HotFreeBooks.com
Caxton's Book of Curtesye
by Frederick J. Furnivall
1  2     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

Editorial note: This e-book was prepared with the iso-8859-1 (Latin-1) character set, and this ASCII file was created by converting the iso-8859-1 characters. There is no ASCII equivalent for two of these characters: 1) The runic alphabet remnant "thorn," which looks like a lower case "p" but with the vertical line extended further upward. This character has a "th" sound and has been rendered as "[th]" in this ASCII version. 2) The "paragraph" sign (a backward "P" with a double vertical line), which in this ASCII version has been rendered as "P)".



CAXTON'S BOOK OF CURTESYE

Printed at Westminster about 1477-8 A.D. and Now Reprinted, with Two Ms. Copies of the Same Treatise, from the Oriel Ms. 79, and the Balliol Ms. 354

Edited by

FREDERICK J. FURNIVALL, M.A.

Editor of 'The Babees Book, Etc.' ('Manners and Meals in Olden Time'), Etc. Etc.

London: Published for the Early English Text Society by Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, Amen House, E.C. 4

1868 (reprinted 1882, 1898, 1932)



PREFACE

Though no excuse can be needed for including in our Extra Series a reprint of a unique Caxton on a most interesting subject, yet this Book of Curtesye from Hill's MS. was at first intended for our original series, I having forgotten lately that Caxton had written to 'lytyl Iohn,' though some months back I had entered the old printer's book for my second collection of Manners and Meals tracts for the Society. After the copy of Hill—which Mr W.W. King kindly made for his fellow-members—had gone to press, Mr Hazlitt reminded me of the Caxton, and its first and last lines in Mr Blades's admirable book showed that Hill's text was the same as the printed one. I accordingly went to Cambridge to copy it, and there, before tea, Mr Skeat showed me the copy of The Vision of Piers Plowman which the Provost and Fellows of Oriel had been good enough to lend him for his edition of 'Text B.' Having enjoyed the vellum Vision, I turned to the paper leaves at its end, and what should they contain but an earlier and better version of the Caxton that I had just copied part of?[1] I drank seven cups of tea, and eat five or six large slices of bread and butter, in honour of the event;[2] and Mr Skeat, with his never-failing kindness, undertook to copy and edit the Oriel text for the Society. With three texts, therefore, in hand, I could not well stick them at the end of the Postscript to the Babees Book, &c.,[3] and as I wanted Caxton's name to this Book of Curtesye to distinguish it from what has long been to me THE Book of Courtesy,—that from the Sloane MS. 1986, edited by Mr Halliwell for the Percy Society, and by me for our own E.E.T.S.—and as also Caxton's name is one 'to conjure withal,' I have, with our Committee's leave, made this little volume an Extra Series one, and called it Caxton's, though his text is not so good as that of the Oriel MS.

[Footnote 1: Mr Bradshaw was kind enough to copy the rest, and to read the whole of the proof with Caxton's original.]

[Footnote 2: I must be excused for not having found the poem before, as it is not in the Index to Mr Coxe's Catalogue. In the body of the work it is entered as "A father's advice to his son; with instructions for his behaviour as a king's or nobleman's page. ff. 88, 89, 78. Beg.

"Kepeth clene and leseth not youre gere."]

[Footnote 3: The Treatises in The Babees Book, &c., and the Index at the end, should be consulted for parallel and illustrative passages to those in Caxton's text.]

On this latter point Mr Skeat writes:

"The Oriel copy is evidently the best. Not only does it give better readings, but the lines, as a rule, run more smoothly; and it has an extra stanza. This stanza, which is marked 54, occurs between stanzas 53 and 54 of the other copies, and is of some interest and importance. It shows that Lidgate's pupil, put in mind of Lidgate's style by the very mention of his name, introduces a ballad of three stanzas, in which every stanza has a burden after the Lidgate manner. The recurrence of this burden no doubt caused copyists to lose their place, and so the stanza came to be omitted in other copies. Its omission, however, spoils the ballad. Both it and the curious lines in Piers Ploughmans Crede,

"For aungells and arcangells / all [th]ei whijt vse[th] And alle aldermen / [th]at ben ante tronum,

"i.e. all the elders before the throne, allude to Rev. iv. 10. This Crede passage has special reference to the Carmelites or White Friars.

"The first two leaves of the Oriel copy are misplaced inside out at the end; but this is not the only misarrangement. The poem has evidently been copied into this MS. from an older copy having a leaf capable of containing six stanzas at a time; which leaves were out of order. Hence the poem in the Oriel MS. is written in the following order, as now bound up, Stanzas 11 (l. 5)-18, 25-30, 37-42, 19-24, 49-54, 31-36, 43-48, 55-76, 8-11 (l. 4), 4 (l. 5)-7, 1-4 (l. 4)."

As an instance of a word improved by the Oriel text, may be cited the 'brecheles feste' of Caxton's and Hill's texts, l. 66, and l. 300,

ffor truste ye well ye shall you not excuse ffrom brecheles feste, & I may you espye Playenge at any game of rebawdrye.—Hill, l. 299-301.

Could it be 'profitless,' from A.-Sax. brec, gain, profit; or 'breechless,' a feast of birch for the boy with his breeches off? The latter was evidently meant, but it was a forced construction. The Oriel byrcheley set matters right at once.

Another passage I cannot feel sure is set at rest by the Oriel text. Hill's and Caxton's texts, when describing the ill-mannered servant whose ways are to be avoided, say of him, as to his hair, that he is

Absolon with disheveled heres smale, lyke to a prysoner of saynt Malowes,[1] a sonny busshe able to the galowes.—Hill, l. 462.

[Footnote 1: An allusion to the strong castle built at St Malo's by Anne, Duchess of Bretayne.—Dyce.]

For the last line the Oriel MS. reads,

a sonny bush myght cause hym to goo louse,

and Mr Skeat says,—"This is clearly the right reading, of which galowes is an unmeaning corruption. The poet is speaking of the dirty state of a bad and ill-behaved servant. He is as dirty as a man come out of St Malo's prison; a sunny bush would cause him to go and free himself from minute attendants. A 'sunny bush' probably means no more than a warm nook, inviting one to rest, or to such quiet pursuits as the one indicated. That this is really the reading is shown by the next stanza, wherein the poet apologizes for having spoken too bluntly; he ought to have spoken of such a chase by saying that he goes a-hawking or a-hunting. Such was the right euphemism required by 'norture.'"

If this is the meaning, we may compare with it the old poet's reproof to the proud man:

Man, of [th]i schuldres and of [th]i side [th]ou mi3*te hunti luse and flee: of such a park i ne hold no pride; [th]e dere nis nau3*te [th]at [th]ou mighte sle.

Early English Poems, ed. F.J.F., 1862, p. 1, l. 5.

and remember that one of the blessings of the early Paradisaical Land of Cokaygne is:

Nis [th]er flei, fle, no lowse, In clo[th], in toune, bed, no house.

Ib., p. 157, l. 37-8.

We may also compare the following extract about Homer's death from "Pleasant and Delightfull Dialogues in Spanish and English: Profitable to the Learner, and not vnpleasant to any other Reader. By John Minsheu, Professor of Languages in London. 1623," p. 47.

"F ... a foole with his foolishnesse framed in his owne imagination may giue to a hundred wise men matter to picke out.

"I, So it hapned to the Poet Homer, that as he was with age blinde, and went walking by the sea shoare, & heard certaine Fishermen talking, that at that time were a lowsing themselues, and as he asked them, what fish they caught, they vnderstanding that he had meant their lice, they answered, Those that we [1]haue, we seeke for, and those that we [2]haue not wee finde, but as the good Homer could not see what they did, and for this cause could not vnderstand the riddle, it did so grieue his vnderstanding to obtaine the secret of this matter, which was a sufficient griefe to cause his death."

[Footnote 1: i. Haue in their clothes. i. lice.]

[Footnote 2: i. Haue not in hand.]

But the subject is not a very pleasant one for discussion, though the occupation alluded to in the Oriel Text must have been one of the pastimes of many people in Early England.

The book itself, Lytill Johan, is by a disciple of Lydgate's—see l. 366, p. 36-7—and contains, besides, the usual directions how to dress, how to behave in church, at meals, and when serving at table, a wise man's advice on the books his little Jack should read, the best English poets,—then Gower, Chaucer, Occleve, and Lydgate,—not the Catechism and Latin Grammar. It was very pleasant to come off the directions not to conveye spetell over the table, or burnish one's bones with one's teeth, to the burst of enthusiasm with which the writer speaks of our old poets. He evidently believed in them with all his heart; and it would have been a good thing for England if our educators since had followed his example. If the time wasted, almost, in Latin and Greek by so many middle-class boys, had been given to Milton and Shakspere, Chaucer and Langland, with a fit amount of natural science, we should have been a nobler nation now than we are. There is no more promising sign of the times than the increased attention paid to English in education now.

But to return to our author. He gives Chaucer the poet's highest gift, Imagination, in these words,

what ever to say he toke in his entente, his langage was so fayer & pertynante, yt semeth vnto manys heryng not only the worde, but veryly the thyng. (l. 343.)

And though the writer has the bad taste to praise Lydgate more than Chaucer, yet we may put this down to his love for his old master, and may rest assured that though the cantankerous Ritson calls the Bury schoolmaster a 'driveling monk,' yet the larking schoolboy who robbed orchards, played truant, and generally raised the devil in his early days (Forewords to Babees Book, p. xliv.), retained in later years many of the qualities that draw to a man the boy's bright heart, the disciple's fond regret. We too will therefore hope that old Lydgate's

sowle be gon (To) the sterred paleys above the dappled skye, Ther to syng Sanctus insessavntly Emonge the mvses nyne celestyall, Before the hyeste Iubyter of all. (l. 381-5.)

In old age the present poem was composed (st. 60, p. 42-3); 'a lytill newe Instruccion' to a lytle childe, to remove him from vice & make him follow virtue. At his riper age our author promises his boy the surplusage of the treatise (st. 74, p. 50-1); and if a copy of it exists, I hope it will soon fall in our way and get into type, for 'the more the merrier' of these peeps into old boy-life.

On one of the grammatical forms of the Oriel MS., Mr Skeat writes:

"It is curious to observe the forms of the imperative mood plural which occur so frequently throughout the poem in the Oriel copy. The forms ending in -eth are about 31 in number, of which 17 are of French, and 14 of A.S. origin. The words in which the ending -eth is dropped are 42, of which 18 are of French, and 24 of A.S. origin. The three following French words take both forms; avyse or avyseth, awayte or awayteth, wayte or wayteth; and the five following A.S. words, be or beth, kepe or kepeth, knele or knelyth, loke or loketh, make or maketh. Thus the poet makes use, on the whole, of one form almost as often as the other (that is, supposing the scribe to have copied correctly), and he no doubt consulted his convenience in taking that one which suited the line best. It is an instance of what followed in almost every case of naturalization, that A.S. inflections were added to the French words quite as freely as to those of native origin. Both the -eth and -e forms are commonly used without the word ye, though. Be ye occurs in l. 58. In the phrase avise you (l. 78), you is in the accusative."

Commenting also on l. 71 of Caxton and Hill, Mr Skeat notices how they have individualised the general 'child' of the earlier Oriel text:

"71. Here we find child riming to mylde. In most other places it is Johan. The rime shows that the reading child is right, and Johan is a later adaptation. The Oriel MS. never uses the word Johan at all; it is always child."

I may remark also, that on the question lately raised by Mr Bradshaw, 'who before Hampole,[1] or after him, used you for the nominative as well as the correct ye,' Hill uses both you and ye, see l. 47, 51, 52, &c., though so far as a hasty search shows, Lydgate, in his Minor Poems at least, uses ye only, as do Lord Berners in his Arthur of Lytil Brytayne, ab. 1530, the Ormulum, Ancren Riwle, Genesis and Exodus, William of Palerne, Alliterative Poems, Early Metrical Homilies, &c.[2]

[Footnote 1: Pricke of Conscience, p. 127, l. 4659; and p. xvii.]

[Footnote 2: Mr Skeat holds that in the various reading 3*ow drieth from the Univ. Coll. Oxford MS. (of the early part of the 15th century) to the Vernon MS. [th]ou drui3*est, l. 25, Passus 1, of the Vision of Piers Plowman, the 3*ow is an accusative, "exactly equivalent to the Gothic in the following passage—'hwana [th]aursjai, gaggai du mis, i.e. whom it may thirst, let him come to me.' John vii. 37. I conclude that 3*ow is accusative, not dative. The same construction occurs in German constantly, 'es duerstet mich' = it thirsts me, I thirst."]

The final d, f, t, of Hill's MS., often have a tag to them. As they sometimes occur in places where I judge they must mean nothing, I have neglected them all. Every final ll has a line through it, which may mean e. Nearly every final n and m has a curly tail or line over it. This is printed e or n, though no doubt the tail and line have often no value at all. The curls to the rs are printed e, because ther with the curly r, in l. 521, Hill, rimes to where of l. 519.

At the end of Caxton's final d and g is occasionally a crook-backed line, something between the line of beauty and the ordinary knocker. This no doubt represents the final e of MSS., and is so printed, as Mr Childs has not the knocker in the fount of type that he uses for the Society's work. Caxton's n stands for un in the -aunce, -aunte, of words from the French. No stops or inverted commas have been put to Caxton's text here, but the stanzas and lines have been numbered, and side-notes added.

"The Book of Curtesye," says Mr Bradshaw, "is known from three early editions. The first, without any imprint, but printed at Westminster by Caxton ab. 1477-78,[1] the only known copy of which is here reproduced. The second (with the colophon 'Here endeth a lytyll treatyse called the booke of Curtesye or lytyll John. Emprynted atte Westmoster') is only known from a printer's proof of two pages[2] preserved among the Douce fragments in the Bodleian. It must have been printed by Wynkin de Worde in Caxton's house ab. 1492. In the third edition it was reprinted at the end of the Stans puer ad Mensam by Wynkin de Worde ab. 1501-1510. The Cambridge copy is the only one known to remain of this edition."

[Footnote 1: In his type No. 2, Blades, ii. 63.]

[Footnote 2: In Caxton's type No. 5, Blades, ii. 235 (not 253 as in Index).]

I have no more to say: but, readers, remember this coming New Year to do more than last for what Dr Stratmann calls "the dear Old English." Think of Chaucer when his glad spring comes, and every day besides; forget not Langland or any of our early men:

reporte & revyue the lawde of them that were famovs in[1] owre langage, these faders dere, whos sowles in blis, god eternall avaunce, that lysten so[2] owre langage to enhavnce!

(Hill, l. 430-4.)

[Footnote 1: Founders of, Oriel MS.]

[Footnote 2: some, Hill; so, Oriel.]

_3, St George's Square, N.W.

15 Dec., 1867._



The Book of Curtesye.



[The Book of Curtesy.]

[From the Oriel MS. lxxix.]

[1]

Lytle childe, sythen youre tendre infancie Stondeth as yett vndir yndyff[e]rence, To vice or vertu to moven[1] or Applie, 3 [Sidenote 1: MS. coorven] And in suche Age ther is no prouidence, Ne comenly no sadde intelligence, But ryght as wax receyueth printe and figure, So chylder ben disposed of nature,

[2]

Vice or vertu to Folowe and ympresse In mynde; and therfore, to stere and remeve You from vice, and to vertu thou[1] dresse, 10 [Sidenote 1: Read you] That on to folow, and the other to eschewe, I haue devysed you this lytill newe Instruccion according to youre age, Playne in sentence, but playner in langage. 14

(Richard Hill's Commonplace Book, or Balliol MS. 354, ffl C lx.)

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

Here begynnyth lytill[e] Iohan.

P) Lytell[e] Iohan, sith your tendere enfancye Stondyth as yet vndere Indyfference To vyce or vertu to mevyn or applie, & in suche age ther[1] ys no provydence, 4 Ne comenly no sage Intelygence, But as wax receyvith prynt or fygure, So chyldren bene disposed of nature

[Footnote 1: The th is the same as the y.]

P) Vyce or vertu to folowe, & enpresse 8 In mynde; & therfor to styre & remeve you frome vice, & to vertu addresse, That on to folow, & that other to eschewe, I haue devysed you this lytill[e] newe 12 Instruccion[1] accordyng vnto your age, playn In sentence, but playnere In langage.

[Footnote 1: The mark of contraction is over the n: t.i. the n has its tail curled over its back like a dog's.]

[The Book of Courtesye.]

[Caxton's Text.]

[1]

[Sidenote: Leaf 1 a.]

Lytyl Iohn syth your tendre enfancye Stondeth as yet vnder / in difference [Sidenote: As Infancy is indifferent] To vice or vertu to meuyn or applye 3 [Sidenote: whether it follows vice or virtue,] And in suche age ther is no prouidence Ne comenly no sade Intelligence But as waxe resseyueth prynte or figure So children ben disposide of nature 7

[2]

Vyce or vertue to folowe ande enpresse In mynde / ande therfore / to styre & remeue You from vice / ande to vertue addresse 10 That one to folowe / and that other teschewe I haue deuysed you / this lytyl newe [Sidenote: I have written this new treatise to draw you from vice, and turn you to virtue.] Instruccion / acordynge vnto your age Playne in sentence / but playner in langage 14

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[3]

Taketh hede therfore and herkyn what I say, And yeueth therto hooly youre aduertence, Lette not youre eye be here and youre hert away, 17 But yeueth herto youre besy diligence, And ley aparte alle wantawne insolence, Lernyth to be vertues and well thewid; Who wolle not lere, nedely must be lewid. 21

[4]

Afore all thyng, fyrst and principally, In the morowe when ye[1] shall vppe ryse, [Sidenote 1: MS. he.] To wyrship god haue in youre memorie; 24 Wyth cristis crosse loke ye blesse you thriese, Youre pater-nosteir seyth in devoute wyse, Aue maria wyth the holy crede, Than alle the after the bettir may ye spede. 28

[5]

And while ye be Abouten honestely To dresse youre-self and don on youre aray, Wyth youre felawe well and tretably 31 Oure lady matens Avyseth that you say, And this obseruaunce vseth euery day, Wyth prime and owris, and wythouten drede The blyssed lady woll graunte you youre mede. 35

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) Take hede therfor, & harken what I saye, & geve therto yowre good advertence, 16 lette not your ere be here, & your herte awaye, But pute you therto besy delygence, Laying a-parte all[e] wanton Insolence, lernyd to be vertuvs & well[e] thewed; 20 who will[e] not lerne, nedely he must be lewed.

P) Afore all[e] thyng, & pryncypally In the mornyng whan ye vp ryse, To worship god haue in memory; 24 with crystis crosse loke ye blesse ye thryse, your patere noster say in devoute wyse, Aue maria / with the holy crede; Then all[e] the day the better shall ye spede. 28

P) And while ye dresse your selfe, honestly To dresse your selfe & do on your araye, with your felowe well[e] & tretably Owre lady matens loke that you say; 32 And this observance vse ye euery day, with pryme & owers with-owt drede. the blessyd lady will quyte you your mede.

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[3]

Take hede therfore / and herkne what I saye [Sidenote: Attend therefore to what I say.] Ande gyue therto / your goode aduertence Lete not your ere be here & your herte awaye 17 But put ye therto / besy diligence Leynge aparte al wantown Insolence Lerneth to be vertuous / and wel thewede [Sidenote: Learn good manners.] Who wil not lerne / nedely he must be lewed 21

[4]

[Sidenote: Leaf 1 b.]

Afore alle thinge / ande principally In the morenynge / whan ye vp rise [Sidenote: On rising,] To worshipe gode / haue in memorie 24 With crystes crosse / loke ye blesse you thrise [Sidenote: cross yourself,] Your pater noster / saye in deuoute wyse [Sidenote: say your Pater Noster, Ave, and Creed.] Aue maria / with the holy crede Thenne alle the day / the better shal ye spede 28

[5]

And while that ye be aboute honestly To dresse your self / & do on your araye [Sidenote: While dressing,] With your felawe / wel and tretably 31 Oure lady matyns / loke that ye saye [Sidenote: say our Lady's Matins,] Ande this obseruance / vse ye every daye With pryme and ouris / withouten drede [Sidenote: Prime, and Hours.] The blesside lady / wil quyte you your mede 35

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[6]

Kembe youre hede and loke ye kepe hit clene, Youre eris twayne suffre not foule to be; In youre visage wayteth no spotte be sene, 38 Purge youre nase, let hit not combred be Wyth foule matiers Ayenst all oneste, But wyth bare hande no matier from hit feche, For that is a foule and an vncurtays teche. 42

[7]

Youre handes wassheth, that is an holsom thyng, Youre nayles loke they be not geet blake, Suffre hem not to ben ouer long growyng; 45 To youre aray good hede I warne you take, That manerly ye seet hit vp and make, Youre hode, youre gowne, youre hose, and eke youre scho, Wyth all array longyng youre body to. 49

[8]

Kepeth clene and leseth not youre gere, And or ye passen oute of youre loggyng, Euery garment that ye schulle vppon you were, 52 Awayteth welle that hit be so syttyng As to youre degre semeth moost on accordyng; Than woll men sey, 'for soth this childe is he That is well taught and loueth honeste.' 56

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

[Sidenote: ffl C lx back.]

P) Kembe your hede, & loke you kepe yt clene; 36 your eres twayn suffre not fowle to be; In your wysage loke no spote be sene; purge your nose; lett no man in yt se The vile matter; yt ys none honeste; 40 Ne with your bare hond no fylth from yt feche, ffor that ys fowle, & an vncurtoys teche.

P) Your hondis wasshe; yt ys an holsom thyng; your naylis loke they be not gety blake, 44 Ne suffre not them over longe growyng. To your A-raye I warne you good hede take, Manerly & ffyte loke you yt make; your hood / gowne / hosen / & eke your sho, 48 with all your araye longyng your body to.

P) Kepe you clene, & lose not your gere; & or you passe owt of your lodgyng, Euery garment that ye shall[e] were, 52 Awayte well[e] that yt be so syttyng & to your degre semed accordyng; Than will[e] men say, "for sothe this child ys he that ys well[e] tawght, & loweth honeste." 56



CAXTON'S TEXT.

[6]

Kembe your hede / & loke ye kepe it clene [Sidenote: Comb your head;] Your eres tweyne / suffre not fowl to be [Sidenote: clean your ears] In your visage / wayte no spot be sene 38 Purge your nose / lete noman in it see [Sidenote: and nose;] The vile mater / it is none honeste Ne with your bare honde / no filth fro it fecche [Sidenote: don't pick it.] For that is fowl / and an vncurtoys teche 42

[7]

[Sidenote: Leaf 2 a.]

Your hondes wesshe / it is an holsom thinge Your naylis loke / they be not gety blacke Ne suffre not hem / to be ouer longe growyng 45 [Sidenote: Wash your hands; don't keep your nails jet-black or too long.] To your araye / I warne you good hede take That manerly ye fytte it vp and make [Sidenote: Wear fit clothes, that fit well] Your hoode. gowne. hosyn / & eke your sho With al your aray longyng your body to 49

[8]

Kepe you clene / and lose not your gere And or ye passe / out of your loggynge Euery garment / that ye shal on were 52 Awayte wel / that it be so syttynge As to your degre / semeth accordynge [Sidenote: and suit your station;] Thenne wil men saye / forsoth this childe is he [Sidenote: the men will praise you.] That is wel taught / and louyth honeste 56

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[12]

Avise you well Also for eny thyng, The schirche of prayer is the house and place, Be ware there-fore of clappe or Ianglyng, 80 For in the schirche that is full gret trysspace, And A token of hem that lacken grace; Ther beth demure and kepeth youre sylence, And serueth god wyth all youre deligence. 84

[13]

To helpe the prest whan he shall sey the masse, Whan hit shall happen you or be-tyde, Remeue not ferre ne from his presence passe, 87 Kneleth or stondeth deuoutly hym be-syde, And not to nyghe; youre tounge mooste be applied To Answere hym wyth[1] v[o]ice full moderate; [Sidenote 1: MS. wyth hym wyth.] Avyse you well, my lityll childe, Algate 91

[14]

To mynystre wyth de-voute Reuerence, Loke that ye do youre humble obseruaunce Debonarly wyth [dewe] obideence, 94 Cyrcum-spectly, wyth euer[y] circumstaunce Of porte, of chere, demevire of countenaunce, Remembryng, the lord aboue is he Whom to serue is grettest liberte. 98

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) Avyce you well[e] also for any thynge, The chyrche, of prayer ys howse & place; be ware therfor of clappe or Iangelynge, 80 ffor in the chyrche yt ys a full[e] gret trespas, & a token of suche as lacketh grace. Ther be ye demvre, & kepe ye scilence, And serve ye god with all your delygence. 84

[Sidenote: ffl C lxj.]

P) To helpe the Preest whan he sayth masse, whan yt shall[e] happen you or betyde, Remeve not fer, ne from his presence passe; knele or stonde you devovtly hym besyde, 88 & not to nyḡh: your tonge mvst be applyde To answere hym with woyce moderate. Avyce you well, my lytill child, algate

P) To mynyster with devout reverence; 92 loke ye do your humble observaunce Debonerly wyth dewe obedyence, Circumspectly with euery circumstavnce Of poort, & chere of goodly covntenavnce, 96 Remembryng well the lorde a-bove ys he, whome to serve ys grettest lyberte.

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[12]

Auyse you wel also / for ony thinge The chirche of prayer / is hous and place Beware therfore / of clappe or Iangelynge 80 [Sidenote: Don't chatter,] For in [th]^e chirche / it is a ful grate trespaas And a token of suche / as lackyth grace There be ye demure / and kepe ye scilence [Sidenote: but be silent, and serve God.] And serue ye god / with al your diligence 84

[13]

[Sidenote: Leaf 3 a.]

To helpe the preest / whan he saith masse [Sidenote: When you help the priest at Mass,] Whan it shal happen you or betyde Remeue not fer / ne from his presence passe 87 Knele or stonde ye / deuoutly hym besyde [Sidenote: kneel or stand near him,] And not to nygh your tonge muste be applide Tanswere hym / with voys ful moderate [Sidenote: and answer him in a moderate tone.] Auyse you wel / my lityl childe algate 91

[14]

To mynystre / with deuoute reuerence [Sidenote: Minister reverently] Loke ye do / youre humble obseruance Debonairly / with due obedyence 94 Circumspectly / with euery circumstaunce [Sidenote: and circumspectly.] Of poort and chere / of goodly countenance Remembrynge wel the lorde / a boue is he Whom to serue / is grettest liberte 98

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[15]

And whan ye speke, loketh men in the face[1] [Sidenote 1: MS. visage.] Wyth sobre chere and goodly semblaunce; Cast not youre eye asyde in odir place, 101 For that is a tokyn of wantowne inconstaunce, Which wolle appeyre youre name, and disauaunce; The wyse man seyth, 'who hathe this signes thre Ne is not like a good man [for] to be—' 105

[16]

'Yn hert,' he seyth, 'who that is inconstaunte,[1] [Sidenote 1: MS. inconstaunce] A waveryng eye, glyddryng but sodenly From place to place, and A fote[2] variaunte[3] 108 [Sidenote 2: MS. fore.] [Sidenote 3: MS. variaunce.] That in no place abydeth stabully— Thes ben signes,' the wyse man seyth sekerly, 'Of suche a wyght as is vnmanerly nyce, And is full like dissposed be to vice.' 112

[17]

And wayte, my childe, whan ye stond at the table, Of souereyne or maister whether hit be, Applieth you [for] to be seruysable, 115 That no defaute in you may founde be; Loke who doth best and hym envyeth ye, And specially vseth attendaunce, Whiche is to souereyne thyng of gret plesaunce. 119

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) And whan ye speke, loke men in the face with sobre chere & goodly semblavnce; 100 Caste not eye a-side in no othere place, ffor that ys a token of a wanton constavnce which will[e] apayre your name, & dysavance. The wyse man sayth, 'who hath these thyngis iij, 104 ys not lyke a good man for to be:'

P) 'In herte,' he sayth, 'who that ys Inconstavnte, A waverynge eye, glydyng sodenly ffro place to place, & a foote varyavnte 108 that in no place a-bydyth stabli, 'Thyse bene the thyngis,' the wysman sayth sekerly, 'Off suche a wayghte that be vnmanerly nyce, & be full[e] lykely dysposed vnto vyce.' 112

P) Awayte, my chyld, whan ye stonde at table, Off mayster or soverayne whether yt be, Applye you for to be servysable That no defawte in you fownden be; 116 loke who dothe best, & hym folow ye, & in especyall[e] vse ye attendavnce wheryn ye shall[e] your selfe best avaunce.

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[15]

And whan ye speke / loke men in the face [Sidenote: When you speak to men, look 'em in the face.] With sobre chere / ande goodly semblaunce Caste not your eye a syde / in other place 101 For that is a token of wantoun inconstance Whiche wil appeyre your name & disauance The wise man saith who hath these thingis thre [Sidenote: The wise Man says] Is not lyke a goode man for to be 105

[16]

[Sidenote: Leaf 3 b.]

In herte he seith / who that is inconstante A waueryng eye / glydyng sodeynly [Sidenote: an inconstant man with a wavering eye and a wandering foot] Fro place to place / & a foot variante 108 That in no place / abydeth stably These ben [th]^e signes / the wiseman seith sikerly Of suche a wight / as is vnmanerly nyce And is ful likely disposid vnto vyce 112 [Sidenote: will turn to vice.]

[17]

Awayte my chylde / whan ye stande atte table [Sidenote: When you serve at table,] Of maister or souerayn / whether it be Applye you for to be seruysable 115 [Sidenote: be attentive and tidy,] That no defaute in you founden be Loke / who doth best / and hym ensiewe ye And in especyal / vse ye attendaunce [Sidenote: specially to well-off men.] Wherein ye shal your self best auaunce 119

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[18]

A[s] ye be comaundyd, so ye do algate, Beth not wyth-oute cause from the tabul absent; Hit is plesaunce vnto the gret astate 122 To se theyre saruaunt about them present; Haunteth no halkes, for then ye woll be schent. Lette maner and Mesure be youre guydes twey, So shall ye best please, I dare well sey. 126

[19]

Rewarde all-way the loke and countenaunce Of youre master, or of youre souereine, Ther shall ye best preue what is plesaunce, 129 And what displesaunce; this is the soth serteyne, The chere discureth often tyme both twayne, And eke the chere may some tyme you addresse In thyng that langage may not [th]an expresse. 133

[20]

And what ye here there, loke ye kepe hit secre, Besy report of mystrust is cheff norice; Mekell langage may not all fautles be; 136 Than doth, my childe, as teicheth you the wyse, Whiche vnto you this wysdome dothe devise, 'Here and see, be still in euery prees,[1] [Sidenote 1: MS. 'in euery place and in prees.' Place was to have been the last word; and in prees was carelessly added, instead of striking out place.—Sk.] Passe forth youre way in silence and in pees.'

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) As ye be comavnded, so do ye algate; 120 be not cavseles fro the table absente; yt ys a grete pleasure to the high estate[1] [Sidenote 1: noble, lord.] To se his servaunttes abowte hym presente. havnte no halke, for then ye will[e] be shente; 124 lette manere & mesure be your gydes twayne; so shall[e] ye best please, I dare savely sayne.

P) Reward also thy loke & contenavnce, Off your master or of your soverayne, 128 so shall[e] ye best preve what ys his plesavnce or ellis his dysplesavnce: this ys sertayne, The chere discovereth oftyn both[e] twayn, & eke the chere sumtyme may yow addresse 132 In thyngis the langage may not then expresse.

[Sidenote: ffl C lxj, back.]

P) And that ye here, loke ye kepe always secre; besy reporte, of myschefe ys chese noryse; Mykyll[e] langage may not all[e] fawtles be; 136 Then do, my chyld, as techeth you the wyse whiche vnto you this lessun doth devyce: here & see, & be styll[e] in euery prees, passe forthe your way in scilence & in pees. 140

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[18]

As ye be comandede / so do ye algate Be not causeles / fro the table absent [Sidenote: Don't absent yourself from table,] It is a grete plesure / to the hyghe estate 122 To see his seruantis aboute hym present Haunte no halke / for thenne ye wil be shente [Sidenote: or stick yourself in a corner.] Lete maner & mesure / be your gydes tweyne [Sidenote: Let Manners and Moderation guide you.] So shal ye best plese / I dar sauely seyne 126

[19]

[Sidenote: Leaf 4 a.]

Rewarde also the loke ande contenaunce Of your maister / or of your souereyne [Sidenote: Look at your master's face;] So shal ye best preue what is his plesance 129 Or els displesaunce / this is soth serteyne [Sidenote: that'll show whether he's pleased or not.] The chere discouerith / often bothe tweyne And eke [th]^e chere / somtyme may you addresse In thingis / [th]^t langage may not them expresse 133

[20]

Ande that ye her loke / kepe alway secree [Sidenote: Keep secret all you hear.] Besy reporte / of mischief is chief noryse Mykyl langage / may not al fawtles bee 136 Thenne do my childe / as techeth you the wyse Whiche vnto you / this lesson doth deuyse Here and see / ande be stylle in euery prees Passe forth your way in scilence & in pees 140 [Sidenote: Hear, see, and go your way.]

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[21]

And yit in Aventure ye, if the caase require, Ye most speke as hit may doo percace; [Sidenote 1: MS. precace.] Seuen condicions obserue as ye shall hire, 143 Avise you well what ye sey and in what place, Of whom, and to whom, in youre mynde compace; Howe ye shall speke, and whan, taketh good hede, This counseilleth the wyse man wyth-outen drede.

[22]

A wayte, my childe, ye haue you manerly, Whan at youre mete ye sittyn at youre table; In euery pres, in euery company, 150 Disposeth you to be so componable, That men may you reporte for comendable; For tristeth well, vppon youre bering Men woll you blame or yeven you preysing. 154

[23]

And printeth chiefly in youre memorie, For A principalle poynt of feire norture, Ye depraue no man absent especially; 157 Seint Austyn Amonishith wyth besy cure, Howe at the table men shull them assure, That there escapeth them no suche langage, As myght turne other folke to disparage. 161 */

[Sidenote: _Hill's Text.]

P) And yet in aduenture, yf the caas requyre, ye may speke, but ye must percaas Seven[1] condycions observe, as ye may here: [Sidenote: Six they are at p. 358, Babees Book, of the Wise Man.] Avyce ye well[e] what ye say, & in what place, 144 Off whom, & to whom, in your mynd compace; how ye shall[e] speke, & whan, take good hede: this cow[n]syled the wyse man withowten drede.

P) A-wayte, my chyld, ye behaue you manerly 148 whan at your mete ye sytte at the table; In euery prees & In enery cumpany Dyspose you to be so cumpenable that men may of you reporte for commendable; 152 ffor, trustyth well[e], vpon your beryng Men will[e] you blame or gyve praysyng.

P) And prynte ye truly this in your memorye for a pryncypall[e] poynt of fayer noretvre, 156 that ye deprave no man absente specyally. Saynt Austyne amonessheth with besy cure, howe men att table shulde them assure that ther escape them no suche langage 160 As myght hurte or bryng folke to disparage.

CAXTON'S TEXT

[21]

And yet in auenture / yf the caas require Ye may speke / but ye muste thenne percaas Seuen condicions obserue / as ye may now hyre 143 [Sidenote: If you must speak, observe the seven conditions.] Auyse you wel / what ye saye / & in what place Of whom / & to whom in your mynde compace How ye shal speke / & whan take good hede This councelith the wise man withoute drede 147

[22]

[Sidenote: Leaf 4 b.]

Awayte my chylde / ye be haue you manerly Whan at your mete / ye sitte at the table [Sidenote: When you're at meals,] In euery prees and in euery company 150 Dispose you to be so compenable [Sidenote: be companionable] That men may of you reporte for commendable For trusteth wel / vpon your berynge Men wil you blame or gyue preysynge 154

[23]

And prynte ye trewly your memorie For a princypal point of fair noreture Ye depraue no man absent especyally 157 [Sidenote: and don't run down absent men.] Saynt austyn amonessheth with besy cure [Sidenote: St. Austin.] How men atte table / shold hem assure That there escape them / no suche langage As myght other folke hurte to disparage 161

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT

[24]

This curteise clarke writeth in ryght this wyse, Rebukyng the vice of vile detraccioun; 'What man hit be that of custome and guise 164 Hurteth wyth his toung wyth foule corrosioun The absent wight, for that abusioun Suche detractoure [wayue][1] from this table [Sidenote 1: A word loss.] As vn-worthe, not to be reprocheable. 168

[25]

Whan ye sitten therfor at youre repaste, Annoyethe no man present nor absent, But speketh feyre, for and ye make waste 171 Off [large] langage, for soth ye most be schent; And wan ye speke, speketh wyth good entent Of maters appendyng to myrth and plesaunce, But nothyng that may causen men greuaunce. 175

[26]

Eschewe also taches of foule rauenyng, Of gredy lust the vncurteyce appetite; Pres not to sone to youre viaunde, restraine 178 Youre handis a while wyth manerly respytte; Fedith for necessite, not for delite, Demeneth you in mete and drink soo sobrely, That ye be not infecte wyth gloteny.' 182

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) This curteys clerke wryteth in this wyse, Rebukyng the vyce of vyle detraccion: what may yt be that of custum & gvyse 164 hurteth with tonge or by fowle colusyon The absente / weyne[1] ye for that abusyon [Sidenote 1: or weyne] Suche a detractowre from the table As vnworthy & also reprocheable. 168

P) Whan ye sytte therfor at your repast, Annoye ye no man present nor absente, but speke ye fewe; for yff ye make wast of large langage, for soth ye must be shent. 172 & whan ye speke // speke with good Intent Off maters accordyng vnto plesavnce, but no thynge that may cavse men grevaunce.

P) Eschewe also tacches of fowle ravayne, of gredy luste; with vncurteys appetyte 177 prece not to sone; fro your vyande restrayne your hand a while with manerly respyte; ffede you for necessyte, & not for delyte. 180 Demene you with mete & drynke so soberly That ye not be Infecte wyth glotony.

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[24]

This curtoys clerk / writeth in this wise Rebukynge the vice / of vyle detraccion [Sidenote: rebukes the vice of detraction,] What man it be / that of custom & guyse 164 Hurteth with tunge / or by foule colusiōn Thabsente / weyue ye for that abusion Suche a detractour / from the table [Sidenote: and bids you turn all backbiters from the table] As vnworthy / and also reprochable 168

[25]

[Sidenote: Leaf 5 a.]

Whan ye sitte therfore at your repaste Annoye ye noman presente nor absente But speke ye fewe / for yf ye make waste 171 [Sidenote: Speak little.] Of large langage / for sothe ye must be shent And whan ye speke / speke ye with good entent [Sidenote: and that pleasantly.] Of maters acordynge vnto plesance But nothing / that may cause men greuance 175

[26]

Eschewe also tacches of foule Raueyne [Sidenote: Don't be ravenous,] Of gredy luste / with vncurteys appetyte[1] Prece not to sone / fro your viand restreyne 178 Your honde a while / with manerly respite [Sidenote: but keep your hands from your food for a time.] Fede you for necessite / & not for delite Demene you with mete / & drynke so sobrely That ye not ben enfecte with glotony 182

[Footnote 1: Orig. appetyce.]

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[27]

Embrewe not youre vesselle ne youre cuppe[1] [Sidenote 1: Sic. Read "napery."] Ouer mesure and maner, but saue them clene; Ensoyle not youre cuppe, but kepe hit clenely, 185 Lete no fatte ferthyng of youre lippe be sen. For that is foule; wotte you what I mene? Or than ye drincke, for youre owne honeste, Youre lippis wepe, and klenly loke they be. 189

[28]

Blowe not in youre drincke ne in youre potage, Ne farsith not youre disshe to full of brede, Ne bere not youre knyf towarde youre vysage, 192 For there-in is parell and mekell drede. Clawe not youre face ne touche not youre hede Wyth youre bare hande, sittyng at the table, For in norture that is reprouable. 196

[29]

Lowse not youre gyrdyll syttyng at youre table,[1] [Sidenote 1: Sic. Read "mete."] For that is a tache of vncurtesye, But and ye seme ye be enbrasyde streite, 199 Or than ye sitte amende hit secrely, So couertly that no wyght hit espie. Be ware also no breth from you rebounde Vppe ne downe, be ware that shamefull sounde.

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

[Sidenote: ffl C lxij.]

P) Enbrewe not your vessell ne your naprye over maner & mesure, but kepe them clene; 184 Ensoyle not your cuppe, but kepe yt clenly, lete no farsyone on your lyppis be sene, ffor that ys fowle; ye wott what I mene. Or than ye drynke, for your own honeste 188 your lyppys wype, & clenly loke they be.

P) Blowe not in your drynke ne in your pottage. Ne ferce not your disshe to full[e] of brede; bere not your knyf toward your vysage, 192 ffor theryn ys peryll[e] & mykell[e] drede; Clawe not your visage, tovch not your hede with your bare honde syttyng at the table, ffor in norture suche thyngis be reproveable. 196

P) Lose not your gyrdyll[e] syttyng at your mete, ffor that is a tache of vncurtesye; but yff ye seme ye be enbrased streyte, or than ye sytte, amend yt secretly 200 So wysely that no wyght you aspye. be ware also no breth fro you rebownd Vp ne downe, lest ye were shamfull[e] fownd.

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[27]

Enbrewe not your vessel / ne your naprye [Sidenote: Don't dirty your cloth or cup.] Ouer maner & mesure / but kepe hem clene Ensoyle not your cuppe / but kepe it clenlye 185 Lete no fat farssine / on your lippes be sene For that is fowle / ye wote what I mene Or than ye drynke / for your owen honeste [Sidenote: Wipe your lips before you drink.] Your lippes wype / and clenly loke they be 189

[28]

[Sidenote: Leaf 5 b.]

Blowe not in your drinke ne in your potage [Sidenote: Don't blow on your food,] Ne farse not your dishe to ful of brede Bere not your knyf / to warde your visage 192 [Sidenote: or put your knife to your face,] For therin is parelle / and mykyl drede Clawe not your visage / touche not your hede [Sidenote: or scratch it or your head.] With your bare honde / sittyng atte table For in norture / suche thing is reprouable 196

[29]

Lose not your gyrdel / sittyng at your mete [Sidenote: Don't undo your girdle at table;] For that is a tacche / of vncurtesye But yf ye seme / ye be embraced streite 199 [Sidenote: if it's tight, let it out before you sit down.] Or then ye sytte / amende it secretly So couertly that no wight you espye Beware also / no breth fro you rebounde [Sidenote: Don't break wind up or down.] Vp ne doun / leste ye were shameful founde 203

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[30]

Beth huste in chambre, cilent in the halle, Herkenyth well, yeueth good audience; Yef vsher or marchall for eny romour calle, 206 Putting Ianglers to rebuke and cilence, Beth mylde of langage, demure of eloquence; Enforcith you to them confourmyde be, That can most good and haue humanyte. 210

[31]

Touche not wyth mete salt in the saler, Lest folke Appoynt you of vncunnyngnesse, Dresse hit apparte vppon a clene tranchere; 213 Force not youre mouth to fulle for wantannesse, Lene not vppon the table, that is but rudesse, And yf I shall to you so playnly say, Ouer the table ye shull not spette convey 217

[32]

Yif ye be seruid wyth metis delicate, Departith wyth youre fellowys in gentyl wyse, The clarke seith, 'nature is content and saciate 220 Wyth meane diete, and lytill shall suffice.' Departyth therfore, as I to you devise; Engrosith not vnto youre silven all, For gentilnesse will ay be lyberall. 224

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) Be ye husht in chambre, scylente in hall[e]; herkyn well[e], & geve good audyence 205 yff vsshar or marchall[e] for any rvmowre call[e]; putt ye yanglers to rebuke for scilence. Be ye myld of langage, demvre of eloquence; 208 Enforce you vnto hym conformed to be that can most good, & hathe humanyte.

P) Towch not with your mete salte in the saler, leest folke apoynte you of vnconnyngnesse; 212 Dresse yt aparte vpon a clene trenshere. ffarste not your movth to full[e] for wantonesse; lene not on the table, for that rvde ys; & yff I shall[e] to you playnly saye, 216 over the table ye shall[e] not spetell[e] conveye.

P) Yff ye be servede with metis delycate, Departe with your felawe in gentill[e] wyse; the clerke seyth, 'nature ys content & sacyate 220 with mene dyete, & lytill[e] shall[e] suffyce;' Departe therfor, as I you devyce, Engrose not vnto yowre selfe all[e], ffor gentylnesse will[e] ay be lyberall[e]. 224

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[30]

Be ye husht in chambre / scylent in halle [Sidenote: Be silent,] Herken wel ande gyue goode audience Yf vssher or marchal for ony Rumour calle 206 Put ye Ianglers to rebuke for silence [Sidenote: and put chatterers to rebuke.] Be ye mylde of langage / demure of eloquence Enforce you vnto hym conformed to be [Sidenote: Imitate him who has humanity.] That can moste good / ande hath humanyte 210

[31]

[Sidenote: Leaf 6 a.]

Touche not with your mete / salt in the saler [Sidenote: Don't dip your meat in the saltcellar,] Lest folk apoynte you of vnconnyngnesse Dresse it aparte / vpon a clene trencher 213 Farse not your mouth to ful / for wantonesse Lene not vpon the table / for that rude is [Sidenote: lean on the table,] And yf I shal to you playnly saye Ouer the table / ye shal not spetel conueye 217 [Sidenote: or spit over it.]

[32]

Yef ye be serued / with metes delicate [Sidenote: Share dainties with your fellows:] Departe with your felowe / in gentil wise The clerck saith / nature is content & saciate 220 With mene diete / and litil shall suffyse Departe therfore / as I you deuyse Engrose not / vnto your self alle For gentilnes / wil aye be liberalle 224 [Sidenote: gentleness is liberal.]

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[33]

And wan percace youre seruice is not large, Grucchith not wyth frownyng countenaunce, Ne maketh not ther-of to mekell charge, 227 Disposeth you to goodly sufferaunce, And what ye haue, take hit for suffisaunce; Holde you pleased wyth that god hath you sent, He hath Inough[1] that can hold hym content. 231 [Sidenote 1: MS. Inought.]

[34]

Burnysh no bonys wyth youre tethe, be ware, That houndis tecche fayleth of curtesie; But wyth youre knyff make the bonys bare; 234 Handell youre mete so well and so clenly, That ye offenden not the company Where ye be sette, as ferre-forth as ye can; Remembre well that maner maketh man. 238

[35]

And whan your teeth shall cutte youre mete small, Wyth open mouth be ware that ye not ete, But loke youre lippis be closede as a wall, 241 Whan to &[1] fro ye trauers youre mete; [Sidenote 1: MS. a.] Kepe you so close that men haue no conceite To seyn of you langage of vilonye, Be cause ye ete youre mete vnma[ne]rly. 245

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) And whan percaas your servyce ys not large, Groge not with frownynge covntenavnce, Ne make ther-of not to mykyll[e] charge; Dyspose you to goodly suffravnce, 228 & what ye haue, take yt in suffysavnce; be you plesid with suche as god hath you sent; he ha[=th] ynowgh [th]at can hold hym contente.

[Sidenote: ffl C lxij back.]

P) Burnysshe no bonys with your te[=th], be ware, 232 Suche howndis tacches fallen of vncurtesye, but with your knyfe make the bonys bare. Handle your mete so well[e] & so clenly That ye offende not the company 236 wher ye be sette, as ferforthe as ye can, Remembryng well[e] that maners make man.

P) And whan that ye ete your mete small[e], with open mowth be ware ye not ete, 240 but loke / your lyppes be closed as a wall[e]; whan to & fro ye traverse your mete, kepe you so cloos that men haue no conceyte To saye of you any langage or vylonye 244 by cavse ye ete your mete so vnmanerly.

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[33]

And whan percaas your seruise is not large Gruccheth not / with frownyng contenaunce [Sidenote: If your helping is not large, don't grumble,] Ne make therof / not to mykyl charge 227 Dispose you to goodly suffraunce And what ye haue / take it in suffysaunce Be ye plesid with suche as god hath you sent [Sidenote: but be content.] He hath ynough / that can holde hym content 231

[34]

[Sidenote: Leaf 6 b.]

Burnysshe no bones / with your teth / beware [Sidenote: Don't burnish bones with your teeth.] Suche houndis tacches / falle of vncurtesye But with your knyf / make the bones bare 234 Handle your mete / so wel and so clenly [Sidenote: Handle your food cleanly,] That ye offende not the company Where ye be sette / as ferforth as ye can Remembryng wel / that manners make man. 238 [Sidenote: for Manners make Man.]

[35]

Ande whan that / ye ete your mete smalle With open mouth / beware ye not ete [Sidenote: Eat with your lips closed] But loke your lippea / be closed as a walle 241 Whan to ande fro / ye trauerse your mete Kepe you so cloos / that men haue no conseite To say of you / ony langage or vilonye Bicause ye ete your mete / vnmanerly 245

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[36]

Be ware, my child, of laughing ouer mesure, Ye shall not Also at the borde youre naylis pare, Ne pike not youre teth wyth youre knyff, I you ensure, Ete at youre messe, and odir folkes spare; 249 A glottoun can but make dissches bare, And of Inough he taketh neuer hede, He fedith for lust more than[1] he doth for nede. [Sidenote 1: MS. that.]

[37]

And whan the borde is then [as] of seruice, 253 Not replenyshide wyth gret diuercite, Of mete and drincke good chere may than suffice, Hit is A signe of gret humanite, 256 Wyth gladsom chere than fulsom for to be; The poet seyth howe that the poure borde Men may encrese wyth cherefull wille and worde.

[38]

And o thing, my childe, I warne you vndirstonde, Specially for youre owne honeste, In the water wasschith so clene youre hande, 262 That youre towell neuer ensoyled be So foule that hit be lothely vnto se; Wasschith wyth watire till youre handis be clene, And in youre clothe ther shall no spotte be sene.

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) Beware, my chyld, of laughynge ou_er_ mesure; Ne at _th_e borde ye shall[e] no nayles pare, Ne pyke yo_u_r teth w_i_t_h knyf, I you ensure. 248 Ete at yo_u_r messe, & other_e_ folk_i_s spare; A gloton ca_n_ but make _th_e bonys bare, & of ynowgh he takyth never_e_ hede, he ffedyth more for lust than for nede. 252

P) And whan the borde ys thyn as of servyce, Nowght replenysshed with gret dyversite of mete & drynke, gud chere may than suffice, with honest talkyng; & also owght ye 256 with gladsum chere then fulsome for to be: The poete seyth how that 'a powre borde Men may enryche with cherfull[e] will[e] & worde.' 259

P) And on thyng, my child, ye vnderstond, In especyall[e] for your own honeste: In the water wasshe so clene your hond that your towell[e] never ensoyled be So fowle that yt be lothsome on to see; 264 wasshe with water your hondis so clene that in the towell[e] shall[e] no spote be sene.

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[36]

Beware my childe / of laughyng ouer mesure Ne at the borde / ye shall no naylis pare [Sidenote: Don't pare your nails at table,] Ne pyke your teth / with knyf / I you ensure 248 [Sidenote: or pick your teeth with a knife.] Ete at your messe / and other folkes spare A gloton can but make the bones bare Ande of ynough / he taketh neuer hede He fedith more for lust / than for nede 252

[37]

[Sidenote: Leaf 7 a.]

And whan [th]^e borde is thynne / as of seruyse Nought replenesshed with, grete diuersite [Sidenote: When there are not many dishes,] Of mete & drinke good chere may then suffise 255 With honest talkyng / and also ought ye With gladsom chere / thenne fulsom for to be [Sidenote: be satisfied with chatting cheerily.] The poete saith / hou that a poure borde Men may enriche / with cheerful wil & worde 259

[38]

And one thyng my chylde / ye vnderstonde In especyalle / for your owne honeste In the water / wasshe so clene your honde 262 That your towel / neuer enfoyled be [Sidenote: Wash your hands clean in the water, so as to leave no dirt on your towel.] So fowle / that it be lothsom on to see Wasshe with water / your hondes so cleene That in the towel shal no spotte be sene 266

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[39]

Leue not youre spone in youre dissche standyng, Ne vppon the brede hit shall not lie; Lette youre trenchoure be clene for eny thyng, 269 Yif ye haue no chaunge, yit as honestly As ye can, maketh avoydie, So that no fragment from youre trenchoure falle; Do this, my childe, in chambre and in halle. 273

[40]

Whan Another speketh at the table, Be ware ye interrupte[1] not is tale nor langage, [Sidenote 1: MS. corruptly has nattiripte.] For that is a thing discommendable, 276 And hit is no signe of folkes sage To ben of wordis besy and outrage; For the wyse man seyth pleinly in sentence, 'He shall be wyse that yevith Audience.' 280

[41]

Vndre-stondeth ther-fore or than ye speke, Printyng in youre mynde clerely the sentence, He that vseth A mannes tale to breke 283 Lettyth vncurtesly the Audience, And hurtyth hym-sylf for lacke of silence; He may not yeue answere convenyent That herith not fynally what is ment. 287

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) lete not your spone in youre disshe stond, Ne vpon the table yt shuld not lye; 268 lete your trenchowre be clene for any thyng, & yf ye haue, change yet as honestly As ye can; make avoyde manerly So that no fragment fro your trenchere fall[e]: 272 Do thus, my child, in chambere & in hall[e].

P) And whan a-nother man spekyth at the table, be ware ye interrupte not his langage, for that ys a thyng on-comendable, 276 & yt ys not no signe of folkis sage To be of langage besy & owtrage; ffor the wyse sayd in his sentence 'he shuld be bold [& be wyse][1] that gevyth audyence.' 280 [Sidenote 1: In a later hand, above the line.]

[Sidenote: ffl C lxiij.]

P) Vnderstond therfor or than ye speke; prynt in your mynde clerly the sentence; who that vsyth a manys tale to breke, lettyth vncurteysly all[e] the audyence 284 And hurteth hym self for lake of scyence; he maye not geve answere convenyente that heryth not fynally what ys mente.



CAXTON'S TEXT.

[39]

Lete not your spone / in your disshe stonding [Sidenote: Don't leave your spoon in your dish or on the table.] Ne vpon the table / it shold not lye Lete your trenchour / be clene for ony thing 269 [Sidenote: Keep your trencher clean.] And yf ye haue change / yet as honestly As ye can / make a voyde manerly So that no fragment / fro your trencher falle Do thus my childe / in chambre & in halle 273

[40]

[Sidenote: Leaf 7 b.]

And whan another man / spekith atte table Beware ye enterrupte not / his langage [Sidenote: Don't interrupt man in his talk] For that is a thinge discomendable 276 Ande it is no signe of folkes sage To be of langage / besy ande outrage For the wyse man saide / in his sentence He sholde be wyse / that gyueth audience 280

[41]

Vnderstonde therfore or than ye speke Prynte in your mynde / clerly the sentence [Sidenote: Before you speak, settle in your mind what you have to say.] Who that vsith / a mannes tale to breke 283 Letteth vncurteysly / alle the audyence Ande hurteth hym self / for lack of science He may not gyue answers conuenyente That herith not fynally / what is mente 287

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[42]

Be ware Also, my childe, of rehersaille Of materis whiche ben at the table mevide; Hit grevith ofte and dothe men disavaylle, 290 Full many a man that vice hath mysschevide, Of evill thyng saide is wors often contrivide; Suche reportis alway loke ye esschewe, As may of olde frendis make enemyes newe. 294

[43]

Avise you well whan ye take youre disporte, Honest games that ye haunte and vse, And suche as ben of violente reporte, 297 I counsell you, my childe, that ye refuse; For trustith well ye shall nout you excuse From berchely fest, yef I may you aspie Playng at[1] eny game of rebaudie. 301 [Sidenote 1: MS. or.]

[44]

Itt is to A goodly childe well syttyng, To vse disportis of myrth and plesaunce, To harpe and lute, or lustely to syng, 304 And in the pres ryght manerly to daunce; When men se A childe of suche gouernaunce, They seyn, 'gladde may this [childes] frendis be To haue a sone soo manerly as he.' 308

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) But beware, my child, also of rehersayle Off maters whiche be at the table meved: 289 It greweth[1] ofte, & doth men dysavayle; [Sidenote 1: The line is over the th.] ffull[e] many a man that vyce hathe myscheved; Off evyll[e] thynke sayd, ys worse contryved; 292 Suche reportes alwaye, my child, eschewe, As may of olde frendis make enmyes newe.

P) Avyse you well[e] whan ye take your dysporte, honeste games that ye hawnt & vse; 296 & suche as bene of vyleyns report, I cownsell[e] you, my child, that ye refuse; ffor truste ye well[e] ye shall[e] you not excuse ffrom brecheles feste, & I may you espye 300 Playenge at any game of rebawdrye.

P) Ytt ys to a goodly child well[e] syttyng To vse dysportes of myrth & plesavnce, to harpe, to lute, or lustyly to synge, 304 Or in the prees right manerly to davnce. whan men se a child of suche governavnce, thei saye, 'glade may this childis frendys be To haue a child so manerly as ys he.' 308



CAXTON'S TEXT.

[42]

But beware my childe / also of rehersaylle [Sidenote: Don't repeat what you hear at table.] Of maters / whiche ben atte table meuide It greuith ofte / ande doth men disauayle 290 Ful many a man / [th]^t vice hath myscheuide Of euyl thinge saide / is werse contryuide Suche reportis / alway my childe eschewe As may of olde frendis / make enemyes newe 294

[43]

[Sidenote: Leaf 8 a.]

Aduise you wel whan ye take your disporte Honest games / that ye haunte ande vse [Sidenote: Play only at proper games.] And suche as ben of vylayns reporte 297 I counceyl you my chyld / that ye refuse For truste ye wel / ye shal you not excuse From brecheles feste / and I may you espye Playnge at ony game of Rybawdrye 301

[44]

It is to a godly chyld wel syttynge To vse disportes of myrthe & plesance To harpe or lute / or lustely to synge 304 [Sidenote: You should harp, lute, sing or dance.] Or in the prees right manerly to daunce Whan men se a chyld of suche gouernance They saye / glad may this chyldis frendis be To haue a chylde / so manerly as is he 308

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[45]

Exersice youre-selfe also in redyng Of bokys enournede wyth eloquence; Ther shall ye fynde both pleasaunce and lernyng, 311 And so ye may in euery good presence Some [what] fynde and see as in sentence, That shall accorde the tyme to ocupie, That ye not nede to stondyn idelie. 315

[46]

Itt[1] is fare to be cominycatyfe [Sidenote 1: MS. Iit.] In matires vnto purpoos according, So that a wight sume not excessyfe, 318 For trusteth well, hit is tedious thyng For to here a childe multiplie talkyng, Yif hit be not to the purpose applied, And also wyth goodly termys aleyde. 322

[47]

Redith Gower in his writyng moralle, That auncient faders memorie, Redith his bokis clepide 'confessionalle,' 325 Wyth many anodir vertuous tretie, Full of sentence sette so frutuously, That them to rede shall yeue you corage, So is he fulle of sentence and langage. 329

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) Excersyse also your selfe in redyng Off bokes enorned with eloquence, ther shall[e] ye fynde both plesyre & lernynge, so that ye may in euery good presence 312 Some-what fynde as in sentence that shall[e] accorde the tyme to occupye, That ye not nede to stonde ydellye.

P) It ys fayer to be comynycatyfe In maters vnto purpose accordyng, 317 So that a wyghte seme exersyfe; ffor trustyth well[e] yt ys a tedyovs thyng ffor to here a child multyply talkyng 320 yf yt be not to the purpose applyed, & also with goodly termes alyed.

P) Redyth gover in his wrytyng morall[e], That Auncyente ffader of memorye, 324 Redyth his bookes called confessyonall[e], with many a-nothere vertuvs tretye ffull[e] of sentence sett full[e] fructvously, That hym to rede shall[e] geve you covrage, 328 he ys so full[e] of frute, sentence, & langage.

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[45]

Excersise your self also in redynge Of bookes enornede with eloquence [Sidenote: Practice reading of eloquent books.] Ther shal ye fynde / bothe plesir & lernynge 311 So that ye may / in euery good presence Somwhat fynde / as in sentence That shal acorde / the tyme to ocupy That ye not nede / to stonden ydelly 315

[46]

[Sidenote: Leaf 8 b.]

It is fayr / for to be comynycatyf In maters vnto purpose acordynge [Sidenote: It is right to talk pertinently,] So that a wyght seme excersyf 318 For trusteth wel / it is a tedyous thynge For to here a chylde / multeplye talkyng Yf it be not to the purpose applyede [Sidenote: but a bore if the talk is irrelevant.] Ande also with / goodly termys alyede 322

[47]

Redeth gower in his wrytynge moralle [Sidenote: Read Gower's] That auncyent[1] fader of memorye [Sidenote 1: Orig. anucyent.] Redeth his bookes / callede confessionalle 325 [Sidenote: Confessio Amentis.] With many another vertuous trayttye Ful of sentence / set ful fructuosly That hym to rede / shal gyue you corage He is so ful of fruyt, sentence and langage 329

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[48]

O Fader and Founder of eternate eloquence, That eluminede all this oure britaigne; To sone we lost his lauriate presence, 332 O lusty licoure of that fulsome fountaigne; Cursed deth, why hast thou this poete slayne, I mene Fadir chaucers, mastir Galfride? Allas! the while, that euer he from vs diede. 336

[49]

Redith his bokys fulle of all plesaunce, Clere in sentence, in longage excellent, Brefly to wryte suche was his suffesaunce, 339 What-euer to sey he toke in his entent, His longage was so feyre and pertinent, That semed vnto mennys heryng, Not[1] only the worde, but verrely the thing. 343 [Sidenote 1: MS. But.]

[50]

Redith, my child, redith his warkys all, Refuseth non, they ben expedient; Sentence or langage, or both, fynde ye shall 346 Full delectable, for that fader ment Of all his purpos and his hole entent Howe to plese in euery audience, And in oure toung was well of eloquence. 350

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

[Sidenote: ff C lxiij back.]

P) O fader & fownder of ornate eloquence that Illumyned hast all[e] owre bretayne! To sone we loste thy lavreat science, 332 O lusty lyqvovre of that fulsum fontayne! O cursed deth! why hast thou that poete slayne, I mene fader chavucer, mayster galfryde? Alas the while that ever he from vs dyed! 336

P) Redyth his werkes full[e] of plesavnce, Clere in sentence, In langage excellente: Bryefly to wryte, such was his suffysavnce, What-evere to say he toke in his entente, 340 his langage was so fayere & pertynente, yt semeth vnto manys heryng Not only the worde, but veryly the thyng. 343

P) Redyth, my child, redyth his bookes all[e], Refusith Non, they ben expedyente; sentence or langage, both fynd ye shall[e]; ffull[e] delectable that good fader mente, for all[e] his purpose & his hole entente 348 [was] how to please in euery audyence, & In owre tonge was well[e] of Eloquence.

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[48]

[Sidenote: Leaf 163, back.]

O fader and founder of ornate eloquence [Sidenote: and the Father and Founder of Eloquence,] That enlumened hast alle our bretayne To soone we loste / thy laureate scyence 332 O lusty lyquour / of that fulsom fontayne O cursid deth / why hast thou [th]^t poete slayne I mene fader chaucer / maister galfryde [Sidenote: mayster Galfryde Chawcer,] Alas the whyle / that euer he from vs dyde 336

[49]

[Sidenote: Leaf 9 a.]

Redith his werkis / ful of plesaunce [Sidenote: whose works are full of pleasaunce,] Clere in sentence / in langage excellent Briefly to wryte / suche was his suffysance 339 What euer to saye / he toke in his entente His langage was so fayr and pertynente It semeth vnto mannys heerynge Not only the worde / but verely the thynge 343 [Sidenote: whose language seems not only words, but truly things.]

[50]

Redeth my chylde / redeth his bookes alle Refuseth none / they ben expedyente [Sidenote: Read all his books; refuse none:] Sentence or langage / or bothe fynde ye shalle 346 Ful delectable / for that good fader mente [Sidenote: he is delightful.] Of al his purpose / and his hole entente How to plese in euery audyence And in our tunge / was welle of eloquence 350

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[51]

Beholde Oclyff in his translacion, In goodly langage and sentence passing wyse, Yevyng the prince suche exortacion 353 As to his highnesse he coude best devyse. Of trouth, peace, of mercy, and of Iustice, And odir vertuys, sparing for no slouthe To don his devere, and quiten hym, as trouth 357

[52]

Required hym, anenste his souereyne, Most dradde and louyd, whos excellent highnesse He aduertysede by his writing playne, 360 To vertue perteynyng to the nobles Of a prince, and berith wyttenesse His trety entitlede 'of regyment,' Compyled of most entier true entent. 364

[53]

Loketh Also vppon dan Iohn lidgate, My mastire, whilome clepid monke of bury, Worthy to be renownede laureate, 367 I pray to gode, in blis his soule be mery, Synging 'Rex Splendens,' the heuenly 'kery,' Among the muses ix celestiall, Afore the hieghest Iubiter of all. 371

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) Behold Ocklyf in his transslacion,[1] [Sidenote 1: transflacion] In goodly langage & sentence passyng wyse 352 howe he gewyth his prince such exortacion As to the hyeste he covld best devyse Off trowth / pees / mercy / & Iustyse, & vertu, lettyng for no slowth 356 To do his devoyre & qvyte hym his trowth.

P) Requyre hym As Agaynst his soverayne, moste Drade & loved, whose excellent hyenes he advertysed by his wrytyng playne 360 To vertu aperteynyng to nobles Off a prince, as beryth god wytnes, hys treatye entytled of regemente, Compyled of entyer trewe entente. 364

P) Loke also than vpon Iohan lydgate, My mayrster, whylom monke of bury, worthy to be renomed As poete lavreate; I pray to god in blysse his sowle be mery, 368 Syngyng / Rex splendens / that hevenly Kyrye, Amonge the mvses nyne celestyall[e] be-fore the hyghest Iubyter of all[e],

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[51]

Beholde Ocklyf in his translacion [Sidenote: Read Occleve too,] In goodly langage / & sentence passyng wyse How he gyueth his prynce / suche exortacion 353 [Sidenote: who gave his Prince such wise advice] As to the hyest / he coude best deuyse Of trouthe. pees. mercy. and Iustise And vertues / leetyng for no slouthe To do his deuoir & quite him of his trouthe 357

[52]

[Sidenote: Leaf 9 b.]

Requirede hym / as ayenst his souerayne Most drade & louyde / wos excellent hyeues He aduertysede / by his wrytynge playne 360 To vertu / apperteynyng to nobles Of a prynce / as bereth goode witnes His traytye / entitlede of regymente [Sidenote: in his treatise De Regimine Principum.] Compylede of entyer trewe entente 364

[53]

Loke also / vpon dan Iohn lydgate My maister whylome / monke of berye [Sidenote: John Lydgate, too, my master.] Worthy to be renomede / as poete laureate 367 I praye to gode in blysse his soule be mercy Syngynge Rex splendens that heuenly kyrye [Sidenote: I pray God his soul is singing Rex splendens.] Amonge the muses nyne celestyalle Byfore the hyest Iubyter of alle 371

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[54]

I not why deth my mastire dide envie, But for he shulde chaunge his habite; Pety hit is that suche a man shulde die! 374 But nowe I trist he be a carmylite; His amyse blacke is chaunged into white, Among the muses ix celestiall, Afore the hieghest Iubiter of all; 378

[55]

Passing the muses all of elicone, Where is ynympariable of Armonye, Thedir I trist my mastir-is soule is gone, 381 The sterrede palays aboue dapplede skye, Ther to syng 'sanctus' incessantly Among the muses ix celestiall, Affore the highest Iubiter of all. 385

[56]

Redith is volumes that ben so large and wyde, Souereynly sitte in sadnesse of sentence, Elumynede wyth colouris fresshe on euery syde, 388 Hit passith my wytte, I haue no eloquence To yeue hym lawde aftir his excellence, For I dare say he lefte hym not on lyue, That coude his cunnyng suffisantly discreue. 392

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

[Omitted. See Preface, p. ii] 372



376

P) Passyng the mvses nyne of elycon, Wher ys no pareyll[e] of Armonye; 380 Thyder I trust my Maysters sowle be gon, The sterred paleys above the dappled skye, Ther to syng snactus insessavntly 384 Emonge the mvses nyne celestyall[e], Before the hyeste Iubyter of all[e].

P) Redyth hys volumes that be large & wyde, Severyly sette in sadnes of sentence, Enlumined with colovres fresshe on euery side. 388 [Sidenote: ffl C lxiiij.] Me lakketh wytt, I haue non eloquence, To geve hym lawde after his excellence, ffor I dare saye he lefte hym not alyve That covde his cunyng ssufficiently discryve. 392

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[54]

[Omitted. See Preface, p. ii.]

374



378

[55]

Passynge the muses nyne of Elycon Where is non pareyl of armonye Thider I truste my meistres soule begone 381 The sterride paleys / aboue the dapplyd skye [Sidenote: in the starred palace above the dappled sky, before the] There to synge sanctus incessantly Amonge the muses ix celestyalle Byfore the hyest / Iubiter of alle 385 [Sidenote: highest Jupiter of all.]

[56]

[Sidenote: Leaf 10 a.]

Redeth his volumes / that ben large & wyde [Sidenote: Read his large volumes] Seueryly set / in sadnes of sentence Enlumyned with colours fressh on euery side 388 [Sidenote: illuminated with fresh colours.] Me lacketh witte / I haue none eloquence To gyue hym lawde / after his excellence For I dar saye / he lefte hym not a lyue That coude his connyng / sufficiently discriue 392

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[57]

But his werkys his laude moste nede conquere, He may neuer oute of remembrance die, His werkys shall his [name[1]] conuey and bere 395 [Sidenote: MS. here repeats werkys.] Aboute the world all-most eternallie; Lette his owne werkys prayse hym and magnifie; I dare not preyse, for fere that I offende, My lewde langage shuld rather appeyre than amend.

[58]

Lo, my childe, thes good faders Auncient Repide the feldis fresshe of fulsumnesse, The floures feyre they gadderid vp and hent, 402 Of siluereus langage the tresoure and richesse; Who wolle hit haue, my litle childe, doutelesse Must of hem begge, ther is no more to say, For of oure toung they were bothe locke and key.

[59]

There can no man there fames nowe disteyne, Thanbawmede toung and aureate sentence, Men gette hit nowe by cantelmele, and gleyne 409 Here and there wyth besy diligence, And fayne wolde riche the crafte of eloquence; But be the glaynes is hit often sene, In whois feldis they glayned haue and bene. 413

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) But his werkes his lavde must nede conquere; thei may never owt of remembravnce dye; hys werkes shall[e] his name conveye & bere Abowte the world almoste eternelly. 396 lete his owne werkis prayse hym, & magnyfye; I dare not prayse, leest for fere I offende; My langage shuld rathere apayere than amend.

P) Loo, my child, this faders avncyente Repen the fyldes ffresshe of fulsomnes; 401 the flowres fresshe thei gadered vp, & hente. Off syluer langage the greate ryches who will[e] yt haue, my child, dowtles 404 Muste of them bege: there ys no more to saye, ffor of owre tonge thei were both loke & keye;

P) Ther can no man ther werkes dysteyne: The enbamed tonge & avreat sentence, 408 Men gete yt now by cantelmele, & glene here & there by besy delygence, & fayne wold reche ther crafte of eloqvence; & by the gleyne ytt ys full[e] ofte sene 412 In whose fylde the gleners haue bene.



CAXTON'S TEXT.

[57]

But his werkis / his laude / must nede conquere [Sidenote: His works] They may neuer / out of remembraunce dye His werkis shal his name conueye & bere 395 Aboute the worlde / almost eternely [Sidenote: shall bear his name about the world almost eternally.] Lete his owen werkis preyse hym & magnefie I dar not preyse / for fere lest I offende My langage / shold rather apeyre than amende 399

[58]

[Sidenote: Leaf 10 b.]

Loo my childe / these faders auncyente Repen the feldes fresshe of fulsomnes [Sidenote: These fathers reaped the fields,] The flours fresh they gadred vp & hente 402 [Sidenote: and gathered the flowers.] Of siluer langage / the grete riches Who wil it haue my lityl childe doutles Muste of hem begge / ther is no more to saye [Sidenote: He who wants silver words must beg of them.] For of our tunge / they were both lok & kaye 406

[59]

Ther can noman now her werkis disteyne The enbamed tunge / and aureate sentence Men gete it now / by cantelmele & gleyne 409 [Sidenote: Now we only glean,] Here and there by besy diligence And fayne wold reche / her craft of eloquence And by the gleyne / it is ful oft sene In whos felde / the gleyners haue bene 413 [Sidenote: and by the gleaning one sees in whose fields the gleaners have been.]

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[60]

As vnto me Age hath bede good morowe, I am not able clenly for to gleyne, Nature is feyne of crafte here eien to borowe, 416 Me fayleth clerenesse of myn eien tweyne; Begge I may, I can no gleyn certeyn, Ther-for that werke I wolle playnly remytte To folke yong, more persaunt clere of wytte. 420

[61]

And syke also, and in case ye fynde Suche gleynes fresch as hath some apparence Of fayre langage, yet take them and vnbynde, 423 And preueth what they beth in existence, Coloured in langage, savory in sentence, And dou[te]th not, my childe, wythoute drede, Hit woll profite such thyng to se and rede. 427

[62]

Yit eft-sonnys, my childe, let us resorte To the intente of oure fyrst matiere Digresside, somwhat fulle we wolld reporte, 430 And reuyue the lawde of them that were Founders of oure langage, thilke fadyrs dere, Who-is soulis god [aboue] in b[l]esse inhaunce That lusten so oure langage to Avaunce. 434

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) And unto my age bot good morowe I am not able clerly for to gleyne, Nature ys fayne of crafte her eyen to borow; 416 Me lakketh clernes of myne eyen twayne; Begge I may / gleyne I may not certeyne; therfore that werke I will[e] playnly remytte To folkis yong, more passyng clere of wyte. 420

P) Seche ye therfore, & in caas ye fynde suche glenars fresshe as haue sum apparens Off fayer langage, yet take them, & vnbynde, & preve ye what thei be in existence 424 Colovred in langage, saverly in sentence, & dowte not, my child, with-owt drede yt will[e] profet to se such thyngis, & rede. 427

P) Ye, efte-soones, my child, let vs resorte To the yntent of your fyrst matere Degressed somwhat, for we wolde reporte & revyue the lawde of them that were famovs in owre langage, thise faders dere 432 whos[1] sowles in blis, god eternall[e] avaunce, [Sidenote 1: The s is by a later hand.] that lysten sone owre langage to enhavnce!



CAXTON'S TEXT.

[60]

And vnto me / age hath bode good morowe I am not able clenly / for to gleyne [Sidenote: I cannot glean,] Nature is fayn of craft / her eyen to borowe 416 Me lacketh clerenes / of myn eyen tweyne Begge I maye / gleyne I can not certeyne [Sidenote: I can only beg:] Therfore [th]^t werck / I wil playnly remytte To folkis yong / more passyng clere of witte 420 [Sidenote: gleaning I give up to younger folks.]

[61]

Seche ye therfore / and in caas ye fynde [Sidenote: If you find such gleaners,] Such gleynors fressh as haue som apparence Of fayr langage / yet take hem & unbynde 423 [Sidenote: unbind their sheaves:] And preue ye / what they be in existence Colourd in langage / sauerly in sentence [Sidenote: their fair speech] And doubte not my childe / withoute drede It wil prouffite to see suche thingis & red[e][1] 427 [Sidenote: will profit you.]

[Footnote 1: A hole in the paper.]

[62]

[Sidenote: Leaf 11 a.]

Yet eft sones my childe / lete vs resorte [Sidenote: But let us return to our first subject.] To thentente of yur first matere Degressed somwhat / for we wold reporte 430 And reuiue the laude of hem that were Famous in our langage / these faders dere Whos sowles in blysse / god eternel auaunce That lysten so our langage to enhaunce 434

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[63]

Than, litle childe, I councelle you that ye Take hede vnto the norture that men vse, Newe founden or Auncient whet[h]er hit be, 437 So shall no man youre curteyse refuse; The guise and custome shall you, my childe, excuse; Mennys werkys haue often entirchaunge, That nowe is norture, sumtyme had ben full straunge.

[64]

Thinges whilome vside ben layde aside, And new fetis dayly ben contryvyde, Men[nys actes] can in no plight abyde, 444 They ben chaungeable and oft mevide, Thing some-tyme alowide is nowe reprevide, And aftir this shall thingis vppe aryse, That men sette nowe but [at] litle a prise. 448

[65]

Thus mene I, my childe, that ye shull vse and haunte The guise of them that don most manerly, But be ware of vnthrefte ruskyn galaunte, 451 Counterfetoure vncunnyng of curtesie, His tecches ben infecte wyth vilonye, Vngerde, vnblesside, seruyng at the table, Me semeth hym seruaunt full pendable. 455

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

[Sidenote: ffl C lxiiij back.]

P) Then litill[e] Iohn, I consayle you that ye Take hede to the nortvres that men vse, 436 newe fownd or avncyent, whether yt be; So shall[e] no man your curtesye refuse; the gyse & custum, my child, shall[e] you excuse. Menys werkes haue oftyn enterchavnce; 440 that now ys norture, somtyme hath be stravnge;

P) Thyngis whylom vsed be now layd a-syde, & newe fetes dayly be contryved: Menys actes can in no plyte abyde, 444 They be chavngable & ofte meved; thynges sumtyme alowed be now repreved; & after this shall thynges vp a-ryse that men sett now but at lytill[e] pryse: 448

P) This mene I, my child, that ye shall[e] havnte the gyse of them that do most manerly; but be ware of onthryft[1] ruskyn gallavnte, [Sidenote 1: A later hand has added y.] Conterfetter[2] of vnconnyng curtessy, 452 [Sidenote 2: The r is by a later hand.] hys taches ben enfecte with vylonye; Vngerte / vnblessed / servyng at table, Me semeth hym a servavnte no thyng able;

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[63]

Thenne lityl Iohn / I counceyl you that ye [Sidenote: Little Jack,] Take hede to the norture / that men vse [Sidenote: take heed to the manners of your time,] Newe founde / or auncyent whether it be 437 So shal no man / your curtoisye refuse The guyse & custom / my child shal you excuse Menys werkis / haue often enterchange [Sidenote: for customs change,] That nowe is norture / somtyme had be strange 441

[64]

Thingis whilom vsed / ben now leyd a syde And newe feetis / dayly ben contreuide [Sidenote: new ways are invented every day,] Mennys actes / can in no plyte abyde 444 They be changeable ande ofte meuide Thingis somtyme alowed / is now repreuid And after this / shal thinges vp aryse [Sidenote: and will be hereafter.] That men set now / but at lytyl pryse 448

[65]

[Sidenote: Leaf 11 b.]

This mene I my childe / [th]^t ye shal haunte The guyse of them / that do most manerly But beware of vnthryft Ruskyn galante 451 [Sidenote: Imitate the well-mannered, and beware of ruskyn gallants] Counterfeter of vnconnyng curtoisye His tacchis ben enfecte with vilonye [Sidenote: of bad habits,] Vngyrte. vnblyssed. seruyng atte table [Sidenote: serving ungirt,] Me semeth hym a seruant nothing able 455

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[66]

Wynter ne somer to his souerayne Chappron hardy no bonet lust avale, For euery worde yeuyng his maister tweyne, 458 Vaunparlere in euery mannes tale, Absolon wyth the disculede heres smalle; Lyke to A presener of seint Malouse, A sonny bush myght cause hym to goo louse. 462

[67]

O I passe norture! fy! fy! for schame! I shuld haue seide he myght go hauke and hunt, For that schuld be A gentilmannys game, 465 To suche disportis thes gentis folkys be wounte; I seide to ferre, my langage was to blounte, But of this galaunte, loo! loke a while & fele, He feccheth his compace whan he shall bowe or knele,

[68]

Braced so straytly th[at h]e[1] may not plie, [Sidenote 1: MS. the.] But gaderith hit in by maner of wyndlese, And 3*if he wrenche aside or lytil wrye, 472 His gere stonte all in pertous[2] case, [Sidenote 2: Read perlous?] The scho, the hose, the point, doublet, and lace; And if ought breke, somme thinges[3] that ben badde [Sidenote 3: Read tounges.] Shall sey anon, 'a knaue hath broke a ladde.' 476

[Sidenote: Hill's Text.]

P) Wynter & somer to his soverayne Capron hardy, no bonet lyst to avayle, 457 For euery worde geveyng his mayster twayne, avavntparler In euery manys tale, Absolon with disheveld heres smale, 460 lyke to a prysoner of saynt malowes, A sonny busshe able to the galowes.

P) O! I passe nortvre! fy, fy, for sham! I myght haue said he shuld go havke & honte, 464 ffor that shuld be a gentylman[i]s game, To suche dysportis gentill[e] folkis be wonte; I sayd to ferre, my langage was but blonte; but yet, sir gallavnt, whan ye shall[e] bowe or knele 468 he goth by compasse rovnd as doth a whele.

P) Brased so streyte [th]at he may not plye, but gaderyth yt by manere of a wyndlas; & he awght wrench a-side, or a litill[e] wrye, 472 hys gere stondyth them in full[e] parlovs caas, hys sho / his hose / doblet, poynt & laas; & yff owght breke, sum tonges that be bade will[e] moke & say, "A knave hath broke a lade." 476

CAXTON'S TEXT.

[66]

Wynter and somer to his souereyne Capron hardy / no bonet lyste to auale [Sidenote: not doffing his cap to his master,] For euery word / gyuing his maister tweyne 458 Auauntparler / in euery mannys tale [Sidenote: forward in speech,] Absolon with disheueld heeris smale [Sidenote: rough-haired,] Lyke to a prysoner of seynt malowis [Sidenote: and lousy-headed,] A sonny busshe / able to go to the galowis 462

[67]

O I passe norture fy fy for shame [Sidenote: (though it's hardly good manners to say so.)] I myght haue said he shold go hauke & honte For that shold be a gentilmans game 465 To such disportes / gentil folkes be wonte I sayd to ferre / my langage was to blonte But yet sir galante whan ye shal bowe or knele [Sidenote: When he tries to kneel, he works round like a wheel,] He goth by compace round as doth a whele 469

[68]

[Sidenote: Leaf 12 a.]

Braced so strayt / that he may not plye [Sidenote: being braced so tight that he can't bend.] But gaderith it / by maner of a wyndelas And he ought wrenche a syde / or a litil wrie 472 [Sidenote: If he twists, a lace is like to crack.] His geer stondeth thenne / in ful parlous caas His sho / his hose / doblet / point & laas And yf ought breke / somme tunges [th]^t be bade Wil mocke & saie / a knaue hath broke a lad 476

* * * * *

THE ORIEL TEXT.

[69]

Lat galaunte go, I mene, recheles ruskyn; Take hede, my childe, to suche as ben cunnyng, So shall ye wyrship best conquere and wynne, 479 Enforsith you in all youre demenyng To sewe vertu, and[1] from foly declynyng; [Sidenote 1: Omit and] And, my childe, that ye loue of honeste. Which is accordyng wyth humanyte. 483

[70]

That is, to you to vndirstond And knowe, That youre aray be manerly and resonable, Not appeissh knawen[1] and to mowe, 486 [Sidenote 1: Sic.] I[n] nyse aray that is not couenable, Fetis founde be folkys vnprofitable, That maketh this worlde so pleynly transformate, That men semen almost effeminate. 490

[71]

Pley not Iakke mAlaperte, that is to sey, Be ware of presumpcioun, be ware of pride, Take not the fyrst place, my childe, be no way, 493 Till odir be sette manerly abyde, Presomcion is often sette asyde, And Avalith f[r]om his highe[1] de-gre, [Sidenote 1: MS. hight.] And he sette vppe that hath humanite. 497

1  2     Next Part
Home - Random Browse