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UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Volume 11, No. 8, pp. 443-516 August 1, 1959

Birds From Coahuila, Mexico

BY EMIL K. URBAN

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS LAWRENCE 1959

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Institutional libraries interested in publications exchange may obtain this series by addressing the Exchange Librarian, University of Kansas Library, Lawrence, Kansas. Copies for individuals, persons working in a particular field of study, may be obtained by addressing instead the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. There is no provision for sale of this series by the University Library which meets institutional requests, or by the Museum of Natural History which meets the requests of individuals. However, when individuals request copies from the Museum, 25 cents should be included, for each separate number that is 100 pages or more in length, for the purpose of defraying the costs of wrapping and mailing.

* An asterisk designates those numbers of which the Museum's supply (not the Library's supply) is exhausted. Numbers published to date, in this series, are as follows:

Vol. 1. Nos. 1-26 and index. Pp. 1-638, 1946-1950.

*Vol. 2. (Complete) Mammals of Washington. By Walter W. Dalquest. Pp. 1-444, 140 figures in text. April 9, 1948.

Vol. 3. *1. The avifauna of Micronesia, its origin, evolution, and distribution. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 1-359, 16 figures in text. June 12, 1951.

*2. A quantitative study of the nocturnal migration of birds. By George H. Lowery, Jr. Pp. 361-472, 47 figures in text. June 29, 1951.

3. Phylogeny of the waxwings and allied birds. By M. Dale Arvey. Pp. 473-530, 49 figures in text, 13 tables. October 10, 1951.

4. Birds from the state of Veracruz, Mexico. By George H. Lowery, Jr., and Walter W. Dalquest. Pp. 531-649, 7 figures in text, 2 tables. October 10, 1951.

Index. Pp. 651-681.

*Vol. 4. (Complete) American weasels. By E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 1-466, 41 plates, 31 figures in text. December 27, 1951.

Vol. 5. Nos. 1-37 and index. Pp. 1-676, 1951-1953.

*Vol. 6. (Complete) Mammals of Utah, taxonomy and distribution. By Stephen D. Durrant. Pp. 1-549, 91 figures in text, 30 tables. August 10, 1952.

Vol. 7. *1. Mammals of Kansas. By E. Lendell Cockrum. Pp. 1-303, 73 figures in text, 37 tables. August 25, 1952.

2. Ecology of the opossum on a natural area in northeastern Kansas. By Henry S. Fitch and Lewis L. Sandidge. Pp. 305-338, 5 figures in text. August 24, 1953.

3. The silky pocket mice (Perognathus flavus) of Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 339-347, 1 figure in text. February 15, 1954.

4. North American jumping mice (Genus Zapus). By Philip H. Krutzsch. Pp. 349-472, 47 figures in text, 4 tables. April 21, 1954.

5. Mammals from Southeastern Alaska. By Rollin H. Baker and James S. Findley. Pp. 473-477. April 21, 1954.

6. Distribution of Some Nebraskan Mammals. By J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 479-487. April 21, 1954.

7. Subspeciation in the montane meadow mouse. Microtus montanus, in Wyoming and Colorado. By Sydney Anderson. Pp. 489-506, 2 figures in text. July 23, 1954.

8. A new subspecies of bat (Myotis velifer) from southeastern California and Arizona. By Terry A. Vaughan. Pp. 507-512. July 23, 1954.

9. Mammals of the San Gabriel mountains of California. By Terry A. Vaughan. Pp. 513-582, 1 figure in text, 12 tables. November 15, 1954.

10. A new bat (Genus Pipistrellus) from northeastern Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 583-586. November 15, 1954.

11. A new subspecies of pocket mouse from Kansas. By E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 587-590. November 15, 1954.

12. Geographic variation in the pocket gopher, Cratogeomys castanops, in Coahuila, Mexico. By Robert J. Russell and Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 591-608. March 15, 1955.

13. A new cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) from northeastern Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 609-612. April 8, 1955.

14. Taxonomy and distribution of some American shrews. By James S. Findley. Pp. 613-618. June 10, 1955.

15. The pigmy woodrat, Neotoma goldmani, its distribution and systematic position. By Dennis G. Rainey and Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 619-624, 2 figures in text. June 10, 1955.

Index. Pp. 625-651.

(Continued on inside of back cover)



UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Volume 11, No. 8, pp. 443-516 August 1, 1959



Birds From Coahuila, Mexico



BY

EMIL K. URBAN



UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS LAWRENCE 1959

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS, MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Henry S. Fitch, Robert W. Wilson

Volume 11, No. 8, pp. 443-516 Published August 1, 1959

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Lawrence, Kansas

PRINTED IN THE STATE PRINTING PLANT TOPEKA, KANSAS 1959



Birds From Coahuila, Mexico

BY EMIL K. URBAN

INTRODUCTION

The following account is a summary of the present knowledge of the birds of Coahuila. Some 500 specimens from Coahuila in the Museum of Natural History at the University of Kansas are the basis for this report; these are supplemented by records of birds previously listed from the State.

In Coahuila, habitats vary from those characteristic near tree-line to those of the floors of the low deserts. Because of the variety of habitats, many kinds of birds are present in the State; at least 312 living named kinds of 249 species have been recorded. Possibly another 100 species will be reported after further studies have been made there. At least 154 of the species listed in this paper probably breed in Coahuila. The bird fauna in the State includes species characteristic of eastern North America and of western North America, species that range from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, and species found only, or mostly, in Mexico.

I thank Professor E. Raymond Hall, Doctor Richard F. Johnston and Doctor Robert M. Mengel for their kind help, and Doctor Harrison B. Tordoff for first suggesting this study to me. Unless otherwise stated, the nomenclature in this paper is that of the A.O.U. Check-list Committee (1957). Catalogue numbers are those of the Museum of Natural History at the University of Kansas. In so far as known to me, all birds recorded in the literature from Coahuila are listed below. In a few instances the only support for occurrence is the ascription of a given kind to Coahuila (without mention of date, catalogue number, or precise locality) by Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950), and/or the A.O.U. Check-list Committee (1957); when this is so the entire entry is inclosed within brackets. In the accounts beyond, an asterisk indicates that the kind breeds in Coahuila; two asterisks indicate probable breeding in the State.



LIST OF COLLECTORS

Persons who have obtained specimens of birds from Coahuila for the Museum of Natural History are as follows:

Albert A. Alcorn Joseph Raymond Alcorn Sydney Anderson Rollin Harold Baker James Sheldon Carey Peter Stanley Chrapliwy W. Kim Clark Robert William Dickerman John R. Esther James Smith Findley John Keever Greer John William Hardy Gerd H. Heinrich William McKee Lynn Jack M. Mohler Roger O. Olmstead Robert Lewis Packard Robert Julian Russell William J. Schaldach, Jr. Harrison Bruce Tordoff South Van Hoose, Jr. Olin Lawrence Webb

GAZETTEER OF LOCALITIES IN COAHUILA

The following place-names were used to record the localities of Coahuilan birds now specimens in the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. Each place-name is followed by its location in degrees and minutes of latitude and longitude, respectively.

Acebuches.—28 deg.17', 102 deg.56'. Americanos.—27 deg.12', 103 deg.14'. Australia.—26 deg.18', 102 deg.18'. Bella Union.—25 deg.26', 100 deg.51'. Boquillas.—29 deg.11', 102 deg.55'. Castillon.—28 deg.21', 103 deg.33'. Cuatro Cienegas.—26 deg.58', 102 deg.04'. Diamante.—25 deg.22', 100 deg.54'. Don Martin.—27 deg.32', 100 deg.37'. Fortin.—28 deg.48', 101 deg.41'. General Cepeda.—25 deg.22', 101 deg.28'. Gomez Farias.—24 deg.58', 101 deg.02'. Hermanas.—27 deg.13', 101 deg.13'. Iglesias.—27 deg.34', 101 deg.20'. Jaco.—27 deg.50', 103 deg.55'. Jimenez.—29 deg.04', 100 deg.42'. La Babia.—28 deg.33', 102 deg.03'. La Gacha.—28 deg.09', 101 deg.31'. La Mariposa.—28 deg.12', 101 deg.49'. La Ventura.—24 deg.48', 100 deg.38'. Las Delicias.—26 deg.10', 102 deg.49'. Las Margaritas.—28 deg.42', 101 deg.14'. Mesa de Tablas.—25 deg.14', 100 deg.24'. Muzquiz.—27 deg.53', 101 deg.32'. Nava.—28 deg.25', 100 deg.46'. Ocampo.—27 deg.22', 102 deg.26'. Paila.—25 deg.38', 102 deg.09'. Parras.—25 deg.25', 102 deg.12'. Piedras Blanca.—29 deg.02', 102 deg.33'. Piedras Negras.—28 deg.43', 100 deg.32'. Sabinas.—27 deg.52', 101 deg.07'. Saltillo.—25 deg.26', 101 deg.00'. San Antonio de las Alazanas.—25 deg.16', 100 deg.37'. San Buenaventura.—27 deg.06', 101 deg.32'. San Francisco.—27 deg.37', 102 deg.37'. San Geronimo.—28 deg.30', 101 deg.48'. San Isidro.—27 deg.33', 102 deg.27'. San Juan de Sabinas.—27 deg.55', 101 deg.17'. San Lorenzo.—25 deg.28', 102 deg.12'. San Marcos.—26 deg.41', 102 deg.07'. San Miguel.—29 deg.14', 101 deg.22'. San Pedro de las Colonias (San Pedro).—25 deg.45', 102 deg.58'. Santa Teresa.—26 deg.27', 101 deg.21'. Tanque Alvarez.—27 deg.56', 102 deg.38'. Torreon.—25 deg.33', 103 deg.27'. Villa Acuna.—29 deg.19', 100 deg.56'.

For mountain ranges, the approximate center of the highland of each range is used as the point of reference.

Pico de Jimulco.—25 deg.08', 103 deg.16'. Sierra del Carmen.—29 deg.00', 102 deg.30'. Sierra de la Encantada.—28 deg.25', 102 deg.30'. Sierra de Guadalupe.—25 deg.13', 101 deg.32'. Sierra del Pino.—28 deg.15', 103 deg.03'. Sierra de la Madera.—27 deg.03', 102 deg.30'.

DISTRIBUTION OF THE KNOWN BREEDING BIRDS OF COAHUILA

Topography and Climate

Coahuila lies in the broad northern end of Mexico, immediately east of the center of the continental mass. The mountains of Coahuila, which are part of the Rocky Mountain-Sierra Madre Oriental Axis, extend in a north-south direction and divide the lower lands into two areas, a larger one, a part of the Central Plateau, to the westward and a smaller one, a part of the Gulf Coastal Plain, to the northeastward. Most of the mountains of Coahuila do not exceed 6000 feet in elevation. A few peaks such as in the Sierra del Carmen, Sierra del Pino, Sierra de la Madera, Sierra Encarnacion, and Sierra de Guadalupe, are more than 9000 feet high, and some more than 10,000 feet in elevation occur near the southeastern border of the State in the Sierra Madre Oriental. The Gulf Coastal Plain of northeastern Coahuila ranges from 700 feet to 1800 feet. The desert plains of the Mesa del Norte to the west of the Sierra Madre Oriental Axis are higher, more rugged, and more dissected than those of the Coastal Plain and are marked by scattered desert ranges, buttes, low hills, and knobs.

Most of Coahuila is arid. Rainfall is moderate on the Coastal Plain and is low west of the central mountains. Baker (1956:128-132) and Muller (1947:35-38) give good summary discussions of the topography and climate of Coahuila, and the reader is referred to these for further details.

Biotic Communities

Baker (1956:132) stated that "the biotic communities of Coahuila might be divided in accordance with the three physiographic areas of the State: the Gulf Coastal Plain, the mountains, and the desert plains of the Mesa del Norte." Goldman and Moore (1945:348-349) listed three biotic provinces in Coahuila: the Chihuahua-Zacatecas Biotic Province, in the western half of the State; the Tamaulipas Biotic Province, in the northeastern part of the State; and the Sierra Madre Oriental Biotic Province, in the southeastern part of the State. Merriam (1898) noted that definable portions of the Lower Sonoran Life-zone, the Upper Sonoran Life-zone, the Transition Life-zone, and the Canadian Life-zone can be distinguished in Coahuila. In my study of the distribution of the avifauna of Coahuila, I found that the three biotic provinces listed by Goldman and Moore (op. cit.) as major headings and Merriam's life-zones as supplements are the most satisfactory divisions.

The Tamaulipas Biotic Province.—This province consists of lowland plains and a few isolated ranges of low mountains. The average rainfall is 23 inches (Baker, 1956:130), considerably more than the 10 inches falling in the western part of the State. In the northeastern section of the State, the moderate amount of rain, mesic vegetation, and close proximity to the eastern migration pathway importantly influence the types of birds found.

In Coahuila, the Coastal Plain and the Rio Grande Plain lie in the path of the northernmost trade winds; they account for the more humid eastern slopes of the mountains of the northeastern part of the State (Muller, 1947:38). Nevertheless, the northeastern section of the State is semi-arid and can be placed in the Lower Sonoran Life-zone. The vegetation consists mainly of thorny shrubs and small trees with a liberal admixture of yuccas, agaves, and cacti, and closely resembles that of southern Texas, northern Nuevo Leon, and northern Tamaulipas (Goldman and Moore, 1945:354).

Migrant birds from the eastern flyway and less commonly migrants from western North America pass through northeastern Coahuila. The following breeding birds seem to be associated with this province: Harris' Hawk, Bobwhite (C. v. texanus), Scaled Quail (C. s. castanogastris), Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Groove-billed Ani, Green Kingfisher, Golden-fronted Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker (D. v. intermedius), Ladder-backed Woodpecker (D. s. symplectus), Vermilion Flycatcher (P. r. mexicanus), Cave Swallow, Gray-breasted Martin, Black-crested Titmouse (P. a. atricristatus), Carolina Wren, Long-billed Thrasher, Curve-billed Thrasher (T. c. oberholseri), Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (P. c. caerulea), Hutton's Vireo (V. h. carolinae), Bell's Vireo (V. b. medius), Yellow-throated Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (P. r. rubra), Olive Sparrow, Cassin's Sparrow, and Black-throated Sparrow (A. b. bilineata).

The Sierra Madre Oriental Biotic Province.—Southeastern Coahuila is in this province that includes mountains in southern Nuevo Leon, southwestern Tamaulipas, and eastern San Luis Potosi. Areas classifiable as Canadian, Transition, Upper Sonoran, and Lower Sonoran in life-zone are found in this province. This region of Coahuila receives the highest rainfall; this is evidenced by the luxuriant growth of boreal plants living in the higher places there (Baker, 1956:131). Spruce, pine, and aspen occur at higher elevations and oaks, thorny shrubs, and grasslands are present lower down.

Birds of central or southern Mexico reach the southern part of Coahuila; the Thick-billed Parrot, Hooded Yellowthroat, and Rufous-capped Atlapetes are examples. A boreal forest on the higher slopes of the mountains of southeastern Coahuila is suitable for certain northern birds such as Goshawks, Pine Siskins, and Brown Creepers. Some species of birds ordinarily associated with western North America are present in Coahuila only in its southeastern part; striking examples of disjunction in range thus occur. Probably sometime in the past these birds were distributed throughout most of Coahuila. When this area became arid, these species disappeared from all of Coahuila except from the high mountains in the southeastern part. For example, Steller's Jay and the Scrub Jay are absent in the Sierra del Carmen of northwestern Coahuila but do occur in southeastern Coahuila.

Migrants of the eastern flyway as well as migrants associated with western North America pass through this section of Coahuila. The following breeding birds are associated with this province: Goshawk, Band-tailed Pigeon, Thick-billed Parrot, Golden-fronted Woodpecker, Ladder-backed Woodpecker (D. s. giraudi), Pine Flycatcher, Buff-breasted Flycatcher, Vermilion Flycatcher (P. r. mexicanus), Steller's Jay, Scrub Jay, Mexican Chickadee, Black-crested Titmouse (P. a. atricristatus), Cactus Wren (C. b. guttatus), Robin, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (P. c. amoenissima), Hutton's Vireo (V. h. stephensi), Bell's Vireo (V. b. medius), Hartlaub's Warbler, Summer Tanager (P. r. cooperi), Pine Siskin, Rufous-capped Atlaptes, and Black-throated Sparrow (A. b. grisea).

The Chihuahua-Zacatecas Biotic Province.—This province in Coahuila covers the arid, interior, western desert area; it consists of rolling plains with mountains that rise islandlike above the general surface. Some of the mountains, such as in the Sierra del Carmen and the Sierra del Pino, are more than 9000 feet high. The major part of this biotic area lies within the Lower Sonoran Life-zone. Areas of the Transition and Canadian life-zones are present on some of the higher mountains; their discontinuity results in a discontinuous distribution of the conifer-dependent avifauna.

The large desert restricts the movement of birds considerably. Major results of this include isolation of certain populations and absence of others in the boreal islands. For example, Miller (1955a:157) noted that the "dispersal of conifer-belt birds to and from the Sierra del Carmen, although not as difficult as to well separated islands [such as off the coast of Baja California], is nevertheless a formidable matter to accomplish across the great deserts of Texas, Chihuahua, and Coahuila." Miller (loc. cit.) noted also that the avifauna of the Sierra del Carmen, due to its insularity, is unbalanced and stated that "as a consequence of unbalance, species that are present show ecologic extension and unusual numerical relations." At least in this type of environment, an extension or expansion of the ecologic habits of the related types takes place when some species are absent.

This isolation influences local variation among some of the birds found in Coahuila. Niches elsewhere usually occupied by certain species, absent here, are occupied by other species. These other species thus enjoy an ecologic freedom and can expand their niches in the absence of related types of similar ecologic scope. For example, Miller (1955a:158-159) reported that Hairy Woodpeckers occurred only casually in the Sierra del Carmen and that the Ladder-backed Woodpecker has spread out and seems to occupy the niche or niches usually characteristic of the Hairy Woodpecker. Changes usually thought of as of subspecific character seem to be taking place between the Ladder-backed Woodpeckers of the Sierra del Carmen and of other areas, possibly because the Ladder-backed Woodpecker in the Sierra del Carmen is extending its ecologic sphere more than in areas where the Hairy Woodpecker exists. Restriction in dispersal due to geographic isolation has probably hindered gene flow, thus allowing rapid local adaptation, recognizable in variation at the infraspecific level. Miller (loc. cit.) listed other birds that have expanded their ecologic scope; his work should be referred to for further details.

The following birds are associated with this province: Black Vulture, Scaled Quail (C. s. pallida), Turkey, Elf Owl, Green Kingfisher, Hairy Woodpecker (D. v. icastus), Ladder-backed Woodpecker (D. s. cactophilus), Wied's Crested Flycatcher, Buff-breasted Flycatcher, Vermilion Flycatcher (P. r. flammeus), Black-crested Titmouse (P. a. dysleptus), Cactus Wren (C. b. couesi), Curve-billed Thrasher (T. c. celsum), Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (P. c. amoenissima), Hutton's Vireo (V. h. carolinae), Summer Tanager (P. r. cooperi), and Black-throated Sparrow (A. b. opuntia). Several kinds of birds, such as the Band-tailed Pigeon, occur in the "pine islands" in this province rather than on the desert floor.

There remain several kinds of birds that are not especially associated with any one or two of the above-named provinces. These birds are widely distributed and vary geographically without corresponding to the Biotic Provinces. Examples of these species are: Black Phoebe (S. n. semiatra in northern Coahuila; S. n. nigricans in southern Coahuila), Violet-green Swallow (T. t. lepida in northwestern Coahuila; T. t. thalassina in southeastern Coahuila), Black-eared Bushtit (P. m. lloydi in northern Coahuila; P. m. iulus in southeastern Coahuila), White-breasted Nuthatch (S. c. nelsoni in northern Coahuila; S. c. mexicana in southern Coahuila), Brown-throated Wren (T. b. cahooni in northern Coahuila; T. b. compositus in southern Coahuila), Crissal Thrasher (T. d. dorsale in northern Coahuila; T. d. dumosum in southern Coahuila), and Rufous-crowned Sparrow (A. r. tenuirostris in northern Coahuila; A. r. boucardi in southern Coahuila).

Some representatives of the avifauna of the central and southern sections of the Central Plateau reach southwestern Coahuila. The subspecies squamata of the Scaled Quail and eurhyncha of the Blue Grosbeak are examples. Each in Coahuila seems to be at the northern limit of its range.

In summary, there are three associations of vegetation in Coahuila and each has characteristic birds. Gross climate and topography, through their influence on vegetation, are the prime factors in the distribution and kinds of birds in the State. Some birds of central and southern Mexico reach southeastern and southwestern Coahuila. Representatives of the Gulf Coastal Plain in Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon as well as migrants of the eastern flyway occur in northeastern Coahuila. Most of the species that occur in Coahuila seem to be associated with western North America. The aridity of western Coahuila restricts, to a large extent, the diversity of the breeding populations of its avifauna. Xeric conditions surrounding some of the higher mountains are barriers to movement of some species.

ORIGIN OF BREEDING BIRDS OF COAHUILA

Probably beginning in the late Pliocene and ending in the Ice Age (Griscom, 1950:379) the refrigeration of climate in the Northern Hemisphere initiated a period of southward withdrawal of birds from the northern part of North America. Some members of the avifauna of Coahuila probably reached the State in this time. When the continental deserts were formed, or reformed, many tropical and subtropical Middle American species were forced to leave Coahuila. Species associated with arid conditions found their way there. Many representatives of the Old World element also seem to have found their way to the State during the refrigeration of climate in the Northern Hemisphere. The separation of North and South America in the greater part of the Tertiary (Mayr, 1946:9) that deterred mammals from intercontinental colonization seemingly did not hinder birds. Some South American species moved northward into Mexico, all the way north to Coahuila.

The avifauna of Coahuila today is a mixture of the several mentioned elements. Of the breeding populations, 43 per cent breed in the western rather than the eastern United States, 6 per cent breed in the eastern rather than the western United States, 30 per cent breed in both the eastern and western United States, 20 per cent are restricted to the Republic of Mexico, and the southern parts of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, and 1 per cent (Aztec Thrush and Rufous-capped Atlapetes) is endemic to the Republic of Mexico.

It is instructive to consider also the origin of avifaunal elements at the level of Family. According to Mayr (1946:11) most North American families and subfamilies clearly originated in the Old World, in South America, or from a North American element that developed in the partial isolation of North America in the Tertiary. Three other elements, the Panboreal, the Pan-American, and the Pantropical are represented by some North American families and subfamilies. Because of the obscurity of the place of origin of certain groups, an additional unanalyzed element must be recognized.

The Caprimulgidae and Picidae probably originated in North America (Mayr, 1946:26). Although the Psittacidae are Pantropical in distribution, indications are that they probably originated in the Old World (Mayr, 1946:17). The Phasianidae, Turdidae (Myadestes-Hylocichla group), and Sylviidae (Polioptilinae) seem to have originated in the Old World (Mayr, 1946:27). However, Mayr considered these groups to have had a secondary center of proliferation in North America, and I thus consider these groups to have a North American origin. Mayr (1946:27) considered the Trochilidae, Tyrannidae, and Icteridae Pan-American in distribution; however, he suggested that they probably originated in South America, and I here treat them as South American in origin. No representatives of the Pan-American element that probably originated in North America have been recorded from Coahuila nor have members of the Panboreal element (Mayr, 1946:11) been recorded in the State. According to my analysis, representatives of families of birds known to breed in Coahuila and those that probably breed there thus seem to have been derived historically from the following sources:

Old World 24.7% North America 37.0% South America 24.0% Unanalyzed 14.3%

Mayr (1946:28-29) gave examples of analysis by geographic origin of the breeding species of several districts of North America. For instance, at Yakutat Bay in southeastern Alaska the South American element of breeding passerine species was 3 per cent, the North American element 39 per cent, and the Old World element 58 per cent whereas at Sonora, Mexico, the South American element of breeding passerine species was 27 per cent, the North American element 52 per cent, and the Old World element 21 per cent. The breeding avifauna of Coahuila is thus in line with Mayr's analysis, resembling that of Sonora to a considerable degree at the taxonomic level of Family.

ACCOUNTS OF SPECIES

**Podiceps caspicus (Hablizl).—On March 31, 1952, Olmstead saw "many Eared Grebes" on a pond 10 mi. E Hacienda La Mariposa. This is the first record of the Eared Grebe in Coahuila.

[Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin.—The White Pelican is uncommon, if not rare; Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:21) list it.]

Anhinga anhinga (Linnaeus).—On March 31, 1952, Olmstead noted an Anhinga perched on a submerged fence post in a lake 10 mi. E Hacienda La Mariposa. This is the first record of the Anhinga in Coahuila.

**Ardea herodias Linnaeus.—Two subspecies of the Great Blue Heron, treganzai and wardi, have been recorded from Coahuila. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:27) listed A. h. treganzai from the State; presumably this subspecies occurs widely in low density. They (loc. cit.) remarked also that a record of A. h. wardi from Coahuila "cannot be allocated subspecifically."

Dickerman saw two Great Blue Herons in a marshy area at San Marcos (=20 mi. S Cuatro Cienegas) on May 4, 1954. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:12) noted the Great Blue Heron "near Boquillas [Texas], along the Rio Grande, on May 10 and 15...."

**Butorides virescens (Linnaeus).—Olmstead saw a Green Heron at Boquillas, 700 feet, on March 10, 1952. Findley reported seeing Green Herons 2 mi. W Jimenez, 850 feet, on June 19, 1952, and 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952.

**Casmerodius albus egretta (Gmelin).—The Common Egret is an uncommon migrant in Coahuila. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:30) recorded C. a. egretta from the "extreme northern part" of Coahuila. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:12) saw the Common Egret "along the Rio Grande on the Graham ranch just west of Boquillas," Texas, on May 16, which might well be the locality to which Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore referred. Olmstead saw a Common Egret at Don Martin on March 22, 1952.

**Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli (Gmelin).—This subspecies of the Black-crowned Night Heron was listed from the "extreme north" section of Coahuila by Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:32). Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:14) saw three Black-crowned Night Herons along the Rio Grande about two miles west of Boquillas, Texas, on May 16. This record probably represents the locality to which Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (op. cit.) referred.

Nyctanassa violacea violacea (Linnaeus).—A Yellow-crowned Night Heron in immediate post-juvenile plumage, No. 36413, was obtained on September 7, 1958, 16 km. south of Cuatro Cienegas, by W. L. Minckley. According to him the bird was accompanied by "several" other herons seemingly of the same species and condition of plumage. The species seems not to have been recorded previously from Coahuila [Eds.].

Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett).—Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:34) listed the American Bittern from the "extreme northern part" of Coahuila. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:14) saw two representatives of this bittern "along the Rio Grande not far from Hot Springs," Texas, on May 15. I suspect that this is the locality to which Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (loc. cit.) referred.

[Branta canadensis leucopareia (Brandt).—Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:38) listed B. c. leucopareia from "northern Coahuila."]

**Dendrocygna autumnalis (Linnaeus).—Evenden (1952:112) reported a Black-bellied Tree Duck standing beside a reservoir in southern Coahuila along the railroad between Saltillo, Coahuila, and Avalos, Zacatecas.

**Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus.—On March 30, 1952, Olmstead recorded a Mallard from 10 mi. E Hacienda La Mariposa, 2000 feet.

Anas strepera Linnaeus.—Specimen examined: one, [Male] 31016, from 10 mi. E Hacienda La Mariposa, 2000 ft., March 30, 1952.

The Gadwell is not an uncommon spring migrant; Olmstead saw it 10 mi. E Hacienda La Mariposa on March 30, 1952, and Baker observed it 8 mi. N and 4 mi. W Muzquiz on March 30, 1952. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:42) recorded the Gadwell from Coahuila.

Anas acuta Linnaeus.—Miller (1955a:161) took a Pintail on September 10 in the Sierra del Carmen.

Anas carolinensis Gmelin.—The Green-winged Teal has been recorded from northern Coahuila. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:15) recorded two mated pairs along the Rio Grande at Lajitas, Texas, on May 10. Miller (1955a:161) remarked that a male of the year was taken in the Sierra del Carmen on September 4.

Anas discors discors Linnaeus.—Specimens examined: total 2: sex ? 31646 and sex ? 31647 from .5 mi. S Las Margaritas, 2800 ft., September 28, 1953.

The Blue-winged Teal is a fairly common spring and fall migrant in Coahuila. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:15) noted the Blue-winged Teal at several different localities along the Rio Grande: "on May 8, four males and several females resting on a mud bar along the Rio Grande near Hot Springs [Texas]; ... on May 7, three pairs in a flock, along the Rio Grande, Castalon [Texas]; ... and on May 20, three pairs, along the Rio Grande, San Vicente [Texas]." Miller (1955a:161) reported that Marsh took a male of the year in the Sierra del Carmen on September 10. Dickerman observed Blue-winged Teal 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos on May 18, 1954. Olmstead listed Blue-winged Teal from 10 mi. E Hacienda La Mariposa on March 30, 1952. Nos. 31646-31647, which are probably females, represent the subspecies discors because the light edgings of their crowns are definitely present; the areas of their backs are brownish, not more intensively black, and their underparts are brownish, less blackish.

**Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium Snyder and Lumsden.—Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:15) listed several localities along the Rio Grande in Brewster County, Texas, where Cinnamon Teal were seen. I suspect that Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:41) referred to those localities. Dickerman saw four pairs of Cinnamon Teal 14 mi. E and 16 mi. N Ocampo on May 9, 1954, and also saw Cinnamon Teal 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos on May 18, 1954.

Mareca americana (Gmelin).—The American Widgeon is a fairly common spring migrant in Coahuila. Olmstead observed this duck 10 mi. E Hacienda La Mariposa on March 30, 1952. Dickerman saw five to seven American Widgeons 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos on May 18, 1954.

Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus).—The Shoveler is a spring and probably fall migrant in Coahuila, and has been observed at several localities. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:16) saw two pairs along the Rio Grande at Castalon, Texas, On May 7 and saw "a fair-sized flock along the Rio Grande on the Johnson ranch [in Texas] on May 13 and 14." Dickerman saw 12 pairs of Shovelers on two ponds 14 mi. E and 16 mi. N Ocampo on May 9, 1954, and 10 more 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos on May 18.

Aythya affinis (Eyton).—Olmstead observed Lesser Scaup 10 mi. E Hacienda La Mariposa on March 30, 1952.

[Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus).—Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:44) listed the Bufflehead from the State.]

*Cathartes aura aura (Linnaeus).—Specimen examined: one, [Male] 31017 (skeleton only), from 4 mi. W Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 ft., March 26, 1952.

Miller (1955a:161) took a female Turkey Vulture, which was in breeding condition, in the Sierra del Carmen on April 17 and stated that "until more statistics are available on breeding birds of northern Coahuila, they must be considered C. a. aura...." Amadon and Phillips (1947:577) took a Turkey Vulture at Las Delicias which represented C. a. aura. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:188) stated that this species was not uncommon, and was noted each day soaring overhead both in the valleys and over the tops of the ridges of southeastern Coahuila.

Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:47) listed C. a. teter from Coahuila. Miller (1955a:161) remarked that the subspecies aura and teter might intergrade in the Sierra del Carmen. At the present time it is possible to say only that teter is present in Coahuila in migrant and wintering populations, but the extent to which teter remains in northeastern Mexico is undetermined. However, all indications point to this area as being the region where aura and teter intergrade.

**Coragyps atratus (Bechstein).—The Black Vulture is locally common throughout most of eastern Coahuila but is uncommon in the western part of the State. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:25) noted the Black Vulture "regularly east of Saltillo in low country," but did not see Black Vultures at San Pedro or elsewhere in southwestern Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:188) stated that "the Black Vulture apparently avoids to a large extent the higher altitudes, and only rarely was it observed at all, even about Saltillo." Olmstead saw Black Vultures 8 mi. N and 4 mi. W Muzquiz, 1800 feet, on March 31, 1952, and Dickerman observed a flock at La Gacha (=Rancho La Coucha), 1600 feet, on December 2, 1953.

**Accipiter gentilis (Linnaeus).—On July 6, 1955, Hardy saw a Goshawk 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas; this is the first record of occurrence of this species from northeastern Mexico.

*Accipiter striatus velox (Wilson).—Specimen examined: one, [Female] 31018, from along the Rio Grande (=Boquillas), 700 ft., March 10, 1952, measurements: wing, 207 mm.; tail, 171 mm.; tarsus, 53 mm.; culmen, 12 mm.

Our specimen of the Sharp-shinned Hawk is referred to velox on the basis of the reddish, maculated breast, sides, and thighs. The collector's field notes recorded the iris as blood-red. Marsh and Stevenson (1938:286) thought that this subspecies was resident in the pine and Douglas-fir forest of upper Vivoras Canyon of the Sierra del Carmen at 8500 feet, where Marsh observed a family group including three immature birds. Friedmann (1950:196) indicated that the immature male obtained by Marsh and Stevenson is A. s. suttoni; Miller (1955a:161), nevertheless, remarked that this male has well barred feathers and thus is velox. Miller (loc. cit.) obtained also an adult male of A. s. velox in the Sierra del Carmen at 7000 feet on April 18.

**Accipiter striatus suttoni van Rossem.—Specimen examined: one, [Male] 32626, from 13 mi. E San Antonio, 9950 ft., July 6, 1955, measurements: wing, 186 mm.; tail, 144 mm.; tarsus, 49 mm.; culmen, 11 mm.; weight, 103 gms.

The recording of A. s. suttoni in Coahuila by Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:52), seems to have been based on their knowledge of the specimen earlier mentioned by Friedmann (1950:196) and later identified by Miller (1955a:161) as A. s. velox. Therefore the KU specimen seems to be the first record of A. s. suttoni in Coahuila. The size of its testes (right, 2.5x4 mm.; left, 3x4 mm.) does not indicate breeding; however, the time of the year in which it was obtained suggests that it may have been a resident.

*Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte).—Miller (1955a:161) found Cooper's Hawk breeding in the Sierra del Carmen on April 26.

Buteo jamaicensis borealis (Gmelin).—The Red-tailed Hawk is common in Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:188) noted the Red-tailed Hawk on the higher ridges above an elevation of 6000 feet in southeastern Coahuila. On April 17, Burleigh and Lowery (loc. cit.) saw two Red-tailed Hawks "in the open valley south of Diamante Pass" and on April 20, "just outside of Saltillo," these workers obtained an immature male that was referred to B. j. borealis.

**Buteo jamaicensis fuertesi Sutton and Van Tyne.—Miller (1955a:161) took a male Red-tailed Hawk, on April 14 at 7000 feet in the Sierra del Carmen, that was referred to as B. j. fuertesi. To my knowledge, there are no other records of this subspecies from Coahuila, but this must be the resident form over the bulk of western Coahuila.

There are several sight records of the Red-tailed Hawk. Olmstead saw one 16 mi. S Boquillas, 1600 feet, on March 6, 1952; Dickerman saw a Red-tailed Hawk 16 mi. E and 18 mi. N Ocampo on May 7, 1954, one 20 mi. S Ocampo on April 4, 1954; and an immature at Saltillo on January 17, 1954.

Buteo platypterus platypterus (Vieillot).—Specimen examined: one, [Male] 32628, from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9950 ft., July 6, 1955.

The Broad-winged Hawk is rare in Coahuila. No. 32628, if a migrant, was retarded from moving northward by the loss of its right foot and distal one-third of its tarsus. Packard (1957:371) reported this specimen as the first record of the species in Coahuila.

*Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte.Specimens examined: total 2: [Male] 32022 from 2 mi. W Jimenez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952; and [Male] 29555 from Iglesias (=15 mi. SW Sabinas), 1000 ft., August 22, 1949.

Swainson's Hawk is not common in Coahuila. The size of the testes (6x4 mm.) of No. 32022, the adult plumage, and the date (June 20) on which it was obtained suggest that it was a breeding bird. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:55) reported that this species breeds as far east as Durango and Chihuahua. Findley saw a Swainson's Hawk 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952.

**Buteo albonotatus Kaup.—The Zone-tailed Hawk is uncommon in Coahuila. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:26) noted the species "a few miles west of Saltillo ... on January 30."

Buteo regalis (Gray).—The Ferruginous Hawk is uncommon in Coahuila. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:26) noted a single bird "not far from Parras, on January 30."

Buteo nitidus (Latham).—Evenden (1952:112) saw a Gray Hawk one mile northeast of Saltillo, at Ramos Arizpe on March 4. Although there are no other records of the Gray Hawk from Coahuila, its occurrence in the State would be expected because this species has been recorded from Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico (Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore, 1950:57).

**Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi (Audubon).—Harris' Hawk is fairly common in southern Coahuila. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:26) stated that Harris' Hawk "was one of the few birds noted repeatedly in ... southern Coahuila...."

Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus).—The Marsh Hawk is a common migrant and winter visitant in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:161) remarked that the Marsh Hawk was "seen in northward migratory flight across the desert east of the Sierra del Carmen on March 31 and on April 11 along the west face of Loomis Peak at 8800 feet." Olmstead saw a female Marsh Hawk 1 mi. W San Buenaventura on April 2, 1952. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:188) noted the Marsh Hawk "about Saltillo" and "above the summit of Diamante Pass at about 8,000 feet" on April 14. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:26) noted wintering Marsh Hawks "near San Pedro."

Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus).—Miller (1955a:161) reported seeing an Osprey on April 9 in Corte Madera Canyon, "apparently in migration;" this is the only record from Coahuila.

**Caracara cheriway (Jacquin).—From the few records in the literature, I judge that the Caracara is uncommon in Coahuila. Evenden (1952:113) saw three Caracaras "south of Saltillo" on March 5. Baker saw a Caracara in the Sierra del Pino (=6 mi. NW Tanque Alvarez), 3400 feet, on July 6, 1953. No specimens of the Caracara have been taken from Coahuila.

Falco mexicanus Schlegel.—Specimen examined: one, [Male] 31596, from Saltillo, January 10, 1954.

The Prairie Falcon is an uncommon winter visitant in Coahuila. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:65) indicated that Falco mexicanus winters south to Sonora, Oaxaca, Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas, Auguascalientes, Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas.

No. 31596 is the first recorded specimen of the Prairie Falcon from Coahuila. The bird was heavily parasitized by worms in the mesenteries and seems to be an adult. Although its nuchal collar, as in immatures, is washed with pale cinnamon-buff, its thighs are not heavily marked with dark brown spots. The superciliary lines have blackish rather than brownish streaks, and the scapulars do not have four or five dark bars (Friedmann, 1950:624).

Falco columbarius bendirei Swann.—Specimen examined: one, [Male] 31634, from Don Martin Dam (=Rio Salado), November 27, 1953, measurements: wing, 191 mm.; tail, 111 mm.; tarsus, 37 mm.; culmen, 12 mm.; testes, 3x1 mm.

The Pigeon Hawk seems to be uncommon in Coahuila. No. 31634, the first record of this species in Coahuila, has pale gray interspaces on the rectrices of its tail that are definitely wider than the three black bands, indicating affinity with bendirei (Friedmann, 1950:702). Our bird was obtained near the base of the Don Martin Dam of the Rio Salado, and was observed hunting dragonflies over the water.

Falco sparverius sparverius Linnaeus.—Specimen examined: one, [Male] 31648, from the north foot of Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5 mi. W General Cepeda), 6400 ft., April 17, 1953, weight, 104 gms.

The Sparrow Hawk is locally common in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:162) noted the species occasionally in the lower canyon areas of the Sierra del Carmen at 5000 feet from April 20 to 28. Dickerman saw two Sparrow Hawks in the Sierra del Pino on May 12, 1954. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:27) took a male at La Rosa on January 30 that was typical for F. s. sparverius. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:188) noted Sparrow Hawks almost daily about Saltillo and infrequently in the open valley south of Diamante Pass; they took a female at Saltillo on April 22 that was assigned to F. s. sparverius.

*Colinus virginianus texanus (Lawrence).—Specimens examined: total 9: [Male] 29408 and [Female] 29409 from 1 mi. S, 9 mi. W Villa Acuna, April 2, 1950, weights, 169.5 and 174.7 gms., [Male] 29410 and [Female] [Female] 29411-29413 from 3 mi. W, 1 mi. S San Geronimo, April 9, 1950, weights, 152.6, 158.6, 158.2, 159.0, and 152.8 gms.; and [Male] [Male] 32032-32034 from 9 mi. S, 11 mi. E Sabinas, 1050 ft., June 13 and 14, 1952.

The Bobwhite is locally common in northeastern Coahuila. Aldrich and Duvall (1955:18) indicated that C. v. texanus has been recorded from two separate localities in northeastern Coahuila and from several localities in Texas along the Rio Grande. Findley saw Bobwhites 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952. The specimens of Bobwhite from 3 mi. W and 1 mi. S San Geronimo seem to extend the known range of texanus nearly 100 miles west. The sizes of the testes (11, 16, 15, 15 mm.) of Nos. 29408, 32032-32034, respectively, indicates breeding by the Bobwhite in Coahuila.

*Callipepla squamata pallida Brewster.—Specimens examined: total 16: [Male] 29414 from 1 mi. S, 13 mi. W Villa Acuna, April 4, 1950; [Male] [Male] 29415-29417 from 11 mi. W Hacienda San Miguel, 2200 ft., April 4, 1950, weights, 205.3, 198.6, and 182.7 gms.; [Female] [Female] 31019-31021 from 10 mi. S, 5 mi. E Boquillas, 1500 ft., March 2 and 4, 1952, weights, 184.4, 180 and 154.2 gms.; [Male] 34454 from 2 mi. SSE Castillon, 4050 ft., June 29, 1953, weight, 169 gms.; [Male] 29418 and [Female] 29419 from 8 mi. N, 2 mi. E La Babia, April 8, 1950; [Male] [Male] 32023-32024, [Male] 32026, [Female] 32025, and [Female] 32027 from 5 mi. N, 19 mi. W Cuatro Cienegas, 3250 ft., July 6, 1952; and [Male] 32640 from 2 mi. W Paila, July 3, 1955.

The Scaled Quail is common in Coahuila. The subspecies pallida occurs in northwestern Coahuila south to Sierra de los Alamitos. Intergrades of pallida, castanogastris, and squamata are present in the central part of the State. No. 32640, obtained 2 mi. W Paila, has some resemblance to squamata. Five specimens of pallida from the central part of Coahuila (5 mi. N and 19 mi. W Cuatro Cienegas), show little or no approach toward squamata. Miller (1955a:162) stated that two of the Scaled Quail collected in the Sierra del Carmen show no approach to the race castanogastris of eastern Coahuila nor to C. s. squamata of southern Coahuila. From the specimens that I have examined, I judge that the range of pallida extends as far south as the Sierra de los Alamitos rather than only to the northwestern part of Coahuila as reported by Aldrich and Duvall (1955:17). In northeastern Coahuila pallida seems to intergrade with castanogastris; No. 29414 has an indistinct rusty chestnut patch on its abdomen, thus resembling castanogastris.

The sizes of the testes (9-12 mm.) and of the largest ova (14 mm. in diameter and an egg 23 mm. long) of birds labeled with reference to Cuatro Cienegas indicate breeding activity.

**Callipepla squamata castanogastris Brewster.—Specimen examined: one, [Male] 32028, from 9 mi. S, 11 mi. E Sabinas, June 14, 1952.

Typical representatives of C. s. castanogastris in Coahuila occur only in the extreme northeastern section of the State, and most specimens of the Scaled Quail from northeastern Coahuila are intergrades between pallida and castanogastris.

No. 32028 is identified as C. s. castanogastris because there is a distinct rusty chestnut patch on its abdomen. This patch, nevertheless, is not so large as in a more nearly typical male C. s. castanogastris from 15 mi. NNW Anahuac, Nuevo Leon.

**Callipepla squamata squamata (Vigors).—Specimens examined: total 2: [Male] 30231 and [Female] 30232 from 10 mi. NW San Lorenzo, 4200 ft., February 3, 1951.

The subspecies squamata occurs in southern Coahuila. Amadon and Phillips (1947:577) took a Scaled Quail at Las Delicias on August 18 that "was only two-thirds grown, though well able to fly" and obtained an adult 19 mi. W Saltillo that was typical squamata. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:188) stated that C. s. squamata was one of the characteristic birds of the open desert country of southeastern Coahuila. Scaled Quail were seen by Burleigh and Lowery (loc. cit.) "about Saltillo and in the open valley south of Diamante Pass."

The breast and upper back of both specimens from 10 mi. NW San Lorenzo, are plumbeous-gray rather than pale dull gray. Also the lower back, rump, abdomen, forehead, and crown more closely resemble the subspecies squamata rather than C. s. pallida. However, the upper backs of both specimens are not so plumbeous-gray as on a male (32030) and a female (32031) of the subspecies squamata from 1 mi. N Chorro, Durango, 6450 ft., July 11, 1952. The two birds from Durango appear to be slightly darker than the Coahuilan specimens that approach the subspecies pallida.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:188-189) stated that one of their specimens of C. s. squamata obtained at Saltillo seems to be "very close to castanogastris, suggesting that southeastern Coahuila is in the region of intergradation between the two races." Aldrich and Duvall (1955:17) indicated that squamata and castanogastris intergrade near Sabinas. The two specimens that I have examined show no sign of approach toward castanogastris. More specimens of Scaled Quail from Coahuila are needed to permit accurate definition of the distribution of the subspecies.

*Cyrtonyx montezumae mearnsi Nelson.—The Harlequin Quail is locally common in Coahuila; C. m. mearnsi is present in northwestern Coahuila (Aldrich and Duvall, 1955:20). Miller (1955a:162) stated that an area in the head of Corte Madera Canyon of the Sierra del Carmen at 7500 feet was the principal location for C. m. mearnsi. He further suggested that the Harlequin Quail breeds in the Sierra del Carmen and remarked that Marsh took a male on September 7 at Jardin del Sur. He added that the occurrence of C. m. montezumae in northern Coahuila as reported by Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:79) is "possibly an error or was based on individual dark variants...." Baker noted the Harlequin Quail (unidentified to subspecies) 9 mi. W and 1 mi. S Villa Acuna, 1120 feet, on April 4, 1950.

*Cyrtonyx montezumae montezumae (Vigors).—This subspecies of the Harlequin Quail has been recorded from southeastern Coahuila. Ridgway and Friedmann (1946:396) listed C. m. montezumae from Saltillo. Baker saw a pair of Harlequin Quail (unidentified to subspecies) at San Antonio de las Alazanas on March 25, 1950. More collecting is necessary for an understanding of the distribution and intergradation of these subspecies in Coahuila.

*Meleagris gallopavo intermedia Sennett.—Specimens examined: total 4: [Female] 31022 from Fortin (=33 mi. N, 8 mi. W San Geronimo), 3300 ft., March 28, 1952, weight, 9 lbs.; [Female] 29420 from 3 mi. W, 1 mi. S San Geronimo, April 9, 1950, weight, 7 lbs.; and [Male] 29421 and [Female] 29422 from 3 mi. W, 2 mi. S San Geronimo, April 9, 1950, weights, 11.5 and 8.5 lbs.

The Turkey in Coahuila is restricted to the northern section of the State. Miller (1955a:162) remarked that the population of Turkeys in the Sierra del Carmen was sparse and did not range above 7500 feet into the highest pine-oak and Douglas fir areas. Baker saw Turkeys 4 mi. W Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 feet, on March 23, 1952. William Schaldach, Jr., noted 30 Turkeys "just west of Rancho San Geronimo" on April 9, 1950. Aldrich and Duvall (1955:22) indicated several localities in northern Coahuila where the Turkey occurs or occurred.

Grus canadensis (Linnaeus).—Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:28) remarked that a flock of Sandhill Cranes was heard "near Mayran ... on January 30."

Porzana carolina (Linnaeus).—The Sora is an uncommon spring and fall migrant in Coahuila. Amadon and Phillips (1947:577) obtained an adult male Sora at Las Delicias on August 15.

Fulica americana Gmelin.—The American Coot probably occurs in the State as a spring and fall migrant. Dickerman saw two coots 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos on May 18, 1954.

*Charadrius vociferus vociferus Linnaeus.—Specimen examined: one, [Male] 31023, from the Rio Grande (=17 mi. S Dryden, Terrell Co., Texas, in Coahuila), 600 ft., March 19, 1952, weight, 82.7 gms.

In Coahuila the Killdeer seems to be uncommon. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:28) remarked that it nested in Brewster County, Texas. The species probably nests in northern Coahuila as well; the lengths of the testes (left, 9 mm.; right, 4 mm.) of No. 31023 support this view.

Eupoda montana (Townsend).—Pitelka (1948:118) recorded one female Mountain Plover from Hipolito on February 23. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:28) reported that the Mountain Plover nested in Brewster County, Texas. Possibly Eupoda montana nests in northern Coahuila as well.

Numenius americanus parvus Bishop.—Specimens examined: total 3: [Male] 31434 and [Female] 35406 (skeleton only) from 8 mi. E, 2 mi. S Americanos, May 19, 1954, measurements: wing, 250, 258 mm.; tail, 96, 100 mm.; tarsus, 74, 81.5 mm.; culmen, 11.2, 16.5 mm.; [Male] gonad, 6x2 mm.; and [Female] 35400 (skeleton only) from 7 mi. W San Antonio de las Alazanas, January 11, 1954.

The Long-billed Curlew is not common in Coahuila. Dickerman obtained both the specimens from 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos out of a flock of 35. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:28) noted the Long-billed Curlew "near San Pedro ... [on] January 29."

Actitis macularia (Linnaeus).—The Spotted Sandpiper has been obtained from two localities in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:162) stated that an immature in fall migration was taken "at the tank in the western hills" of the Sierra del Carmen on September 4. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:189) found the Spotted Sandpiper "at the Chorro del Agua near Arteaga" on April 17 and 19.

Totanus melanoleucus (Gmelin).—Specimen examined: one, [Female] 31024, from the Rio Grande (=17 mi. S Dryden, Terrell Co., Texas, in Coahuila), 600 ft., March 18, 1952, weight, 224 gms.

The Greater Yellowlegs is an uncommon spring and probably fall migrant in Coahuila. No. 31024 is the first record of this species in Coahuila.

Totanus flavipes (Gmelin).—Miller (1955a:162) reported that Marsh took a Lesser Yellowlegs "at the tank in the western hills" of the Sierra del Carmen on September 4.

Erolia melanotos (Vieillot).—Miller (1955a:162) reported taking a Pectoral Sandpiper on September 4 "at the tank in the western hills" of the Sierra del Carmen.

[Erolia minutilla (Vieillot).—Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:99) listed the Least Sandpiper from Coahuila.]

*Recurvirostra americana Gmelin.—Specimens examined: total 2: [Male] 31433 and [Female] 31432 from 8 mi. E, 2 mi. S Americanos, May 19, 1954.

Van Hoose (1955:302) reported a small breeding colony of American Avocets 8 mi. E and 2 mi. S Americanos "on a large grassy playa traversed by rows of creosote (Larrea tridentata)." No. 31432 was taken from a nest containing four partly-incubated eggs. Van Hoose (loc. cit.) also reported that four eggs in a second nest contained well-developed, downy young.

Steganopus tricolor Vieillot.—Wilson's Phalarope occurs in Coahuila as a spring and probably fall migrant. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:31) saw the species several times along the Rio Grande. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:102) listed Steganopus tricolor from the Rio Grande along the borders of Chihuahua and Coahuila on May 10-16.

[Larus argentatus smithsonianus Coues.—Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:104) listed this subspecies of the Herring Gull from the State.]

[Larus delawarensis Ord.—Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:103) stated that the Ring-billed Gull occurs in Coahuila.]

*Columba fasciata fasciata Say.—Specimens examined: total 3: [Male] 35401 (skeleton only) from 22 mi. S and 5 mi. W Ocampo, 7000 ft., April 6, 1954; and [Male] 32035 and [Female] 32036 from 4 mi. N, 21 mi. W Cuatro Cienegas, 6200 ft., July 2, 1952.

The Band-tailed Pigeon is locally common in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:162) remarked that the Band-tailed Pigeon "was unaccountably rare in 1953" in the Sierra del Carmen, and said that a specimen was taken on August 7 in Vivoras Canyon. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:189) wrote that "small flocks were seen each day ... on the summit of Diamante Pass, but only on one occasion was a pair noted." Dickerman saw 10 Band-tailed Pigeons 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6000 feet, on April 4, 1954. The enlarged testes (17 mm.) of No. 32035, and an egg (38 mm. long) in No. 32036 show that the species breeds in central Coahuila.

*Zenaida asiatica asiatica (Linnaeus).—Specimen examined: one, [Female] 31025 (skeleton only), from 10 mi. S and 5 mi. E Boquillas, 1500 ft., March 4, 1952.

Miller (1955a:163) took a male White-winged Dove on April 23 "at the mouth of Boquillas Canyon at about 4900 feet" and remarked that this bird might either be a straggler or a representative of a normal breeding population (Z. a. asiatica). On January 29 and 30, Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:29) saw White-winged Doves several times in southern Coahuila along the highway from Saltillo to San Pedro.

**Zenaida asiatica mearnsi (Ridgway).—Amadon and Phillips (1947:577) obtained an adult White-winged Dove of this subspecies at Delicias on August 14.

Zenaidura macroura carolinensis (Linnaeus).—Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:117) listed this subspecies of the Mourning Dove as a spring and fall migrant on the "Central Plateau" (Coahuila is part of the "Central Plateau,"), "as proven by banding records not indicated in literature."

*Zenaidura macroura marginella (Woodhouse).—Specimen examined: one, [Female] 34455, from 1 mi. W Jaco, June 27, 1953.

Miller (1955a:163) reported Z. m. marginella as occurring commonly in the desert border and lower canyons at the base of the mountains of the Sierra del Carmen, "but it occasionally ranged up to 6000 feet in openings in the pine-oak belt." Burleigh and Lowery (1942:189) remarked that this dove was fairly plentiful in the open desert country "about Saltillo, and was ... noted in small numbers in Diamante Valley on April 17 and 19;" they also said that the Mourning Dove was not seen above an elevation of about 7500 feet. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:29) observed Mourning Doves along the highway across southern Coahuila. Mourning Doves were seen by Findley 2 mi. W Jimenez, 850 feet, on June 19, 1952, and 2 mi. S and 11 mi. E Nava, 810 feet, on June 15, 1952. Dickerman saw one in the Sierra del Pino on May 12, 1954. Findley saw more than one 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952, as did Dickerman at San Marcos (=20 mi. S Cuatro Cienegas) on May 4, 1954.

**Columbigallina passerina (Linnaeus).—The Ground Dove seems to be uncommon in Coahuila. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:34) saw a single Ground Dove fly across the Rio Grande into Coahuila at Lajitas, Texas, on May 10. Findley saw one 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952.

**Scardafella inca (Lesson).—The Inca Dove has been recorded from two localities in Coahuila. Hellmayr and Conover (1942:510) listed it from Sabinas. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:189) collected a male and female on April 16 and 19, respectively, "outside the city limits of Saltillo."

Leptotila verreauxi angelica Bangs and Penard.—Specimens examined: total 2: [Male] [Male] 31026-31027 (skeletons only) from 4 mi. W Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 ft., March 25, 1952.

The White-fronted Dove seems to be uncommon in Coahuila. Hellmayr and Conover (1942:570) listed L. v. angelica from Sabinas.

**Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha terrisi Moore.—Specimens examined: total 4: [Male] [Male] 31531-31532 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9345 ft., April 10, 1954, weights, 391.5 and 467.5 gms.; [Female] 31533 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 10,000 ft., April 10, 1954, weight, 466 gms.; and sex ? 31534 from Mesa de las Tablas, June, 1951.

The Thick-billed Parrot occurs in the southeastern section of the State, where it is fairly common. Moore (1947:27-28) described this parrot as Rhynchopsitta terrisi: he thought it differed decidedly from Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha. However, Hardy and Dickerman (1955:305-306) decided that uniting the two forms as a single species better expresses their relationship.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:189) reported seeing a small flock of Thick-billed Parrots on the summit of Diamante Pass. Dickerman, in his field notes, wrote that at a place 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9345 feet, a large flock of about 300 birds was in a spruce-fir-pine-aspen association.

*Coccyzus americanus americanus (Linnaeus).—Specimens examined: total 2: [Male] [Male] 32037-32038 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jimenez, 850 ft., June 19, 1952, measurements: wing, 141, 146 mm.; tail, 142, 149 mm.; tarsus, 27, 27 mm.; culmen, 25, 24 mm.

In Coahuila, the Yellow-billed Cuckoo seems to be uncommon. It occurs in the northeastern section of the State, in the Gulf Coastal Plain (Baker, 1956:128), and probably breeds there. One subspecies, americanus, has been recorded from Coahuila.

According to Ridgway (1916:13-17) the difference between C. a. americanus and C. a. occidentalis is size. His (loc. cit.) average measurements of males of occidentalis are: wing, 149.6 mm.; tail, 147.1 mm.; tarsus, 26.7 mm.; and culmen, 27.7 mm. whereas average measurements given by him of males of americanus are: wing, 143.6 mm.; tail, 140.7 mm.; tarsus, 25.2 mm.; and culmen, 26.4 mm. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:35) question the value of maintaining the subspecies occidentalis, because individuals of americanus and occidentalis are almost impossible to tell apart. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:132) stated that americanus occurs in eastern North America whereas occidentalis occurs in western North America. If the subspecies occidentalis exists, then Nos. 32037 and 32038 are, by size, americanus and No. 32038 is an intergrade between the two subspecies (or a large individual of americanus).

The Yellow-billed Cuckoo was seen also by Findley 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952, and by Dickerson at Torreon on July 2, 1955. The sizes of the testes of the birds from 12 mi. N and 12 mi. W Jimenez (9, 10 mm. long) and the date (June 19) on which they occurred there indicate that the birds possibly were breeding.

Coccyzus erythropthalmus (Wilson).—Miller (1955a:163) reported a migrant Black-billed Cuckoo taken in the maples and basswood near a water hole in the bottom of Boquillas Canyon in the Sierra del Carmen, 5200 feet, on April 22. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:132) reported that this cuckoo is presumably a regular transient in Mexico, but generally overlooked.

*Geococcyx californianus (Lesson).—Specimen examined: one, [Female] 32049, from 8 mi. N, 2 mi. W Piedras Negras, June 18, 1952.

Miller (1955a:163) heard several Roadrunners calling at Boquillas Canyon in the Sierra del Carmen, where he obtained two females. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:190) stated that the species proved to be "unexpectedly scarce" and was noted but once by them on April 22 when a single bird was observed in "the open desert west of Saltillo." Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:30) noted that the Roadrunner was not common anywhere in southern Coahuila; they obtained one female at San Pedro on January 29. The size of the largest ovum (15 mm. in diameter) of No. 32040 indicates that this species breeds in Coahuila.

*Crotophaga sulcirostris sulcirostris Swainson.—Specimen examined: one, [Female] 32039, from 2 mi. S, 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas, June 22, 1952.

No. 32039, obtained by Harrison B. Tordoff in a cypress woods along the shore of a lagoon, provides the first record of the Groove-billed Ani in Coahuila. The size of its largest ovum (10 mm. in diameter) and the date indicate breeding by this species in Coahuila.

**Tyto alba pratincola (Bonaparte).—The Barn Owl seems to be uncommon in Coahuila. To my knowledge, there are two records of the Barn Owl in Coahuila. Ridgway (1914:607) recorded this owl at the "head of Las Vacas Creek." Miller (1955a:163) heard the Barn Owl at 5000 feet in the oak belt on April 25 in the Sierra del Carmen.

*Otus asio suttoni Moore.—O. a. suttoni is found in the higher country of the Sierra del Carmen and western Coahuila. Miller (1955a:163) stated that Screech Owls were common in groves of oaks both at 7000 feet and 5000 feet in the Sierra del Carmen, and remarked that his series from the Sierra del Carmen matched well a series of suttoni from Chihuahua and Durango. Miller (1955a:163-164) also stated that Marsh took an adult at Jardin del Sur on August 28 and said that the specimen from the Sierra del Carmen referred to as cineraceus by Marsh and Stevenson (1938:286) agreed well with his series of suttoni. O. a. suttoni probably occurs no farther east than the Sierra del Carmen.

**Otus asio mccallii (Cassin).—Specimens examined: total 2: [Male] 32041 from 2 mi. W Jimenez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952; and sex ? 31645 from La Gacha, 1600 ft., December 9, 1953.

Three subspecies of the Screech Owl, Otus asio, occur in northeastern Mexico; two of these, suttoni and mccallii, occur in Coahuila, the latter in the eastern part. The third subspecies, O. a. semplei, occurs still farther east, for example in the state of Nuevo Leon on the Mesa del Chipinque 6 miles south of Monterrey (Sutton and Burleigh, 1939b:174).

Nos. 31645 and 32041 differ from semplei in that the tops of their heads do not appear to be solid blackish brown at a distance of four to five feet and in that the dark streakings of their backs and scapulars are not so heavy as in semplei. The mentioned specimens are brownish, not more black and white throughout as in suttoni nor are their toes heavily feathered (see Moore, 1941:154).

Findley observed a Screech Owl 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952. La Gacha would seem to represent the western extent of mccallii in Coahuila. O. a. mccallii and suttoni probably intergrade along the eastern slope of the Sierra del Carmen. Tordoff took No. 32041 near a tree that contained three young Screech Owls.

*Otus flammeolus flammeolus (Kaup).—Specimens examined: total 2: [Male] 31600 from 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6000 ft., April 4, 1954; and [Male] 31581 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9345 ft., April 9, 1954.

Miller (1955a:163) collected seven Flammulated Owls in the pines and oaks at 7000 feet in Carboneras Canyon and said that these owls were common there. Nos. 31600 and 31581 are suffused with cinnamoneous pigmentation, but represent the grayish phase, as described by Ridgway (1914:729). Van Hoose (1955:302) previously recorded Nos. 31600 and 31581 from Coahuila.

*Bubo virginianus pallescens Stone.—Specimens examined: total 2: [Female] 32042 from 2 mi. S, 12 mi. E Nava, June 15, 1952; measurements: wing, 367 mm.; tail, 233 mm.; culmen, 29 mm.; and [Male] 31677 from 1.5 mi. NE Las Margaritas, 3100 ft., May 31, 1954; measurements: wing, 345 mm.; tail, 213 mm.; culmen, 26 mm.; testes, 8 mm. long.

Miller (1955a:164) took a male Great Horned Owl in the Sierra del Carmen on April 22. Ridgway (1914:742) listed B. v. pallescens from Sabinas. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:30) obtained a female "near San Pedro" on January 29. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:143) recorded B. v. pallescens from Coahuila on February 24, May 26, and June 10. The record of B. v. mayensis from Las Delicias (Amadon and Phillips, 1947:578) has been reidentified by Webster and Orr (1958:141) as B. v. pallescens. Dickerman saw a Great Horned Owl in the Sierra del Pino on May 12,1954.

*Glaucidium gnoma californicum Sclater.—Specimen examined: one, [Male] 31582, from 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6500 ft., April 5, 1954, weight, 55 gms.

Concerning forms of Pygmy Owls, Miller (1955a:164) remarked that the best distinguishing characters of G. g. gnoma and californicum are tail length and wing length. The characters of No. 31582 (wing, 94 mm.; tail, 69 mm.) are clearly those of californicum and not those of gnoma. Miller (loc. cit.) remarked that he "encountered at least five different individuals, chiefly in the pine-oak at 7000 feet" and one in oaks and pinons at 5000 feet in Boquillas Canyon of the Sierra del Carmen. The size of the testes (left, 9x5 mm.; right, 7x4 mm.) of No. 31582 indicates good probability of breeding by the Pygmy Owl in the State.

**Micrathene whitneyi (Cooper).—Miller (1955a:164) heard the Elf Owl at close range in oaks at 5000 feet in Boquillas Canyon of the Sierra del Carmen on April 24.

**Speotyto cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte).—Specimens examined: total 3: [Female] 32043 from 3 mi. S, 9 mi. E Cuatro Cienegas, 2250 ft., June 30, 1952; [Male] 32653 from 6 mi. W San Antonio de las Alazanas, July 5, 1955; and [Male] 31602 from 14 mi. W San Antonio de las Alazanas, 6500 ft., January 7, 1954.

Although there are no records in Coahuila of specimens of Burrowing Owls north of 3 mi. S and 9 mi. E Cuatro Cienegas, this owl probably occurs in the northern section of the State. The records of Burrowing Owls from the southern part of Brewster County, Texas (Van Tyne and Sutton, 1937:38), suggest such occurrence. No. 31602 was shot in a prairie dog colony; No. 32043 was captured in a steel trap. Baker saw Burrowing Owls 7 mi. S and 4 mi. E Bella Union, 7200 feet, on June 25, 1952.

*Caprimulgus vociferus arizonae (Brewster).—Specimens examined: total 4: [Male] 31449 and [Female] 31450 from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. S, 3 mi. W Acebuches), May 12 and 15, 1954, weights, 48 and 42 gms.; and [Male] [Male] 31028-31029 from 2 mi. N, 18 mi. W Santa Teresa, 7250 ft., April 3, 1952.

The Whip-poor-will occurs between 5000 feet and 9000 feet in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:164) reported C. v. arizonae in the Sierra del Carmen. Ridgway (1914:521) stated that Antrostomus vociferus macromystax (=C. v. arizonae) occurs in the southeastern sector of Coahuila at Sierra Guadalupe. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:190) reported the Whip-poor-will "near the summit of Diamante Pass"; because of its size (wing, 170 mm.; tail, 135 mm.) this Whip-poor-will from Diamante Pass seems to represent the subspecies arizonae. Dickerman saw four Whip-poor-wills 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6000 feet, on April 4, 1954. The sizes of the testes of Nos. 31449, 31028, and 31029 (13, 12, and 13 mm. long) and an egg taken from No. 31450 indicate breeding by this species in the State.

*Phalaenoptilus nuttallii nuttallii (Audubon).—Specimens examined: total 6: [Male] 31032 from 37 mi. S, 21 mi. E Boquillas, 4100 ft., March 12, 1952; [Male] 31446 and [Female] 31447 from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. S, 3 mi. W Acebuches), 6200 ft., May 13, 1954; [Male] [Male] 32048-32049 from 2 mi. S, 11 mi. E Nava, June 16, 1952; and [Female] 31033 from 4 mi. W Hacienda La Mariposa, 2300 ft., March 26, 1952.

Miller (1955a:164) found the Poor-will common along the rocky canyon walls up to 5000 feet in the Sierra del Carmen. Ridgway (1914:550) recorded the Poor-will at Sabinas on May 21 and at Saltillo on May 6. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:39) stated that P. n. nuttallii was not common in the Big Bend Country of Texas; this probably is true for northwestern Coahuila as well. The specimens from the Sierra del Pino, collected by Dickerman in a pine-oak association at 6200 feet, were taken near the upper limit of their range. Findley saw Poor-wills 2 mi. W Jimenez, 850 feet, on June 19, 1952; 2 mi. S and 11 mi. E Nava, 810 feet, on June 15, 1952; and 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952. Dickerman noted Poor-wills 16 mi. E and 18 mi. N Ocampo on May 7, 1954, and 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6000 feet, on April 4, 1954.

The size of the testes (9x5 mm.) of No. 31446 and an enlarged oviduct and an ovum (4 mm. in diameter) of No. 31447 indicate breeding by the Poor-will in Coahuila.

**Chordeiles minor howelli Oberholser.—Specimen examined: one, [Male] 31443, from 3 mi. N, 4 mi. E San Francisco (=25 mi. N Ocampo), 4850 ft., May 16, 1954.

Van Hoose (1955:302) wrote that nighthawks were heard and seen frequently 3 mi. N and 4 mi. E San Francisco. Blake (1953:227) said that the Common Nighthawk breeds in Sonora, Chihuahua, Tamaulipas, and Durango; the size of the testes (7x4.5 mm.) of No. 31443 indicates the possibility of breeding by this species in the State.

*Chordeiles acutipennis texensis Lawrence.—Specimens examined: total 4: [Male] 32044 and [Female] 32045 from 2 mi. W Jimenez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952; [Female] 31442 from 5 mi. N, 13 mi. E Ocampo, May 6, 1954; and [Male] 32046 from 2 mi. N, 1 mi. W Ocampo, 4050 ft., July 6, 1952.

Specimens of the Lesser Nighthawk, subspecies C. a. texensis, have been recorded in the literature from representative localities throughout most of Coahuila. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:190-191) obtained, on April 18, at "a small pond at the edge of Saltillo," one male that was exceedingly fat; they (loc. cit.) suggested that their specimen was a migrant. Goldman (1951:377, 389) stated that C. a. texensis occupied the Lower and Upper Sonoran and Upper Austral life-zones of Coahuila. Dickerman saw Lesser Nighthawks at San Marcos (=20 mi. S Cuatro Cienegas) on May 4, 1954. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:41) reported that the Lesser Nighthawk was common throughout the lower parts of the Big Bend in Texas. This is probably true for northwestern Coahuila as well.

The presence of an egg in the oviduct of No. 32045 and the dates (May 6, June 20, and July 6) on which Nos. 31442, and 32044-32046 were obtained indicate breeding by this species in Coahuila.

**Aeronautes saxatalis saxatalis (Woodhouse).—Specimen examined: one, [Male] 31672, from Pico de Jimulco, 5600 ft., April 5, 1953, weight, 35 gms.

Burleigh and Lowery (1942:191) found the White-throated Swift to be common at "the summit of Diamante Pass and on the nearby ridges." Miller (1955a:164) saw the species from 4800 feet up to the crest of the Sierra del Carmen. Several White-throated Swifts were seen flying overhead at Pico de Jimulco on April 5.

No specimens of A. s. sclateri from Mexico are known. Miller (1955a:165) listed one specimen with dimensions (wing, 145 mm.) that approaches sclateri. The measurements of No. 31672 (wing, 143 mm.; tail, 58 mm.) also approach the dimensions of specimens of sclateri but are best referred to A. s. saxatalis.

**Calothorax lucifer (Swainson).—Burleigh and Lowery (1942:191) obtained a male Lucifer Hummingbird at the Chorro del Agua on April 19. Van Tyne and Sutton (1937:43) reported a male from the Rio Grande (=3 mi. W Boquillas, Texas).

Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus).—Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:180) remarked that the Ruby-throated Hummingbird is a moderately common migrant, wintering from sea level to 9350 feet throughout Mexico, except in a few states. The only published record of a specimen of this hummer in the State is of a male taken on April 22 in a small arroyo twenty miles west of Saltillo (Burleigh and Lowery, 1942:191).

*Archilochus alexandri (Bourcier and Mulsant).—Specimens examined: total 2: [Male] 31035 from the Rio Grande (=17 mi. S Dryden, Terrell County, Texas, in Coahuila), 600 ft., March 18, 1952; and [Male] 32052 from 2 mi. S, 11 mi. E Nava, 810 ft., June 16, 1952.

Miller (1955a:165) stated the Black-chinned Hummingbird was common in the desert area at the base of the mountains of the Sierra del Carmen, and that Marsh, on July 25, obtained this hummingbird "near Piedra Blanca (Conejo)." Burleigh and Lowery (1942:191) obtained a female in an arroyo about twenty miles west of Saltillo on April 22.

**Selasphorus platycercus platycercus (Swainson).—Specimens examined: total 2: [Male] 31583 from 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6500 ft., April 4, 1954; and [Female] 32673 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9950 ft., July 6, 1955.

Miller (1955a:165) indicated that the Broad-tailed Hummingbird was fairly common in the Sierra del Carmen. According to Burleigh and Lowery (1942:191) this species is not uncommon in the pine woods bordering the summit of Diamante Pass; they saw the bird between 4900 and 10,000 feet.

*Eugenes fulgens fulgens Boucard.—Miller (1955a:165) obtained a male Rivoli's Hummingbird on Loomis Peak, 8800 feet, on April 11 in the Sierra del Carmen.

**Lampornis clemenciae clemenciae (Lesson).—Specimens examined: total 2: [Male] 31036 from 26 mi. W Santa Teresa, 7050 ft., April 5, 1952; and [Female] 32668 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9950 ft., July 6, 1955.

The Blue-throated Hummingbird occurs between 5000 and 9950 feet in Coahuila. Miller (1955a:165) remarked that it was found in canyon bottoms, "whether at 7500 feet among the rocky slopes, oaks, and white pines ... or at 5000 feet in the madrone, maples, elms, and basswoods...." No. 32668, was obtained in a Douglas fir-pine-aspen association at 9950 feet.

[Amazilia yucatanensis chalconota Oberholser.—The Buff-bellied Hummingbird seems to be uncommon in Coahuila. Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1950:172) and the AOU Check-list Committee (1957:306) stated that this hummingbird occurs in Coahuila.]

Megaceryle alcyon alcyon (Linnaeus).—Miller (1955a:165) saw a Belted Kingfisher at Carboneras Canyon in the Sierra del Carmen. Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:15) stated that one specimen of M. a. alcyon was obtained in Coahuila on November 14.

**Chloroceryle americana hachisukai (Laubmann).—Specimens examined: total 2: [Female] 32053 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jimenez, June 19, 1952; and [Female] 31038 from 8 mi. N, 4 mi. W Muzquiz, 1800 ft., March 31, 1952.

The Green Kingfisher has been recorded in Coahuila as far south as 8 mi. N and 4 mi. W Muzquiz. The forehead of No. 31038, when compared with typical representatives of C. a. hachisukai, is not extensively streaked with white, nor are all the coverts conspicuously spotted with white, yet it clearly has more extensive white markings than typical representatives of C. a. septentrionalis. This specimen from 8 mi. N and 4 mi. W Muzquiz probably is intermediate between hachisukai and septentrionalis. Miller (1955a:165) stated that Marsh took a specimen at Tanque de los Melones on La Bavia Ranch east of Fresno Mesa in the Sierra del Carmen that is a typical C. a. hachisukai.

Colaptes cafer collaris Vigors.—Ridgway (1914:34) listed this subspecies of the Red-shafted Flicker from Saltillo and Agua Nueva.

*Colaptes cafer nanus Griscom.—Specimens examined: total 3: [Female] 31463 from Sierra del Pino (=5 mi. W, 3 mi. S Acebuches), May 13, 1954, weight, 108 gms.; and [Male] 31651 and [Female] 31652 from the north foot of Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5 mi. W General Cepeda), 6500 ft., April 21, 1953.

In suitable habitats in Coahuila the Red-shafted Flicker is common. Miller (1955a:165-166) stated that C. c. nanus was common at Corte Madera Canyon, Boquillas Canyon, and Carboneras Canyon in the Sierra del Carmen and recorded a specimen also from Sierra de Jardin on August 7. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:192) recorded C. c. nanus from Diamante Pass and Saltillo. Sutton and Burleigh (1939a:31) stated that the Red-shafted Flickers, obtained 5 mi. E La Rosa and at Diamante Pass, may be intermediate between C. c. collaris (then called C. c. chihuahuae) and C. c. nanus. Nesting of the Red-shafted Flicker in Coahuila was reported by Miller (1955a:165) and Burleigh and Lowery (1942:192). Hardy saw Red-shafted Flickers 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas on July 6, 1955.

*Centurus aurifrons aurifrons (Wagler).—Specimens examined: total 6: [Male] 32054 from 12 mi. N, 12 mi. W Jimenez, 850 ft., June 19, 1952; [Female] [Female] 32055-32057 from 2 mi. W Jimenez, 850 ft., June 20, 1952; [Female] 31039 from 8 mi. N, 4 mi. W Muzquiz, 1800 ft., April 1, 1952; and [Male] 33150 (skeleton only) from Parras, July 4, 1955.

The Golden-fronted Woodpecker occurs throughout Coahuila, but uncommonly in the western part. Wetmore (1948:185-186) examined a series of Golden-fronted Woodpeckers that showed a definite cline in dorsal coloration from north-central Texas to Jalisco, Michoacan, and Hidalgo in south-central Mexico. He (loc. cit.) stated that "the extremes are easily separable, but in southern and southwestern Texas and in northeastern Mexico the two kinds [C. a. aurifrons and C. a. incanescens] ... merge so gradually that over a broad area the whole population is intermediate, making decisions as to any sharply drawn dividing line difficult and in part arbitrary." C. a. incanescens, according to Wetmore, occurs in western and central Texas south to northeastern Chihuahua and northern Coahuila whereas C. a. aurifrons occurs in north-central Coahuila (Monclova) and southern Texas south to Jalisco, Michoacan, Hidalgo, and central Tamaulipas.

The specimens that I have examined from Coahuila are variably intermediate between the subspecies aurifrons and incanescens. The dark and white cross-bars on the back of No. 31039 are nearly equal (dark bands wider in aurifrons; white bands wider in incanescens); the rump and upper tail coverts are more or less mixed with black as in aurifrons. The dark cross-bars on the backs of Nos. 32054-32057 are slightly larger than the white cross-bars; the rump and upper tail coverts of these specimens are somewhat mixed with black.

*Centurus aurifrons incanescens Todd.—This subspecies of the Golden-fronted Woodpecker is listed by Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:34) from "... northern Coahuila (upper Rio Grande valley)." Burleigh and Lowery (1942:192) stated that the Golden-fronted Woodpecker "apparently avoids the mountain slopes, but was found to be not uncommon on the arid plateau about Saltillo." Findley saw Golden-fronted Woodpeckers 2 mi. W Jimenez, 850 feet, on June 19, 1952; and 2 mi. S and 3 mi. E San Juan de Sabinas on June 22, 1952. Cory (1919:424) listed the Golden-fronted Woodpecker from Sabinas. Nos. 32055-32057 are juveniles, and thus document breeding by this woodpecker in Coahuila.

*Melanerpes formicivorus formicivorus (Swainson).—Specimens examined: total 5: [Male] 31040 (skeleton only) from Fortin (=33 mi. N, 8 mi. W San Geronimo), 3300 ft., March 28, 1952; [Male] 29423 and [Female] 29424 from Club Sierra del Carmen (=2 mi. N, 6 mi. W Piedra Blanca), 4950 ft., April 8, 1950; [Female] 31041 (skeleton only) from 26 mi. W Santa Teresa, 7050 ft., April 5, 1952; and [Female] 31668 from Sierra Guadalupe, Canyon d. Meco (=10 mi. S General Cepeda), 6500 ft., April 23, 1953.

The Acorn Woodpecker in Coahuila is common in the oak and pine-oak belts, from 4950 to 8000 feet. Miller (1955a:166) stated that the Acorn Woodpecker in the Sierra del Carmen was an abundant and conspicuous bird throughout the oak and pine-oak belts, from 5000 to 8000 feet. Dickerman saw two Acorn Woodpeckers in the Sierra de la Madera on December 13, 1953, and four 20 mi. S Ocampo, 6000 feet, on April 4, 1954. Breeding of M. f. formicivorus was reported by Miller (loc. cit.) who took females nearly ready to begin laying; one of our specimens (No. 29423) had enlarged testes (11 mm.).

Sphyrapicus varius varius (Linnaeus).—Specimen examined: one, [Female] 31649, from the north foot of Sierra Guadalupe (=10 mi. S, 5 mi. W General Cepeda), 6400 ft., April 19, 1953.

Miller (1955a:166) reported this Yellow-bellied Sapsucker as a winter visitant or migrant in the Sierra del Carmen. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:192) took a female S. v. varius at the summit of Diamante Pass on April 14. Ridgway (1914:275) listed S. v. varius from Sierra de Guadalupe.

Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis Baird.—Miller (1955a:166) reported this Yellow-bellied Sapsucker as "indeed common" in the Sierra del Carmen, and indicated that both S. v. nuchalis and S. v. varius were "found only at the upper levels in the pine-oak formation and usually in relatively dense clumps of trees in the canyon bottoms." Ridgway (1914:280) listed C. v. nuchalis from Rio Sabinas.

**Dendrocopos villosus icastus (Oberholser).—Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:39) remarked that this subspecies of the Hairy Woodpecker occurs, in northwestern Mexico, from eastern Sonora, Jalisco, Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas to southern Coahuila. Ridgway (1914:222) stated that D. v. icastus occurs in Coahuila at Carneros and Sierra de Guadalupe, the former being the easternmost known locality for the subspecies.

**Dendrocopos villosus intermedius (Nelson).—Specimens examined: total 2: [Male] 32701 from 13 mi. E San Antonio de las Alazanas, 9950 ft., July 6, 1955; and [Female] 31604 from 2 mi. E Mesa de Tablas, 8500 ft., January 15, 1954.

In northeastern Mexico this subspecies, according to Miller, Friedmann, Griscom, and Moore (1957:39), occurs in Guanajuato, San Luis Potosi, Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas. Nos. 31604 and 32701 represent the first records of D. v. intermedius from Coahuila.

*Dendrocopos scalaris cactophilus (Oberholser).—Specimens examined: total 2: [Female] 31042 from 7 mi. S, 2 mi. E Boquillas, 800 ft., March 1, 1952; and [Female] 31043 from 10 mi. S, 5 mi. E Boquillas, 1500 ft., March 3, 1952.

These specimens of the Ladder-backed Woodpecker show signs of intergradation with D. s. symplectus. Both specimens are pale enough above for D. s. symplectus, but the wing and the tail of each (wing, 102, 103 mm.; tail, 60, 65 mm.) are too long for symplectus. This suggestion of intergradation is not unexpected because symplectus occurs in northeastern Coahuila and cactophilus in the Chisos Mountains of Texas. Miller (1955a:166) also obtained one female D. s. cactophilus from the Sierra del Carmen that suggested intergradation with symplectus.

Miller (loc. cit.) wrote that D. c. cactophilus was found chiefly in the oaks and was common in the lower oak belt at 5000 feet. The upper limit of the range of the Ladder-backed Woodpecker, according to Miller, is 6800 feet. He reported the species as breeding in the Sierra del Carmen.

Miller (1955b:317) took a hybrid woodpecker representing a cross between Dendrocopos villosus and Dendrocopos scalaris in the Sierra del Carmen, where, although Ladder-backed Woodpeckers were common, he found no Hairy Woodpeckers.

**Dendrocopos scalaris symplectus (Oberholser).—Specimens examined: total 2: [Male] 32058 from 2 mi. W Jimenez, June 20, 1952; and [Male] 31667 from Sierra Guadalupe, Domingo Canyon (=10 mi. S, 14 mi. W General Cepeda), 6700 ft., April 18, 1953.

This Ladder-backed Woodpecker, according to the AOU Check-list Committee (1957:327) and Oberholser (1912:156), occurs in Texas (east of Pecos), northeastern Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas. The area of intergradation of D. s. symplectus and giraudi is in southeastern Coahuila. The dark smoky underparts and the equal size of the white and black bars of the upper parts of No. 31667 suggest intergradation with D. s. giraudi. Yet, the size of the wing indicates that this specimen is closer to D. s. symplectus. No. 32058 has characters of typical representatives of D. s. symplectus. Burleigh and Lowery (1942:193) reported D. s. symplectus "in the desert country west of Saltillo." Ridgway (1914:257) listed the Ladder-backed Woodpecker from Sabinas. Cory (1919:494) listed D. s. symplectus from Pabinas (=Sabinas?).

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