BEING SELECTIONS FROM THE CHIEF AMERICAN WRITERS,
PROF. BENJ. N. MARTIN, D.D., L.H.D., PROFESSOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK. 1874
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
The former edition of this work was prepared simply as a supplement to Shaw's "Choice Specimens of English Literature." Though it extended to a larger size than had been anticipated, and was therefore issued in a separate volume, it still proved so straitened in point of space as to be in some important respects defective and inadequate. The decision of the publishers to reprint it in an enlarged form furnishes to the editor a welcome opportunity to correct its deficiencies, and to make several important emendations.
When the work of collecting suitable extracts from the great body of our literature was fairly entered upon, it soon became apparent that little aid could be had from the earlier manuals. Besides being in great measure obsolete, they were from the beginning disproportionate, and geographically too local in subject and spirit; both of which may be deemed grave defects.
The last twenty years have made great changes in American authorship. Many new names must now be added to the older lists, and many formerly familiar ones must be dropped from them. Hence these extracts have for the most part been derived, with assiduous care, directly from the collected works of our standard authors. This part of my labor has been greatly facilitated by the courtesy of the gentlemen connected with the Society, the Mercantile, and the Astor, Library, whose constant kindness I gratefully acknowledge.
The principal alterations which will be found in this edition are the following.
1. The extracts, formerly, of necessity, brief and fragmentary, have given place to more extended and coherent passages.
2. A much larger space has been allotted to the more eminent authors. Such writers as Franklin, Jefferson, Calhoun, Webster, Wirt, Irving, Cooper, Hawthorne, Channing, Beecher, Prescott, Motley, Shea, Bryant, Poe, Emerson, and Lowell, have been much more adequately exhibited.
3. Many later writers have been added, so that the work more fully represents the rapid development of literary effort among us.
4. A few writers, formerly included, have been dropped from the list, not always as less deserving a place, but sometimes as having less adaptation to the purposes of the book.
Much care has been bestowed upon the dates of the several authors, and in bringing up details of information to the latest period. The same pains have been taken to furnish a just representation of the writers, too often overlooked in our manuals, of the Southern and Western portions of our country. Though often wanting in mere grace of style, they are apt to be original and vigorous; and often possessing valuable material, they are well worthy of perusal. In all these respects this collection has been carefully elaborated; and the editor hopes that it will be found to give a somewhat proportionate and complete view for its compass, of our best literature.
In adapting the selections to Mr. Tuckerman's interesting "Sketch of American Literature," specimens have generally been taken from several authors in each of his groups. Some names not found in his "Sketch," have been introduced, chiefly for the fuller illustration of the literature of the south and west. In this particular, Coggeshall's "Poets and Poetry of the West" has afforded great assistance. Among the more recent aids of the same kind, I must also mention Davidson's "Living Writers of the South," and Raymond's "Southland Writers." Especial acknowledgment is due to the "Cyclopedia" of the Messrs. Duyckinck; Appleton's "Annual Cyclopedia" has furnished many important dates; and I have occasionally been indebted to the works of Allibone, Cheever, Griswold, Cleveland, Hart, and Underwood. Not only the local literature however, but the several professions, and the great religious denominations, are also represented by prominent writers.
It seemed unnecessary to treat the female writers as a distinct class; they are, therefore, arranged under the departments to which they respectively belong, as Essayists, Novelists, Poets, &c.
I should be claiming a merit which does not belong to me, should I fail to say, that, for much of the labor which this treatise has involved, I am indebted to the co-operation of my brother, Mr. William T. Martin, whose acquaintance with our literature has not often been surpassed, and whose valuable aid and counsel have been freely afforded me.
The hours which have been spent in culling extracts from so many able and entertaining writers, though laborious, have been to the editor full of interest, and often of delight. He trusts that these fruits of his labor will be useful, in imparting, especially to his youthful readers, not only an acquaintance with the best of our national authors, but a taste for literature, and a good ideal of literary excellence, than which few things in intellectual education are more to be esteemed. If successful in these respects, he will be abundantly satisfied; and in this hope, he submits his work to the judgment of the public.
1. RELIGIOUS WRITERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.
Roger Williams, 1598-1683 1. True Liberty defined.
Cotton Mather, 1663-1728 2. Preservation of New England Principles.
Jonathan Edwards, 1703-1758 3. Meaning of the Phrase Moral Inability.
Samuel Davies, 1725-1761 4. Life and Immortality revealed through the Gospel.
Nathaniel Emmons, 1745-1840 5. Rule of Private Judgment.
2. HISTORICAL WRITERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.
Cadwallader Colden, 1688-1776 6. The Five Nations assert their Superiority.
William Stith, 1689-1755 7. The rule of Powhatan. 8. Pocahontas in England.
William Smith, 1728-1793 9. Manners of the People of New York.
3. MISCELLANEOUS WRITERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.
John Winthrop, 1587-1649 10. True Liberty defined. 11. Proposed Treatment of the Indians.
William Byrd, 1674-1744 12. The Ginseng and Snakeroot Plants.
Benjamin Franklin, 1706-1790 13. Good Resolutions.—The Croaker. 14. Franklin's Electrical Kite. 15. Motion for Prayers in the Convention. 16. The Ephemeron. An Emblem.
4. LATER RELIGIOUS WRITERS AND DIVINES.
John Woolman, 1730-1772 17. Remarks on Slavery and Labor.
John M. Mason, 1770-1829 18. Grandeur of the Bible Society. 19. The Right of the State to Educate.
Timothy Dwight, 1752-1817 20. The Wilderness reclaimed. 21. The Glory of Nature, from God.
John Henry Hobart, 1775-1830 22. The Divine Glory in Redemption.
Lyman Beecher, 1775-1863 23. The Being of a God.
William Ellery Channing, 1780-1842 24. Character of Napoleon. 25. Grandeur of the prospect of Immortality. 26. The Duty of the Free States.
Edward Payson, 1783-1827 27. Natural Religion.
Joseph S. Buckminster, 1784-1812 28. Necessity of Regeneration.
Nathaniel W. Taylor, 1786-1858 29. Proof of Immortality from the Moral Nature of Man.
Edward Hitchcock, 1793-1864 30. Geological Proof of Divine Benevolence.
John P. Durbin, 1800- 31. First Sight of Mount Sinai.
Leonard Bacon, 1802- 32. The Day approaching. 33. The Benefits of Capital.
James W. Alexander, 1804-1859 34. The Church a Temple.
Martin J. Spaulding, 1810-1872 35. Trials of the Pioneer Catholic Clergy in the West.
James H. Thornwell, 1811-1862 36. Evil tendencies of an act of Sin.
Charles P. McIlvaine, 1799-1873 37. Attestations of the Resurrection.
George W. Bethune, 1805-1862 38. Aspirations towards Heaven. 39. The Prospects of Art in the United States.
William R. Williams, 1804- 40. Lead us not into Temptation.
George B. Cheever, 1807- 41. Sin distorts the judgment. 42. Mont Blanc.
Horace Bushnell, 1804- 43. Unconscious Influence. 44. The True Rest of the Christian.
Alfred T. Bledsoe, about 1809- 45. Moral Evil consistent with the Holiness of God.
Richard Fuller, 1808- 46. The Desire of all Nations shall come. Haggai ii. 7.
Henry Ward Beecher, 1813- 47. A Picture in a College at Oxford. 48. Frost on the Window. 49. Nature designed for our enjoyment. 50. Life in the Country. 51. The Conception of Angels, Superhuman.
John McClintock, 1814-1870 52. The Christian the only true Lover of Nature.
Noah Porter, 1811- 53. Science magnifies God.
William H. Milburn, 1823- 54. The Pioneer Preachers of the Mississippi Valley.
5. ORATORS, AND LEGAL AND POLITICAL WRITERS, OF THE ERA OF THE REVOLUTION.
John Dickinson, 1732-1808 55. Aspect of the War in May, 1779.
John Adams, 1735-1826 56. Character of James Otis. 57. The Requisites of a Good Government.
Patrick Henry, 1736-1799 58. The Necessity of the War. 59. The Constitution should be amended before Adoption.
John Rutledge, 1735-1826 60. An Independent Judiciary the Safeguard of Liberty.
Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1826 61. Essential Principles of American Government. 62. Character of Washington. 63. Geographical Limits of the Elephant and the Mammoth. 64. The Unhappy Effects of Slavery.
John Jay, 1745-1829 65. An Appeal to Arms.
6. ORATORS, AND LEGAL AND POLITICAL WRITERS, OF THE ERA SUBSEQUENT TO THE REVOLUTION.
Alexander Hamilton, 1757-1804 66. Nature of the Federal Debt. 67. The French Revolution.
Fisher Ames, 1758-1808 68. Obligation of National Good Faith.
Gouverneur Morris, 1752-1816 69. Qualifications of a Minister of Foreign Affairs.
William Pinkney, 1764-1820 70. Responsibility for Slavery. 71. American Belligerent Rights.
James Madison, 1751-1836 72. Value of a Record of the Debates on the Federal Constitution. 73. Inscription for a Statue of Washington.
John Randolph, 1773-1832 74. Change is not Reform. 75. The Error of Decayed Families.
James Kent, 1763-1847 76. Law of the States.
Edward Livingston, 1764-1836 77. The Proper Office of the Judge.
John Quincy Adams, 1767-1848 78. The Right of Petition Universal. 79. The Administration of Washington.
Henry Clay, 1777-1852 80. Emancipation of the South American States. 81. Dangers of Disunion.
John C. Calhoun, 1782-1850 82. Dangers of an Unlimited Power of Removal from Office. 83. Peculiar merit of our Political System. 84. Concurrent Majorities supersede Force.
Daniel Webster, 1782-1852 85. Inestimable Value of the Federal Union;—Extract from the Reply to Hayne. 86. Object of the Bunker Hill Monument. 87. Benefits of the U.S. Constitution. 88. Right of changing Allegiance.
Joseph Story, 1779-1845 89. Chief Justice Marshall. 90. Progress of Jurisprudence.
Lewis Cass, 1782-1866 91. Policy of Removing the Indians.
Rufus Choate, 1799-1859 92. Conservative Force of the American Bar. 93. The Age of the Pilgrims the Heroic Period of our History.
William H. Seward, 1801-1872 94. Military Services of Lafayette in America.
Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1865 95. Obligation to the Patriot Dead.
Charles Sumner, 1811-1873 96. Prospective Results of the Kansas and Nebraska Bill. 97. Heroic Effort cannot Fail. 98. Our Foreign Relations. 99. Prophetic Voices about America.
Alexander H. Stephens, 1812- 100. Origin of the American Flag.
7. BIOGRAPHICAL WRITERS.
Benjamin Rush, 1745-1813 101. Life of Edward Drinker, a Centenarian.
John Marshall, 1755-1835 102. The Conquest of Canada.
John Armstrong, 1759-1843 103. Capture of Stoney Point.
Charles Caldwell, 1772-1853 104. A Lecture of Dr. Rush.
Thomas H. Benton, 1783-1858 105. The Character of Macon.
Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, 1803-1848 106. Recapture of the Frigate Philadelphia, at Tripoli.
I.F.H. Claiborne. About 1804- 107. Tecumseh's Speech to the Creek Indians.
George W. Greene, 1811- 108. Foreign Officers in the Revolutionary Army.
James Parton, 1822- 109. Career and Character of Aaron Burr. 110. Henry Clay and the Western Bar. 111. Western Theatres.
8. HISTORY, GENERAL AND SPECIAL.
John Heckewelder, 1743-1823 112. Settlements of the Christian Indians.
Jeremy Belknap, 1744-1798 113. The Mast Pine.
David Ramsay, 1749-1815 114. Feeling of South Carolina towards the Mother Country.
Henry Lee, 1756-1818 115. Indian Services of General Rodgers Clarke. 116. The career of Captain Kirkwood.
Peter S. Duponceau. 1760-1844 117. Character of William Penn.
Charles J. Ingersoll, 1782-1862 118. Calhoun Characterized. 119. Battle of Chippewa.
Henry M. Brackenridge, 1786-1871 120. Old St. Genevieve, in Missouri.
Gulian C. Verplanck, 1786-1870 121. The Profession of the Schoolmaster.
John W. Francis, 1789-1861 122. Public Changes during a Single Lifetime.
William Meade, 1789-1862 123. Character of the Early Virginia Clergy.
Jared Sparks, 1794-1866 124. The Battle of Bennington. 125. Services, Death, and Character of Pulaski.
William H. Prescott, 1796-1859 126. Moral Consequences of the Discovery of America. 127. Picture-writing of the Mexicans. 128. Ransom and Doom of the Inca.
George Bancroft, 1800- 129. Virginia and its Inhabitants, in early times. 130. Contrast of English and French Colonization in America. 131. Death of Montcalm. 132. Character of the Declaration of Independence. 133. The First Policy of Spain in the American Revolution.
J.G.M. Ramsey. About 1800- 134. The Military Services of General Sevier.
Charles Gayarre, 1805- 135. General Jackson at New Orleans.
Brantz Mayer, 1809- 136. Rekindling the Sacred Fire in Mexico.
Albert J. Pickett, 1810-1858 137. The Indians and the First Settlers in Alabama.
Charles W. Upham, 1803- 138. Defeat of the Indian King Philip.
John L. Motley, 1814- 139. Character of Alva. 140. Siege and Abandonment of Ostend. 141. The Rise of the Dutch Republic.
Alex'r B. Meek, 1814-1865 142. Exiled French Officers in Alabama. 143. The Youth of the Indian Chief, Weatherford.
Abel Stevens, 1815- 144. The Early Methodist Clergy in America.
Francis Parkman, 1823- 145. The Old Western Hunters and Trappers. 146. Marquette Exploring the Upper Mississippi.
John G. Shea, 1824- 147. Difficulties of the Catholic Indian Missionaries. 148. Exploration of the Mississippi.
John G. Palfrey, 1796- 149. Happiness of Winthrop's Closing Years.
1. ESSAYISTS, MORALISTS, AND REFORMERS.
Joseph Dennie, 1768-1813 150. Reflections on the Seasons.
William Gaston, 1778-1844 151. The Importance of Integrity.
Jesse Buel, 1778-1839 152. Extent and Defects of American Agriculture.
Robert Walsh, 1784-1859 153. False Sympathy with Criminals.
Thomas S. Grimke, 1786-1834 154. Literary Excellence of the English Bible.
Henry C. Carey, 1793- 155. Agriculture as a Science.
Edmund Ruffin, 1793-1863 156. Improvement of Acid Soils.
Francis Wayland, 1796-1865 157. Superiority of the Moral Sentiments.
Horace Mann, 1796-1857 158. Thoughts for a Young Man.
Orestes A. Brownson, 1800- 159. The Duty of Progress. 160. Catholic Europe in the Seventeenth Century, despotic.
Theodore D. Woolsey, 1801- 161. Importance of the Study of International Law.
Taylor Lewis, 1802- 162. Unity of the Mosaic Account of the Creation. 163. Cruel Intestine Wars caused by National Division.
Horace Greeley, 1811-1872 164. The Problem of Labor. 165. The Beneficence of Labor-saving Inventions. 166. Literature as a Vocation;—the Editor. 167. Tranquility of Rural Life.
Theodore Parker, 1810-1860 168. Winter and Spring. 169. The true idea of a Christian Church. 170. Character of Franklin. 171. Character of Jefferson.
Wendell Phillips, 1811- 172. The War for the Union. 173. Character of Toussaint L'Ouverture.
Thomas Starr King, 1824-1864 174. Great Principles and Small Duties.
2. GENERAL AND POLITE LITERATURE.
William Wirt, 1772-1834 175. The Example of Patrick Henry no argument for Indolence. 176. Jefferson's Seat at Monticello.
Timothy Flint, 1780-1840 177. The Western Boatman.
Washington Irving, 1783-1859 178. Title and Table of Contents of Knickerbocker's History of New York. 179. The Army at New Amsterdam. 180. A Mother's Memory. 181. Columbus a Prisoner. 182. Arrival of Columbus at Court. 183. A Time of Unexampled Prosperity. 184. Death and Burial of General Braddock. 185. Baron Steuben in the Revolutionary Army.
Richard H. Wilde, 1780-1847 186. Interest of Tasso's Life.
George Ticknor, 1791-1871 187. The Design of Cervantes in writing Don Quixote.
James Hall, 1793-1868 188. Description of a Prairie.
H.R. Schoolcraft, 1793-1864 189. The Chippewa Indian.
Edward Everett, 1794-1865 190. Astronomy for all Time. 191. Description of a Sunrise. 192. The Celtic Immigration.
Hugh S. Legare. 1797-1843 193. The Study of the Ancient Classics. 194. Disadvantages of Colonial Life.
Francis L. Hawks, 1798-1866 195. Japan interesting in many Aspects.
George P. Marsh, 1801- 196. Method of learning English. 197. The Evergreens of Southern Europe.
George H. Calvert, 1803- 198. Estimate of Coleridge.
Ralph W. Emerson, 1803- 199. Influence of Nature. 200. The power of Childhood. 201. Advantage of working in harmony with Nature. 202. Rules for Reading.
John R. Bartlett, 1805- 203. Lynch Law at El Paso.
Nat'l P. Willis, 1807-1867 204. The American Abroad. 205. Character and Writings of James Hillhouse.
H.W. Longfellow, 1807- 206. The interrupted Legend.
Henry Reed, 1808-1854 207. Legendary Period of Britain.
C.M. Kirkland, 1808-1864 208. The Felling of a Great Tree. 209. The Bee Tree.
Margaret Fuller Ossoli 1810-1850 210. Carlyle characterized.
Oliver W. Holmes, 1809- 211. Consequences of exposing an old error. 212. Pleasures of Boating. 213. The unspoken Declaration. 214. Mechanics of Vital Action.
John Wm. Draper, 1810- 215. Truths in the ancient Philosophies. 216. Future Influence of America.
James R. Lowell, 1810- 217. New England two Centuries ago. 218. From an Essay on Dryden. 219. Love of Birds and Squirrels. 220. Chaucer's love of Nature.
Edgar A. Poe, 1811-1849 221. The Chiming of the Clock. 222. The Philosophy of Composition.
H.T. Tuckerman, 1813-1871 223. The Heart superior to the Intellect.
H.N. Hudson, 1814- 224. Instructive Character of Shakespeare's Works.
Mary H. Eastman. About 1817- 225. Lake Itasca, the Source of the Mississippi. 226. A Plea for the Indians.
Mary E. Moragne, 1815- 227. The Huguenot Town.
Richard H. Dana, Jr., 1815- 228. A Death at Sea.
Evert A. Duyckinck, 1816- 229. Newspapers.
Horace B. Wallace, 1817-1852 230. Art an Emanation of Religious Affection.
H.D. Thoreau, 1817-1862 231. Description of "Poke" or Garget, (Phytolacca Decandra). 232. Walden Pond. 233. Wants of the Age.
Elizabeth F. Ellett, 1818- 234. Escape of Mary Bledsoe from the Indians.
James J. Jarves, 1818- 235. The Art Idea.
Edwin P. Whipple, 1819- 236. Poets and Poetry of America.
J.T.L. Worthington, 1847- 237. The Sisters.
Alice Cary, 1820-1871 238. Clovernook, the End of the History.
Donald G. Mitchell, 1822- 239. A Talk about Porches.
Richard Grant White, 1822- 240. The Character of Shakespeare's Style.
Thos. W. Higginson, 1823- 241. Elegance of French Style.
Charles G. Leland, 1824- 242. Aspect of Nuremberg.
Geo. Wm. Curtis, 1824- 243. Under the Palms.
John L. McConnell, 1826- 244. The Early Western Politician.
Sarah J. Lippincott. About 1833 245. Death in Town, and in Country.
Francis Bret Harte, 1837- 246. Birth of a Child in a Miner's Camp.
Wm. D. Howells, 1837- 247. Snow in Venice.
Mary A. Dodge, 1838- 248. Scenery of the Upper Mississippi.
3. LATER MISCELLANEOUS WRITERS.
George Washington, 1732-1799 249. Natural advantages of Virginia.
Matthew F. Maury, 1806-1873 250. The Mariner's Guide across the Deep. 251. The Gulf Stream.
O.M. Mitchell, 1810-1862 252. The Great Unfinished Problems of the Universe.
4. NATURAL HISTORY, SCENERY, ETC.
William Bartram, 1739-1813 253. Scenes on the Upper Oconee, Georgia. 254. The Wood Pelican of Florida.
Alex'r Wilson, 1766-1813 255. Nest of the Red-headed Woodpecker. 256. The White-headed, or Bald Eagle.
Stephen Elliott, 1771-1830 257. Completeness and variety of Nature.
John J. Audubon, 1776-1851 258. The Passenger Pigeon. 259. Emigrants Removing Westward. 260. Interest of Exploration in the Remote West.
Daniel Drake, 1785-1852 261. Objects of the Western Mound Builders.
John Bachman, 1790-1874 262. The Opossum.
J.A. Lapham, 1811- 263. The Smaller Lakes of Wisconsin. 264. Ancient Earthworks.
Chas. W. Webber, 1819-1856 265. The Mocking Bird.
Chas. Lanman, 1819- 266. Maple Sugar-Making among the Indians.
Ephraim G. Squier, 1821- 267. Indian Pottery.
5. WRITERS OF TRAVEL AND ADVENTURE.
Benj'n Silliman, 1779-1864 268. The Falls of Montmorenci.
John L. Stephens, 1805-1852 269. Discovery of a Ruined City in the Woods.
John C. Fremont, 1813- 270. Ascent of a Peak of the Rocky Mountains. 271. The Columbia River, Oregon.
Elisha K. Kane, 1822-1857 272. Discovery of an Open Arctic Sea.
Bayard Taylor, 1825- 273. Monterey, California. 274. Approach to San Francisco. 275. Swiss Scenery;—a Battlefield;—Picturesque Dwellings.
6. NOVELISTS AND WRITERS OF FICTION.
Chas. Brockden Brown, 1771-1810 276. The Yellow Fever in Philadelphia.
Washington Allston, 1779-1843 277. Impersonation of the Power of Evil. 278. On a Picture by Caracci. 279. Originality of Mind.
James K. Paulding, 1779-1860 280. Characteristics of the Dutch and German Settlers. 281. Abortive Towns.
Jas. Fenimore Cooper, 1789-1851 282. The Shooting Match. 283. Long Tom Coffin. 284. Death of the Old Trapper in the Pawnee Village. 285. Escape from the Wreck. 286. Naval Results of the War of 1812.
Catharine M. Sedgwick, 1789-1867 287. The Minister Condemning Vain Apparel. 288. Kosciusko's Garden at West Point.
John Neal, 1793- 289. The Nature of True Poetry.
John P. Kennedy, 1795-1870 290. The Mansion at Swallow Barn. 291. A Disappointed Politician. 292. Wirt's Style of Oratory.
William Ware, 1797-1852 293. The Christian Martyr.
Lydia M. Child, 1802- 294. Ill temper contagious.
Robert M. Bird, 1803-1854 295. The Quaker Huntsman.
Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1805-1864 296. Portrait of Edward Randolph. 297. Description of an Old Sailor. 298. A Picture of Girlhood. 299. Sculpture: Art and Artists. 300. Ruins of Furness Abbey. 301. Scenery of the Merrimac. 302. A Dungeon of Ancient Rome.
Wm. Gilmore Simms, 1806-1870 303. The Battle of Eutaw. 304. Character and Services of Gen. Marion.
Harriet B. Stowe, 1812- 305. Memorials of a Dead Child. 306. The Old Meeting House.
Maria J. McIntosh, 1815- 307. Debate between Webster and Hayne.
Catharine A. Warfield, 1817- 308. View of the Sky by Night.
Herman Melville, 1819- 309. Sperm-Whale Fishing.
Josiah G. Holland, 1819- 310. The Wedding-Present.
John Esten Cooke, 1830- 311. The Portrait. 312. Aspects of Summer.
Sarah A. Dorsey. About 1835- 313. Scenery at Natchez, Mississippi.
Anne M. Crane, 314. Impression of a Sea-Scene.
Mary C. Ames. About 1837- 315. A Railway Station in the Country.
Francis Hopkinson, 1737-1791 316. From "The Battle of the Kegs."
John Trumbull, 1750-1831 317. From "McFingall."
Philip Freneau, 1752-1832 318. From "An Indian Burying-ground."
David Humphreys, 1753-1818 319. From "The Happiness of America."
Sam'l J. Smith, 1771-1835 320. "Peace, Be Still."
William Clifton, 1772-1799 321. From "Lines to Fancy."
Robert Treat Paine, 1773-1811 322. The Miser.
John Blair Linn, 1777-1804 323. From "The Powers of Genius."
Francis S. Key, 1779-1843 324. "The Star-Spangled Banner."
Washington Allston, 1779-1843 325. From "The Sylphs of the Seasons."
John Pierpont, 1785-1866 326. A Temperance Song. 327. The. Pilgrim Fathers.
Jas. G. Percival, 1786-1856 328. The Coral Grove.
Richard H. Dana, 1787- 329. From "The Buccaneer."
Richard H. Wilde, 1789-1847 330. My Life is like the Summer Rose.
Jas. A. Hillhouse, 1789-1841 331. From "Hadad." 332. From "The Judgment."
John M. Harney, 1789-1825 333. From "Cristalina; a fairy tale."
Charles Sprague, 1791- 334. From "Curiosity."
L.H. Sigourney, 1791-1865 335. The Widow at her Daughter's Bridal.
Wm. O. Butler, 1793- 336. From "The Boatman's Horn." 337. The Battle-field of Raisin.
Wm. C. Bryant, 1794- 338. Lines to a Water Fowl. 339. Freedom Irrepressible. 340. Communion with Nature, Soothing. 341. The Living Lost. 342. The Song of the Sower. 343. The Planting of the Apple-Tree.
Maria Brooks, 1795-1845 344. "Marriage."
Joseph R. Drake, 1705-1820 345. The Fay's Departure.
Fitz-Greene Halleck, 1795-1869 346. Marco Bozzaris. 347. The Broken Merchant.
J.G.C. Brainard, 1796-1828 348. From "Lines to the Connecticut River."
Robert C. Sands, 1799-1832 349. From "Weehawken."
George W. Doane, 1799-1859 350. From "Evening."
Geo. P. Morris, 1801-1864 351. Highlands of the Hudson.
Geo. D. Prentice, 1802-1869 352. From "The Mammoth Cave."
Chas. C. Pise, 1802-1866 353. The Rainbow. 354. View at Gibraltar.
E.P. Lovejoy, 1802-1836 355. From "Lines to my Mother."
Edward C. Pinkney, 1802-1828 356. A Health.
R.W. Emerson, 1803- 357. Hymn sung at the Completion of the Concord Monument. 358. Disappearance of Winter. 359. Inspiration of Duty.
Thos. C. Upham, 1799-1873 360. On a Son Lost at Sea.
Jacob L. Martin, 1805-1848 361. The Church of Santa Croce, Florence.
Geo. W. Bethune, 1805-1862 362. Mythology gives place to Christianity.
Chas. F. Hoffman, 1806- 363. The Red Man's Heaven.
Wm. Gilmore Simms, 1806-1870 364. Nature inspires sentiment.
Nath'l P. Willis, 1807-1867 365. From "Hagar in the Wilderness." 366. Unseen Spirits.
H.W. Longfellow, 1807- 367. Lines to Resignation. 368. From The Wedding; The Launch: The Ship. 369. Song of the Mocking-bird, at Sunset. 370. Hiawatha's Departure.
Wm. D. Gallagher, 1808- 371. The Laborer.
John G. Whittier, 1808- 372. What the Voice said. 373. The Atlantic Telegraph. 374. Description of a Snow Storm. 375. The Quaker's Creed.
Albert Pike, 1809- 376. The Everlasting Hills.
Anne C. Lynch Botta. About 1809 377. The Dumb Creation.
Oliver W. Holmes, 1809- 378. From "The Last Leaf." 379. A Mother's Secret.
Willis G. Clark, 1810-1841 380. "An Invitation to Early Piety."
James R. Lowell, 1810- 381 A Song, "The Violet." 382. Importance of a Noble Deed. 383. The Spaniards' Graves at the Isles of Shoals.
Edgar A. Poe, 1811-1849 384. The Raven.
Alfred B. Street, 1811- 385. An Autumn Landscape. 386. The Falls of the Mongaup.
Laura M. H. Thurston, 1812-1842 387. Lines on Crossing the Alleghanies.
Frances S. Osgood, 1812-1850 388. From "The Parting."
Harriet B. Stowe, 1812- 389. The Peace of Faith. 390. Only a Year.
H.T. Tuckerman, 1813-1871 391. The Statue of Washington.
John G. Saxe, 1816- 392. The Blessings of Sleep. 393. "Ye Tailyor man; a contemplative ballad." 394. Ancient and Modern Ghosts contrasted. 395. Boys. 396. Sonnet to a Clam.
Lucy Hooper, 1816-1841 397. The "Death-Summons."
Catharine A. Warfield, 1817- 398. From "The Return to Ashland."
Arthur C. Coxe, 1818- 399. The Heart's Song.
Wm. Ross Wallace, 1819- 400. The North Edda.
Walter Whitman, 1819- 401. The Brooklyn Ferry at Twilight.
Amelia B. Welby, 1819-1852 402. The Bereaved.
R.S. Nichols. About 1820- 403. From "Musings."
Alice Cary, 1820-1871 404. Attractions of our early Home.
Sidney Dyer. About 1820- 405. The Power of Song.
Austin T. Earle, 1822- 406. From "Warm Hearts had We."
Thos. Buchanan Read, 1822- 407. The Mournful Mowers. 408. From "The Closing Scene."
Margaret M. Davidson, 1823-1837 409. From Lines in Memory of her Sister Lucretia.
John R. Thompson, 1823-1873 410. Music in Camp.
Geo. H. Boker, 1824- 411. From the "Ode to a Mountain Oak" 412. Dirge for a Sailor.
Wm. Allen Butler, 1825- 413. From "Nothing to Wear."
Bayard Taylor, 1825- 414. "The Burden of the Day."
John T. Trowbridge, 1827- 415. "Dorothy in the Garret."
Henry Timrod, 1829-1867 416. The Unknown Dead.
Susan A. Talley Von Weiss. About 1830- 417. The Sea-Shell.
Albert Sutliffe, 1830- 418. "May Noon."
Elijah E. Edwards, 1831- 419. "Let me Rest."
Paul H. Hayne, 1831- 420. October.
Rosa V. Johnson Jeffrey. About 1832- 421. From "Angel Watchers."
Sarah J. Lippincott, 1833- 422. "Absolution."
E.C. Stedman, 1833- 423. The Mountain.
John J. Piatt, 1835- 424. Long Ago.
Celia Thaxter, 1835- 425. "Regret."
Theophilus H. Hill, 1836- 426. From "The Song of the Butterfly."
Thos. B. Aldrich, 1836- 427. The Crescent and the Cross.
Francis Bret Harte, 1837- 428. Dickens in Camp. 429. The Two Ships.
Charles Dimitry, 1838- 430. From "The Sergeant's Story."
John Hay, 1841- 431. The Prairie.
Joaquin Miller, 432. The Future of California.
Joel C. Harris, 1846- 433. Agnes.
ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF AUTHORS.
* * * * *
(The Figures refer to the Number of the Selection.)
* * * * *
ADAMS, JOHN 56, 57 ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY 78, 79 ALEXANDER, JAMES W. 34 ALDRICH, THOMAS B. 427 ALLSTON, WASHINGTON 277, 278, 279, 325 AMES, FISHER 68 AMES, MARY C. 315 ARMSTRONG, JOHN 103 AUDUBON, JOHN J. 258, 259, 260
BACHMAN, JOHN 262 BACON, LEONARD 32, 33 BANCROFT, GEORGE 129, 130, 131, 132, 133 BARTLETT, JOHN R. 203 BARTRAM, WILLIAM 253, 254 BEECHER, HENRY WARD 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 BEECHER, LYMAN 23 BELKNAP, JEREMY 113 BENTON, THOMAS H. 105 BETHUNE, GEORGE W. 38, 39, 362 BIRD, ROBERT M. 295 BLEDSOE, ALBERT T. 45 BOKER, GEORGE HENRY 411, 412 BOTTA, ANNE C. LYNCH 377 BRACKENRIDGE, HENRY M. 120 BRAINARD, JOHN G.C. 348 BROOKS, MARIA 344 BROWN, C. BROCKDEN 276 BROWNSON, ORESTES A. 159, 160 BRYANT, WILLIAM C. 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343 BUCKMINSTER, JOSEPH S. 28 BUEL, JESSE 152 BUSHNELL, HORACE 43, 44 BUTLER, WILLIAM ALLEN 413 BUTLER, WILLIAM O. 336, 337 BYRD, WILLIAM 12
CALDWELL, CHARLES 104 CALHOUN, JOHN C. 82, 83, 84 CALVERT, GEORGE H. 198 CAREY, HENRY C. 155 CARY, ALICE 238, 404 CASS, LEWIS 91 CHANNING, WM. ELLERY 24, 25, 26 CHEEVER, GEORGE B. 41, 42 CHILD, LYDIA MARIA 294 CHOATE, RUFUS 92, 93 CLAIBORNE, I.F.H. 107 CLARK, WILLIS G. 380 CLAY, HENRY 80, 81 CLIFTON, WILLIAM 321 COLDEN, CADWALLADER 6 COOKE, JOHN ESTEN 311, 312 COOPER, J. FENIMORE 282, 283, 284, 285, 286 COXE, ARTHUR C. 399 CRANE, ANNE M. 314 CURTIS, GEORGE WM. 243
DANA, RICHARD H. 329 DANA, RICHARD H., JR. 228 DAVIDSON, MARGARET M. 409 DAVIES, SAMUEL 4 DENNIE, JOSEPH 150 DICKINSON, JOHN 55 DIMITRY, CHARLES 430 DOANE, GEORGE W. 350 DODGE, MARY A. 248 DORSEY, SARAH A. 313 DRAKE, DANIEL 261 DRAKE, JOSEPH R. 345 DRAPER, JOHN WM. 215, 216 DUPONCEAU, PETER S. 117 DWIGHT, TIMOTHY 20, 21 DURBIN, JOHN P. 31 DUYCKINCK, EVERT A. 229 DYER, SIDNEY 405
EARLE, AUSTIN T. 406 EASTMAN, MARY H. 225, 226 EDWARDS, ELIJAH E. 419 EDWARDS, JONATHAN 3 ELLETT, ELIZABETH F. 234 ELLIOTT, STEPHEN 257 EMERSON, RALPH WALDO 199, 200, 201, 202, 357, 358, 359 EMMONS, NATHANIEL 5 EVERETT, EDWARD 190, 191, 192
FLINT, TIMOTHY 177 FRANCIS, JOHN W. 122 FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN 13, 14, 15, 16 FREMONT, JOHN C. 270, 271 FRENEAU, PHILIP 318 FULLER, RICHARD 46
GALLAGHER, WILLIAM D. 371 GASTON, WILLIAM 151 GAYARRE, CHARLES 135 GREELEY, HORACE 164, 165, 166, 167 GREENE, GEORGE W. 108 GRIMKE, THOMAS S. 154
HALL, JAMES 188 HALLECK, FITZ-GREENE 346, 347 HAMILTON, ALEXANDER 66, 67 HARNEY, JOHN M. 333 HARRIS, JOEL C. 433 HARTE, FRANCIS BRET 246, 428, 429 HAWKS, FRANCIS L. 195 HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302 HAY, JOHN 431 HAYNE, PAUL H. 420 HECKEWELDER, JOHN 112 HENRY, PATRICK 58, 59 HIGGINSON, THOMAS 241 HILL, THEOPHILUS H. 426 HILLHOUSE, JAMES A. 331, 332 HITCHCOCK, EDWARD 30 HOBART, JOHN H. 22 HOFFMAN, CHARLES F. 363 HOLLAND, JOSIAH G. 310 HOLMES, OLIVER W. 211, 212, 213, 214, 378, 379 HOOPER, LUCY 397 HOPKINSON, FRANCIS 316 HUDSON, HENRY N. 224 HOWELLS, WILLIAM D. 247 HUMPHREYS, DAVID 319
INGERSOLL, CHARLES J. 118, 119 IRVING, WASHINGTON 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185
JARVES, JAMES J. 235 JAY, JOHN 65 JEFFERSON, THOMAS 61, 62, 63, 64 JEFFREY, ROSA V. JOHNSON 421
KANE, ELISHA K. 272 KENNEDY, JOHN P. 290, 291, 292 KENT, JAMES 76 KEY, FRANCIS S. 324 KING, THOS. STARR 174 KIRKLAND, CAROLINE M. 208, 209
LANMAN, CHARLES 266 LAPHAM, J.A. 263, 264 LEE, HENRY 115, 116 LEGARE, HUGH S. 193, 194 LELAND, CHARLES G. 242 LEWIS, TAYLOR 162, 163 LINCOLN, ABRAHAM 95 LINN, JOHN B. 323 LIPPINCOTT, SARAH J. 245, 422 LIVINGSTON, EDWARD 77 LONGFELLOW, HENRY W. 206, 367, 368, 369, 370 LOVEJOY, ELIJAH P. 355 LOWELL, JAS. RUSSELL 217, 218, 219, 220, 381, 382, 383
MACKENZIE, A. SLIDELL 106 McCLINTOCK, JOHN 52 McCONNELL, JOHN L. 244 McILVAINE, CHARLES P. 37 McINTOSH, MARIA J. 307 MADISON, JAMES 73, 73 MANN, HORACE 158 MARSH, GEORGE P. 196, 197 MARSHALL, JOHN 102 MARTIN, JACOB L. 361 MASON, JOHN M. 18, 19 MATHER, COTTON 2 MAURY, MATTHEW F. 250, 251 MAYER, BRANTZ 136 MEADE, WILLIAM 123 MEEK, ALEXANDER B. 142, 143 MELVILLE, HERMAN 309 MILBURN, WILLIAM H. 54 MILLER, JOAQUIN 432 MITCHELL, DONALD G. 239 MITCHELL, ORMSBY M. 252 MORAGNE, MARY E. 227 MORRIS, GEORGE P. 351 MORRIS, GOUVERNEUR 69 MOTLEY, JOHN L. 139, 140, 141
NEAL, JOHN 289 NICHOLS, REBECCA S. 403
OSGOOD, FRANCIS S. 388 OSSOLI, MARGARET FULLER 210
PAINE, ROBERT T. 322 PALFREY, JOHN G. 149 PARKER, THEODORE 168, 169, 170, 171 PARKMAN, FRANCIS 145, 146 PARTON, JAMES 109, 110, 111 PAULDING, JAMES K. 280, 281 PAYSON, EDWARD 27 PERCIVAL, JAMES G. 328 PHILLIPS, WENDELL 172, 173 PIATT, JOHN J. 424 PICKETT, ALBERT J. 137 PIERPONT, JOHN 326, 327 PIKE, ALBERT 376 PINKNEY, EDWARD C. 356 PINKNEY, WILLIAM 70, 71 PISE, CHARLES C. 353, 354 POE, EDGAR A. 221, 222, 384 PORTER, NOAH 53 PRENTICE, GEORGE 352 PRESCOTT, WILLIAM H. 126, 127, 128
RAMSAY, DAVID 114 RAMSEY, J.G.M. 134 RANDOLPH, JOHN 74, 75 READ, THOS. BUCHANAN 407, 408 REED, HENRY 207 RUFFIN, EDMUND 156 RUSH, BENJAMIN 101 RUTLEDGE, JOHN 60
SANDS, ROBERT C. 349 SAXE, JOHN G. 392, 393, 394, 395, 396 SCHOOLCRAFT, HENRY R. 189 SEDGWICK, CATHARINE M. 287, 288 SEWARD, WILLIAM 94 SHEA, JOHN G. 147, 148 SIGOURNEY, LYDIA H. 335 SILLIMAN, BENJAMIN 268 SIMMS, WM. GILMORE 303, 304, 364 SMITH, SAMUEL J. 320 SMITH, WILLIAM 9 SPARKS, JARED 124, 125 SPAULDING, MARTIN J. 35 SPRAGUE, CHARLES 334 SQUIER, EPHRAIM G. 267 STEDMAN, E.C. 423 STEPHENS, ALEXANDER H. 100 STEPHENS, JOHN L. 269 STEVENS, ABEL 144 STITH, WILLIAM 7, 8 STORY, JOSEPH 89, 90 STOWE, HARRIET BEECHER 305, 306, 389, 390 STREET, ALFRED B. 385, 386 SUMNER, CHARLES 96, 87, 98, 99 SUTLIFFE, ALBERT 418
TAYLOR, BAYARD 273, 274, 275, 414 TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W. 29 THAXTER, CELIA 425 THOMPSON, JOHN R. 410 THORNWELL, JAMES H. 36 THOREAU, HENRY D. 231, 232, 233 THURSTON, LAURA M.H. 387 TICKNOR, GEORGE 187 TIMROD, HENRY 416 TROWBRIDGE, JOHN T. 415 TRUMBULL, JOHN 317 TUCKERMAN, HENRY T. 223, 391
UPHAM, CHARLES W. 138 UPHAM, THOMAS C. 360
VERPLANCK, GULIAN C. 121 VON WEISS, SUSAN A. TALLEY 417
WALLACE, HORACE B. 230 WALLACE, WILLIAM R. 400 WALSH, ROBERT 153 WARE, WILLIAM 293 WARFIELD, CATHERINE A. 308, 398 WASHINGTON, GEORGE 249 WAYLAND, FRANCIS 157 WEBBER, CHARLES W. 265 WEBSTER, DANIEL 85, 86, 87, 88 WELBY, AMELIA B. 402 WHIPPLE, EDWIN P. 236 WHITE, RICHARD GRANT 240 WHITMAN, WALTER 401 WHITTIER, JOHN G. 372, 373, 374, 375 WILDE, RICHARD H. 186, 330 WILLIAMS, ROGER 1 WILLIAMS, WILLIAM R. 40 WILLIS, NATHANIEL P. 204, 205, 365, 366 WILSON, ALEXANDER 255, 256 WINTHROP, JOHN 10, 11 WIRT, WILLIAM 176 WOOLMAN, JOHN 17 WOOLSEY, THEODORE D. 161 WORTHINGTON, JANE T.L. 237
* * * * *
RELIGIOUS WRITERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.
Roger Williams, 1598-1683. (Manual, pp. 480, 512.)
From his "Memoirs."
1. EXTENT OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM.
There goes many a ship to sea, with many hundred souls in one ship, whose weal and woe is common, and is a true picture of a commonwealth, or a human combination or society. It hath fallen out, sometimes, that both Papists and Protestants, Jews and Turks, may be embarked into one ship. Upon which supposal, I affirm that all the liberty of conscience, that ever I pleaded for, turns upon these two hinges; that none of the Papists, Protestants, Jews, or Turks, be forced to come to the ship's prayers, nor compelled from their own particular prayers or worship, if they practice any.... If any of the seamen refuse to perform their service, or passengers to pay their freight; if any refuse to help, in person or purse, towards the common charges or defence; if any refuse to obey the common laws or orders of the ship concerning their common peace or preservation; if any shall mutiny and rise up against their commanders and officers; if any should preach or write, that there ought to be no commanders nor officers, because all are equal in Christ, therefore no masters nor officers, no laws, nor orders, no corrections nor punishments,—I say I never denied but in such cases, whatever is pretended, the commander or commanders may judge, resist, compel, and punish such transgressors, according to their deserts and merits.
* * * * *
Cotton Mather, 1663-1728. (Manual pp. 479, 512.)
From the "Antiquities," or Book I, of the "Magnalia."
2. PRESERVATION OF NEW ENGLAND PRINCIPLES.
'Tis now time for me to tell my reader, that in our age, there has been another essay made, not by French, but by English PROTESTANTS, to fill a certain country in America with Reformed Churches; nothing in doctrine, little in discipline, different from that of Geneva. Mankind will pardon me, a native of that country, if smitten with a just fear of encroaching and ill-bodied degeneracies, I shall use my modest endeavors to prevent the loss of a country so signalized for the profession of the purest Religion, and for the protection of God upon it in that holy profession. I shall count my country lost, in the loss of the primitive principles, and the primitive practices, upon which it was at first established: but certainly one good way to save that loss, would be to do something, that the memory of the great things done for us by our God, may not be lost, and that the story of the circumstances attending the foundation and formation of this country, and of its preservation hitherto, may be impartially handed unto posterity. THIS is the undertaking whereto I now address myself; and now, Grant me thy gracious assistances, O my God! that in this my undertaking I may be kept from every false way.
* * * * *
Jonathan Edwards, 1703-1758. (Manual, p. 479.)
From the "Inquiry, &c., into the Freedom of the Will."
3. MEANING OF THE PHRASE "MORAL INABILITY."
It must be observed concerning Moral Inability, in each kind of it, that the word Inability is used in a sense very diverse from its original import.... In the strictest propriety of speech, a man has a thing in his power, if he has it in his choice, or at his election; and a man cannot be truly said to be unable to do a thing, when he can do it if he will. It is improperly said, that a person cannot perform those external actions which are dependent on the act of the will, and which would be easily performed, if the act of the will were present. And if it be improperly said, that he cannot perform those external voluntary actions which depend on the will, it is in some respect more improperly said, that he is unable to exert the acts of the will themselves; because it is more evidently false, with respect to these, that he cannot if he will; for to say so is a downright contradiction: it is to say he cannot will if he does will. And in this case, not only is it true, that it is easy for a man to do the thing if he will, but the very willing is the doing; when once he has willed, the thing is performed; and nothing else remains to be done. Therefore, in these things to ascribe a non-performance to the want of power or ability, is not just; because the thing wanting is not a being able, but a being willing. There are faculties of mind, and capacity of nature, and everything else sufficient, but a disposition; nothing is wanting but a will.
* * * * *
Samuel Davies, 1725-1761. (Manual, p. 480.)
From his "Sermons."
4. LIFE AND IMMORTALITY REVEALED THROUGH THE GOSPEL.
So extensive have been the havoc and devastation which death has made in the world for near six thousand years, ever since it was first introduced by the sin of man, that this earth is now become one vast grave-yard or burying-place for her sons. The many generations that have followed upon each other, in so quick a succession, from Adam to this day, are now in the mansions under ground.... Some make a short journey from the womb to the grave; they rise from nothing at the creative fiat of the Almighty, and take an immediate flight into the world of spirits.... Like a bird on the wing, they perch on our globe, rest a day, a month, or a year, and then fly off for some other regions. It is evident these were not formed for the purposes of the present state, where they make so short a stay; and yet we are sure they are not made in vain by an all-wise Creator; and therefore we conclude they are young immortals, that immediately ripen in the world of spirits, and there enter upon scenes for which it was worth their while coming into existence.... A few creep into their beds of dust under the burden of old age and the gradual decays of nature. In short, the grave is the place appointed for all living; the general rendezvous of all the sons of Adam. There the prince and the beggar, the conqueror and the slave, the giant and the infant, the scheming politician and the simple peasant, the wise and the fool, Heathens, Jews, Mahometans, and Christians, all lie equally low, and mingle their dust without distinction.... There lie our ancestors, our neighbors, our friends, our relatives, with whom we once conversed, and who were united to our hearts by strong and endearing ties; and there lies our friend, the sprightly, vigorous youth, whose death is the occasion of this funeral solemnity. This earth is overspread with the ruins of the human frame: it is a huge carnage, a vast charnel-house, undermined and hollowed with the graves, the last mansions of mortals.
* * * * *
Nathaniel Emmons, 1745-1840.
From his "Sermons."
5. THE RIGHT OF PRIVATE JUDGMENT.
The right of private judgment involves the right of forming our opinions according to the best light we can obtain. After a man knows what others have said or written, and after he has thought and searched the Scriptures, upon any religious subject, he has a right to form his own judgment exactly according to evidence. He has no right to exercise prejudice or partiality; but he has a right to exercise impartiality, in spite of all the world. After all the evidence is collected from every quarter, then it is the proper business of the understanding or judgment to compare and balance evidence, and to form a decisive opinion or belief, according to apparent truth. We have no more right to judge without evidence than we have to judge contrary to evidence; and we have no more right to doubt without, or contrary to, evidence, than we have to believe without, or contrary to, evidence. We have no right to keep ourselves in a state of doubt or uncertainty, when we have sufficient evidence to come to a decision. The command is, "Prove all things; hold fast that which is good." The meaning is, Examine all things; and after examination, decide what is right.
[Footnote 1: A Congregational clergyman of Massachusetts, original in theology, and eminently lucid in style.]
* * * * *
HISTORICAL WRITERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.
Cadwallader Colden, 1688-1776.
From "The History of the Five Nations."
6. CONVICTION OF THEIR SUPERIORITY
The Five Nations think themselves by nature superior to the rest of mankind.... All the nations round them have, for many years, entirely submitted to them, and pay a yearly tribute to them in wampum; they dare neither make war nor peace without the consent of the Mohawks. Two old men commonly go, about every year or two, to receive this tribute; and I have often had opportunity to observe what anxiety the poor Indians were under while these two old men remained in that part of the country where I was. An old Mohawk Sachem, in a poor blanket and a dirty shirt, may be seen issuing his orders with as arbitrary an authority as a Roman dictator. It is not for the sake of tribute, however, that they make war, but from the notions of glory which they have ever most strongly imprinted on their minds; and the farther they go to seek an enemy, the greater glory they think they gain; there cannot, I think, be a greater or stronger instance than this, how much the sentiments impressed on a people's mind conduce to their grandeur.... The Five Nations, in their love of liberty and of their country, in their bravery in battle, and their constancy in enduring torments, equal the fortitude of the most renowned Romans.
[Footnote 2: A native of Scotland, but for many years a resident of New York, where he was eminent in politics and science.]
* * * * *
William Stith, 1755. (Manual, p. 490.)
From "The History of Virginia."
7. THE RULE OF POWHATAN.
Although both himself and people were very barbarous, and void of all letters and civility, yet was there such a government among them, that the magistrates for good command, and the people for due subjection, excelled many places that would be counted very civil. He had under him above thirty inferior Kings or Werowances, who had power of life and death, but were bound to govern according to the customs of their country. However, his will was in all cases, their supreme law, and must be obeyed. They all knew their several lands, habitations, and limits, to fish, fowl, or hunt in. But they held all of their great Werowance, Powhatan; to whom they paid tribute of skins, beads, copper, pearl, deer, turkies, wild beasts, and corn. All his subjects reverenced him, not only as a King, but as half a God; and it was curious to behold, with what fear and adoration they obeyed him. For at his feet they presented whatever he commanded; and a frown of his brow would make their greatest Spirits tremble. And indeed it was no wonder; for he was very terrible and tyrannous in punishing such as offended him, with variety of cruelty, and the most exquisite torture.
* * * * *
8. POCAHONTAS IN ENGLAND.
However, Pocahontas was eagerly sought and kindly entertained everywhere. Many courtiers, and others of his acquaintance, daily flocked to Captain Smith to be introduced to her. They generally confessed that the hand of God did visibly appear in her conversion, and that they had seen many English ladies worse favored, of less exact proportion, and genteel carriage than she was.... The whole court were charmed and surprised at the decency and grace of her deportment; and the king himself, and queen, were pleased honorably to receive and esteem her. The Lady Delawarr, and those other persons of quality, also waited on her to the masks, balls, plays, and other public entertainments, with which she was wonderfully pleased and delighted. And she would, doubtless, have well deserved, and fully returned, all this respect and kindness, had she lived to arrive in Virginia.
* * * * *
William Smith, 1793. (Manual, p. 490.)
From "The History of the Province of New York."
9.. MANNERS OF THE INHABITANTS.
New York is one of the most social places on the continent. The men collect themselves into weekly evening clubs. The ladies, in winter, are frequently entertained either at concerts of music or assemblies, and make a very good appearance. They are comely, and dress well, and scarce any of them have distorted shapes. Tinctured with a Dutch education, they manage their families with becoming parsimony, good providence, and singular neatness. The practice of extravagant gaming, common to the fashionable part of the fair sex in some places, is a vice with which my countrywomen cannot justly be charged. There is nothing they so generally neglect as reading, and indeed all the arts for the improvement of the mind; in which, I confess, we have set them the example. They are modest, temperate, and charitable; naturally sprightly, sensible, and good-humored; and, by the helps of a more elevated education, would possess all the accomplishments desirable in the sex. Our schools are in the lowest order: the instructors want instruction; and, through a long, shameful neglect of all the arts and sciences, our common speech is extremely corrupt, and the evidences of a bad taste, both as to thought and language, are visible in all our proceedings, public and private.
The history of our diseases belongs to a profession with which I am very little acquainted. Few physicians amongst us are eminent for their skill. Quacks abound like locusts in Egypt, and too many have recommended themselves to a full practice and profitable subsistence. Loud as the call is, to our shame be it remembered, we have no law to protect the lives of the king's subjects from the malpractice of pretenders. Any man, at his pleasure, sets up for physician, apothecary, and chirurgeon. The natural history of this province would of itself furnish a small volume; and, therefore, I leave this also to such as have capacity and leisure to make useful observations in that curious and entertaining branch of natural philosophy.
The clergy of this province are, in general, but indifferently supported, it is true they live easily, but few of them leave any thing to their children.... As to the number of our clergymen, it is large enough at present, there being but few settlements unsupplied with a ministry and some superabound. In matters of religion we are not so intelligent in general as the inhabitants of the New England colonies, but both in this respect and good morals we certainly have the advantage of the Southern provinces. One of the king's instructions to our governors recommends the investigation of means for the conversion of negroes and Indians. An attention to both, especially the latter, has been too little regarded. If the missionaries of the English Society for propagating the Gospel instead of being seated in opulent christianized towns had been sent out to preach among the savages, unspeakable political advantages would have flowed from such a salutary measure.
* * * * *
MISCELLANEOUS WRITERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.
John Winthrop, 1587-1649. (Manual, p. 490.)
From his "Life and Letters."
10. TRUE LIBERTY DEFINED.
For the other point concerning liberty, I observe a great mistake in the country about that. There is a twofold liberty,—natural (I mean as our nature is now corrupt) and civil, or federal. The first is common to man with beasts and other creatures. By this, man, as he stands in relation to man simply, hath liberty to do what he lists: it is a liberty to evil as well as to good. This liberty is incompatible and inconsistent with authority, and cannot endure the least restraint of the most just authority. The exercise and maintaining of this liberty makes men grow more evil, and, in time, to be worse than brute beasts. This is that great enemy of truth and peace, that wild beast, which all the ordinances of God are bent against, to restrain and subdue it. The other kind of liberty I call civil, or federal; it may also be termed moral, in reference to the covenant between God and man in the moral law, and the politic covenants and constitutions amongst men themselves. This liberty is the proper end and object of authority, and cannot subsist without it; and it is a liberty to that only which is good, just, and honest. This liberty you are to stand for, with the hazard not only of your goods, but of your lives, if need be.
* * * * *
From "The History of New England."
11. PROPOSED TREATMENT OF THE INDIANS.
We received a letter at the General Court from the magistrates of Connecticut, and New Haven, and of Aquiday, wherein they declared their dislike of such as would have the Indians rooted out, as being of the cursed race of Ham, and their desire of our mutual accord in seeking to gain them by justice and kindness, and withal to watch over them to prevent any danger by them, &c. We returned answer of our consent with them in all things propounded, only we refused to include those of Aquiday in our answer, or to have any treaty with them.
[Footnote 3: The original name of Rhode Island.]
* * * * *
William Byrd, 1674-1744.
From "History of the Dividing Line between Virginia and North Carolina."
12. THE GINSENG AND SNAKEROOT PLANTS.
Though practice will soon make a man of tolerable vigor an able footman, yet, as a help to bear fatigue, I used to chew a root of ginseng as I walked along. This kept up my spirits, and made me trip away as nimbly in my half jack-boots as younger men could in their shoes.... The Emperor of China sends ten thousand men every year on purpose to gather it.... Providence has planted it very thin in every country. Nor, indeed, is mankind worthy of so great a blessing, since health and long life are commonly abused to ill purposes. This noble plant grows likewise at the Cape of Good Hope. It grows also on the northern continent of America, near the mountains, but as sparingly as truth and public spirit.
Its virtues are, that it gives an uncommon warmth and vigor to the blood, and frisks the spirits beyond any other cordial. It cheers the heart even of a man that has a bad wife, and makes him look down with great composure on the crosses of the world. It promotes insensible perspiration, dissolves all phlegmatic and viscous humors that are apt to obstruct the narrow channels of the nerves. It helps the memory, and would quicken even Helvetian dullness. 'Tis friendly to the lungs, much more than scolding itself. It comforts the stomach and strengthens the bowels, preventing all colics and fluxes. In one word, it will make a man live a great while, and very well while he does live; and, what is more, it will even make old age amiable, by rendering it lively, cheerful, and good-humored....
I found near our camp some plants of that kind of Rattlesnake root, called star-grass. The leaves shoot out circularly, and grow horizontally and near the ground. The root is in shape not unlike the rattle of that serpent, and is a strong antidote against the bite of it. It is very bitter, and where it meets with any poison, works by violent sweats, but where it meets with none, has no sensible operation but that of putting the spirits into a great hurry, and so of promoting perspiration.
The rattlesnake has an utter antipathy to this plant, insomuch that if you smear your hands with the juice of it, you may handle the viper safely. Thus much I can say on my own experience, that once in July, when these snakes are in their greatest vigor, I besmeared a dog's nose with the powder of this root, and made him trample on a large snake several times, which, however, was so far from biting him, that it perfectly sickened at the dog's approach, and turned his head from him with the utmost aversion.
In our march one of the men killed a small rattlesnake, which had no more than two rattles. Those vipers remain in vigor generally till towards the end of September, or sometimes later, if the weather continues a little warm. On this consideration we had provided three several sorts of rattlesnake root, made up into proper doses, and ready for immediate use, in case any one of the men or their horses had been bitten....
In the low grounds the Carolina gentlemen shewed us another plant, which they said was used in their country to cure the bite of the rattlesnake. It put forth several leaves, in figure like a heart, and was clouded so like the common Assarabacca, that I conceived it to be of that family. [Footnote 4: A native of Virginia:—was sent to England for his education, where he became intimate with the wits of Queen Anne's time. On his return to Virginia, he became a prominent official. He has left very pleasing accounts of his explorations.]
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Benjamin Franklin, 1706-1790. (Manual, pp. 478, 486.)
Extract from his Autobiography.
13. GOOD RESOLUTIONS.—THE CROAKER.
I grew convinced, that truth, sincerity, and integrity, in dealings between man and man, were of the utmost importance to the felicity of life, and I formed written resolutions, which still remain in my journal book, to practice them ever while I lived. Revelation had indeed no weight with me, as such; but I entertained an opinion, that, though certain actions might not be bad, because they were forbidden by it, or good because it commended them; yet probably those actions might be forbidden because they were bad for us, or commanded because they were beneficial to us, in their own natures, all the circumstances of things considered. And this persuasion, with the kind hand of Providence, or some guardian angel, or accidental favorable circumstances or situations, or all together, preserved me, through this dangerous time of youth, and the hazardous situations I was sometimes in among strangers, remote from the eye and advice of my father, free from any wilful gross immorality or injustice, that might have been expected from my want of religion. I say wilful because the instances I have mentioned had something of necessity in them, from my youth, inexperience, and the knavery of others. I had therefore a tolerable character to begin the world with; I valued it properly, and determined to preserve it.
We had not been long returned to Philadelphia, before the new types arrived from London. We settled with Keimer and left him by his consent before he heard of it. We found a house to let near the market, and took it. To lessen the rent, which was then but twenty-four pounds a year, though I have since known it to let for seventy, we took in Thomas Godfrey, a glazier, and his family, who were to pay a considerable part of it to us, and we to board with them. We had scarce opened our letters and put our press in order, before George House, an acquaintance of mine, brought a countryman to us, whom he had met in the street, inquiring for a printer. All our cash was now expended in the variety of particulars we had been obliged to procure, and this countryman's five shillings, being our first-fruits, and coming so seasonably, gave me more pleasure than any crown I have since earned; and the gratitude I felt towards House has made me often more ready, than perhaps I otherwise should have been, to assist young beginners.
There are croakers in every country, always boding its ruin. Such a one there lived in Philadelphia; a person of note, an elderly man, with a wise look and a very grave manner of speaking; his name was Samuel Mickle. This gentleman, a stranger to me, stopped me one day at my door, and asked me if I was the young man, who had lately opened a new printing-house? Being answered in the affirmative, he said he was sorry for me, because it was an expensive undertaking, and the expense would be lost; for Philadelphia was a sinking place, the people already half bankrupts, or near being so; all the appearances of the contrary, such as new buildings and the rise of rents, being to his certain knowledge fallacious; for they were in fact among the things that would ruin us. Then he gave me such a detail of misfortunes now existing, or that were soon to exist, that he left me half melancholy. Had I known him before I engaged in this business, probably I never should have done it. This person continued to live in this decaying place, and to declaim in the same strain, refusing for many years to buy a house there, because all was going to destruction; and at last I had the pleasure of seeing him give him five times as much for one, as he might have bought it for when he first began croaking.
* * * * *
From a Letter to Peter Collinson.
14. FRANKLIN'S ELECTRICAL KITE.
As frequent mention is made in public papers from Europe of the success of the Philadelphia experiment for drawing the electric fire from clouds, by means of pointed rods of iron erected on high, buildings, &c., it may be agreeable to the curious to be informed that the same experiment has succeeded in Philadelphia, though made in a different and more easy manner, which is as follows:
Make a small cross of two light strips of cedar, the arms so long as to reach to the four corners of a large thin silk handkerchief, when extended; tie the corners of the handkerchief to the extremities of the cross, so you have the body of a kite; which, being properly accommodated with a tail, loop, and string, will rise in the air, like those made of paper; but this, being of silk, is fitter to bear the wet and wind of a thundergust without tearing. To the top of the upright stick of the cross is to be fixed a very sharp-pointed wire, rising a foot or more above the wood. To the end of the twine, next the hand, is to be tied a silk ribbon, and where the silk and twine join, a key may be fastened. This kite is to be raised when a thundergust appears to be coming on, and the person who holds the string must stand within a door or window, or under some cover, so that the silk ribbon may not be wet; and care must be taken that the twine does not touch the frame of the door or window. As soon as any of the thunder-clouds come over the kite, the pointed wire will draw the electric fire from them, and the kite, with all the twine, will be electrified, and the loose filaments of the twine will stand out every way, and be attracted by an approaching finger. And when the rain has wetted the kite and twine, so that it can conduct the electric fire freely, you will find it stream out plentifully from the key on the approach of your knuckle. At this key the phial may be charged; and all the other electric experiments be performed, which are usually done by the help of a rubbed glass globe or tube, and thereby the sameness of the electric matter with that of lightning be completely demonstrated.
* * * * *
15. MOTION FOR PRAYERS IN THE CONVENTION.
The small progress we have made, after four or five weeks close attendance and continual reasonings with each other, our different sentiments on almost every question, several of the last producing as many Noes as Ayes, is, methinks, a melancholy proof of the imperfection of the human understanding. We indeed seem to feel our own want of political wisdom, since we have been running all about in search of it. We have gone back to ancient history for models of government, and examined the different forms of those republics, which, having been originally formed with the seeds of their own dissolution, now no longer exist; and we have viewed modern States all round Europe, but find none of their constitutions suitable to our circumstances.
In this situation of this assembly, groping, as it were, in the dark to find political truth, and scarce able to distinguish it when presented to us, how has it happened, Sir, that we have not hitherto once thought of humbly applying to the Father of Lights to illuminate our understandings? In the beginning of the contest with Britain, when we were sensible of danger, we had daily prayers in this room for the divine protection. Our prayers, Sir, were heard; and they were graciously answered. All of us, who were engaged in the struggle, must have observed frequent instances of a superintending Providence in our favor. To that kind Providence we owe this happy opportunity of consulting in peace on the means of establishing our future national felicity. And have we now forgotten that powerful Friend? or do we imagine we no longer need His assistance? I have lived, Sir, a long time; and the longer I live, the more convincing proofs I see of this truth, that God governs in the affairs of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice, is it probable that an empire can rise without his aid? We have been assured, Sir, in the Sacred Writings, that "except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build it." I firmly believe this; and I also believe, that without his concurring aid, we shall succeed in this political building no better than the builders of Babel; we shall be divided by our little, partial, local interests, our projects will be confounded, and we ourselves shall become a reproach and a by-word down to future ages. And, what is worse, mankind may hereafter, from this unfortunate instance, despair of establishing government by human wisdom, and leave it to chance, war, and conquest.
I therefore beg leave to move,
That henceforth, prayers, imploring the assistance of Heaven and its blessing on our deliberations, be held in this assembly every morning before we proceed to business; and that one or more of the clergy of this city be requested to officiate in that service.
* * * * *
From his "Essays."
16. THE EPHEMERON. AN EMBLEM.
"It was," said he, "the opinion of learned philosophers of our race, who lived and flourished long before my time, that this vast world, the Moulin Joly, could not itself subsist more than eighteen hours; and I think there was some foundation for that opinion, since, by the apparent motion of the great luminary that gives life to all nature, and which in my time has evidently declined considerably towards the ocean at the end of our earth, it must then finish its course, be extinguished in the waters that surround us, and leave the world in cold and darkness, necessarily producing universal death and destruction. I have lived seven of those hours—a great age, being no less than four hundred and twenty minutes of time. How very few of us continue so long! I have seen generations born, flourish, and expire ... And I must soon follow them; for, by the course of nature, though still in health, I cannot expect to live above seven or eight minutes longer. What now avail all my toil and labor in amassing honey-dew on this leaf, which I cannot live to enjoy!—what the political struggles I have been engaged in for the good of my compatriot inhabitants of this bush, or my philosophical studies for the benefit of our race in general! for in politics what can laws do without morals? Our present race of ephemera will, in a course of minutes, become corrupt, like those of other and older bushes, and consequently as wretched. And in philosophy how small our progress! Alas! art is long, and life is short. My friends would comfort me with the idea of a name they say I shall leave behind me.... But what will fame be to an ephemeron who no longer exists? and what will become of all history, in the eighteenth hour, when the world itself, even the whole Moulin Joly, shall come to its end, and be buried in universal ruin?"
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LATER RELIGIOUS WRITERS AND DIVINES.
John Woolman, 1720-1772.
From his "Life and Travels."
17. REMARKS ON SLAVERY AND LABOR.
A people used to labor moderately for their living, training up their children in frugality and business, have a happier life than those who live on the labor of slaves. Freemen find satisfaction in improving and providing for their families; but negroes, laboring to support others who claim them as their property, and expecting nothing but slavery during life, have not the like inducement to be industrious.... Men having power, too often misapply it: though we make slaves of the negroes, and the Turks make slaves of the Christians, liberty is the natural right of all men equally.... The slaves look to me like a burdensome stone to such who burden themselves with them. The burden will grow heavier and heavier, till times change in a way disagreeable to us.... I was troubled to perceive the darkness of their imaginations, and, in some pressure of spirits, said the love of ease and gain are the motives, in general, of keeping slaves; and men are wont to take hold of weak arguments to support a cause which is unreasonable....
I was silent during the meeting for worship, and, when business came on, my mind was exercised concerning the poor slaves, but did not feel my way clear to speak. In this condition I was bowed in spirit before the Lord, and, with tears and inward supplication, besought him so to open my understanding that I might know his will concerning me; and at length my mind was settled in silence.
At times when I have felt true love open my heart towards my fellow-creatures, and have been engaged in weighty conversation in the cause of righteousness, the instructions I have received under these exercises in regard to the true use of the outward gifts of God, have made deep and lasting impressions on my mind. I have beheld how the desire to provide wealth and to uphold a delicate life has grievously entangled many, and has been like a snare to their offspring, and though some have been affected with a sense of their difficulties, and have appeared desirous at times to be helped out of them, yet for want of abiding under the humbling power of truth, they have continued in these entanglements; expensive living in parents and children hath called for a large supply, and in answering this call, the faces of the poor have been ground away, and made thin through hard dealing....
... In the uneasiness of body which I have many times felt by too much labor, not as a forced but a voluntary oppression, I have often been excited to think on the original cause of that oppression which is imposed on many in the world. The latter part of the time wherein I labored on our plantation, my heart, through the fresh visitations of heavenly love, being often tender, and my leisure time being frequently spent in reading the life and doctrines of our blessed Redeemer, the account of the sufferings of martyrs, and the history of the first rise of our Society, a belief was gradually settled in my mind, that if such as had great estates, generally lived in that humility and plainness which belong to a Christian life, and laid much easier rents and interests on their lands and moneys, and thus led the way to a right use of things, so great a number of people might be employed in things useful, that labor both for men and other creatures would need to be no more than an agreeable employ, and divers branches of business, which serve chiefly to please the natural inclinations of our minds, and which at present seem necessary to circulate that wealth which some gather, might, in this way of pure wisdom, be discontinued.
[Footnote 5: A Quaker preacher, a native of New Jersey, whose Travels and Autobiography have been much admired abroad, notably by Charles Lamb.]
* * * * *
John M. Mason, 1770-1829.
From the Address in behalf of the Bible Society.
18. GRANDEUR OF THE ENTERPRISE.
If there be a single measure which can overrule objection, subdue opposition, and command exertion, this is the measure. That all our voices, all our affections, all our hands, should be joined in the grand design of promoting "peace on earth and good will toward man"—that they should resist the advance of misery—should carry the light of instruction into the dominions of ignorance, and the balm of joy to the soul of anguish; and all this by diffusing the oracles of God—addresses to the understanding an argument which cannot be encountered; and to the heart an appeal which its holiest emotions rise up to second....
People of the United States; Have you ever been invited to an enterprise of such grandeur and glory? Do you not value the Holy Scriptures? Value them as containing your sweetest hope; your most thrilling joy? Can you submit to the thought that you should be torpid in your endeavors to disperse them, while the rest of Christendom is awake and alert? Shall you hang back in heartless indifference, when princes come down from their thrones, to bless the cottage of the poor with the gospel of peace; and imperial sovereigns are gathering their fairest honors from spreading abroad the oracles of the Lord your God. Is it possible that you should not see, in this state of human things, a mighty motion of Divine providence? The most heavenly charity treads close upon the march of conflict and blood! The world is at peace! Scarce has the soldier time to unbind his helmet, and to wipe away the sweat from his brow, ere the voice of mercy succeeds to the clarion of battle, and calls the nations from enmity to love! Crowned heads bow to the head which is to wear "many crowns," and, for the first time since the promulgation of Christianity, appear to act in unison for the recognition of its gracious principles, as being fraught alike with happiness to man, and honor to God.
What has created so strange, so beneficent an alteration. This is no doubt the doing of the Lord, and it is marvelous in our eyes. But what instrument has he thought fit chiefly to use. That which contributes in all latitudes and climes to make Christians feel their unity, to rebuke the spirit of strife, and to open upon them the day of brotherly concord—the Bible!—the Bible!—through Bible Societies!
[Footnote 6: A Presbyterian clergyman of great distinction, long settled in New York; rarely surpassed in controversial acuteness, and in religious eloquence.]
* * * * *
19. THE RIGHT OF THE STATE TO EDUCATE.
No sagacity can foretell what characters shall be developed, or what parts performed, by these boys and girls who throng our streets, and sport in our fields. In their tender breasts are concealed the germs, in their little hands are lodged the weapons, of a nation's overthrow or glory. Would it not, then, be madness, would it not be a sort of political suicide, for the commonwealth to be unconcerned what direction their infant powers shall take, or into what habits their budding affections shall ripen? or will it be disputed that the civil authority has a right to take care, by a paternal interference on behalf of the children, that the next generation shall not prostrate in an hour, whatever has been consecrated to truth, to virtue, and to happiness by the generations that are past?
* * * * *
Timothy Dwight, 1752-1817. (Manual, pp. 479, 504.)
From "Travels in New England," &c.
20. THE WILDERNESS RECLAIMED.
In these countries lands are universally held in fee simple. Every farmer, with too few exceptions to deserve notice, labors on his own ground, and for the benefit of himself and his family merely. This, also, if I am not deceived, is a novelty; and its influence is seen to be remarkably happy in the industry, sobriety, cheerfulness, personal independence, and universal prosperity of the people at large.... A succession of New England villages, composed of neat houses, surrounding neat schoolhouses and churches, adorned with gardens, meadows, and orchards, and exhibiting the universal easy circumstances of the inhabitants, is, at least in my own opinion, one of the most delightful prospects which this world can afford.
The conversion of a wilderness into a desirable residence for man, is an object which no intelligent spectator can behold, without being strongly interested in such a combination of enterprise, patience, and perseverance. Few of those human efforts which have excited the applause of mankind, have demanded equal energy, or merited equal approbation. A forest changed within a short period into fruitful fields covered with houses, schools, and churches, and filled with inhabitants possessing not only the necessaries and comforts, but also the conveniences of life, and devoted to the worship of Jehovah, when seen only in prophetic vision, enraptured the mind even of Isaiah; and when realized, can hardly fail to delight that of a spectator. At least, it may compensate the want of ancient castles, ruined abbeys, and fine pictures.
* * * * *
From the Theology.
21. THE GLORY OF NATURE, FROM GOD.
There is another and very important view in which this subject demands our consideration. Theology spreads its influence over the creation and providence of God, and gives to both almost all their beauty and sublimity. Creation and providence, seen by the eye of theology, and elucidated by the glorious commentary on both furnished in the Scriptures, become new objects to the mind; immeasurably more noble, rich, and delightful, than they can appear to a worldly, sensual mind. The heavens and the earth, and the great as well as numberless events which result from the divine administration, are in themselves vast, wonderful, frequently awful, in many instances solemn, in many exquisitely beautiful, and in a great number eminently sublime. All these attributes, however, they possess, if considered only in the abstract, in degrees very humble and diminutive, compared with the appearance which they make, when beheld as the works of Jehovah. Mountains, the ocean, and the heavens, are majestic and sublime. Hills and valleys, soft landscapes, trees, fruits, and flowers, and many objects in the animal and mineral kingdoms, are beautiful. But what is this beauty, what is this grandeur, compared with that agency of God, to which they owe their being? Think what it is for the Almighty hand to spread the plains, to heave the mountains, and to pour the ocean. Look at the verdure, flowers, and fruits which in the mild season adorn the surface of the earth; the uncreated hand fashions their fine forms, paints their exquisite colors, and exhales their delightful perfumes. In the spring, his life re-animates the world; in the summer and autumn, his bounty is poured out upon the hills and valleys; in the winter, "his way is in the whirlwind, and in the storm; and the clouds are the dust of his feet." His hand "hung the earth upon nothing," lighted up the sun in the heavens, and rolls the planets, and the comets through the immeasurable fields of ether. His breath kindled the stars; his voice called into existence worlds innumerable, and filled the expanse with animated being. To all he is present, over all he rules, for all he provides. The mind, attempered to divine contemplation, finds him in every solitude, meets him in every walk, and in all places, and at all times, sees itself surrounded by God.
* * * * *
John Henry Hobart, 1775-1830.
From a "Sermon."
22. THE DIVINE GLORY IN REDEMPTION.
At the display of the divine power and glory that created the world, "the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy." Surely not less universal, not less ardent the exultation in those pure and perfect spirits that continually surround the Divine Majesty at the view of the infinite wisdom, love, and power which planned the redemption of a fallen world—which thus devised the mode by which pardon could be extended to the sinner without sanctioning his sin, and favor to the offending rebel against the divine government, without weakening its authority, impeaching its holiness, or subverting its justice. In the nature of the divine Persons thus counselling for man's redemption, it is not for him, blind, and erring, and impotent, it is not for angels, it is not for cherubim or seraphim, for a moment to look. The inner glory of the divine nature burns with a blaze, if I may so with reverence speak, too intense, too radiant, for finite vision. But in its manifestations, in its outer, its more distant rays, shining on the plan of man's redemption, all is mildness, and softness, and peace. Holiness, and justice, and mercy are seen blending their sacred influences, and conveying light and joy in that truth which the counsels of the Godhead alone could render possible. God can be just, and yet justify the sinner.
... Let us not, then, neglect this wonderful counsel of God for our salvation; let us not be unaffected by this most stupendous display of divine power, love, and mercy; let us not reject the offers of peace and salvation from the God whom we have offended, and the Sovereign who is finally to judge us. But, on the contrary, let us gratefully adore the mercy and the grace of the Godhead in the plan of redemption, effected in the incarnation, the obedience, the sufferings, the death, and the triumphant resurrection of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ. Let it be our great object to be conformed to the likeness of his death, in mortifying all our corrupt affections, and to experience the power of his resurrection in living a new and holy life, that we may enjoy the new and lively hopes of everlasting glory, which his resurrection assures to all true believers.
[Footnote 7: An eminent divine and bishop of the Episcopal church; a native of Pennsylvania.]
* * * * *
Lyman Beecher, 1775-1803.
From the "Lectures on Political Atheism."
23. THE BEING OF A GOD.
It is a thing eminently to be desired that there should be a supreme benevolent Intelligence, who is the creator and moral governor of the universe, whose subjects and kingdom shall endure for ever. Such a one the nature of man demands, and his whole soul pants after.
We feel our littleness in presence of the majestic elements of nature, our weakness compared with their power, and our loneliness in the vast universe, unenlightened, unguided, and unblessed, by any intelligence superior to our own. We behold the flight of time, the passing fashion of the world, and the gulf of annihilation curtained with the darkness of an eternal night.
At the side of this vortex, which covers with deep oblivion the past, and impenetrable darkness the future, nature shudders and draws back, and the soul, with sinking heart, looks mournfully around upon this fair creation, and up to these beautiful heavens, and in plaintive accents demands, "Is there, then, no deliverance from this falling back into nothing? Must this conscious being cease—this reasoning, thinking power, and these warm affections, their delightful movements? Must this eye close in an endless night, and this heart fall back upon everlasting insensibility? O, thou cloudless sun, and ye far-distant stars, in all your journeyings in light, have ye discovered no blessed intelligence who called you into being, lit up your fires, marked your orbits, wheels you in your courses, around whom ye roll, and whose praises ye silently celebrate? Are ye empty worlds, and desolate, the sport of chance? or, like our sad earth, are ye peopled with inhabitants, waked up to a brief existence, and hurried reluctantly, from an almost untested being, back to nothing? O that there were a God, who made you greater than ye all, whose being in yours we might see, whose intelligence we might admire, whose will we might obey, and whose goodness we might adore!" Such, except where guilt seeks annihilation as the choice of evils, is the unperverted, universal longing after God and immortality.
[Footnote 8: A Congregational clergyman, prominent, in the early part of this century, for his zeal and piety, and for the eloquence and originality of his sermons: father of a numerous family distinguished in theology and literature.]
* * * * *
William Ellery Channing, 1780-1842. (Manual, p. 480.)
From the Essay on Napoleon Bonaparte.
24. CHARACTER OF NAPOLEON.
With powers which might have made him a glorious representative and minister of the beneficent Divinity, and with natural sensibilities which might have been exalted into sublime virtues, he chose to separate himself from his kind, to forego their love, esteem, and gratitude, that he might become their gaze, their fear, their wonder; and for this selfish, solitary good, parted with peace and imperishable renown.
His insolent exaltation of himself above the race to which he belonged, broke out in the beginning of his career. His first success in Italy gave him the tone of a master, and he never laid it aside to his last hour. One can hardly help being struck with the natural air with which he arrogates supremacy in his conversation and proclamations. We never feel as if he were putting on a lordly air. In his proudest claims, he speaks from his own mind, and in native language. His style is swollen, but never strained, as if he were conscious of playing a part above his real claims. Even when he was foolish and impious enough to arrogate miraculous powers and a mission from God, his language showed that he thought there was something in his character and exploits to give a color to his—blasphemous pretensions. The empire of the world seemed to him to be in a measure his due, for nothing short of it corresponded with his conceptions of himself; and he did not use mere verbiage, but spoke a language to which he gave some credit, when he called his successive conquests "the fulfilment of his destiny." This spirit of self-exaggeration wrought its own misery, and drew down upon him terrible punishments; and this it did by vitiating and perverting his high powers. First, it diseased his fine intellect, gave imagination the ascendency over judgment, turned the inventiveness and fruitfulness of his mind into rash, impatient, restless energies, and thus precipitated him into projects, which, as the wisdom of his counsellors pronounced, were fraught with ruin. To a man, whose vanity took him out of the rank of human beings, no foundation for reasoning was left. All things seemed possible. His genius and his fortune were not to be bounded by the barriers which experience had assigned to human powers. Ordinary rules did not apply to him. He even found excitement and motives in obstacles before which other men would have wavered; for these would enhance the glory of triumph, and give a new thrill to the admiration of the world.
To us there is something radically and increasingly shocking in the thought of one man's will becoming a law to his race; in the thought of multitudes, of vast communities, surrendering conscience, intellect, their affections, their rights, their interests, to the stern mandate of a fellow-creature. When we see one word of a frail man on the throne of France, tearing a hundred thousand sons from their homes, breaking asunder the sacred ties of domestic life, sentencing myriads of the young to make murder their calling, and rapacity their means of support, and extorting from nations their treasures to extend this ruinous sway, we are ready to ask ourselves, Is not this a dream? and, when the sad reality comes home to us, we blush for a race which can stoop to such an abject lot. At length, indeed, we see the tyrant humbled, stripped of power, but stripped by those who, in the main, are not unwilling to play the despot on a narrower scale, and to break down the spirit of nations under the same iron sway.
* * * * *
From a Discourse upon Immortality.
25. GRANDEUR OF THE PROSPECT.
To me there is but one objection against immortality, if objection it may be called, and this arises from the very greatness of the truth. My mind sometimes sinks under its weight, is lost in its immensity; I scarcely dare believe that such a good is placed within my reach. When I think of myself, as existing through all future ages, as surviving this earth and that sky, as exempted from every imperfection and error of my present being, as clothed with an angel's glory, as comprehending with my intellect and embracing in my affections, an extent of creation compared with which the earth is a point; when I think of myself as looking on the outward universe with an organ of vision that will reveal to me a beauty and harmony and order not now imagined, and as having an access to the minds of the wise and good, which will make them in a sense my own; when I think of myself as forming friendships with innumerable beings of rich and various intellect and of the noblest virtue, as introduced to the society of heaven, as meeting there the great and excellent, of whom I have read in history, as joined with "the just made perfect" in an ever-enlarging ministry of benevolence, as conversing with Jesus Christ with the familiarity of friendship, and especially as having an immediate intercourse with God, such as the closest intimacies of earth dimly shadow forth;—when this thought of my future being comes to me, whilst I hope, I also fear; the blessedness seems too great; the consciousness of present weakness and unworthiness is almost too strong for hope. But when, in this frame of mind, I look round on the creation, and see there the marks of an omnipotent goodness, to which nothing is impossible, and from which every thing may be Loped; when I see around me the proofs of an Infinite Father, who must desire the perpetual progress of his intellectual offspring; when I look next at the human mind, and see what powers a few years have unfolded, and discern in it the capacity of everlasting improvement: and especially when I look at Jesus, the conqueror of death, the heir of immortality, who has gone as the forerunner of mankind into the mansions of light and purity, I can and do admit the almost overpowering thought of the everlasting life, growth, felicity, of the human soul.
* * * * *
From Remarks on the case of the Ship Creole.
26. THE DUTY OF THE FREE STATES.
I have now finished my task. I have considered the Duties of the Free States in relation to Slavery, and to other subjects of great and immediate concern. In this discussion I have constantly spoken of Duties as more important than Interests; but these in the end will be found to agree. The energy by which men prosper is fortified by nothing so much as by the lofty spirit which scorns to prosper through abandonment of duty.
I have been called by the subjects here discussed to speak much of the evils of the times, and the dangers of the country; and in treating of these a writer is almost necessarily betrayed into what may seem a tone of despondence. His anxiety to save his country from crime or calamity, leads him to use unconsciously a language of alarm which may excite the apprehension of inevitable misery. But I would not infuse such fears. I do not sympathize with the desponding tone of the day. It may be that there are fearful woes in store for this people; but there are many promises of good to give spring to hope and effort; and it is not wise to open our eyes and ears to ill omens alone. It is to be lamented that men who boast of courage in other trials, should shrink so weakly from public difficulties and dangers, and should spend in unmanly reproaches, or complaints, the strength which they ought to give to their country's safety. But this ought not to surprise us in the present case: for our lot, until of late, has been singularly prosperous, and great prosperity enfeebles men's spirits, and prepares them to despond when it shall have passed away. The country, we are told, is "ruined." What! the country ruined, when the mass of the population have hardly retrenched a luxury! We are indeed paying, and we ought to pay, the penalty of reckless extravagance, of wild and criminal speculation, of general abandonment to the passion for sudden and enormous gains. But how are we ruined? Is the kind, nourishing earth about to become a cruel step-mother? Or is the teeming soil of this magnificent country sinking beneath our feet? Is the ocean dried up? Are our cities and villages, our schools and churches, in ruins? Are the stout muscles which have conquered sea and land, palsied? Are the earnings of past years dissipated, and the skill which gathered them forgotten? I open my eyes on this ruined country, and I see around me fields fresh with verdure, and behold on all sides the intelligent countenance, the sinewy limb, the kindly look, the free and manly bearing, which indicate any thing but a fallen people. Undoubtedly we have much cause to humble ourselves for the vices which our recent prosperity warmed into being, or rather brought out from the depths of men's souls. But in the reprobation which these vices awaken, have we no proof that the fountain of moral life in the nation's heart is not exhausted. In the progress of temperance, of education, and of religious sensibility, in our land, have we no proof that there is among us an impulse towards improvement, which no temporary crime or calamity can overpower.
After all, there is a growing intelligence in this community; there is much domestic virtue, there is a deep working of Christianity; there is going on a struggle of higher truths with narrow traditions, and of a wider benevolence with social evils; there is a spirit of freedom, a recognition of the equal rights of men; there are profound impulses received from our history, from the virtues of our fathers, and especially from our revolutionary conflict; and there is an indomitable energy, which, after rearing an empire in the wilderness, is fresh for new achievements.
There is one Duty of the Free States of which I have not spoken; it is the duty of Faith in the intellectual and moral energies of the country, in its high destiny, and in the good Providence which has guided it through so many trials and perils to its present greatness. We indeed suffer much, and deserve to suffer more. Many dark pages are to be written in our history. But generous seed is still sown in this nation's mind. Noble impulses are working here. We are called to be witnesses to the world, of a freer, more equal, more humane, more enlightened social existence, than has yet been known. May God raise us to a more thorough comprehension of our work! May he give us faith in the good which we are summoned to achieve! May he strengthen us to build up a prosperity not tainted by slavery, selfishness, or any wrong; but pure, innocent, righteous, and overflowing, through a just and generous intercourse, on all the nations of the earth!
* * * * *
Edward Payson, 1733-1827, (Manual, p. 480.)
From the "Selections."
27. NATURAL RELIGION.
I know that those who hate and despise the religion of Jesus because it condemns their evil deeds, have endeavored to deprive him of the honor of communicating to mankind the glad tidings of life and immortality. I know that they have dragged the mouldering carcass of paganism from the grave, animated her lifeless form with a spark stolen from the sacred altar, arrayed her in the spoils of Christianity, re-lighted her extinguished taper at the torch of revelation, dignified her with the name of natural religion, and exalted her in the temple of reason, as a goddess, able, without divine assistance, to guide mankind to truth and happiness. But we also know, that all her boasted pretensions are vain, the offspring of ignorance, wickedness, and pride. We know that she is indebted to that revelation which she presumes to ridicule, and contemn, for every semblance of truth or energy which she displays. We know that the most she can do, is to find men blind and leave them so; and to lead them still farther astray, in a labyrinth of vice, delusion, and wretchedness. This is incontrovertibly evident, both from past and present experience; and we may defy her most eloquent advocates to produce a single instance in which she has enlightened or reformed mankind. If, as is often asserted, she is able to guide us in the path of truth and happiness, why has she ever suffered her votaries to remain a prey to vice and ignorance. Why did she not teach the learned Egyptians to abstain from worshiping their leeks and onions? Why not instruct the polished Greeks to renounce their sixty thousand gods? Why not persuade the enlightened Romans to abstain from adoring their deified murderers? Why not prevail on the wealthy Phoenicians to refrain from sacrificing their infants to Saturn? Or, if it was a task beyond her power to enlighten the ignorant multitude, reform their barbarous and abominable superstitions, and teach them that they were immortal beings, why did she not, at least, instruct their philosophers in the great doctrine of the immortality of the soul, which they so earnestly labored in vain to discover? They enjoyed the light of reason and natural religion, in its fullest extent, yet so far were they from ascertaining the nature of our future and eternal existence, that they—could not determine whether we should exist at all Bevon the grave; nor could all their advantages preserve them from the grossest errors, and the most unnatural crimes.