, died soon after, carried off suddenly by a disease called, "Karni ferola," "Absorption of the vitality,"  which at that time baffled the skill of the physicians, who indeed had seldom suspected its presence till the disease was beyond cure.
[Footnote 1: Answering to "consumption;" this disease is now detected and cured in its germ.]
Vyora, himself an emaciated boy, unfitted for physical labour, was the eldest of many brothers and sisters, who looked up to him in their hunger. He was driven to beg their food.
After the poor man had passed easily all the ordeals, I appointed him "a Character-Diver," to discover the qualities and detect the faults of little children, and raised him from indigence to affluence.
[Footnote 2: See p. 19.]
The ability, industry, and wisdom of the man, and the good he did were beyond all praise, and I soon appointed him head of all the Character-Divers in Montalluyah.
This incident, with many others, engaged my most serious reflection. But for an accident, the powers of a truly superior mind would have been lost to humanity! Vyora was but the type of numbers, evidencing how capriciously wealth and honours were then distributed.
"Go onward! lose not faith. Let the goodness of God support you, and the beauty and fruitfulness of the work cheer you; and when you are blest with success forget not the source whence all blessings come."
Several years passed before my plans were matured. I reduced all to writing. On one side of the page I noted my resolutions, with the means of carrying them out; on the other side, every objection that could be raised: on a third page I wrote down the answers. Every objection was invited, every difficulty anticipated, and every detail thoroughly weighed; nothing was thought too great or too insignificant.
I submitted the whole to my wisest councillors, and encouraged them to speak their inmost thoughts. They were lost in admiration, but entreated me to abandon my design. My life, they said, would be the penalty were I to attempt to carry out any part of my projects.
Some said that the design would be beautiful as the subject of a poem— as the aspiration of a great mind to arrive at an ideal perfection, which could not however be realised until evil itself had ceased to exist. That to attempt to move the Mestua Mountain would be a task not less hopeless: that I might as well endeavour to walk up our great Cataract without being engulfed in the sea of foaming waters! Not one offered encouragement to proceed with the good work.
[Footnote 1: Supposed to be the largest and firmest of mountains, which, since its first upheaving, has resisted the inroads of our mighty seas, as well as the most violent electrical disturbances of our world.]
[Footnote 2: See p. 44.]
Neither their arguments nor their prayers deterred me. I proceeded cautiously, but with a resolution that feared not death.
Aware, however, of the deadly peril besetting me, I selected twelve men, remarkable for wisdom in council and energy in action, on each of whom in succession the authority should devolve if I were cut off. I initiated them into my plans, and thus hoped that one devoted man would always be ready to advance the good work.
Whilst providing for my death, I took measures for protecting my life against any sudden outburst of fury. I turned my palace into a fortress, that I might not be cut off in a moment of sudden unreasoning wrath, that myself and my adherents might not be scoffed at as madmen, and my plans for the good of all retarded, if not wholly frustrated. These motives I proclaimed to the people.
The opposing obstacles were stupendous. I braved death in every shape. I passed one mighty peril only to meet another more formidable, but fearlessly stood every trial, and did not hesitate to act where danger was greatest. Nothing appalled me. I never faltered from my resolves, and after years of mighty struggles, my triumph was complete. I was blessed and adored by all the people, small and great, and my name will live in Montalluyah through all generations.
I gave Laws, and indicated the precautions to be taken to secure their observance. I initiated discoveries. Inexhaustible stores of abundance were called into existence, enriching the poor and making the rich happy in their possessions. And the eventual result of the organization I completed was the removal of the incentives to war, strife, avarice and other evils, the triumph of good, and the moral and material well-being of the community.
Amongst the many subjects to which I successfully devoted my attention were:
The care and protection of Woman, the development of her capabilities and graces, the preservation and increase of her beauty, Marriage and its incidents.
The birth, growth, and education of the future Man and of the Mother of Men; the enlarging and ennobling the moral and intellectual powers.
Preservation of health—prevention and cure of disease—prolongation of Life, and augmentation of the faculties of appreciation and enjoyment.
The increase of our flocks and herds, and of other sources of supply for the food of man. The discovery and creation of new means of sustenance and the amelioration of the old.
The discovery of the properties of birds, beasts, fishes, insects, reptiles, and creeping things, and their application to the service of man.
The invention of new instruments, the enlargement of the powers of those already known, the development of electrical and mechanical powers, and the subjecting the workings of nature to the uses of man.
The care and protection in health and in sickness of the lower orders, and of those whom nature had not qualified to take care of themselves.
Occupation for all, each according to his capabilities and the bent of his genius, as ascertained and developed by education.
The government of the country; the enlargement and improvement of the cities with a view to the health, comfort, and progressive elevation of the community.
LIGHT FROM DARKNESS.
"Let the mighty works of God stimulate all to industry."
My task at first seemed never-ending; but good is ever fruitful, and each conquest aided every subsequent effort.
I was greatly assisted in my progress by the knowledge of powers in nature of wondrous value, but permanently effective for good only; secrets to be entrusted to those alone whose goodness, discipline, and self-knowledge enable them to stand firmly against the varied attacks of temptation, and rise above the motives by which men are ordinarily ruled, the chosen High Priests of the Science who would never use for evil purposes the secrets imparted.
Similar powers have been exercised for good in different ages of your planet, but the mighty trust having become known to weak minds was sadly abused, the charm was thus broken and the secret lost; for, when the knowledge of man exceeds certain limits, his power, like that of good angels, can exist only while linked with noble aspirations.
The false prophets who used the dying embers of occult science for vile purposes have been properly looked upon with horror as delegates of evil; for the death-struggle of the expiring secret had wrought great mischief on the earth.
The power which had been entrusted to me was exercised for the good of my planet, and aided me in consummating my plans without bloodshed; those who were deaf to words yielded to influences whose depths could not be fathomed by ordinary vision.
In the system I founded, every one—his natural powers disciplined to that end—is occupied in the pursuit adapted to his genius and inclination, ascertained by ever vigilant and scrutinising observation, and tests ofttimes repeated during his early and later career.
These tests are applied in a variety of forms, and by different examiners, at different times; and there are so many checks and counterchecks, that the boy is effectually protected against the now scarcely possible ignorance or favouritism of "the knowledge testers," and even against himself.
Every one having the occupation most congenial to him, all worked cheerfully in their pursuits; and I was soon aided by a never-ending phalanx of great men. The progress of science was marvellous, for as soon as the impeding obstacles were removed, and we allowed her to be wooed by the lovers of her predilection, Nature seemed to lend herself eagerly to the advances of her votaries.
The precept exhorting all to industry stood at the head of this portion of my laws, but the lesson was no longer needed.
I was indeed ofttimes obliged to exhort to recreations and amusements, and to turn many—particularly men of genius—from the too incessant pursuit of their labours of love.
I set an example in my own person, for I was a frequent attendant at the public games and diversions.
One discovery was pregnant with another; invention followed invention almost in geometrical progression; the secrets of nature were disclosed; and power, being wielded only by men intent on good, disease and crime were soon reduced to almost imperceptible proportions. Wisdom and joy ruled where before folly and misery prevailed, and towards the end of my reign the happiness of Montalluyah was more like the joys of a celestial star than of a planet inhabited by mortal beings.
When the causes of affliction themselves could not be removed, they were often made to contribute to my world's well-being.
The myriads of insects that formerly ravaged our fields are now intercepted in their work of destruction, their properties having been discovered and applied to purposes redundant with good.
[Footnote 1: See p. 76.]
The hippopotami, who in earlier ages were looked upon as the incarnate enemy of mankind, formerly overran the country, trampling down vegetation, and attacking man and beast. These creatures are now dominated, and their breed is encouraged, for they have become the most valuable of our wild beasts, the hide, fat, and nearly every part of the carcase being applied to very many purposes of the highest utility to my people.
[Footnote 1: See p. 279.]
The advent of "the fever wind," which formerly blew disease amongst the people, now conduces to the healthfulness of those it would otherwise lay low.
The lightning, formerly destructive, impelled—as was told in our legendary lore—by the anger of the Fire God, is rendered innocuous, and collected for use.
[Footnote 2: See Electricity, p. 54.]
The sun's scorching force is compelled to minister to our delights, to assist in our arts and manufactures, to supply a power which cannot otherwise be obtained, and even to protect us from the sometimes too dangerous influence of his own rays.
The sunlight is powerful in our world beyond anything in your Indian or African climates; even the shades are not black, but of a reddish hue.
The sun, going down, leaves a red light, so that, except when at night this is completely shut out from the houses, there is ordinarily no darkness in your sense of the word.
At certain times, however, Montalluyah, both by day and night, is overspread with thick darkness. Formerly, during this visitation, no man could see his neighbour; fear seized the people. They believed it to be the reign of bad spirits, and so it seemed; few dared venture from their houses even to obtain food, and numbers died from terror and exhaustion.
Light is now made to displace darkness, and joyfulness to take the place of mourning.
My scientific men discovered a means by which the causes that produced the darkness are now used to remedy its inconveniences.
The City is made gloriously radiant. Forms of trees, birds, vases of flowers and fruit, fountains, and other designs of many tints and great beauty are transparent with light, rendered more beautiful by combination with a peculiar electricity emitted by the earth—an electricity which, be it observed, is the cause of the darkness.
The very birds by their warbling seem to greet the change, and the trees and flowers emit a more delicious perfume.
There is music and rejoicing everywhere in the City. Many of the electrical amusements provided appear grander from the contrast with the darkness they are made to displace—a contrast scarcely greater than that depicted by our "Nature Delineators" when, in allegory, they paint the present contrasted with past times; the later years of my reign contrasted with the beginning.
"Let none but skilful workmen elaborate precious material."
Think not that the truly great Vyora was but little honoured by being appointed to an office connected with little children.
[Footnote 1: Ante, p. 8.]
The character-divers were entrusted by me with grave duties, on the proper discharge of which depended the enduring success of my polity.
The education of the young of both sexes engaged from the first my deepest study, for I had early convinced myself that the many evils to be eradicated had their stronghold in the mode in which education had been conducted, and soon after the commencement of my reign I put into execution a portion of my laws for making education a powerful lever in the regeneration of my world.
Men of genius had been compelled by ignorance or driven by necessity to follow occupations for which they were not fitted, and which they, indeed, often loathed; the really valuable tendencies of these men, bent in an opposite direction, were allowed to run to waste, or perhaps be used to the injury and destruction of others.
I felt that to do justice to all and effect good incalculable, evil tendencies must be destroyed in their birth, the germs of the imperfections and crimes of the man, detected and eradicated in the child; whilst valuable qualities and good tendencies must be searched out, and effective means devised for their healthful development.
The most ordinary men, those even who would otherwise be swayed by gross passions, would become contented workmen in the cause of good when occupied with pursuits for which nature and education had fitted them; whilst the power and works of men of genius would be many times increased and multiplied if their education were adapted to strengthen and develop their talents, eradicate their faults, and generate auxiliary excellencies.
But how could all this be effected if the first step to so desirable an end were wanting?
In my visits to the schools I had been struck with the fact that little account was taken of the characters of children,—their qualifications and natural tendencies physical or mental: the attempt was to force the boy to the system, not to adapt the system to the boy.
One routine existed for all pupils, whether for the inculcation of the love of study or for the correction of faults. The earnest and passionate nature was treated in the same way as the cold and phlegmatic; the boy of genius or talent, as the dullard; the one who loved, as he who disliked, or had a tendency to dislike, study; the weakly, as the strong. They were all driven together like a flock of sheep, with scarcely any regard to individual capabilities, bent of genius, or physical constitution, which indeed little effort, and that ill-directed, had been made to discover.
I had observed, also, boys with the germs of great genius, who, for want of some minor quality, were rejected and perhaps placed in some lower division, humiliated and discouraged, although with care the deficient quality could have been supplied. The want of this perhaps would make the boy a recruit to the ranks of evil, or at least unfit him, when a man, for the real business of life. It was the small bolt wanting to enable the machine to do its work properly.
I saw the sad consequences of all this mismanagement.
Many precepts, beautiful indeed in intention, were crammed into the pupil, the process being repeated until they often became irksome, and he was expected to become moral and religious. I saw that precepts were of little use unless those whom they were meant to benefit were educated, fortified, and disciplined in the practical means of observing them.
It was at that time painful to see children, with many good natural tendencies, leave school with bad habits, and vices so marked and developed, that even the exertions of the most skilful physicians, the discourses of the most learned of our clergy, failed to effect a cure.
The first thing necessary was to devise effective—it may be said unerring—means to search out the characters and dispositions of children.
I created the office of "character-divers," and selected for the discharge of its duties eminent men of great sagacity and gentleness, skilled in the knowledge of the mind and heart, their sole occupation being to discover the qualities, tendencies, and incipient faults of children, and act accordingly; to dive, as it were, into the secret imaginings of the child; to detect the early germ of evil, and note the presence of good; to indicate measures for eradicating the one and developing the other.
These character—divers, called in our language "Djarke," are distinct from the masters, called "Zicche," or fathers of knowledge, able men, who have charge of the boys' studies.
The qualities which enable a preceptor to impart literary and scientific knowledge differ widely from those fitted for searching out, discriminating and correcting faults of character, interpreting the real qualities that nature has implanted in the youthful aspirant, and devising the measures to be taken for correction or development.
Even if the necessary qualities for both duties were united in one master, there would be many objections to the duties being entrusted to the same person.
The character-divers are as it were moral physicians, skilled in the detection and cure of the hidden germs of mental maladies; for, as you will see hereafter, I was not content to wait till a disease, whether of the mind or body, had developed itself, spreading contagious poison through the veins and arteries of society, and propagating evil without end; the germ was destroyed before it had acquired force to injure.
In our planet neither the faults nor the good qualities of children show themselves in the same way; the indications vary in each child according to his temperament and the circumstances in which he may be placed. Faults and qualities are often of a kind seemingly opposed to what they actually demonstrate to the character-diver—particularly in children endowed with genius.
Fair and even beautiful outcroppings are sometimes indications of noxious weeds hidden below the surface. Weeds are not unfrequently born from the very richness and exuberance of the soil, whilst many a dark and seemingly sterile stem conceals the embryo of fruit and flowers which a genial sunshine will call into life and beauty.
These and other considerations demand great—almost constant—attention on the part of the Djarke.
Another reason for separating the two offices of fathers of knowledge and character-divers is that the child's peculiarities are generally shown out of school-hours. Hence, for the purpose of detecting or tracing their real cause, and suggesting the remedy, the character-diver is often obliged to enter into terms of intimacy with the children, particularly those of tender age, to obtain their confidence, perhaps to be their playmate and friend, that the little ones may be at their ease, conceal nothing, and almost look upon him as they would upon some tame animal.
The younger children with us require more watchfulness and skill in their treatment than those of maturer age. The defects of the young, like incipient disease, are less obvious, and their intelligence is less developed.
CORRECTION OF FAULTS.
"Let the remedies employed be adapted to the complaint and to the constitution of the patient, and be careful that in curing one disease you do not sow the seeds of another more dangerous."
One of the duties of the character-divers is to suggest, and often to carry out, the measures for curing the child, for in our planet the mode of correcting faults is a matter of great solicitude, lest the means adopted, instead of checking and eradicating, tend to confirm and develop the evil tendency, or, it may be, implant other evils more fatal than those eradicated.
The remedies employed for curing the boy's faults vary with his temperament and general characteristics. The same fault would be treated very differently in the stupid and in the intelligent boy. Where there was difficulty of impression, the labour would be like working on stone, whilst the lightest touch and mildest measures will often suffice with the intelligent.
The remedies vary again with the kind, degree, and cause of the fault: take for instance the ordinary fault of laziness. This would be treated very differently when it arose from mental defects—from a tendency to love other things, great or grovelling, or from a sluggish or overactive digestion.
I may here mention that a general feature in the correction of faults is the absence of violent punishment. We wish to raise and not degrade our children, and perhaps implant the seeds of cruelty. We do not correct even our animals by blows. Horses, for instance, are never struck. Whips, with a small thong at the ends, are used only to flourish and to make sounds which the horse knows, but they are not used to strike the animal. Other modes are employed for curing viciousness, each according to the nature of the vice. In the case of a kicking horse, he is placed in a machine which is closed on him, the machine being so constructed that when shut it effectually prevents the animal moving, and he is kept there in the same position for hours. If, when taken out, he again kicks he is placed back again immediately. The process is repeated when necessary over and over again, until the very sight of the machine will completely cow the animal, and he is effectually cured.
The laws are very severe against those who would ill-treat an animal, but there is now no need to put them in force.
We never punish by the imposition of tasks, our aim being to inculcate the love of study, and encourage the child to regard his work as a favour and a privilege. On the contrary we now punish the student rather by taking away the old than by imposing new school work; and this is so effected that the boy, though at first delighted, soon thirsts to resume his studies.
In many cases the pupil is not allowed even to know that he is punished,—i.e., why the discipline is changed,—lest he should become attached to a fault for which he has suffered and, as it were, paid dearly; lest, too, the excitement of eluding detection should make it pleasurable to transgress when the immediate pressure is removed, and he should thus become schooled in untruthfulness and deceit.
The character-divers generally effect the child's correction by gentleness, and eventually bringing him to loathe the bad and love the good. Time, labour, and attention are bestowed unsparingly, and, however small the germ, the evil tendency is never left until, when this is possible, it is completely eradicated. In certain cases, where the footprint of nature is too firmly impressed, the efforts are continued until other and opposing qualities have been developed, and the moral patient has acquired such control over himself as to be able, in moments of temptation and impulse, to dominate the disturbing propensity.
Even after the fault seems to have been eradicated, the patient is for some time subjected to various tests and temptations before he is pronounced cured. We do not trust to superficial appearances.
Similar precautions were taken in the cure of adult offenders against the laws, but as soon as my plans had time to operate, offences by adults were of rare occurrence.
When a child gives evidence of remarkable genius, he is watched with more than jealous care, with a view to his superior refinement, and other qualities which we like to see in harmony. We do not like to see, as it were, a garment made partly of rich brocade and partly of common material.
The character-divers, too, are greatly assisted in their observations by an establishment attached to each school called "The Amusement Gallery," in which after a certain time the bent of the child, his versatility, capriciousness, constancy of purpose, and other qualities and defects are shown in his selection and continued or interrupted pursuit of any particular occupation or amusement.
It is scarcely possible to overrate the importance of acting with judgment towards children.
From the smallest beginnings, incurable defects of mind and permanent disease of body will gather strength, grow and obtain the mastery, till they carry off the sufferer, or implant vices that, like evil spirits, will torture the victim during his life's career.
Nothing is spared in the education of the future man and mother of men. In the child is seen the parent of other generations, one who, as he is well or ill-directed, will strengthen or weaken the great work of human happiness, bearing with him a blessing or a curse for the community. Therefore whatever may be the pains or expenditure required in the cure of incipient faults, as of incipient disease, we know that society will be repaid more than a thousand-fold in the happiness of its members, in evil prevented and good propagated, in the numbers of men of talent and genius whose works, teeming with great results, will be thus saved to the State.
But for the character-divers the services of numbers of men of extraordinary genius would have been lost to the State, and our world's progress in science, inventions, and happiness retarded for centuries. Nay, perhaps the then comparative civilization would have been thrown back into barbarism, through the destructive play of bad passions and disappointed hopes.
Numbers who, if their early faults had grown into confirmed vices, would later have led a life of crime, and become inhabitants of dungeons and emissaries of evil, now grew into men of great eminence. The germ of evil propensities was destroyed, the exuberant motive power of their nature regulated and turned to good, by means which the character-divers thoroughly understood.
Amongst faults, the germs of which occupied the attention of the Djarke, are the following:
Untruthfulness, dishonesty, discontent, pride, vanity, boasting, cunning, envy, deceit, whether prejudice, self-deceit, or the wish to deceive others; nervousness or fear, inducing reticence and concealment of faults, excess of modesty or the occasional tendency of persons of genius to underrate their own powers, inattention to studies, want of application, power to learn too easily, lack of retentive memory, exaggeration and boldness, bad temper, sullenness, disposition to quarrel, cowardice, cruelty, caprice as distinct from versatility, selfishness, greediness, laziness, and its various causes, and generally the germs of all faults and vicious propensities, which, if not cured at an early age, would grow into tenacious vices.
From the precautions taken in Montalluyah the schools have become real nurseries, where the pupil is endowed with knowledge adapted to his capacity and natural bent, strengthened and graced with valuable habits and stores of physical and intellectual power.
"Respect those who would enable us to obtain the respect of others."
In former times the education of our children, even of the most gifted, was entrusted to preceptors who occupied less than secondary positions.
We did not respect or love them much; nay, they were not unfrequently treated with indignity, and yet it was expected that our children would respect and love them and the learning they professed to teach.
All, whether men or women, entrusted with the education of the young are now honoured in Montalluyah, and are high in the State as persons charged to bring about great and valuable results.
The aid given me by the character-divers and preceptors in carrying out my plans was incalculable. Their sagacity selected disciples apt for the duties I required; men with vast powers impelled by good. These men propagated my doctrines, and vigilantly watched their observance, and a new vigorous generation soon sprang up, educated to obey my laws, and further to increase and multiply their beneficent effects.
These moral physicians were chosen at first from men of great sagacity, gentleness, and powers of observation, and of polished manners.
[Footnote 1: In Montalluyah children are supposed to acquire so much by imitation, that the candidate for the office of Djarke and others must possess refined manners; and even the quality of speaking with elegance and accuracy is considered necessary both in them and in the Zicche. The art of speaking and writing with correctness is imperceptibly acquired from the language of the preceptors and other models with whom the boy comes in frequent contact. Grammar, with the exception of a few leading rules, is not needed, and the boy's brain is saved much dry and fruitless labour.]
Young men of special aptitude were soon educated to the office, and it was then that character-divers of marvellous powers sprang up, whose knowledge of the human mind, and skill in diving into the hidden currents of character, became so great that no incipient quality, or defect however minute, could escape their observation.
There is a man whom the sagacity of Vyora discovered, whose wondrous power in his art is the admiration of Montalluyah. The good he has done and the greatness of his work in searching out and developing hidden qualities and genius in children, who to the unskilled eye gave no promise, is celebrated in pictures, in sculpture, and in song, and his portrait is repeated in the highly finished and artistic mosaic pavement of our palaces and dwellings.
We delight to enrich our houses and public places with subjects which daily inspire great and pleasureable thoughts.
The subjects of the tesselated pavements include wise kings, inventors, and discoverers, character-divers and preceptors, physicians, great electricians and chemists; astronomers, men skilfully learned in the power of the sun; men versed in the knowledge of the human mind; eminent painters, sculptors, and architects; men skilled in the properties of birds, beasts, fish, and other living things. Moral qualities are greatly estimated; and we have many portraits of women famous for their virtues, gentleness, and superiority; even of servants distinguished for remarkable cleanliness and other qualities. Every house has its tesselated pavement, more or less elaborate, but always beautifully executed, for all our artists are great, and occupy high positions.
Where a young man evinced qualities which, when tested, showed that he would make but a second-rate artist, the character-divers demonstrated that these youths possessed natural tendencies better fitting them for some other pursuit.
I have in my thoughts at this moment a favourite subject of the artistic pavement;—a man—Zolea by name—who as a boy was inattentive to his studies, while his talent for sketching from nature was so remarkable, that even during school hours, with his eye seemingly on his book, he would occupy himself in sketching those around him. Every one, except the character-divers, thought that Nature intended this boy for a great artist. These demonstrated that as an artist he would never attain a high position; and after observing how he occupied himself in play-hours, and subjecting him to numerous tests, so completely cured him of his want of application and other defects, that he became the wisest and greatest among our kings. He aided me much in the devising and carrying out many things for the well-being of our planet.
[Footnote 1: All students, even beginners, sketch from nature, no other sketching is allowed.]
Had I not been the son of a king I should probably have been educated as a harpist; for even as a child I showed great disposition for the harp, and composed both words and music for my favourite instrument; but my father's chief councillor, a man of great sagacity, saw in me the germ of intellectual powers far beyond those required for the most perfect execution of the harp, and, counselled by this sage, I was led to other studies by judicious treatment, to the doubting surprise of my early tutors.
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I will now give you some account of one of the great works begun and ended in my reign.
This work, called 'The Wonder' of my Planet, was by our poets often spoken of as resembling my polity in the strength of its foundation, and in beauty, grandeur, and stability, as a work which, like my laws, they said had saved a world from destruction, and would endure for ever!
THE STAR CITY.
"The City of delights. The beloved of the Angels."
The power of the sun in my world is great, and the heat and light are excessive. The great heat being, however, tempered by cooling, refreshing winds, and gushing waters, is to our constitutions generally agreeable, except at the period called the extreme season.
The colours in the sky are in great variety, and of exceeding transparency and brightness, some parts presenting masses of gorgeous reds, golden colours, rich greens, and pinks of many shades.
The skies present also the appearance of a most irregular and uneven surface—as though there were high hills, some with their peaks, some with their bases, towards the earth, and with large spaces between, so that whilst in one part these hill-peaks and bases appear only a few miles off, other parts of the sky seem very distant.
In vast mountainous and rocky regions is built our great city called Montalluyah, that is, "God's own City."
What are called the External World Cities are built on the base sides and summits of many peaked mountains, rocks, hills, and promontories, girded, intersected, and undermined by the sea.
The City is divided into 200 districts each known by a name indicative of the situation:—
The Upper Mountain City, Summit City, Topmost Point City, The Lower City, Down City, Side City, Lower Under City, Sea City, Vale City, Ravine City, Side Country, The Internal City,
and similar designations.
Before my reign each of these districts formed a separate city. Great or rather petty jealousies existed between them, and much evil was the result; for they treated each other as rivals, and often as enemies. I decreed that all the districts should be called by one name, that the inhabitants of all should enjoy the same system of laws and government, the same customs and polity, and form as it were one family. I did many things to cement the union. I executed, too, numerous great works which assisted in promoting the growth of universal brotherhood. Many cities which formerly lay at immense distances from each other, separated by intervening mountains of immense height, I united by perforating the rocks, and building spacious galleries through the hearts and bases of the mountains, and by throwing "aerial" bridges from one mountain peak to another. Henceforth I shall speak of all these cities as "Montalluyah."
Palaces and edifices of various forms, their gilded spires and minarets inlaid with many coloured transparent stones which sparkle in our brilliant sun, stand on undulating sinuous ridges, peaks, and terraces, rising one above the other in endless and irregular succession.
The houses are mostly curved, oval, or round. In Montalluyah straight lines are avoided. The houses are built principally with a white stone, mingled with a peculiar stone of a bright sky-blue colour, both stones repellent of heat.
Gardens and verdure separate the houses one from the other. Most of the gardens are arranged in curvilinear lines, the houses being placed at the central point of the inner and outer curve alternately, so that each alternate house is on the outer centre of the garden curve, and each alternate house is on the inner centre of the adjoining curve. The undulating lines of terraces are broken by gigantic masses of rock of various colours, red, green, golden, white, blue, silver, brown, and variegated—rocks of carbuncle, lapis lazuli, malachite, gold-stone, and many-coloured marbles.
These rocks and undulations are intersected by ravines, rivers, inlets of the sea, lakes, and cataracts, reflecting the many tints of the gorgeously coloured sky and the rays of our vividly bright sun, filling our city as it were with aureoles of glory.
In many parts the sea has made itself a hidden way, and runs its course for miles under the rocks, appearing again at great distances in one of the interior inland cities, perhaps at the bottom of a deep ravine or open space; and the waters are often raised and collected for use and ornament in fountains and artificial cascades called water-lifts: whilst springs of fresh water gush out of the rocks, affording refreshment to the sun-parched and many-coloured grasses, flowers, and vegetation.
Great cataracts and artificial cascades often form the background to a great building or colossal statue. The effect of these large masses of water viewed from all parts is extremely grand and beautiful.
Sometimes the ravines, rivers, cataracts, and sea-arms are passed by huge bridges of the natural rocks, perforated by the sea, or opened by man to render navigation possible. Sometimes bridges miles in length are thrown across a great cataract or immense chasm where the rocks have been relentlessly torn asunder by the lightning and other electrical disturbances.
All the large bridges are covered with houses and gardens, which at a distance seem air-suspended cities, hanging without support over rivers, cataracts, large cities, and aggregations of houses.
Everything conducive to health is attended to: the supply of water to every part of the city is unlimited, and in each house, whether of rich or poor, is a bath, for sea and for fresh water.
We have "violet streams," which run for miles over beds of violets white and blue. The water of these is preserved in tanks erected at the end of the streams, trenches being cut to assist the flow. It has a delicious flavour, and is used for various beverages, but not for culinary purposes, since, when mixed with certain things, it turns black and loses its fragrance.
Trees, plants, and flowers perfume the air with their fragrance; whilst birds of endless variety and richest plumage have their nests in the tall and wide-spreading trees of varied-coloured foliage and fill the air with their music. In the trees are placed artificial nests to entice the birds; these invite others, which build their nests spontaneously. The trees are large, their branches and rich foliage spread themselves in graceful lines to a long distance on every side and afford pleasing shade, their gauzy leaves subduing the light and producing the effect of soft rainbow tints. The trees also emit perfume.
The music of the birds harmonizes with the refreshing sounds of the running waters, cascades, and fountains; and that the effect on the mind of these beautiful harmonies may not be disturbed, the wheels of our chariots as well as the horses' hoofs are bound with a peculiar hide which, besides possessing great toughness and durability, has the property of deadening sound. Thus none but the most agreeable sounds reach the ear, whilst the senses are charmed with aromatic odours and the eye is pleased with beauty of every kind.
Arched galleries and passages through the hills and mountains, partly perforated by the sea or electric fire, and enlarged by the industry of man, have a subdued light and make an impression of another kind, the red light in these perforated roads answering to the red shade of the outer world. These galleries and openings in the rocks are used to shorten distances from one side of a mountain to another.
The whole city is full of animation. The illuminated sky, the variegated plumage of the birds, the moving myriads of human beings, clad in rich costumes of divers colours; horses, elephants, camels, and camelopards, richly caparisoned; carriages gorgeously decorated, the golden domes of the houses, the many-coloured rocks reflecting themselves in the waters and in the brilliant skies, with their own aerial peaks and mountains brilliant and bright with our powerful sunlight—all these combine to produce a gorgeous spectacle. Moreover, the constantly recurring undulations and tortuousness of the ground are so great that it is difficult to proceed for a few minutes without meeting an entire change of scenery, as though one had reached a new city.
At one moment are seen mountain peaks rising almost perpendicularly to the skies in varying height, then a little turn brings the spectator on forests of houses, with ornamental gilded domes and hives of human beings.
Overhanging rock and mountain-forms of varied colours, the skies now scarcely seen, now reflecting their gorgeous tints in the sparkling rivers, cascades, and upheaving masses of water, these and much more form a picture of which words of fire would fail to convey a sufficient idea to those accustomed to the sober, though beautifully subdued tints of your skies.
THE SUSPENDED MOUNTAIN.
"The uplifted Mountain Arm, as though raised in anger, threatens you and your little ones with destruction.....Let all hearts unite in prayer, that Heaven may inspire your Tootmanyoso with the means of saving the world from so dire a calamity!.."
The ordinary elevation of the tides is immense. They advance and rise to a height far beyond any similar phenomenon in your planet, and the waters retire in proportion, leaving at low water many miles of seashore uncovered.
In Montalluyah the sun's electricity is very powerful. It is the power of the sun, and not of the moon, which principally influences the tides.
A huge mountain mass projects from the elevated continent of Montalluyah for miles above the sea.
The heart and base of the mountain mass had been carried away from under the higher mass by some great convulsion of nature, leaving the upper part of the mountain without support, except by its adhesion to the main continent, of which it formed part. From the point of juncture the suspended mass extends itself out horizontally in the air over cities built on the ridges, sides, and foot of the parent mountain-chain, and far beyond the extreme bounds of these cities, for miles over and parallel with the sea, at a height which from the lower cities makes the superincumbent mass rarely distinguishable from the illuminated clouds above.