E-text prepared by Shannon Seyler
ARKANSAS GOVERNORS AND UNITED STATES SENATORS
John L. Ferguson State Historian
Arkansas History Commission Little Rock
This list of Arkansas governors and United States senators, with brief biographies of each person who has served in these offices, is intended to benefit students and others who have expressed interest in a published summary of such information. We have omitted the dozens of "acting governors," including some who served for substantial periods of time, as well as senators who held office only briefly. Copies of this publication are free, and the material is not copyrighted or restricted.
GOVERNORS OF THE TERRITORY OF ARKANSAS
On March 2, 1819, Arkansas was legally separated from Missouri and became the Territory of Arkansas. The act became effective on July 4 following. During the territorial period the governors were appointed by the President of the United States, with the approval of the United States Senate, for terms of three years.
1. James Miller, 1819-1824
Lawyer, soldier. Born in New Hampshire, 1776. Educated at Amherst Academy and Williams College, Massachusetts. Admitted to bar, 1803. Married Martha Ferguson, 1801; two children. Married Ruth Flint, 1806; five children.
Commissioned major of infantry in regular army, 1808. Lieutenant colonel, 1810; colonel, 1812; brigadier general, 1814. Hero of Battle of Lundy's Lane, Canada, 1814. Received Congressional gold medal for gallantry, 1814. Resigned from army, 1819.
Governor of Arkansas, 1819-1824. United States collector of customs, Salem, Massachusetts, 1824-1849. Died 1851.
2. George Izard, 1825-1828
Soldier. Born in England, 1776. Attended military schools in England, Germany, and France. Commissioned lieutenant in artillerists and engineers, United States Army, 1794. Captain, 1799. Resigned from army, 1803. Married Elizabeth Carter Shippen, 1803; three children.
Accepted new commission as colonel of artillery, 1812. Brigadier general, 1813; major general, 1814. Honorably discharged, 1815. Governor of Arkansas from 1825 until his death in 1828.
3. John Pope, 1829-1835
Lawyer. Born in Virginia, 1770. Married Ann Henry Christian, c.1795. Married Elizabeth Johnson, 1810; two children. Married Frances Watkins Walton, 1820.
State senator, Kentucky, 1798-1799, 1825-1829. Member, Kentucky House of Representatives, 1802, 1806-1807, 1823-1825. United States senator from Kentucky, 1807-1813. Professor of law, Transylvania University, 1813-1816. Secretary of State of Kentucky, 1816-1819. Governor of Arkansas, 1829-1835. Congressman from Kentucky, 1837-1843. Died 1845.
4. William S. Fulton, 1835-1836
Lawyer. Born in Maryland, 1795. Graduated from Baltimore College, 1813. Moved to Tennessee after serving in War of 1812. Admitted to bar, 1817. Military secretary to General Andrew Jackson in Florida campaign of 1818. Moved to Alabama, 1820. Married Matilda Nowland, 1823; four children.
Elected judge of county court, Florence, Alabama, 1822. Secretary of Territory of Arkansas, 1829-1835. Last governor of Territory of Arkansas, 1835-1836. United States senator from Arkansas, 1836-1844. Died 1844.
GOVERNORS OF THE STATE OF ARKANSAS
Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the twenty-fifth state on June 15, 1836. From 1836 until 1874, governors were elected for four-year terms. During the remainder of our history the term of office has been two years.
1. James S. Conway, 1836-1840
Planter, surveyor, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1798. Came to Arkansas from Missouri, 1820. Married Mary Jane Bradley, 1826; six children.
First surveyor-general of Arkansas Territory. Inaugurated as first governor of the State of Arkansas, September 13, 1836. In 1840 retired to "Walnut Hill," his plantation in Lafayette County. Died 1855.
2. Archibald Yell, 1840-1844
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1797 or 1799. Served in War of 1812, and in Seminole War of 1818. Married Mary Scott, 1821; two children. Married Ann Jordan Moore, 1827; four children. Married Maria Ficklin, 1836.
Member, Tennessee House of Representatives, 1827. Came to Arkansas 1831. Receiver at federal land office in Little Rock, 1831-1832. Moved to Fayetteville, 1834. Territorial judge, 1835-1836. Congressman, 1836-1839, 1845-1847. Governor, 1840-1844.
Left Congress in 1846 to become colonel of First Arkansas Volunteer Cavalry, Mexican War. Killed at Battle of Buena Vista, Mexico, 1847.
3. Thomas S. Drew, 1844-1849
Planter, peddler, lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1802. Came to Arkansas 1818. Clerk of Clark County, 1823-1825. Moved to what is now Randolph County, 1826. Married Cinderella Bettis, 1826, five children.
Judge of Lawrence County, 1832-1833. Delegate to Arkansas constitutional convention, 1836. Governor, 1844-1849. Resigned as governor, 1849, and returned to Pocahontas. Moved to Hood County, Texas, after death of his wife in 1872. Died in Texas, 1879.
4. John S. Roane, 1849-1852
Planter, lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1817. Attended Cumberland College, Princeton, Kentucky. Came to Arkansas 1837, settled at Pine Bluff. Moved to Van Buren 1842. Speaker, Arkansas House of Representatives, 1844-1845.
Served in Mexican War. Returned to Pine Bluff, 1848. Governor, 1849-1852. Married Mary K. Smith, 1855; five children. Brigadier general, Confederate Army. Died 1867.
5. Elias N. Conway, 1852-1860
Surveyor, public official, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1812; younger brother of Governor James S. Conway. Came to Arkansas from Missouri 1833. Territorial auditor, 1835-1836. State auditor, 1836-1849. Governor, 1852-1860. Never married. Died 1892.
6. Henry M. Rector, 1860-1862
Planter, lawyer, Independent Democrat. Born in Kentucky, 1816. Came to Arkansas from Missouri, 1835; settled in Hot Springs. Married Ernestine Flora Linde, 1860; one child.
Appointed federal marshal, 1842. State senator, 1848-1852. Moved to Little Rock, 1854. Member, House of Representatives, 1854-1855. Associate justice, Supreme Court, 1859-1860. Governor, 1860-1862. Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Died 1899.
7. Harris Flanagin, 1862-1865
Lawyer, Confederate. Born in New Jersey, 1817. Moved to Clark County, Arkansas, from Illinois, 1837. Married Martha E. Nash, 1851; five children.
Member, House of Representatives, 1842-1843. Delegate, secession convention, 1861. Colonel, Confederate Army. Governor, 1862-1865. Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Died 1874.
8. Isaac Murphy, 1864-1868
Teacher, lawyer, Unionist Democrat. Born in Pennsylvania, 1799. Settled in Tennessee, 1830; came to Arkansas 1834. Married Angelina A. Lockhart, 1830; eight children.
Member, House of Representatives, Washington County, 1848-1849. Went to California 1849, returned 1853. Moved to Huntsville, Madison County, 1854. State senator, 1856-1857.
Delegate, secession convention of 1861; only member who refused to vote for secession of Arkansas from the Union. Served with Union Army, 1861-1863. Organized Unionist state government in Little Rock, 1864; served as governor until displaced by Radical Republicans, 1868. Died in Huntsville, 1882.
9. Powell Clayton, 1868-1871
Civil engineer, soldier, Republican. Born in Pennsylvania, 1833. Educated in the common schools, the Partridge Military Academy in Bristol, Pennsylvania, and in an engineering school at Wilmington, Delaware. Moved to Kansas, 1855; became city engineer of Leavenworth, Kansas, 1859.
Brigadier general, Union Army; came to Arkansas with army during Civil War. At close of war, settled on a cotton plantation near Pine Bluff. Married Adeline McGraw, 1865; five children.
Governor, 1868-1871; resigned in 1871 to become United States senator for term ending 1877. Moved from Little Rock to Eureka Springs, 1882. United States ambassador to Mexico, 1897-1905. Lived in Washington, D.C. from 1912 until his death in 1915.
Note: The unexpired portion of Powell Clayton's term as governor, 1871-1873, was completed by Ozra A. Hadley, president of the State Senate.
10. Elisha Baxter, 1873-1874
Lawyer, Republican. Born in North Carolina, 1827. Married Harriet Patton, 1849; six children. Came to Arkansas 1852, settled in Batesville. Member, House of Representatives, 1854-1855, 1858-1859. Prosecuting attorney, 1861-1862.
Raised and commanded Fourth Arkansas Mounted Infantry Regiment (Union) during Civil War. Elected to State Supreme Court, 1864, and then to United States Senate, but not allowed to take his seat. Circuit judge, 1868-1873. Governor, 1873-1874; his term of office was cut short by the Brooks-Baxter War and the adoption of a new state constitution. Died 1899.
11. Augustus H. Garland, 1874-1877
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1832. His parents came to what is now Miller County, Arkansas, 1833; later the family located in Washington, Hempstead County. Educated in a private school at Washington; at St. Mary's College, Lebanon, Kentucky; and at St. Joseph's College, Bardstown, Kentucky, where he graduated 1849. Married Virginia Saunders, 1853; eight children. Moved to Little Rock, 1856.
Delegate, secession convention, 1861. Delegate to Provisional Congress of Confederate States, 1861; Confederate congressman, 1861-1864; Confederate States senator, 1864-1865. Governor, 1874-1877. United States senator, 1877-1885. Attorney General of the United States under President Grover Cleveland, 1885-1889; first Arkansan to hold a cabinet post. Died 1899.
12. William R. Miller, 1877-1881
Lawyer, Democrat. Born at Batesville, Arkansas, 1823. Clerk of Independence County, 1848-1854. Married Susan Elizabeth Bevens, 1849; seven children.
State auditor, 1854-1855, 1857-1860, 1861-1864, 1866-1868, 1874-1877, 1887. Accountant of Real Estate Bank of Arkansas, 1855-1856. Governor, 1877-1881; first native Arkansan to hold office. Died 1887.
13. Thomas J. Churchill, 1881-1883
Planter, soldier, lawyer, Democrat. Born in Kentucky, 1824. Educated at St. Mary's College and Transylvania University. Served in Mexican War. Moved to Arkansas 1848, acquired a plantation near Little Rock. Married Anne Maria Sevier, 1849; six children.
Postmaster at Little Rock, 1857-1861. Major general, Confederate Army; commanded at the Battle of Arkansas Post, 1863. State treasurer, 1874-1881. Governor, 1881-1883. Died 1905.
14. James H. Berry, 1883-1885
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Alabama, 1841. When he was seven, his father moved to Carrollton, Carroll County, Arkansas. Attended Berryville Academy. Served in Confederate Army; lost a leg at Battle of Corinth. Married Elizabeth Quaile, 1865; six children. Moved to Bentonville, 1869.
Served in House of Representatives from Carroll County, 1866-1867; from Washington and Benton Counties, 1873-1874. Speaker of the House, 1874. Circuit judge, 1878-1882. Governor, 1883-1885. United States senator, 1885-1907. Died 1913.
15. Simon P. Hughes, 1885-1889
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1830. Moved to Pulaski County, Arkansas, with his parents, 1844. Educated in Tennessee, 1846-1849. Returned to Arkansas 1849 and became a farmer. Sheriff, Monroe County, 1854-1856. Began practice of law at Clarendon, 1857. Married Ann E. Blakemore, 1857; nine children.
Lieutenant Colonel, Confederate Army. Member, House of Representatives from Monroe County, 1866-1867. Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Attorney general, 1874-1877. Governor, 1885-1889. Associate justice, Supreme Court, 1889-1904. Died 1906.
16. James P. Eagle, 1889-1893
Planter, minister, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1837. Came with parents to Pulaski County, Arkansas, 1839. Moved to what is now Lonoke County, 1857. Lieutenant Colonel, Confederate Army. Ordained to Baptist ministry, 1869.
Member, House of Representatives, 1873-1874, 1877; Speaker of the House, 1885. Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Married Mary Kavanaugh Oldham, 1882. Governor, 1889-1893. President, Arkansas Baptist State Convention, 1880-1904. President, Southern Baptist Convention, 1902-1904. Died 1904.
17. William M. Fishback, 1893-1895
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Virginia, 1831. Graduated from University of Virginia; studied law in Richmond. Came to Arkansas from Illinois 1858; settled at Fort Smith.
Delegate, secession convention, 1861. Went to Missouri 1862 and took oath of allegiance to Union. Elected to United States Senate from Arkansas 1864, but not allowed to take his seat. Married Adelaide Miller, 1867; six children.
Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Member, House of Representatives, Sebastian County, 1877, 1879. Governor, 1893-1895. Died 1903.
18. James P. Clarke, 1895-1897
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Mississippi, 1854. Graduated from law school, University of Virginia. Came to Arkansas 1879; opened law office in Helena. Married Sallie Moore Wooten, 1883; three children.
Member, House of Representatives, Phillips County, 1887. State senator, 1889, 1891. Attorney general, 1893-1895. Governor, 1895-1897. United States senator, 1903-1916. Died 1916.
19. Dan W. Jones, 1897-1901
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Texas, 1839. Moved with parents to Washington, Arkansas, 1840. Colonel, Confederate Army. Married Margaret P. Hadley, 1864; seven children.
Prosecuting attorney, 1874-1876. Attorney general, 1885-1889. Member, House of Representatives, Pulaski County, 1891, 1915. Governor, 1897-1901. Died 1918.
20. Jeff Davis, 1901-1907
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in what is now Little River County, Arkansas, 1862. Educated in common schools; preparatory department, Arkansas Industrial University; law school, Vanderbilt University. Received law degree, Cumberland University. Married Ina McKenzie, 1882; twelve children. Married Leila Carter, 1911.
Practiced law at Russellville, Arkansas. Prosecuting attorney, 1890-1894. Attorney general, 1899-1901. Governor, 1901-1907; first governor to be elected to more than two terms. United States senator, 1907-1913. Died 1913.
21. John S. Little, 1907-1909
Lawyer, Democrat. Born at Jenny Lind, Sebastian County, Arkansas, 1851. Attended Cane Hill College, Cane Hill, Arkansas. Married Elizabeth J. Irwin, 1877; five children.
Prosecuting attorney, 1877-1884. Member, House of Representatives, Sebastian County, 1885. Circuit judge, 1886-1887. Congressman, 1894-1907. Governor, 1907-1909. Soon after his inauguration, he suffered a nervous collapse and was unable to perform his duties for the remainder of his term. Died 1916.
22. George W. Donaghey, 1909-1913
Building contractor, banker, Democrat. Born in Louisiana, 1856. Came to Union County, Arkansas with his parents when a child. Worked as a farmer and cowboy in Texas. Moved to Conway, 1874; became a carpenter and contractor. Attended Arkansas Industrial University (now the University of Arkansas). Married Louvinia Wallace, 1883.
Governor, 1909-1913. Philanthropist, business and civic leader for many years. Died 1937.
23. Joseph T. Robinson, 1913
Lawyer, Democrat. Born near Lonoke, Arkansas, 1872. Educated in the common schools; Arkansas Industrial University; and the law department of the University of Virginia. Admitted to bar 1895; commenced practice in Lonoke. Married Ewilda Gertrude Miller, 1896.
Member, House of Representatives, Lonoke County, 1895. Congressman, 1903-1913. Governor, 1913; resigned to become United States senator, 1913-1937. Democratic leader in Senate, 1923-1937. Democratic nominee for vice-president of the United States, 1928. Died 1937.
24. George W. Hays, 1913-1917
Lawyer, Democrat. Born near Camden, Arkansas, 1863. Graduated from Washington And Lee University. Married Ida Virginia Yarborough, 1895; two children.
County judge, Ouachita County, 1901-1905. Circuit judge, 1906-1913. Governor, 1913-1917. Died 1927.
25. Charles H. Brough, 1917-1921
Educator, Democrat. Born in Mississippi, 1876. B.A., Mississippi College, 1893; Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1898; LL.B., University of Mississippi, 1902. Married Anne Wade Roark, 1908.
Professor of economics and sociology, University of Arkansas, 1904-1916. Governor 1917-1921. Chautauqua lecturer. President, Central Baptist College, Conway, 1928-1929. Died 1935.
26. Thomas C. McRae, 1921-1925
Lawyer, banker, Democrat. Born at Mount Holly, Union County, Arkansas, 1851. Graduated from Soule Business College, New Orleans, 1869; LL.B., Washington and Lee University, 1872. Married Amelia Ann White, 1874; nine children.
Member, House of Representatives, Nevada County, 1877. Congressman, 1885-1903. Delegate, constitutional convention of 1917-1918. Governor, 1921-1925. Died 1929.
27. Tom J. Terral, 1925-1927
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Louisiana, 1882. Attended University of Kentucky; LL.B., University of Arkansas, 1910. Married Eula Terrell, 1914.
Secretary, Arkansas Senate, 1913, 1915. Secretary of State, 1917-1921. Governor, 1925-1927. Died 1946.
28. John E. Martineau, 1927-1928
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1873. A.B., Arkansas Industrial University, 1896; graduated, University law school, 1899. Married Mrs. Anne Holcomb Mitchell, 1909. Married Mrs. Mabel Erwin Thomas, 1919.
Member, House of Representatives, Pulaski County, 1903, 1905. Chancellor, 1907-1927. Governor, 1927-1928; resigned to become United States district judge, 1928-1937. Died 1937.
29. Harvey Parnell, 1928-1933
Planter, businessman, Democrat. Born in Dorsey (now Cleveland) County, Arkansas, 1880. Married Mabel Winston, 1902; two children.
Member, House of Representatives, Chicot County, 1919, 1921. State senator, 1923, 1925. Lieutenant governor, 1927-1928. Succeeded to governorship when John E. Martineau resigned, 1928; elected to full terms 1928, 1930. Died 1936.
30. J.M. Futrell, 1933-1937
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Greene County, Arkansas, 1870. Attended Arkansas Industrial University. Married Tera A. Smith, 1893; six children.
Member, House of Representatives, Greene County, 1897, 1901, 1903. Circuit clerk, Greene County, 1907-1911. State senator, 1913, 1915. Acting governor, March-July 1913. Circuit judge, 1921. Chancellor, 1923-1932. Governor, 1933-1937. Died 1955.
31. Carl E. Bailey, 1937-1941
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1894. Attended business college in Chillicothe, Missouri. Married Margaret Bristol, 1915; six children. Married Marjorie Compton, 1943.
Prosecuting attorney, 1931-1935. Attorney general, 1935-1937. Governor, 1937-1941. Died 1948.
32. Homer M. Adkins, 1941-1945
Pharmacist, businessman, Democrat. Born near Jacksonville, Arkansas, 1890. Attended Draughon's Business College of Pharmacy. Captain, United States Army, First World War. Married Estelle Smith, 1921.
Sheriff, Pulaski County, 1923-1927. United States collector of internal revenue for Arkansas, 1933-1940. Governor, 1941-1945. Administrator, Employment Security Division, 1949-1952. Died 1964.
33. Ben T. Laney, 1945-1949
Businessman, Democrat. Born in Ouachita County, near Smackover, Arkansas, 1896. Served in United States Navy, First World War. A.B., State Normal School (now State College), Conway, 1924. Graduate study, University of Utah.
Married Lucille Kirtley, 1926; three children. Mayor of Camden, 1935-1939. Governor, 1945-1949.
34. Sid McMath, 1949-1953
Lawyer, Democrat. Born near Magnolia, Arkansas, 1912. LL.B., University of Arkansas, 1936. Married Elaine Braughton, 1937; one child. Married Anne Phillips, 1945; two children.
Lieutenant Colonel, United States Marine Corps, Second World War. Prosecuting attorney, 1947-1949. Governor, 1949-1953.
35. Francis Cherry, 1953-1955
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Fort Worth, Texas, 1908. Graduated Oklahoma A.& M. College, 1930. LL.B., University of Arkansas, 1936. Married Margaret Frierson; three children.
Lieutenant (j.g.), United States Navy, Second World War. Chancellor, 1943-1944, 1949-1952. Governor, 1953-1955. Member, United States Subversive Activities Control Board, 1955-1963; chairman, 1963-1965. Died 1965.
36. Orval E. Faubus, 1955-1967
Newspaperman, Democrat. Born near Combs, Arkansas, 1910. Attended Madison County schools. Married Alta Haskins, 1931; one son. Major, United States Army, Second World War.
Circuit Clerk, Madison County, 1939-1942. Administrative assistant to Governor Sid McMath, highway commissioner, highway director, 1949-1953. Postmaster, Huntsville, 1953-1954. Governor, 1955-1967.
37. Winthrop Rockefeller, 1967-
Financier, farmer, Republican. Born in New York, 1912. Attended Yale University. Lieutenant Colonel, United States Army, Second World War. Married Barbara Sears, 1948; one son. Married Jeannette Edris, 1956.
Moved to Arkansas, 1953. Chairman, Arkansas Industrial Development Commission, 1955-1964. First Republican elected governor since 1872.
UNITED STATES SENATORS FROM ARKANSAS
Each state is entitled to two United States senators. Until 1913, senators were elected by state legislatures; since that time, by popular vote. Our first senators, chosen in 1836, were Ambrose H. Sevier and William S. Fulton. In the following pages, biographies of Sevier and his successors are given first.
1. Ambrose H. Sevier 1836-1848
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1801. Came to Arkansas from Missouri, 1821. Clerk, Territorial House of Representatives, 1821. Member, Territorial House of Representatives, Pulaski County, 1823, 1825; speaker, 1827.
Territorial delegate to Congress, 1828-1836. United States senator, 1836-1848. United States Minister to Mexico, March-June 1848. Died 1848.
2. Solon Borland, 1848-1853
Physician, Democrat. Born in Virginia, 1808. Attended schools in North Carolina; studied medicine; located in Little Rock, Arkansas. Major, First Arkansas Volunteer Cavalry, Mexican War.
United States senator, 1848-1853. United States Minister to Central American Republics, 1853-1854. Brigadier general, Confederate Army. Died 1864.
3. Robert W. Johnson, 1853-1861
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Kentucky, 1814. Moved with his father to Arkansas, 1821. Graduated from St. Joseph's College, Bardstown, Kentucky, 1833, and from Yale Law School, 1835. Practiced law in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1835-1847.
Prosecuting attorney, 1840-1845. Congressman, 1847-1853. United States senator, 1853-1861. Delegate to provisional Confederate Congress, 1861-1862. Confederate States senator, 1862-1865. Practiced law in Washington, D.C. after the war. Died 1879.
4. Charles B. Mitchel, 1861
Physician, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1815. Graduated from University of Nashville, Tennessee, 1833, and from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1836. Moved to Washington, Arkansas, where he practiced medicine for twenty-five years.
Member, House of Representatives, Hempstead County, 1848-1849. Receiver of public moneys, 1853-1856. United States senator, 1861. Confederate States senator, 1862-1864. Died 1864.
Note: Arkansas was not represented in the United States Senate from its secession in 1861 until the state was readmitted to the Union in 1868.
5. Benjamin F. Rice, 1868-1873
Lawyer, Republican. Born in New York, 1828. Member, Kentucky House of Representatives, 1855-1856. Moved to Minnesota, 1860. Captain, Union Army.
Settled in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1864. Active in organizing Republican party in Arkansas. United States senator, 1868-1873. Moved to Colorado 1875, and to Washington, D.C. 1882. Died 1905.
6. Stephen W. Dorsey, 1873-1879
Businessman, Republican. Born in Vermont, 1842. Moved to Ohio and settled in Oberlin. Served in Union Army. After Civil War, returned to Ohio; became president of Sandusky Tool Company. Elected president, Arkansas Railway Company. Moved to Arkansas, settled in Helena.
United States senator, 1873-1879. After his service in Senate, devoted himself to cattle raising and mining in New Mexico and Colorado. Resided in Colfax County, New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; and Los Angeles, California. Died 1916.
7. James D. Walker, 1879-1885
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Kentucky, 1830. Attended private schools in Kentucky, and Ozark Institute and Arkansas College, Fayetteville, Arkansas. Moved to Arkansas 1847. Admitted to bar 1850; practiced law in Fayetteville. Colonel, Confederate Army; captured at Oak Hills, Missouri in 1861 and spent two years in military prison.
Resumed practice of law in Fayetteville, 1865. United States senator, 1879-1885. Died 1906.
8. James K. Jones, 1885-1903
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Mississippi, 1839. Moved with his parents to Dallas County, Arkansas, 1848. Served in Confederate Army. Admitted to bar 1874 and commenced practice in Washington, Arkansas.
State senator, 1873-1877; president of Senate, 1877. Congressman, 1881-1885. United States senator, 1885-1903. Chairman, Democratic National Committee, 1896, 1900. Died 1908.
9. James P. Clarke, 1903-1916
(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 18).
10. William F. Kirby, 1916-1921
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in what is now Miller County, Arkansas, 1867. Studied law at Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tennessee; graduated 1885. Admitted to bar 1885, commenced practice in Texarkana, Arkansas.
Member, House of Representatives, Miller County, 1893, 1897. State senator 1899, 1901. Author of "Kirby's Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas," 1904. Moved to Little Rock, 1907. Attorney General, 1907-1909. Associate justice, Supreme Court, 1910-1916, 1927-1934. United States senator, 1916-1921. Died 1934.
11. Thaddeus H. Caraway, 1921-1931
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1871. Moved with his parents to Clay County, Arkansas, 1883. Graduated in 1896 from Dickson (Tennessee) College. Admitted to bar 1900, commenced practice in Osceola, Arkansas. Moved to Lake City, Craighead County, 1900, and to Jonesboro, 1901.
Prosecuting attorney, 1908-1912. Congressman, 1913-1921. United States senator, 1921-1931. Died 1931.
12. Hattie W. Caraway, 1931-1945
Democrat, wife of Senator Thaddeus H. Caraway. Born in Tennessee, 1878. Graduated from Dickson (Tennessee) Normal College, 1896. Married and thereafter located in Jonesboro, Arkansas.
Appointed United States senator to succeed her husband 1931; elected 1932 and 1938; served 1931-1945. Member, United States Employees' Compensation Commission, 1945-1946. Member, United States Employees' Compensation Appeals Board, 1946-1950. Died 1950.
13. James William Fulbright, 1945-
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1905. Moved with his parents to Fayetteville, Arkansas 1906. Was graduated from University of Arkansas, 1925; as a Rhodes scholar from Oxford University, England, 1928; and from law department of George Washington University, Washington, D.C., 1934. Admitted to District of Columbia bar, 1934.
Attorney, United States Department of Justice, Antitrust Division, 1934-1935. Instructor in law, George Washington University, 1935; lecturer in law, University of Arkansas, 1936-1939. President of the University of Arkansas, 1939-1941. Congressman, 1943-1945. United States senator since 1945.
1. William S. Fulton, 1836-1844
(See "Governors of the Territory of Arkansas," number 4).
2. Chester Ashley, 1844-1848
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Massachusetts, 1790. Moved with his parents to Hudson, New York, during infancy. Was graduated from Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, and the Litchfield (Connecticut) Law School.
Admitted to bar 1817 and commenced practice of law in Hudson, New York. Moved to Edwardsville, Illinois, 1818; to St. Louis, Missouri, 1819; and to Little Rock, Arkansas, 1820. United States senator 1844-1848. Died 1848.
3. William K. Sebastian, 1848-1861
Lawyer, planter, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1812. Was graduated from Columbia College, Tennessee, about 1834. Commenced practice of law in Helena, Arkansas, 1835.
Prosecuting attorney, 1835-1837. Circuit judge, 1840-1842. Associate justice, Supreme Court, 1843-1845. Member and president of State Senate, 1846-1847. United States senator, 1848-1861. Expelled from Senate, 1861; returned to Helena and practiced law; took no part in Confederate war effort. Moved to Memphis, 1864. Died 1865.
In 1877, the United States Senate revoked his expulsion and paid the full amount of his compensation to his children.
Note: Arkansas was not represented in the United States Senate from its secession in 1861 until the state was readmitted to the Union in 1868.
4. Alexander McDonald, 1868-1871
Businessman, banker, Republican. Born in Pennsylvania, 1832. Attended Dickinson Seminary, Williamsport, Pennsylvania; and Lewisburg University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. Moved to Kansas, 1857. Served in Union Army. Came to Arkansas 1863, settled in Little Rock.
United States senator, 1868-1871. Engaged in development of railroads. Moved to New York City, 1900. Died 1903.
5. Powell Clayton, 1871-1877
(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 9)
6. Augustus H. Garland, 1877-1885
(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 11)
7. James H. Berry, 1885-1907
(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 14)
8. Joseph T. Robinson, 1913-1937
(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 23)
9. John E. Miller, 1937-1941
Lawyer, banker, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1888. Attended Southeast Missouri State Teachers College, Cape Girardeau; and Valparaiso (Indiana) University. Graduated from law department, University of Kentucky, 1912. Admitted to bar 1912, commenced practice in Searcy, Arkansas.
Delegate, constitutional convention of 1917-1918. Prosecuting attorney, 1921-1923. Congressman, 1931-1937. United States senator from 1937 until he resigned in 1941 to become United States district judge for the western district of Arkansas.
11. Lloyd Spencer, 1941-1943
Banker, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1893. Moved to Okolona, Arkansas, 1902. Attended Henderson College, Arkadelphia. Served in United States Navy, First World War, 1918. Moved to Hope, Arkansas, 1921.
Appointed to United States Senate 1941; term expired 1943. Served in United States Navy, Second World War, 1943.
12. John L. McClellan, 1943-
Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Sheridan, Arkansas, 1896. Attended public schools. Admitted to bar 1913, commenced practice in Sheridan. First lieutenant, United States Army, First World War, 1917-1919.
Moved to Malvern, Arkansas, 1919. Prosecuting attorney, 1927-1930. Congressman, 1935-1939. Resumed practice of law in Camden, Arkansas. United States senator since 1943.