[Transcriber's note: The non-standard spellings of the original text have been retained in this etext.]
BY WATER TO THE COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION
BY JOHANNA S. WISTHALER.
"Travel is the great source of true wisdom." —Bearensfield
To my amiable traveling companions,
Mr. S.R. James and family,
Miss Sarah E. Campbell,
this volume is affectionately inscribed
It has been the aim of the author: to combine a detailed narrative of her trip by water to the White City with a faithful description of the ever memorable Columbian Exposition as far as possible consistent with the scope of this work. Every opportunity has been embraced by the writer to incorporate the historical events, scientific facts, and natural phenomena most appropriate to the subject.
The author also acknowledges her indebtedness to the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway Co. as well as her obligations to the Winters Art Litho Co. in Chicago. She wishes to express her gratitude to the first-mentioned corporation for having presented her with a map illustrative of the route; thus enabling the reader to trace the numerous towns and cities—on the Erie Canal and three Great Lakes—whose history and attractions have been depicted in this book.
The Lake Shore Route—selected by the Government to run the famous Fast Mail Trains—is the only double track line between Chicago, Cleveland, Buffalo, New York, and Boston.—During the existence of the White City, the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway Co. placed in service special trains for the purpose of facilitating railway transportation between the eastern cities and the "Queen of the West." The "Exposition Flyer," which accomplished nearly 1,000 miles in twenty hours from Chicago to New York, an average of about fifty miles per hour, was certainly one of the fastest trains in the World.
To the aid of the Winters Art Litho Co. the author owes her capability of furnishing this volume with a novel illustration of the World's Fair.—A gold medal was awarded to this firm for the excellence in their water color fac-simile reproductions and advancement in legitimate lithography. The credit of improvements in materially reducing the number of printings, and still maintaining excellence in results, was conceded to them by the Judges.—This company kindly permitted the author to use their copyright of the revised and most correct Bird's Eye View of the Exposition Grounds extant, which gives the readers a very adequate conception of that marvelous creation that—while existing only for such a brief period—has accomplished its mission in the highest degree, and has opened a new era in the annals of modern progress.
SCHENECTADY, N.Y., December, 1893.
CHAPTER I Voyage on the Erie Canal Departure from Schenectady, N Y Amsterdam, Canajoharie, Little Falls Utica, Rome, Syracuse, Lyons Palmyra, Rochester, Lockport
CHAPTER II Sojourn in Buffalo and Visit to Niagara falls. Buffalo Harbor City of Buffalo Mill's Dry Dock Niagara Falls, American Horseshoe and Central Falls
CHAPTER III Voyage on Three Great Lakes Lake Erie Dunkirk, Erie, Conneaut Cleveland Amherstburg Detroit River City of Detroit Lake St Clair River St Clair Port Huron, Sarnia Lake Huron Sand Beach Beacon Saginaw Bay, Tawas City, Alpena Rock-bound on Gull Island Ledge False Presqu'ile, Cheboygan Straits of Mackinaw, Mackinaw Island Lake Michigan Beaver Island, Northport Frankfort, Manistee, Muskegon South Haven, Life Saving Service Michigan City, White City
CHAPTER IV Stay in Chicago and Visit to the World's Fair A Round Trip on the Exposition Grounds Visit to the Midway Plaisance Diamond Match Co, Workingmen's Home Congress of Beauty, California Nursery and Citrus Tree Exhibit Electric Scenic Theater, Libbey Glass Works Irish Village and Donegal Castle, Japanese Bazaar Javanese Village, German Village Pompeii Panorama. Persian Theater Model of the Eiffel Tower, Street in Cairo Algerian and Tunisian Village, Kilauea Panorama American Indian Village, Chinese Village Wild East Show, Lapland Village Dahomey Village, Austrian Village Ferris Wheel, Ice Railway Cathedral of St. Peter in miniature, Moorish Palace Turkish Village, Panorama of the Bernese Alps South Sea Islanders' Village. Hagenbeck's Zoological Arena Irish Village and Blarney Castle, etc. Visit to the Exposition Structures. Manufactures Building and on Manufactures U.S. Government Building and on the Development of the Republic Fisheries Building and on Fisheries Agricultural Building and on Agriculture Live Stock Exhibit, Dairy and Forestry Buildings Palace of Mechanical Arts and on Machinery Administration Building Electricity Building and on Electricity, the "Golden or Happy Age" Mines and Mining Building and on Minerals Transportation Building and on Railroad, Marine, and Ordinary Road Vehicle Conveyances Palace of Horticulture and on Horticulture Liberal Arts Building. Educational Exhibits Chicago, its Growth and Importance Woman's Building and on Women Art Palace and on Art Anthropological Building Foreign and State Buildings Financial Account of the World's Fair Statistical Table of International Expositions
Experience, this greatest of all teachers, will undoubtedly have convinced many of my readers that the most delightful voyage is only capable of maintaining its charms when made amidst congenial fellow-travelers. The grandest scenes can be fully enjoyed and duly appreciated when viewed through an atmosphere of physical comfort. Thus, in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the assertion:
Voyaging with Mr. James and his family was attractive and enjoyable to me in every respect,
I must make the reader acquainted with my amiable traveling companions, as well as with their floating home, the beautiful steam yacht "Marguerite."
Her owner, Captain S. R. James, is a stately, fine-looking, accomplished gentleman, and quite a linguist. To me it was a source of unusual pleasure to discuss French and German literature occasionally during our voyage with one who has given so much attention to these languages.
Mr. James was styled by the Buffalo Courier "a typical New Yorker;" but he impresses me more as a typified English gentleman of the thorough school, and this impression is confirmed as I reflect upon his conduct to those fortunate enough to be associated with him in any capacity.
I trust the reader will pardon me if I warmly eulogize MR. JAMES, his lovely WIFE and their FOUR sweet CHILDREN, together with Miss SARAH E. CAMPBELL, the very amiable sister of Mrs. James—who were my traveling companions on this eventful trip; for, certainly, I was extremely fortunate in my compagnons de voyage, whom I have thus introduced to the reader. They abandoned their lovely home for the purpose of undertaking the gigantic enterprise of making a canal and lake voyage to the White City.
The reader may well judge that sailing on a yacht presents innumerable novelties and advantages not attainable by any other conveyance. Since the parties on board a pleasure-boat concentrate all their thoughts to the expected enjoyments they cast aside all irksome forms and strait-laced habitudes, delivering themselves up to the free air to live less conventionally than at home. The preferableness of such an existence, freed from all unnecessary ceremonies, is still more perceptible when the trip is of long duration and having, moreover, for its terminus the World's Columbian Exposition, a place where the wonders, beauties, and evidences of nature's power and man's skill are gathered from all lands.
The great anticipations we had of our unique voyage were justified in every respect. For it offered us the opportunity to store our memories with that which will never die, and to adorn them with pictures whose colors will never fade.
All this will be revealed subsequently to my courteous reader, who is cordially invited to follow me now on board the steam yacht, which formed our home for six eventful weeks.
What first strikes the observer on approaching the "Marguerite," are the graceful lines which run from the sharp, slightly bent stem to the well-rounded stern. So beautiful is her form, and so majestically does she rest upon the water, that you will have no difficulty to recognize her, even at a great distance. You observe that she is painted with taste, and all the mouldings are gilded; you also perceive that the railings are of oak wood, surmounted by finely polished brass, and the deck of narrow deal planks is as white as snow. There is nothing wanting to make her equipment harmonize with the requirements of the present era. She has a length of a hundred feet, a width of about fifteen, with a draught of five feet eight inches; being fitted out for both steam and sail navigation.
Now, dear reader, let us go below. If you consent, we will first visit the engine-room, since it contains the most essential part of the working machinery. A force of from eighty-five to ninety horse-power is developed to propel the boat. The engine is of the triple expansion type; the diameters of the cylinders being 6-1/2, 10 and 16 inches respectively.
Are you not pleased with this piece of machinery, so elegantly finished and neatly polished? From it you can conclude that the yacht is capable of running with considerable speed, amounting to thirteen miles an hour, if desired.
Let us descend to the cabin next; can anything be more tasteful and convenient? Is it not luxurious? And, although small, does not its very limited space astonish you when you view so many comforts? This is the dining-room. What can be more complete! Just look at this side-board, with its sumptuous outfit in silver and crystal. A multum in parvo.
The kitchen is admirably arranged; the spacious refrigerator making it possible that a considerable amount of all sorts of provisions and delicacies can be kept on board for some time.
Let us peep into the cozy staterooms. Are they not nicely furnished? Glance at the large and comfortable berths, which can be extended so as to form double berths, as in a Pullman car. All the rooms receive light, either through side-windows or from the upper deck. Every facility for enjoying open air exercise is offered by the main deck running the whole length of the ship. The portion pertaining to the stern is especially commodious, and constituted our dining-room on pleasant days. Even when the weather was unfavorable, the awnings which inclosed this delightful place formed an excellent shelter, giving the impression we were living in a large tent.
Thus, you observe, that nothing is omitted to secure comfort. Do you see this electric bell? Well, all the staterooms are provided with such bells, which are connected with the steward's pantry.
Now, let us go forward. These two doors form the entrance to the pilot-house; please, step in. Here is the steering wheel, and by means of these brass tubes the steersman communicates with the engineer. Look up to the ceiling. It is decorated with multitudinous charts and maps. Before we leave this room do not forget to glance at the mariner's compass in its elegant brass case.
Close by is the entrance to the fore-castle, which contains the men's berths. The crew occupying them consists of the captain, the engineer, the cook, the steward, and the seamen.
There not being accommodation for more female servants, Mrs. James was attended by only one maid. She, however, could easily spare larger retinue, because this excellent girl has assisted her mistress in performing the manifold domestic duties for more than fourteen years, and during this long period Mrs. James has learned to value her for her dexterity in all female occupations. She is also a faithful guardian of the children for whom she tenderly cares.
Flattering myself that I have given my kind readers a satisfactory, introductory description, I shall now advance with the narrative, and proceed on our journey, traversing the longest artificial waterway ever constructed by human hands; and sailing on the unsteady billows of the great lakes, which contain the largest amount of sweet water on the globe, in order to visit the World's Fair, the grandest and most complete exposition that human eyes ever beheld.
VOYAGE ON THE ERIE CANAL FROM JULY 22ND, 10.40 A.M., TILL JULY 29TH, 1.30 P.M.
Finally, the 22nd of July, the day appointed for our departure, had arrived. Great was my satisfaction to find the auspices predicting fine weather; and, indeed, it was as beautiful as if Heaven smiled on our enterprise. When taking leave of my neighbors, it was not at all with a sad sentiment, for I had been well aware that I was going to undertake a trip which but few mortals are so fortunate as to participate.
Accompanied by my dear parents I went to Dock street, where the "Marguerite" lay all ready for leaving the flourishing city of Schenectady.
My mother, whose domestic duties recalled her to the hearth at home, was compelled to leave me, while my father remained on board the yacht, anxious to enjoy my company as long as circumstances would permit. Therefore, he gladly accepted Mr. James's kind invitation to accompany us on our journey for a short distance.
Three intimate friends of Mr. James and his family were also invited guests on the boat. These temporary traveling companions were Dr. A. Veeder, Lawyer Charles Hastings and Congressman S.J. Schermerhorn, three well known and highly estimated gentlemen from Schenectady.
At 11.40 A.M., Mr. James gave orders to haul in the lines attaching the boat to the shore; and a gun-shot at departing announced to the numerous spectators that the "Marguerite" was on the point to set out for her unusual, but most interesting trip.
We had been sailing only a very short distance, and were just facing the buildings of the General Electric Company, when our attention was attracted by a photographer who seemed to be very desirous of taking a photo of the yacht and her passengers; for he aspired to gain the most favorable posture, apparently quite a task under the circumstances. How well he succeeded in his endeavors, the readers can judge for themselves by glancing at the frontispiece of this book.
Resuming our journey, we soon had opportunity to admire the beautiful and fertile Mohawk Valley, once the home of one of the tribes composing the Five Nations. Arendt Van Curler, the noble founder of the "Place Beyond the Pines," pronounced this picturesque region the most beautiful the eye of man had ever beheld, at a time when the country was yet in its infancy. Though great changes have taken place since that remote date (1642), the grandeur of the scenes spread before us evidently showed that the country has lost little of its beauty, even at the present day, nothwithstanding the white man has established in many places his smoking factories and noisy looms.
At the second lock Mr. Schermerhorn, who owns a beautiful residence near this place, in the Township of Rotterdam, joined our party, whereupon we continued sailing on the smooth surface of the canal with accelerated speed.
At 2.40 P.M., after having passed five locks, we approached Amsterdam, an enterprising and prosperous city of over 20,000 inhabitants, located in the midst of romantic scenery. We halted at Port Jackson for a few minutes, since this was the terminus of the voyage of Mr. Hastings and my father.
When parting with me, my father said:
"This short tour has sufficed me to perceive how delightful your voyage promises to be in company with this amiable family. Thus I leave you, feeling very happy that so many pleasures and enjoyments are awaiting you."
I answered his kind words with a hearty parting kiss, as a token of my filial love.
The two gentlemen, after having abandoned the yacht, ascended the bridge that spans the canal at that point; and bidding us farewell once more, they pursued us with their eyes until the graceful lines of the "Marguerite" had become invisible in the distance.
Continuing our voyage, I was in perfect rapture with the ever varying magnificence of the luxuriant Mohawk Valley. In the afternoon the sky became overcast and the quietude that had been prevailing was interrupted by a thunder-clap, which gave us the signal to prepare for a shower. After the expiration of a few minutes the full-charged clouds poured their deluge upon mother earth. This natural phenomenon, however, was only of short duration; but sufficient to render the atmosphere most delightfully pure and refreshing. It was now a redoubled pleasure to view the many hills and dales, adorned in every shade of verdure, varying with romantic forest scenes; all mingling into one inexpressibly rich garniture in which Nature had royally clad herself in order to give us greeting on our way.
As we reached Fultonville, a suburban village of Fonda, about twenty-six miles from Schenectady, Dr. Veeder and Congressman Schermerhorn parted with us, wishing us a pleasurable voyage.
The "Marguerite," gliding along, neared the vicinity of Sprakers when suddenly the "heaven grew black again with the storm-cloud's frown," and a flash of lightning illuminated the sky with crimson radiance. It is for a moment as if the horizon was in flames, a spectacle glorious to behold. Another minute and a peal of thunder reaches our ears. Then the dark, heavy clouds discharge their contents in copious abundance.
"In grateful silence earth receives The general blessing: fresh and fair Each flower expands its little leaves As glad the common joy to share."
While it is still raining,
"The sun breaks forth, from off the scene Its floating veil of mist is flung. And all the wilderness of green With trembling drops of light is hung."
A magnificent rainbow, spanning the boundless arch on high, embellishes this superb panorama.
As the sunset was bathing all summits in soft, crimson light, and the pale lustre of the orbed moon appeared in the east, we arrived at Canajoharie.
This small town, noted for its fine stone quarries, was chosen for our abode over Sunday, and busy hands carried out the order to safely moor our craft near the bridge pertaining to the main street.
When taking a long walk about the town, I found that, although inferior in size, it is a very desirable place for summer residences; being beautifully situated on romantic slopes crowned with elegant and tasty villas.
Canajoharie is regularly and appropriately laid out with wide, well kept and adequately lighted thoroughfares, and many citizens reside in spacious and architecturally ornamented houses. It is a recognized center of trade, from which agricultural products of all kinds are shipped.
In the first historic record, dated 1757, the place was styled "Fort Cannatchocary," and mentioned as a prospering settlement. Incorporated as a town in 1788, its population has been rapidly increasing since then, and now is estimated to amount to more than 3,000.
It was a glorious morning, the 24th of July, as we left Canajoharie. The sun rose up into a cloudless heaven and poured a flood of gorgeous splendor over the landscape, as if proud of the realm he shone upon.
When I entered the pilot-house I found Mr. James, in the absence of the captain, busy steering the yacht, and in the course of our long voyage I often had opportunity to admire his abilities as a navigator. On many occasions I observed that he was very cautious in all his proceedings; that he took nothing for granted, and was only convinced of a fact when properly certified by ocular demonstration.
Engaged in a French conversation with the dexterous commodore, the time, as well as the vessel, was rapidly gliding along; the latter being assisted by a little breeze that rippled the surface of the water. So, after a three miles' ride, we approached Fort Plain, which boasts of numerous factories, and also the largest spring and axle works of the world. The Clinton Liberal Institute, one of the leading military schools of the State, occupies a commanding position, overlooking the valley. The site of old Fort Plain, of revolutionary memory, is within the village limits.
Having passed Cox and Mindenville, a route of nine miles brought us into the proximity of the busy town of Little Falls, which has a population of about 10,000. It is romantically situated, and many elegant dwellings stand upon steep acclivities, commanding views of grand and attractive sceneries. The chief products of the numerous manufactories are knit goods. Little Falls is also one of the principal cheese markets of the Empire State. The Mohawk river supplies the place with abundant water-power, having at this point a fall of forty-five feet in half a mile.
Still proceeding on our voyage, the town was soon out of sight. The sun shone with the clearest splendor from the zenith, beautifully illumining the smiling valleys, wooded hills, sparkling brooks and dimpled lakes, which makes this landscape scene so attractive. We were unable to leave our seats on the stern-deck; for everything around us seemed to have assumed the character of enchantment, and—had I been educated in the Grecian mythology—I should scarcely have been surprised to find an assemblage of Dryads, Naiads and Oreads sporting on the plain beside us.
After having viewed Mohawk, eight miles from Little Falls; Herkimer, a town of about 5,000 inhabitants; Ilion, with a population of nearly the same number, and Frankfort, four miles from Utica, we reached the latter city as
"The sunset gorgeous dyes, Paled slowly from the skies,"
having achieved forty-two miles that day.
Utica contains approximately 47,000 residents. At the time of the revolution it was a frontier trading-post and the site of Fort Schuyler, built to guard the settlements against the French and Indians.
We made arrangements to remain in this city over night.
A long walk through Utica made us acquainted with a regular and handsomely built city, which rises from the south bank of the Mohawk River to an elevation of 150 feet. Among the stately buildings are six large hotels, the handsome city hall, the postoffice and the bank edifice. There is also a State Lunatic Asylum. Utica, being in the center of a great dairy region, has become the most important cheese market in the United States.
Genesee Street is the principal thoroughfare lined with large blocks of commercial houses.
The city has not yet attained its centennial; but during its history of less than a century it has experienced a wonderful growth, especially during the last fifty years.
At 7 o'clock the next morning we resumed our voyage, sailing on the so-called sixty mile level; having thus the delightful prospect not to be detained by going through numerous locks.
We were also in limine of the far-famed lake region, and soon traversed one of the finest portions of New York State.
Passing the hamlets of York Mills, Whitesboro and Oriskany, the "Marguerite" advanced near to the city of Rome towards 10 o'clock A.M. In its vicinity the famous battle of Oriskany was fought; and Fort Stanwix, which was besieged by the British in 1777, occupies a site now in the center of the city of Rome. The latter is laid out with wide streets well shaded with maples and elms. In the resident portion, a very high artistic taste has been displayed in the erection of dwelling houses. Although this thriving city of almost 16,000 inhabitants has not so many points of interest as its namesake, the ancient metropolis of the glorious Roman empire, whose wealth of antiquities is perfectly marvelous and whose relics of classical and papal times are alike almost innumerable; still it possesses one interesting feature that ought not to be left unmentioned: It was here that cheese was first made in factories.
Other important manufactures are merchantable iron, brass and copper, locomotives and agricultural implements.
Greatly favored by the clemency of the weather, we sped through this beautiful region, which is a never ending source of interest to the tourist, sailing past New London, Grove Springs, Higginsville, Dunbarton, State Bridge, Durhamville, Lenox Basin, Canastota, New Boston, Chittenango, Bolivar, Pool's Brook, Kirkville, Manlius and Lodi. At the latter place the bed of the canal suddenly widens considerably, being about twice its average width. Entering that portion of the grand artificial waterway, we found its waters so shallow that we could plainly discern its rocky bed.
We entered the city of Syracuse when the last streak of daylight had faded from the west and the blush on the waters was followed by the reflection of the far blue arch and its starry host.
Opposite the city hall, a magnificent structure, the "Marguerite" was made fast to repose after a fifty-five miles' course that day.
Syracuse, situated in the heart of New York State, has been appropriately named the "Central City." Its wonderful growth for the past twenty years entitles it to rank amongst the foremost cities of the East. It has a population of nearly 100,000, and is one of the leading manufacturing towns of the country. For a long period Syracuse practically controlled the salt product of the United States; in fact, it was that which first gave the place its importance. The existence of the vast salt springs of Onondaga was known to the Indians at an early date, and the secret was by them imparted to the Jesuits in 1654. The State took possession of the springs in 1794; and laws were passed for the conduct of the manufacture. Although numerous companies are now engaged in this industry, it constitutes a comparatively small factor in the commercial interests of the city, inasmuch as it possesses at the present time over five hundred industrial establishments; giving employment to not less than twenty thousand people.
The city is handsomely laid out, containing many fine public buildings and private residences.
When I came on deck the following morning the rain fell in heavy showers. A cloud appeared to open directly over our heads, and let down the water almost in one body, but at 7.15, as the violence of the rainfall had somewhat abated, we departed from Syracuse, sailing past Geddes, Bell'isle and Canton, where we struck another shallow place in the canal. As we approached Peru the mists were rolling away, which gradually, as they became thinner, received and transmitted the rays of the sun; illuminating them with a golden radiance, increasing every minute in splendor, until they vanished.
Therefore, it was a redoubled pleasure to glance at the green plains studded with yet greener woodlands; the little mountains raising their crests, and the lovely lakes gleaming like floods of molten silver.
Thus we journeyed along past Weedsport, Centerport, Port Byron, Montezuma, Pitt Lock, Clyde and Lock Berlin.
Nearly midway between Syracuse and Rochester, forty-nine miles from the former city, we halted, choosing Lyons for our night's lodging. The town, having a population of almost 6,000, is the seat of Wayne County, which produces more dried fruit than any other county in the State. The oil of peppermint forms an important product of manufacture, there being a score of peppermint distilleries yielding annually more than 100,000 pounds of this costly oil.
Thursday, the 27th of July, as the tints of a bright morning reddened the eastern sky, we pursued our journey, greatly delighted with the cool and refreshing atmosphere. Speeding along we passed Arcadia; Newark, a thriving town, numbering about 4,000 inhabitants; and Palmyra, seven miles beyond, with broad and well shaded streets.
Two miles south of Palmyra Joe Smith, the founder of Mormonism, claimed to have dug from a hill, which now bears the name of Mormon Hill, the golden plates constituting the first Mormon Bible.
Sailing by the villages of Lower and Upper Macedon, Pittsford was reached; a beautiful town of more than 3,000 inhabitants and one of the oldest settlements in that part of the State. Here is located the famous "Pittsford Farm," which is one of the finest stock farms in the East. It is at this place that Shetland ponies, Jersey cattle and Angora cats are raised in great numbers. Uncountable varieties of water-fowl can always be seen at this point.
Having passed Brighton, we arrived at Rochester long ere the first gold dye of sunset was stealing into the vast blue arch on high, having traveled forty-two miles that day.
Near the center of the city destined for our nightly abode, a multitude of curious spectators had assembled in order to view the handsome yacht. I made the observation that during our entire voyage the "Marguerite," wherever she made her appearance, was universally admired.
The important city of Rochester is situated on the Genesee River, seven miles south of its entrance into Lake Ontario. It is one of the leading manufacturing cities of the country, having more than 150,000 inhabitants. In 1802 it was founded by Colonel Nathaniel Rochester, a representative pioneer of the Genesee River Valley. In 1834 it received its charter as a city, and has since increased in population and importance with marvelous rapidity. The fertility of the surrounding country and the splendid water-power furnished by the Genesee River, together with unexcelled transportation facilities, have contributed largely to its growth.
Both in the latter part of the afternoon and evening, we deserted the yacht for the purpose of admiring the various beauties and points of interest, which give this town such a far spread reputation.
We received the conviction that Rochester, in fact, deserves its fame. Covering an area of about seventeen square miles, it is laid out chiefly in squares, with streets from sixty to one hundred feet wide, shaded by beautiful trees. It abounds in handsome and tasteful residences, which are for the most part surrounded by carefully tended lawns and gardens. Its fire-proof office buildings and warehouses, are a credit to the city; only few, even in the metropolis, are equal to them in magnificence.
In the center of the city are the upper Falls of the Genesee, a perpendicular cataract of ninety-six feet, over which Sam Patch made his last and fatal leap.
To the prominent public institutions of Rochester belong the State Industrial School, two large hospitals, an Institution for Deaf-Mutes, and charitable organizations of every description. The principal business thoroughfare, Main Street, is in the heart of the city, and crosses the river over a handsome iron bridge.
The manufactures of Rochester are extensive and varied. In early years flour was the chief product, giving it the title "Flour City;" there being no less than eighteen mills within its limits. Rochester might be also appropriately styled the "Flower City," for its nursery trade is hardly surpassed by that of any other place in the world. The suburbs are highly cultivated, having 4,000 acres of fruit trees, and nurseries containing from 250 to 500 acres.
Other important industries are cotton and paper mills; oil refineries; boot and shoe, clothing, furniture, perfumery and tobacco manufactories.
A feature that attracts thousands of visitors daily, is the great Powers Art Gallery, the private property of Mr. D.W. Powers, occupying the greater part of the two upper floors pertaining to the Powers Building.
In fact, a plentitude of resources makes the city interesting to the tourist.
The next day, when "morn was blushing in the sky," we bade farewell to Rochester; and, sailing on the other sixty-mile level, we continued our journey through a charming region past Greece, Spencerport, King & Adams, Cooley's Basin, and arrived at the attractive village of Brockport. Beautifully situated in the midst of a country teeming with abundance and inhabited by a prosperous and contented population, it contains many features of interest. Here is located a State Normal School, and also several extensive manufactories of agricultural implements.
Passing Holley, Hulberton and Hindsburg, we came to Albion, the capital of Orleans County. The latter village is nicely laid out with wide streets and shaded by large trees. It contains many handsome residences and public buildings.
Having proceeded more westward, beyond Eagle Harbor and Knowlesville, we caught sight of the pleasant town of Medina, about midway between Rochester and Buffalo, noted for its quarries of dark-red sandstone. Located in the midst of a fine fruit country, it has the reputation of being one of the best fruit markets in the State. Speeding through the thriving villages of Middleport, Reynall's Basin and Cataract Springs, we neared a deep ravine, through which the Erie Canal passes, following a natural waterway. Here we met the most remarkable drop of the canal, in its chain of five continuous double locks, resembling a flight of stairs.
Entering these, the "Marguerite" gradually rose higher and higher; and when quitting the last of them, she had been lifted up to an elevation of sixty feet by these five locks, and if we had not observed the busy hands working for our ascent, we might have been inclined to imagine that an invisible cloud was slowly carrying us to unknown regions on high.
We made Lockport our resting-place for the night; since the sun had wheeled his broad disk already down into the west and the heavens were brightened only by the parting smiles of the day.
Going on shore, we visited Lockport, a prosperous city with about 20,000 inhabitants, which is the center of a large paper and pulp industry.
A five hours' journey on Saturday morning, July 29th, past Pendleton, Picardsville, Martinsville, Tonawanda and Lower Black Rock, completed our charming trip on the Erie Canal, which has from Schenectady to Buffalo a length of 323 miles.
The construction of this great artificial waterway, in all nearly 350 miles long, having an elevation of about 500 feet above tide water, made by seventy-two locks, was commenced in 1817, and its completion took place in 1825. Although this immense undertaking has caused an expense of $50,000,000, the State of New York has made an excellent investment with that sum of money; since by means of the Erie Canal the domestic trade between the large western inland towns and the eastern seaports, especially the metropolis, is considerably facilitated. This traffic will receive a still greater importance, and can be more advantageously carried on, when the plan of utilizing the electric current for the driving power of canal-boats—a project recently tested by experiments—has been successfully executed.
Prior to 1857, this waterway was used for both trade and passenger transportation. Since the introduction of railroad communication, however, the canal has been the medium of conveying merchandise only; wherefore, our interesting trip on the steam-yacht "Marguerite" is one of a few exceptions to the ordinary routine of the Erie Canal.
SOJOURN IN BUFFALO AND VISIT TO NIAGARA FALLS, FROM JULY 29TH, 1.30 P.M., TO AUGUST 2ND, 7 A.M.
It was a bright and sunny day; the atmosphere being purified by a strong but refreshing breeze. As the noonday sun poured his brilliant rays on the towering hills which adorn the luxuriant banks of the canal, it was announced that in the distance there could be discerned the dark line which indicated our approach to the verdant tract encompassing the thriving city of Buffalo, the terminus of our voyage on the Erie Canal.
While the boat was speeding along, this point upon which our attention was chiefly fixed, became more cognizable with every minute. Rising upwards to our left we could perceive domes of the most graceful proportions, towering structures, for number and form beyond my power to describe. On the other side, there lay spread before us, in vast expanse, the unrivaled water front which skirts the city of Buffalo, extending two and one-half miles along the shore of Lake Erie and two and one-half miles along Niagara River.
As we entered the harbor of Buffalo, which is considered the largest and finest on the lake, we were soon made acquainted with scenes and incidents that have no common fascination; in fact, one must be surprised at the tremendous amount of activity displayed here. The scores of huge grain elevators, having a total capacity of 8,000,000 bushels, and the mammoth warehouses lining the water fronts reminded one of New York and Brooklyn.
Large steamers and sailing vessels, of every description, are being loaded and discharged; powerful steam-hoists in operation on the docks; immense quantities of freight and merchandise in process of transfer to and from the railroad cars; and bustle everywhere; while hundreds of pleasure-boats and small crafts, of every conceivable variety, may be seen as far as the eye can reach. There we saw the trim and dainty shell, with its arrow-like prow, darting through the quiet coves; the saucy catamaran shooting, half submerged, out before the wind; the cozy little steam-launches, all ready to take their passengers to some suburban pleasure-ground; excursion steamers, with flying banners and bands of music going and coming, and mammoth propellers destined to carry thousands of tourists to the El Dorado on Lake Michigan's blue waters.
It will not be difficult to understand why Buffalo has attained commercial supremacy in Western New York, if you add to this never ceasing activity, betokening business, the enormous canal traffic; for it is here where innumerable canal-boats are weighted with the rich products of the west, carrying a large floating population of boatmen's families.
Before selecting our mooring place in Buffalo Creek, which can be navigated for about one mile, we sailed to the breakwater, a solid wall several feet high, having a length of 4,000 feet, which was erected at the expense of some millions of dollars for the protection of the city from being flooded by the unruly waters of Lake Erie.
While the tanks of the yacht were being filled with the limpid water of the lake, we ascended the stairs leading to the top of the protecting wall; for we all were anxious to become acquainted with the nature of the billows that were to carry us many miles westward and nearer to our far destination.
It was a glorious sight unfolded before our eyes. We glanced at a huge sheet of water, about 268 miles long, varying from thirty to nearly sixty miles in width, with an area of 9600 square miles, whose elevation from tide water is judged to be 564 feet.
This majestic spectacle, as animated as it was, imparted to us an adequate conception of a boisterous inland sea. The surface of the lake was in wild uproar; the advancing and retreating waves were beating themselves into angry foam, and dashed their spray pearls almost to our feet; their opulent azure hue being dimmed by the violent agitation. The inexperienced eye has no idea of the imposing impression caused by the extremely subitaneous changes to which these waters are subjected. The wide bosom of the lake that sometimes lies motionless and glassy, without a breath of air to cause the slightest undulation, in a very short time may be scourged by a sudden gale. The wild gambols of the waves, accompanied by the roar of the disturbed elements, may well cause the timid to fear; for, as the swell lifts, you would think the bases of the earth are rising beneath it; and, again, when it falls, you would imagine the foundation of the deep had given away.
Though the billows before us now were beaten by a powerful breeze, breaking with angry roar upon the barrier upon which we stood, yet not the slightest feeling of fear found place within our hearts. On the contrary, as we left the breakwater in order to return to Buffalo, I felt my heart palpitating with joy as I thought of the pleasing prospect to be tossed by those grand waves.
Having chosen a place at the foot of Main Street for our stay, the orders to secure the "Marguerite" were instantly carried out; and immediately a multitude of curious beholders had gathered around the yacht, viewing her with evident expression of admiration.
Since it was yet early in the afternoon we decided to go on shore, in order to view the points of interest in this important city.
A ride in the electric railway, traversing it in every direction, made us acquainted with a good portion of Buffalo, which contains a population of nearly 300,000, being the third city in size in the Empire State. It is handsomely laid out with broad and well shaded streets. One hundred and three miles are paved with asphalt, and 133 miles with stone. We saw many fine residences with attractive grounds, and numerous public squares. Delaware Avenue, the leading street for elegant mansions, is about three miles long, and is lined with a double row of trees.
The city possesses a superb system of parks and pleasure grounds, designed and laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted, the architect of Central Park in New York City. It comprises three sections, situated respectively in the northern, western, and eastern parts of Buffalo, which, with the connecting boulevard, afford a drive of nearly ten miles.
Main Street, the principal trading thoroughfare, has many substantial business blocks.
Of the prominent public buildings, the city and county hall deserves being mentioned in the first place. It is an imposing structure, of Maine granite, in the form of a double Roman cross, with a tower 245 feet high, surmounted by four statues. This magnificent edifice is fronting on Franklin Street, and was completed in 1880 at a cost of nearly $1,500,000.
Other handsome buildings are the U.S. custom house and postoffice, at the corner of Washington and Seneca Streets; the Buffalo library, on Lafayette Square; the State arsenal, in Broadway; the Erie County penitentiary, one of the six penal establishments of New York; the general hospital, in High Street; and the State asylum for the insane, an edifice which cost about $3,000,000, located in Forest Avenue, adjoining the Buffalo Park.
The city is also adorned with several handsome churches and theaters.
Buffalo was first settled by the Dutch in 1801, and became an important military post during the war of 1812. It was burned by a combined force of British and Indians in 1814. Its city charter was granted in 1832, and since then its growth has been very rapid.
As regards its live-stock trade, Buffalo ranks third among the cities in the Union, and its iron and steel works are next in importance to those of Pittsburg. The shipment of Pennsylvania coal, which finds a depot here, has been greatly increased in recent years; about 1,500,000 tons being distributed annually. The lumber trade is also large, but has been partly diverted to Tonawanda, ten miles below Buffalo.
The industrial works comprise four blast furnaces, large rolling mills, machine shops, car shops, iron ship-yards, stove foundries, tanneries, flour mills, and manufacturing of agricultural implements.
Early on Monday morning, I abandoned the land of dreams in order to appear on deck in good season; since arrangements had been made for going into dry-dock that very morning.
Reader, have you ever been there? I hear you answer negatively. Well, that is just what I expected; for it is a rather unusual and rare experience for ladies, even in the eyes of a shipwright, a man who is constantly employed in that place, that a boat enters the dry-dock with her passengers on board.
It was partly a matter of necessity, and partly of circumspection, that caused us to abide in the dry-dock for a few hours.
In consequence of the numerous low bridges that span the canal, the spars, rigging, and smoke-stack belonging to the complete equipment of the "Marguerite" would have made her journey on that artificial waterway absolutely impossible; therefore it was necessary to replace these parts in their appropriate positions.
The picture in the frontispiece gives evidence of that fact; as the "Marguerite" presented a very different picture completely rigged.
Now, on the point of sailing on the Great Lakes, it was requisite to dress the yacht in her proper array, with her high tapering masts; the cords of her rigging stretching from spar to spar with the beautiful accuracy of a picture; and so equipped, as to give her the appearance of a majestic, white winged sea-bird resting gracefully on the water.
For the purpose of bestowing upon her such an outfit, as well as for having her bottom examined, she was docked in Mill's dry-dock. The latter motive, I must add, was effected by a mere act of precaution; since no components of the propelling machinery had been injured or damaged.
But Mr. James, our ever thoughtful commodore, wished to be assured that he could direct the "Marguerite" on her westward course with everything pertaining to her in complete order.
These docks may be in communication either with a wet dock or a tidal harbor. I observed that the dry-dock we entered had a pontoon gate, floated in or out of place as desired. There being no tides in the lakes, this style of gate—less liable to leak under continuous pressure—is invariably used; for the only method of emptying the docks here is by pumping, for which purpose a steam-engine and pumps, with a well and water channel leading to it, were employed.
We scarcely had made our entry into it, ere many busy hands worked to give the keel of the yacht a secure rest on wooden blocks which were fastened down to prevent them floating. They were of such a height as to permit the shipwright getting under the vessel's bottom. Then side shores were put in to keep the boat in an upright position. This being accomplished, I could notice that the pumping machinery was brought into full operation. Soon I found that the level of the water became lower and lower, and after the expiration of about one-half hour the dock was almost dry.
The sides of the dock generally consist of stone steps—called altars—for the purpose of fixing the lower ends of the shores, and also for the convenience of supporting the workmen's scaffold.
Mr. James and family, including myself, left the yacht to the crew and workmen, while we further explored the city of Buffalo in carriages, thoughtfully provided for us.
The day after our entering dry-dock, August 1st, was eventful, as it was arranged we should make an excursion to view one of Nature's greatest wonders—Niagara Falls—a sight unlike any other on the surface of the globe. The indescribable grandeur of the whole overwhelms the soul—to contemplate that tremendous torrent which never stops! No rest in the ages of the past—no promise of a moment's stay in all the years to come—but on, on, with resistless force!
Our thoughts become like the mists that rise above this awful scene, and we are mute—Pigmies of an hour! To feel that after what we are becomes a little dust, that solemn roar will echo in the ears of millions now unborn!
Though I had read diverse descriptions portraying the grandeur and magnificence of Niagara Falls, still I was aware that they had failed in conveying a clear and succinct outline of their wonderful proportions and great sublimity. My conclusions that, in older to be properly appreciated these gigantic cataracts must be visited, were confirmed, and, re vera, when once viewed the recollection of that glorious sight will linger long in memory.
An hour's ride in the cars brought us to the village of Niagara Falls, a splendid manufacturing point, having all modern improvements and unsurpassed railway facilities of various kinds. The village was incorporated in 1848, and has about 4,000 inhabitants.
The average annual number of visitors to this beautiful place is estimated to be 400,000.
At the station of Niagara Falls, Mr. James engaged vehicles which afforded accommodations for all of us—a party of ten—including the steward, who accompanied us, carrying a bountiful repast.
The drivers of Niagara Falls are excellent ciceroni. We drove through the handsome village to Prospect Park, a property owned by the State of New York, and included in the Niagara Reservation, which the State acquired by purchase in 1885. All the unsightly buildings, heretofore obstructing the view, have been removed, and a terrace was erected for a distance of half a mile, affording uncountable attractions to the visitor with its venerable trees, comfortable seats, and delightful views.
The main entrance is a tasty structure at the foot of Cascade Street. The point of land at the brink of the falls is called Prospect Point. Since it commands a fine view, which is the feature of the park, our drivers advised us to abandon the carriages and to step nearer to the long stone wall running for some distance along the edge of the gorge.
Standing on the platform, I glanced at the mighty volume of water; here precipitated over a huge rock 163 feet high with a thunderlike roar that can be heard, under favorable circumstances, a distance of fifteen miles.
For a long time we remained there, spell-bound by the wonderful panorama, plunged into a reverie of rapture. Mrs. James, reminding me the carriages were waiting for us, brought me back to consciousness.
The spectacle is so sublime and overwhelming that the mind, unable to grasp it, cannot adjust itself at once to a scale so stupendous, and the impression fails. But, gradually, as you remain longer, the unvarying, ponderous, unspeakably solemn voice of the great flood finds its way to the soul, and holds it with a fascination which is all pervasive and cannot be shaken off.
In a car, moving on an inclined plane, we descended to the water's edge. These cars are raised and lowered by water-power, by means of a three-inch cable 300 feet long, running over steel wheels.
At the foot of the stairway, tickets may be obtained for the trip on the "Maid of the Mist," that steams up to the Horseshoe Fall; then back to the Canadian side, and finally returns to her starting point.
The view from below presented to us new charms which we could not obtain before. In the first place the enormous height of the cataract may be better realized from beneath; then the emerald and opal translucence of the waters, as they pass in their swift career, was here especially effective; since the sun, shining through the mists of spray from a station in the heavens most advantageous for our prospect, crowned the entire scene with iridescent diadems. This fall is known as the American, separated from the "Horseshoe" or "Canadian Fall" by a large island, standing on the verge of the cliff over which the cataract pours, and dividing the river in such a manner as to form from its waters the two above named falls.
After a lovely ride through the beautiful woodland we viewed Goat Island, having an area of 61-1/2 acres and a circumference of about one mile. A strip about ten rods wide and eighty rods long, has been washed away on the south side since the first road was made in 1818.
This island was, in ancient times, one of the favorite burying-grounds of the Indians, and yet preserves traces of their funeral rites.
Crossing the first bridge, from which we had one of the grandest views of the rapids, we reached Bath Island, some two acres in extent. A second bridge conveyed us to Goat Island, where we witnessed a most charming panorama. Descending the stairs, we stood next to the Little Fall, beneath which is the famous Cave of the Winds.
From the farther point of Luna Island, attainable by a little bridge, we saw the most desirable near view of the American Fall and Rapids; here, too, we enjoyed a fine spectacle in the perspective of the gorge below.
It has often been remarked by strangers that this island trembles, which is undoubtedly true, but the impression is heightened by imagination.
Not far from Luna Island are the famous Biddle Stairs. Shortly after their erection, in 1829, the well known Sam Patch, whose diving propensities made his name illustrious, performed his noted, bold feat in 1830. Midway between the foot of these stairs and the Canadian Fall he built a scaffold, ninety-six feet high, from which he made his successful leap into the river.
Proceeding a little further, we stood in full view of the Horseshoe Fall—so-called because of its crescent shape—which contains by far the greater body of water; the fall being more than 2,000 feet wide and 154 feet high.
The site of the old Terrapin Tower is the best point from which to perceive the shape of the fall.
From the south side of the island the Three Sister Islands are accessible, affording the finest views of the rapids. These islands offer, from their location, a delightfully cool retreat in the warmest summer days, with attractive and enchanting scenery.
In order to have a comprehensive glance of Nature's grandest wonder known to man, in its climax of sublimity, we took a ride back through Prospect Park, across the New Suspension Bridge, below the American Fall, to the Canadian shore. This splendid drive was continued through the Queen Victoria Niagara Falls Park, opened to the public in 1889.
Following the example of New York State, the Ontario Parliament had passed an act to reserve the western side of the Falls vicinity—the Canadian Reservation—covering an area of about 154 acres, and beautifully laid out.
Here we had the most imposing view; a finer panorama cannot well be imagined.
The concussion of the descending waters with those in the depths below occasion a spray that veils the cataract two-thirds up its height. Above this everlasting and impenetrable foam, there rises fifty feet above the fall a cloud of lighter spray, which, when the rays of the sun are directed upon it, displays solar rainbows, grand in their magnificence.
It was here on Table Rock, formerly one of the most celebrated points about Niagara, that Mrs. Lydia Huntley Sigourney wrote her spirited eulogy on Niagara, which commences with the musical rhymes:
"Flow on forever, in thy glorious robe Of terror and of beauty. Yea, flow on, Unfathomed and resistless. God hath set His rainbow on thy forehead, and the cloud Mantled around thy feet. And he doth give Thy voice of thunder power to speak of him Eternally,—bidding the lip of man Keep silence,—and upon thine altar pour Incense of awe-struck praise."
Three miles below the falls is the Whirlpool, a vast basin formed by the projection of a rocky promontory on the Canadian side, against which the waters rush with such violence as to cause a severe reaction and rotary motion; and in it logs and trees are frequently whirled around for weeks in succession.
Geology has accepted as a matter of certitude that within the memory of men now living, the Falls have receded 100 feet, and authorities in that science have stated the fact, that the retrocession—estimated from one inch to one foot per year—began near Lewiston. The whole waters of the lakes there foamed over this dam several miles in width.
The name "Niagara" is supposed to belong to the vocabulary of the Iroquois language, meaning "Thunderer of Waters."
The first white visitor to Niagara Falls was Father Hennepin, a priest and historian, accompanying Chevalier Robert de la Salle on his discoveries. He published the first description of "this wonderful Downfall" in 1678.
There exist now three distinct cataracts, which are known as Horseshoe, American, and Central Falls. The weight of water descending over the cadences in a single hour, is computed to be 100,000,000 tons.
The magnitude of the great waterfalls, and their fame as a natural wonder, had, heretofore, to a certain degree, excluded from thought the idea of their marvelous utilarian properties; but the recent development of electrical science, and the far-reaching enterprise of to-day, have now combined to subject to the uses of mankind a portion of the power of the falls, developed at such a distance from the great cataract as not to interfere in any way with the natural beauty of the scenery.
As the western sky was dyed with the tints of sunset, we hastened to reach our floating home; since we expected two friends of Miss Campbell on board the yacht—a gentleman who holds a prominent position in Buffalo, Mr. J.B. Seitz, and his charming wife. We returned with the exhalting sentiment of having visited a temple of nature, to whose shrine thousands from all over the world annually pay their tribute of praise.
Arriving on board the "Marguerite" that—though still in dry-dock—was not laid dry any more, we perceived a striking contrast between the close and saturated atmosphere prevailing here, and the pure, balmy air at Niagara Falls.
Our thoughtful commodore, desirous of giving us the opportunity to inhale the refreshing sea-breeze, ordered our departure for the breakwater as soon as circumstances permitted; intending early on the following morning to commence our lake journey. The obscurity was fast increasing as we neared the high stone wall, and the scenery around me made the verses of Whittier resound in my ears in which he described the "Evening by the Lake Side" so beautifully with the words:
"Yon mountain's side is black with night, While broad-orbed, o'er its gleaming crown The moon, slow rounding into sight, On the hushed inland-sea looks down."
VOYAGE ON THREE GREAT LAKES, FROM AUGUST 2ND, 7 A.M., TO AUGUST 22ND, 9 A.M.
As the warm rays of the morning sun were lighting up the scene with a radiance, glorious to behold, we bade farewell to Buffalo which, being already in some distance, soon became entirely invisible.
Indescribable was our amazement when we viewed once more the waters of Lake Erie, whose raging billows had betrayed to us, only a few days ago, the unruly nature of a boisterous inland-sea.
Now, as we were gliding on its surface, the lake presented an appearance quite novel to us; being almost motionless, a true emblem of tranquillity and peacefulness. Only now and then a gentle zephyr rippled its level which, reflected in the sunbeams, appeared like an undulating mass of silver. The cloudless heavens, clad in their brightest hue of azure blue, and illumined by the golden sun, painted a great variety of fine images of light and shade on the limpid waters beneath. The sky seemed to reflect the water and the water the sky, both gleaming in the sunshine.
On our right, the lake made the impression of stretching into endless, unlimited space; on our left, however, we could distinguish romantic hills, decorated by massive groves, with crossing and intersecting promontories, and fair valleys tenanted by numerous flocks and herds, that seemed to wander unrestrained through the rich pastures. The luxuriant landscape was intercepted here and there by undulating slopes, covered with sand, whose light color contrasted with the verdure of vales and hillocks.
Speeding along, we came abreast of Dunkirk, a lake-port town in Chautauqua County, N.Y., situated on a small bay in Lake Erie, forty miles southwest of Buffalo. The town, which has a population of over 5,000, occupies an elevated and favorable position on the lake. Its industries comprise oil refineries, and the manufacture of flour and iron-work.
After proceeding on our voyage for some hours, we viewed—located in a natural bay—the harbor of Erie, the capital of Erie County, Penn. The port is protected by a breakwater three and one-half miles long.
The principal shipments that leave this harbor, are coal, iron, and petroleum; an important trade being carried on with the Canadian lake-ports.
The streets of the city are spacious and laid out with great regularity. To its prominent buildings belong the postoffice, the opera house, the city hospital, the court house, and the orphan asylum. Erie contains nearly 20,000 inhabitants, many of whom are engaged in iron manufacture. The large supply of water required for the factories is obtained from the lake by powerful engines, which force it to a tower 200 feet high, whence it is distributed through the mains. The chief industries developed here, are petroleum refineries and leather factories.
It was at Erie, that Commodore Perry equipped the vessels which in 1813 defeated the British fleet on Lake Erie. In the year 1795 the town was laid out, and in 1851 it received a city charter.
Still fascinated by the attractions of the everchanging landscape along the southern coast, we had forgotten that fugit hora; for we were greatly surprised to perceive the approaching twilight, indicating the parting day, and the white beams of the young crescent just beginning to steal over the lately flushed and empurpled scene.
Therefore, the "Marguerite" was cabled to the dock, about two miles from the village of Conneaut.
A fresh and palpitating evening air invited us to a walk along the coast of the beautiful inland-sea. Adopting an unfrequented path through a vast plain of sand, we found the charming scenery enhanced by a solemn stillness. All nature slumbered.
Here, witnessing a magnificent prospect in this lovely solitude, we experienced one of those seasons when the atmosphere is so surcharged with luxury, that every pore of the body becomes an ample gate for sensation to flow in; and one has simply to sit still and to be filled.
Seated near the shore, we delivered ourselves up to the exquisite loveliness around us; and when returning on board the yacht, the impression of the superb panorama tarried with me, even into the realm of Morpheus; so that I rose on the following morning with the remembrance of delicious dreams.
When I came on deck, the air seemed to be sweet with perfumes; the water sparkled brightly, and the blue sky hung cloudless over the placid mirror of Lake Erie.
Thus, favored by the weather, the majestic steam-yacht resumed her voyage.
After the lapse of two hours the harbor of Ashtabula came in sight, and at about 10 o'clock we approached Fair Point. The noon-tide of the summer day was past, as we were made acquainted with the fact, that the rising towers and pinnacles, to be discerned in the distance on our left, pertained to the beautiful "Forest City," next to Cincinnati the largest and most important city in the State of Ohio.
Cleveland is built on both sides of the Cuyahoga River, which is here crossed by several bridges. It is located chiefly on a plain from fifty to 100 feet above the lake, of which a magnificent view is thus obtained.
Leaving East River Street, where our floating home was destined to remain, I undertook an excursion through the greater portion of the city; not solely for the purpose of viewing the regular streets, generally from eighty to 100 feet wide, and lined with maple trees, but with the design to see a friend—Miss Lina Uhl—a teacher in one of the thirty public schools; holding a prominent position as the president of a teachers' association in Cleveland. She is the niece of Mr. C.F. Hild, from Schenectady, N.Y.
Having previously informed her of my intention to visit her native city, I was already expected, and very cordially received at her hospitable home.
After I had spent some very pleasant hours there, my friend accompanied me on my return to the dock. En route she made me acquainted with many points of interest, which are so numerous in the "Forest City." Thus, she called my attention to the charming Euclid Avenue, a street several miles long, considered to be one of the most extensive and picturesque within the limits of the United States. Here Cleveland's aristocracy built their substantial mansions and luxurious villas, encircled by tasty, park-like gardens. Of special interest to the visitor is the monument erected in memory of James Abram Garfield, the twentieth president of the Republic, born in Orange, Ohio, in 1831. Being in office but a short time, he was shot by a disappointed office-seeker, Charles J. Guiteau, in 1881. This sad event, which forms a thrilling incidence in the history of the Union, is comparable with the recent death of Carter Harrison, mayor of Chicago, whose assassination by Prendergast, under similar circumstances, on Saturday, 8.30 P.M., October 28, 1893, created a profound sensation and great excitement.
Monumental Park, near the center of the city, contains ten acres, divided into four squares by the extension of Ontario and Superior Streets. Besides a fountain, and other attractive objects, the park is adorned by a statue of Commodore Perry, erected in 1860 in commemoration of his victory on Lake Erie in 1813. It is of Italian marble, eight feet high, and stands upon a granite pedestal twelve feet in altitude. The most noteworthy buildings are the postoffice, the city hall, the county court house, and the Cleveland medical college. The Union Railway depot, an immense structure of stone near the lake shore, is one of the largest of the kind in the United States.
Cleveland was founded in 1796, and named in honor of General Moses Cleveland of Connecticut, who then had charge of the surveying of this region. It was an important point in the war of 1812, incorporated as a village in 1814, and as a city in 1836. The number of its inhabitants is estimated to be more than 200,000. The "Forest City" has an extensive trade in copper and iron ore, shipped from the Lake Superior mining regions, as well as in coal, petroleum, wool, and lumber, received by railroad, canal, and lake transportation. A sojourn of at least one week is requisite in order to acquaint one's self with all the attractions of Cleveland, with its unrivaled position and manifold beauties of scenery.
In fact, our honorable President can be proud to share his name with this delightful place; and, in return, the "Forest City" may consider it an honor to be the namesake of Grover Cleveland, the present leader of the powerful Republic.
On Friday morning, as soon as the dawning day dispatched its first rays over Cleveland, we resumed our voyage on Lake Erie. The flakes of light were falling every moment faster and broader among the spires and towers of the city of which we gradually lost sight. They were only discernible as long, gray shadows on the elevated lake shore. The mists were couched in quiet masses, iridescent with the morning light, upon the breasts of the remote hills, over whose leagues of massy undulations, they melted into the robe of material light, fading, lost in the increasing lustre, again to reappear in the higher heavens, while their bases vanished into the unsubstantial and mocking blue of the lake below. The dispersing wreaths of white clouds gradually gave place to the pale azure of the horizon. The level of the beautiful inland-sea was bathed in the glorious sunlight and the whole heaven—one scarlet canopy—colored the limpid waters with an exquisite, roseate tint; thus giving a redoubled splendor to this fine panorama.
While the midday sun was sending forth his warm rays, we came abreast of Marblehead, and speeding along we reached Green Island at 1 o'clock.
Having passed Barr Point Lighthouse we chose our halting place on the Canadian shore near Amherstburg, a small village pleasantly situated on the Detroit River.
As the yacht was fastened to the dock, the heavens were yet illumined by the parting day; which gave us opportunity to admire the superb spectacle on the opposite shore. Its southwestern extremity was adorned with numerous verdant islands of various size and form; some stretching for miles in length—the largest containing a circumference of fourteen miles; several so small that they seemed destined for a race of fairies; others in clusters; and some like beautiful vestals, in single loveliness, whose holy vows ordained them forever to live alone.
The last streak of light had faded from the west, and a pale lustre kindling in the eastern portions of the sky, became brighter and brighter till the white falcated moon was lifted up above the horizon; while uncountable stars appeared to reflect their brilliancy in the waters below. This delightful scene around us, so perfectly filled and satisfied our sense of beauty that we reluctantly gave up our comfortable seats on the stern-deck, notwithstanding an advanced time of night.
On the following morning the sun rose in his clearest splendor. As soon as that flood of luminous rays which constitutes day, was flowing on the crystalline sea, we departed from this romantic country scene in Canada.
Sailing along, we approached the terminus of our voyage on Lake Erie, which is considered the most dangerous of all the Great Lakes as to navigation, owing to its comparative shallowness—its mean depth, being about ninety feet—and the consequent liability to a heavy ground swell. The peculiar features of this body of water are its inferior depth and the clayey nature of its shores, which are generally low; on the south, however, bordered by an elevated plateau, through which the rivers have cut deep channels.
Though the lake possesses but a small number of good harbors, the amount of traffic on its waters, and on the connecting railways is enormous.
This inland-sea, presenting us only sights of utmost quietude and peace, has been the scene of a naval engagement between the British and Americans, September 10, 1813, in which the latter were victorious. The view we enjoyed was not in the least adequate to remind us of warfare; on the contrary
"The sun in heaven shone so gay: All things were joyful on that day."
It was yet early in the morning when we neared the city of Detroit, having almost reached the head of Detroit River which separates the United States from Canada. Being about one-half to three-quarters of a mile wide, and five and one-half fathoms deep, the river flows with a pretty swift current.
Detroit is the most important city of Michigan, opposite the Canadian town Windsor.
Eighteen miles north of Lake Erie, it stretches with its suburbs about five miles along the river, and the central part extends for about two miles back from the shore. Approaching the city, we were more and more delighted with its attractive appearance. The streets, from fifty to 100 feet wide, are for the most part ornamented with rows of trees. A number of avenues, having an unusual width, diverge from the Grand Circus, a spacious park semi-circular in form, which is divided into two quadrants by Woodward Avenue. Connected with the former is the Campus Martius, a public place about 600 feet long and 250 feet wide. Detroit comprises many magnificent structures. One of the chief public buildings is the city hall, facing the Campus Martius, with fronts on four streets. It counts among the finest edifices of the kind in the west. Built of sandstone, it is designed after the Italian style of architecture, surmounted by a tower 180 feet high. Its cost amounted to $600,000. Other prominent structures are the opera house, the office of the Board of Trade, the custom house, and the Roman Catholic cathedral.
The commercial facilities of the city are very extensive. The Detroit River is a connecting link in the great chain of lake navigation, and affords the best harbor on the inland-seas. Detroit is not only the center of a great railroad system; more than 350 vessels are owned here, and numerous daily lines of steamers run to various points of the lakes. Its manufacturing industries are very important and consist of iron, flour, tobacco, cigars, lumber, and bricks. The extensive Pullman Car Works are situated here; also one of the seven pin factories in the United States.
Settled by the French, early in the eighteenth century, Detroit passed into the hands of the English in 1763. It was then besieged for eleven months by the Indian chief Pontiac; ceded to the Americans in 1783, but not occupied by them till 1796. As a city, it was incorporated in 1824; and its present population is estimated to be 235,000. It was the capital of Michigan from 1837 till 1847, when that honor was transferred to Lansing.
Having traversed Detroit River, we entered Lake St. Clair, a sheet of water eighteen miles long and twenty-two miles wide. This small lake has many extensive sand-banks covered with a depth of water varying from six to ten feet. Previous to 1858, much inconvenience was experienced in navigating it, owing to the insufficient depth, but the governments of the United States and Canada have dredged a canal through the bed of the lake, comprising a width of 300 feet. Since then, this channel has been deepened so as to enable vessels drawing fifteen feet to pass with safety from lake to lake in stormy weather.
After the expiration of a few hours we reached River St. Clair, whose luxuriant border exhibited a magnificent panorama.
Afar off westward, the uplands wore a tinge of tenderest blue; and in the nearer distance, on the low shores of the river, superb summer residences, tasty villas, and elegant hotels, built in every style of architecture, lay interspersed between romantic hills and tufted groves. The horizon was of a fine, golden tint, changing gradually into the deep blue of the mid-heaven.
None of us ventured to leave the deck fearing to miss some of those unrivaled sights constantly offering new attractions.
This trip on River St. Clair—though having an extent of thirty-three miles—seemed but short to us; and the fine spectacle displayed on the charming western bank may be reckoned among the most delightful scenes we beheld on our long, enjoyable voyage.
As we approached the terminus of the river, a sudden rush of the awakened wind was heard; and out of the blue horizon a troop of narrow, dark, and pointed clouds were advancing, covering the sky, inch by inch, with their gray masses gradually blotting the light out of the landscape. Horizontal bars of black shadow were forming under them, and lurid wreaths wrapped themselves about the crests of the hills. The wind had grown more violent as Port Huron came in view. Waving curtains of opaque rain, swinging from the overburdened clouds, dropped down upon the surface of the river. The black swaying fringes, sweeping irresistibly along the water, churned the surface into foam.
The sudden and unfavorable change of the weather determined our commodore to abide at Port Huron, a prosperous city in Michigan. It commands a very advantageous situation, located on the west bank of River St. Clair, and at the southern extremity of Lake Huron.
Being the county seat of St. Clair County, it is also a point of great importance in the railway system, and the terminus of several lines of lake steamers.
The city, with a population of nearly 14,000, has a large lumber trade, ship-yards, dry-docks, saw and flour mills.
Founded in 1819, Port Huron was incorporated as a village in 1835, and as a city in 1857.
Since the yacht lingered here until Monday, August 7th, we were enabled to become familiar with its broad streets, regularly laid out and well shaded; some adorned by beautiful private residences. The heavy, black clouds that had shrouded the whole sky ever since we made our entry in Port Huron, were yet concealing the golden disk of the summer sun. The atmosphere, however, which had previously a disagreeable, wet chilliness in it, gradually grew clearer and warmer so that we left the dock with the intention to undertake our voyage on Lake Huron, but when nearing the place where this sheet of water, covering an area of 23,000 square miles, communicates with River St. Clair, we discovered that the swell on the lake level was yet quite considerable, whereas the wind which had blown a gale all the preceding day, was gradually dying away.
Still, we found it advisable to wait until the foaming waves of the enraged element had been appeased. In consequence of this decision we concluded to moor the yacht as near the entrance of Lake Huron, as we conveniently could, ready for an early departure; for which we considered the town of Sarnia, opposite Port Huron, the most favorable locality.
Romantically situated on the Canadian shore, Sarnia affords a splendid north and west view. Its handsome streets and neat structures are quite attractive to the stranger; and not these alone but also the residents who are generous and hospitable. We observed this fact, even during our short stay, when receiving the visit of Mr. Clark and his amiable lady, who presented us with a bouquet of fragrant flowers, a kind gift that we highly appreciated.
Long ere the east became purple with the morning light and the pinnacles of Sarnia were bathed, one by one, in the glory of its burning, we departed from the pleasant city, and the white sea-bird "Marguerite" spread her light wings over the surface of Lake Huron, whose waves—although the wind was quite fresh—did not run as high as I anticipated; for I had been informed that on the previous day the tide from the lake into Detroit River amounted to eight miles an hour.
As I was pacing up and down the deck, I viewed an inland-sea 270 miles long, and 105 miles broad, with a picturesque coast line on our left. The purity of its waters was discernible by its limpid appearance and savory taste. The fine deposits of sand and clay extending at different places along the shore to a distance of twenty miles inland, by their contrasts added to the scenic beauty, exhibiting a variety of magnificent views.
The luxuriant coast bordering on the southern extremity of the lake and skirting the peninsula of Michigan and southwestern Ontario—though comparatively flat—is not void of charming features; being lined with numerous pretty villages imbosomed among gentle slopes that were covered with the richest verdure. These hamlets, situated in the quiet valleys and shaded glens, alternated with extensive fields and orchards exuberant with fertility.
Speeding along on the wavy surface of the lake, we gained sight of the breakwater of Sand Beach when the noon-tide of the day had not yet arrived.
We first visited the village of Sand Beach, and returned at nightfall to the breakwater, which is five miles distant from the former; here the yacht was cabled to the dock. Near our halting place there stood a lofty tower, whose illuminating apparatus threw a radiant, vari-colored light on the dark surface of Lake Huron.
Upon expressing a desire to visit the Light Tower, Mr. James, who never left any of our wishes unfulfilled, immediately made arrangements with the keeper; and, accordingly, we were invited to intrust ourselves to his guidance.
He informed us that the structure rested on a foundation consisting of a concrete mass, nine feet below the water line. Having ascended four flights of iron-wrought winding stairs, we reached the top of the circular structure; it having a diameter of twenty-four feet at its base, and rising to an elevation of fifty-seven feet.
With great interest we inspected the revolving lights, exhibiting an ingenious piece of machinery, the invention of Finisterre and Barren in Paris, and representing a value of $1,800. This apparatus for rotating lamps is far superior to that for a fixed light.
The characteristic of the latter is to constantly illuminate the whole horizon, requiring all the rays to fall simultaneously on the navigable track, whereas the demands made of a revolving light, are not nearly so great; only each point of the horizon being lighted at successive periods.
When the dark intervals occur, the rays from the flame which are then pointing toward the obscure spaces, have their direction so altered laterally as to pass into the adjoining bright places; and so increase the power of the luminous flashes. A revolving light, though supplied by a flame of the same strength as a fixed, will thus necessarily be raised to a higher degree; for it does not lose its power by diffusing the rays constantly over the whole horizon, but gathers them up into a number of separate beams of greater intensity.
The lights made to revolve by means of clockwork, were fed with mineral oil, a refined kerosine; and the refraction was caused by highly polished metallic reflectors.
This visit to the Sand Beach Beacon was quite instructive; since we viewed there a practical application of an important principle in optics, based on the reflection of light.
On Wednesday morning, the first beams of the new-born day had just appeared, when the yacht continued her voyage on Lake Huron. After a course of nearly twenty-two miles, we approached Saginaw Bay—the largest indentation on the western lake shore—comprising a width of thirty miles and a length of sixty miles.
The passage across this bay, feared by many experienced navigators on account of the heavy ground swell, did not give us any cause for anxiety at first. Gradually, however, the sea became quite rough, and the enraged waves dashed their spray pearls even upon the deck of our sailing home.
"The soft, wild waves, that rush and leap, Sing one song from the hoary deep: The south wind knows its own refrain, As it speeds the cloud o'er heaven's blue main."
The strong breeze springing up in the forenoon, increased at midday. A line of low waves, first creeping sinuously into the bay, and tossing their snowy crests like troops of wild steeds, rolled higher and higher with the noise of many waters; and to escape the wrath of the angry sea, we stopped at the harbor of Tawas City, located near the northern extremity of Saginaw Bay. It is a thriving country town, with about 1,000 inhabitants, largely engaged in lumber trade.
The wind continued to lash the fierce billows during the day until evening; so we decided to remain in Tawas City until the dawn of the next morning.
Guided by the pale light of another aurora, we resumed our voyage, finding the surface of Lake Huron still in uproar.
During this forenoon, we had occasion to witness a prospect quite novel to us. Glancing to our left, on Michigan's sylvan shore, we saw the bickering flames of a ravaging forest fire; dyeing all the surrounding air and landscape crimson, while dense clouds of smoke hung over the burning land like a pall upon which the sun-rays were reflected with weird effect. It was, indeed, an unusual sight, exhibiting strange beauty and splendor.
In a short time we experienced the disagreeable consequences of this conflagration in the woodlands, caused by the extreme dryness prevailing in these regions for several weeks. For, as we reached Alpena in Michigan, at about noonday, we found the atmosphere completely saturated with smoke, and intermixed with particles of burnt material.
The reader can easily imagine that this impure air had a very unpleasant effect upon our eyes, irritating them so as to materially interfere with our comfort. This was the reason why we did not duly appreciate the attractions of Alpena, a town with about 12,500 inhabitants, regularly laid out with nice, broad streets, containing many handsome buildings and large stores.
We had an ardent desire to bid farewell to the city as quick as possible; wherefore our captain received the order from Mr. James to guide the yacht forward on her course, even before the dawning of the next day, if such an early departure could be effected with safety.
In compliance with these commands, we were on our way long ere the blush of day tinged the eastern sky. At first, disregarding the smoke and mist which became denser every minute, our navigator was soon aware that
"So thick a haze o'erspreads the sky, He cannot see the sun on high: On deck the captain takes his stand, So dull it is, he sees no land. 'Dear me,' he says, 'I know no more How far away we are from shore.'"
The fact is—that on account of the dense pall of smoke and mist, overshadowing everything—our pilot lost his reckoning, and only kept the yacht slowly moving through the water until we could find our way, when suddenly—we ran aground upon a rocky ledge, causing us all great consternation.
"No stir in the air, no stir in the sea, The ship was as still as she might be. Her shaft and screw received no shock. Her keel was steady on a rock."
Having lost all presence of mind, our pilot, without any meditation, abandoned the yacht in one of the small boats, for the purpose of obtaining assistance from the unknown shore. Before we were conscious of his proceedings, he had disappeared through fume and haze. Almost instantaneously we detected that the mariner's compass had vanished with him.
Thus, we were destitute of the most important instrument for navigation. Wishing to give our deserter opportunity to find his way back to us, we caused the whistle to resound at short intervals.
This interesting adventure was, of course, thoroughly discussed. We were all convinced that the unforeseen event might turn into a perilous one, should a wind arise to roughen the surface of the water.
Our conversation was interrupted by an involuntary cry of pleasure which burst from the lips of Miss Campbell, whose keen eyes had revealed to her quite an uncommon spectacle in the hazy distance. Following her direction, we spied, through the fluctuating light of the foggy morning, the outlines of a steadfast boat speeding along on the calm sea. Eight oars, managed with the accuracy of clockwork by eight strong and skillful hands, were hurrying toward our rock-bound craft.
As the shape and dimensions of the capable boat became discernible, it was evident she belonged to the United States Life-Saving Service, coming to our rescue. This conjecture was correct, for the robust crew soon lay alongside of us; which was a matter of intense relief to the whole party.
With their assistance, the yacht was soon afloat again; and, guided by the Thunder Bay crew, we sailed to a favorable place of anchorage between Sugar and Gull Islands. Here the yacht remained to await our fugitive pilot, who was restored to us by the kind services of the life-saving crew, a few hours afterwards.
We were informed that we had been aground two miles from the shore, in the vicinity of Thunder Bay Lights on Gull Island Ledge.
During a heavy shower in the afternoon, we received a visit from several very pleasant ladies, relatives to the captain of the Thunder Bay life-saving service.
When expressing our regret that their excursion was not favored by pleasanter weather, they assured us they were only too glad to view the tremulous skeins of rain refresh the languishing earth. In fact, this rainfall was a duplicated blessing, as it not only cleared the atmosphere from its smoky shroud but helped to check the ravages of the extensive forest conflagration, then threatening the city of Alpena with destruction.
An awakened breeze, which had freshened since the violent shower, caused our floating home to roll considerably.
Not desirous of being rudely tossed by the wanton billows, we weighed anchor and returned to Alpena, the only safe harbor within reach before sunset.
Early the next day we continued our voyage on Lake Huron, entering its northern portion, which differs greatly from the nature of its southern shore.
The northern and northeastern coasts are mostly composed of sand- and limestones. Where metamorphic rocks are found, the surface is broken and hilly, rising to elevations of 600 feet or more above the lake; in this respect unlike the southern shore, which is low and flat. Of the many islands—whose number amounts to about 3,000—we could admire the beauties of but few; for most of them dot the Canadian coast line.
As the wind increased rapidly, it was deemed advisable to take harbor at False Presqu'ile, where we arrived at 9 A.M. Although this small body of land appeared very insignificant, inhabited by only twelve families, we decided to remain there, until wind and waves would prove more favorable.
We had no motive to regret that resolution; for we experienced that this solitary tract not only afforded us enchanting views of lovely scenery; it was also the abode of noble-hearted mortals. Immediately after our arrival a very amiable gentleman, introducing himself as Mr. W.A. French, a wealthy lumber merchant of this place, visited us on board; giving us a cordial welcome. Not satisfied with a kind reception, he and his pretty wife presented us with all sorts of provisions, indigenous to this locality; thus evincing the abundant supply of delicacies at their disposal, notwithstanding their residing in such solitude.
The time passed with marvelous rapidity in the pleasant company of our new friends. When the gloom of the growing twilight reminded us of the fading day, we could hardly realize this fact. We wished to stay there another day; but when the following morning rose fair and beautiful in the clear heavens, the wind had changed to the southeast, which was disadvantageous for our mooring place; and it might have been dangerous for us to remain in that harbor, should the breeze become violent.
Leaving False Presqu'ile, we pursued our voyage under the most favorable auspices.
After a course of several hours, we reached Cheboygan, a town situated on the northern shore of the Michigan Peninsula, thirteen miles from the Straits of Mackinaw. Lumber trade is carried on especially in this place, which contains about 7,500 inhabitants.
Resuming our trip the next forenoon, a short course brought us to the terminus of our voyage on Lake Huron; when reaching the Straits of Mackinaw, whose blue green waves divide the State of Michigan.
Extending nearly nine miles in circumference, and rising at its highest point over 300 feet above the waves, we beheld the famous Mackinaw Island, which has filled an important place in the history of exploration. Here was the meeting place of the daring French voyageurs and aventuriers, before the pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock. Many wild and thrilling incidents in the lives of Marquette, Hennepin, and La Salle occurred on this island; and over at Point St. Ignace, in plain view, Marquette was escorted to his burial place by a hundred canoes of plumed and painted Ottawa and Huron warriors in 1677.
Just across, on the most northern point of the Lower Peninsula, stood old Fort Mackinaw, the scene of the terrible massacre of the whites by the Indians under Pontiac in 1763.
On this island were fought two battles in the war of 1812. It was here that Schoolcraft wrote his celebrated History of the North American Indians, and the Legend of Hiawatha, which Longfellow, visiting him here, afterward expanded into a poem.
The island's varied scenery, and its history and traditions, have been portrayed in vivid word pictures by Marion Harland in a book, bearing the title "With the Best Intentions," by which she has recently added to her wide fame.
Having crossed the strait at its narrowest part four miles in width, we caught sight of the beautiful waters of Lake Michigan, the only one in the group of the North American great lakes which extends entirely within the territory of the United States, having a maximum breadth of eighty four miles, and a depth varying from 700 to 1,000 feet. Its length amounts to 345 miles from the northwestern corner of Indiana and the northern part of Illinois to the Straits of Mackinaw.
We followed the same route which more than two centuries ago was taken by Jacques Marquette who, in the spring of 1673, with Joliet for his chieftain, and five other Frenchmen, embarked at Mackinaw in two frail bark canoes.
The disposition to pause for an instant, and to reflect upon the character and circumstance of our luxurious voyage as contrasted with that of these few adventurers in their fragile birch canoes—a little over 220 years ago—is almost irresistible.
On that occasion it was a journey of extreme peril—with no friendly populous havens at which the necessary commodities could be obtained. Those densely wooded shores afforded no hospitable refuge to these hardy men, and their destination or return was a question of great uncertainty.
We pushed along with the marvelous propeller and, surrounded with every comfort, had the assurance of each evening anchoring in some safe harbor—encountering cheerful voices, and seeing glad faces—with the possibility of daily finding everything we wanted, in profusion. There was the postoffice, with its rapid service at our disposal, or the electric telegraph, by means of which we could communicate with every part of civilization, ever within our reach—and the climax of modern genius in the magnificent structures of the Columbian Exposition awaiting us—the marvel of the nineteenth century, with its unparalleled aggregation. The thought is overwhelming! And could these explorers have seen in a dream—what we witnessed in reality—it would have seemed to them an impossibility that so short a time could have brought about such great events.
The eastern lake shore was richly garlanded with forests displaying a vast multitude of verdant hues, varying through all the shades of green. Over the whole the azure of the sky cast a deep, misty blue; blending toward the rocks of lime- and sandstone, seemingly embracing every possible tint and shade of color.
Having achieved a course of sixty miles, the yacht cast anchor in the excellent harbor of St. James on Beaver Island, a large tract of land covering an area of 3,700 acres. Vessels of various kinds and shapes lay moored in this spacious inlet. Being wind-bound, we tarried for two days, which gave us opportunity to become acquainted with the features of the island. We were informed that it is identified with the history of Mormonism; since it was first settled by adherents of that sect, who robbed the ships entering this port, and who led the lives of pirates. After their leader was killed in one of the numerous combats which ensued with the attacked sailors, they abandoned the place; but the habitation of the Mormon chief is still existing, probably the only vestige left here of the followers of Joseph Smith.
At 1 o'clock A.M., on Wednesday, August 16th, we departed from Beaver Island. The pilot had guided the "Marguerite" on a course of about forty-five miles southward, when we approached Northport, Michigan, a place noteworthy for having not a single of those maleficient institutions, commonly styled beer-saloons.
We lingered two hours at the dock of this town. The white fields of blinding mist floated along the winding valleys of the low lake shore; and from the dark clouds curtaining the sun, the rain fell continuously. Thus the landscape on our left bore a gray and dim tincture.
Before the darkness of evening had gathered about us, the yacht was made fast to the dock of Frankfort, on the Michigan coast, a small place with a population of about 1,000, romantically situated. Taking our departure from the town on the following morning, we observed that the fog, covering the surrounding landscape with a thick, impenetrable veil, increased in density until it seemed as if from moment to moment additional tints of sombre gray were united to the haze. In fact, after a while we were unable to discern the outline of the coast, having to pursue our way with great caution.
After the lapse of four anxious hours, we had the great satisfaction to hear the welcome sound of the fog-horn of Manistee, the county seat of Manistee County, in Michigan. It is situated at the mouth of the same-named river, which is navigable for vessels, drawing ten to twelve feet of water, for the distance of one and one-half miles to Manistee Lake. Largely engaged in lumber trade, the city has a score of saw-mills and about as many shingle-mills, the latter of which produce annually 450,000,000 shingles, the largest number made at any one place in the world. In consequence of the discovery in 1881 of a bed of solid salt, thirty feet thick, extensive salt factories are being built. The population of the city has rapidly increased in later years, comprising about 14,000 residents at present. The surrounding district is especially adapted for fruit-growing; and sportsmen are attracted to the Manistee River and its tributaries by the abundance of the otherwise rarely found grayling.