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Chronicle Of The Cid
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CHRONICLE OF THE CID

Translated from the Spanish

BY ROBERT SOUTHEY



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY HENRY MORLEY LL.D.,

PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH LITERATURE, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON



INTRODUCTION.

Robert Southey's "Chronicle of the Cid" is all translation from the Spanish, but is not translation from a single book. Its groundwork is that part of the Crnica General de Espaa, the most ancient of the Prose Chronicles of Spain, in which adventures of the Cid are fully told. This old Chronicle was compiled in the reign of Alfonso the Wise, who was learned in the exact science of his time, and also a troubadour. Alfonso reigned between the years 1252 and 1284, and the Chronicle was written by the King himself, or under his immediate direction. It is in four parts. The first part extends from the Creation of the World to the occupation of Spain by the Visigoths, and is dull; the second part tells of the Goths in Spain and of the conquest of Spain by the Moors, and is less dull; the third part brings down the story of the nation to the reign of Ferdinand the Great, early in the eleventh century; and the fourth part continues it to the date of the accession of Alfonso himself in the year 1252. These latter parts are full of interest. Though in prose, they are based by a poet on heroic songs and national traditions of the struggle with the Moors, and the fourth part opens with an elaborate setting forth of the history of the great hero of mediaeval Spain, the Cid Campeador. The Cid is the King Arthur, or the Roland, of the Spaniards, less mythical, but not less interesting, with incidents of a real life seen through the warm haze of Southern imagination. King Alfonso, in his Chronicle, transformed ballads and fables of the Cid into a prose digest that was looked upon as history. Robert Southey translated this very distinct section of the Chronicle, not from the Crnica General itself, but from the Chronica del Cid, which, with small variation, was extracted from it, being one in substance with the history of the Cid in the fourth part of the General Chronicle, and he has enriched it. This he has done by going himself also to the Poem of the Cid and to the Ballads of the Cid, for incidents, descriptions, and turns of thought, to weave into the texture of the old prose Chronicle, brightening its tints, and adding new life to its scenes of Spanish chivalry.

"The Poem of the Cid," the earliest and best of the heroic songs of Spain, is a romance of history in more than three thousand lines, celebrating the achievements of the hero little more than fifty years after his death. Ruy Diaz, or Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar, was born at Burgos about the year 1040, and died in the year 1099. He was called the Cid, because five Moorish Kings acknowledged him in one battle as their Seid, or Lord and Conqueror, and he was Campeador or Champion of his countrymen against the Moors. Thus he was styled The Lord Champion—El Cid Campeador. The Cid died at the end of the eleventh century, and "The Poem of the Cid" was composed before the end of the twelfth. It was written after the year 1135, but before the year 1200.

The Cid is also the foremost hero of the ancient Spanish Ballads. The ballads invent or record more incidents of his life than are to be found in the Poem and the Chronicle; and of these Southey, in the translation here reprinted, has made frequent and skilful use. Thus it is from the Chronicle, the Poem, and the whole group of Ballads, as collated by an English poet with a fine relish for Spanish literature and a keen sense of the charm of old historical romance, that we get the translation from the Spanish which Southey published at the age of thirty-four, in the year 1808, as "The Chronicle of the Cid."

Robert Southey was born at Bristol on the 12th of August, 1774. He was the son of an unprosperous linen-draper, and was cared for in his childhood and youth by two of his mother's relations, a maiden aunt, with whom he lived as a child, and an uncle, the Rev. Herbert Hill, who assisted in providing for his education. Mr. Hill was Chaplain to the British Factory at Lisbon, and had a well-grounded faith in Southey's genius and character. He secured for his nephew some years of education at Westminster School, and when Southey was expelled by an unwise headmaster for a boyish jest, his uncle's faith in him held firm, and he was sent on to Balliol College, Oxford. Those were days of wild hope among the young. They felt all that was generous in the aspiration of idealists who saw the golden cities of the future in storm-clouds of revolution. Robert Southey at Oxford dreamed good dreams as a poetical Republican. He joined himself with other young students—Coleridge among them—who planned an experiment of their own in ideal life by the Susquehanna. He became engaged, therefore, at Bristol in mysterious confabulation with strange youths. This alarmed his maiden aunt. Uncle Hill, then in England, and about to return to his work at Lisbon, shrewdly proposed to set his nephew right, and draw him out of any confederacy that he might be in, by tempting him with an offer that would take strong hold of his imagination. He offered to take him for a run through Spain and Portugal. That was a chance not to be lost. Southey went to Lisbon with his uncle, but secured, before he went, the accomplishment of what he considered the best part of his design, by secretly marrying Miss Edith Fricker. During that first run over ground with which he became afterwards familiar, the young husband wrote letters to his wife, thriftily planned for future publication in aid of housekeeping. They were published in 1797, as "Letters from Spain and Portugal." It was thus that Southey was first drawn to Spanish studies. When he came back, and had to tell his aunt that he was married, he and his wife were thrown upon their own resources. He worked manfully; his uncle still abiding by him. In 1800 Southey went with his wife to visit Mr. Hill, in Lisbon.

While winning his place among the English poets, Robert Southey more than once turned to account his Spanish studies. He produced versions of the old Spanish romances of chivalry. "Amadis of Gaul" he published in 1803, and in 1807 "Palmerin of England." In 1807 he also published "Espriella's Letters," an original book of his own, professing to translate the letters of a Spaniard, who gave, as a traveller, his view of life in England. This was a pleasant book, designed, like Goldsmith's "Citizen of the World," to help us to see ourselves as others see us. In the following year, 1808, Southey—already known as the author of "Thalaba," published in 1802, and of "Madoc," published in 1805—produced this "Chronicle of the Cid." It was a time for him of energetic production and of active struggle, with a manly patience to sustain it through years rich in gentle thoughts and kindly deeds that kept his heart at rest. Sara Coleridge, to whom Southey was giving a father's care and shelter in the days when the Chronicle was being prepared, saw in him "upon the whole the best man she had ever known." All qualities that should make a good translator of such a Chronicle as this were joined in Robert Southey. As for the true Cid, let us not ask whether he was ever—as M. Dozy, in his excellent Recherches sur l'Histoire Politique et Lttrare de l'Espagne pendant le Moyen Age, says that he could be—treacherous and cruel. What lives of him is all that can take form as part of the life of an old and haughty nation, proud in arms. Let the rest die.

HENRY MORLEY.

August, 1883.



THE CHRONICLE OF THE CID



BOOK I.

I. King Don Ferrando succeeded to the states of Castille after the death of his father King Don Sancho el Mayor, in the era 1072, which was the year of the Incarnation 1034, and from the coming of the Patriarch Tubal to settle in Spain 3197, and from the general deluge 3339, and from the creation of the world 4995, according to the computation of the Hebrews, and from the beginning of the false sect of the Moors 413. And in the year 1037 Ferrando slew Bermudo the King of Leon in battle, who was his wife's brother, and conquered his kingdom, and succeeded to it in right of his wife Doa Sancha. So he was the first person who united the states of Castille and Leon, and the first who was called King of Castille; for till this time the lords of that country had been called Counts. He was a good king, and one who judged justly and feared God, and was bold in all his doings. Before he reigned he had by Doa Sancha his wife the Infanta Doa Urraca, his eldest daughter, who was a right excellent lady, of good customs and bounty and beauty; and after her he had the Infante Don Sancho, his eldest son and heir; and then the Infanta Doa Elvira, whom after the death of the King her father, her brother King Don Alfonso married to the Count Don Garci de Cabra. And after he became King he had the Infante Don Alfonso, and the Infante Don Garcia, who was the youngest of all. And he put his sons to read, that they might be of the better understanding, and he made them take arms, and be shown how to demean themselves in battle, and to be huntsmen. And he ordered that his daughters should be brought up in the studies beseeming dames, so that they might be of good customs, and instructed in devotion and in all things which it behoved them to know.

II. In those days arose Rodrigo of Bivar. who was a youth strong in arms and of good customs; and the people rejoiced in him, for he bestirred himself to protect the land from the Moors. Now it behoves that ye should know whence he came, and from what men he was descended, because we have to proceed with his history. Ye are to know therefore, that after the treason which King Don Ordoo the Second committed upon the Counts of Castille, that country remained without a chief: the people therefore chose two judges, of whom the one was called Nuo Rasuera, and the other Layn Calvo, who married Nuo's daughter, Elvira Nuez. From Nuo Rasuera King Don Ferrando descended, and from Layn Calvo, Diego Laynez, who took to wife Doa Teresa Rodrguez, the daughter of Don Rodrigo Alvarez, Count and Governor of Asturias, and had by her this Rodrigo. In the year of the Incarnation 1026 was Rodrigo born, of this noble lineage, in the city of Burgos, and in the street of St. Martin, hard by the palace of the Counts of Castille, where Diego Laynez had his dwelling. In the church of St. Martin was he baptized, a good priest of Burgos, whose name was Don Pedro de Pernegas, being his godfather: and to this church Rodrigo was always greatly affectionate, and he built the belfry tower thereof.

III. At this time it came to pass that there was strife between Count Don Gomez the Lord of Gormaz, and Diego Laynez the father of Rodrigo; and the Count insulted Diego and gave him a blow. Now Diego was a man in years, and his strength had passed from him, so that he could not take vengeance, and he retired to his home to dwell there in solitude and lament over his dishonour. And he took no pleasure in his food, neither could he sleep by night, nor would he lift up his eyes from the ground, nor stir out of his house, nor commune with his friends, but turned from them in silence as if the breath of his shame would taint them. Rodrigo was yet but a youth, and the Count was a mighty man in arms, one who gave his voice first in the Cortes, and was held to be the best in the war, and so powerful that he had a thousand friends among the mountains. Howbeit all these things appeared as nothing to Rodrigo when he thought of the wrong done to his father, the first which had ever been offered to the blood of Layn Calvo. He asked nothing but justice of Heaven, and of man he asked only a fair field; and his father seeing of how good heart he was, gave him his sword and his blessing. The sword had been the sword of Mudarra in former times, and when Rodrigo held its cross in his hand, he thought within himself that his arm was not weaker than Mudarra's. And he went out and defied the Count and slew him, and smote off his head and carried it home to his father. The old man was sitting at table, the food lying before him untasted, when Rodrigo returned, and pointing to the head which hung from the horse's collar, dropping blood, he bade him look up, for there was the herb which should restore to him his appetite. The tongue, quoth he, which insulted you is no longer a tongue, and the hand which wronged you is no longer a hand. And the old man arose and embraced his son and placed him above him at the table, saying, that he who had brought home that head should be the head of the house of Layn Calvo.

IV. After this Diego being full of years fell asleep and was gathered to his fathers. And the Moors entered Castille, in great power, for there came with them five Kings, and they past above Burgos, and crost the mountains of Oca, and plundered Carrion, and Vilforado, and Saint Domingo de la Calzada, and Logroo, and Najara, and all that land; and they carried away many captives both male and female, and brood mares, and flocks of all kinds. But as they were returning with all speed, Rodrigo of Bivar raised the country, and came up with them in the mountains of Oca, and fell upon them and discomfited them, and won back all their booty, and took all the five Kings prisoners. Then he went back to his mother, taking the Kings with him, and there he divided the whole spoil with the hidalgos and his other companions, both the Moorish captives and all the spoil of whatever kind, so that they departed right joyfully, being well pleased with what he had done. And he gave thanks to God for the grace which had been vouchsafed to him, and said to his mother, that he did not think it good to keep the Kings in captivity, but to let them go freely; and he set them at liberty and bade them depart. So they returned each to his own country, blessing him for their deliverance, and magnifying his great bounty; and forthwith they sent him tribute and acknowledged themselves to be his vassals.

V. King Don Ferrando was going through Leon, putting the Kingdom in order, when tidings reached him of the good speed which Rodrigo had had against the Moors. And at the same time there came before him Ximena Gomez, the daughter of the Count, who fell on her knees before him and said, Sir, I am the daughter of Count Don Gomez of Gormaz, and Rodrigo of Bivar has slain the Count my father, and of three daughters whom he has left I am the youngest. And, Sir, I come to crave of you a boon, that you will give me Rodrigo of Bivar to be my husband, with whom I shall hold myself well married, and greatly honoured; for certain I am that his possessions will one day be greater than those of any man in your dominions. Certes, Sir, it behoves you to do this, because it is for God's service, and because I may pardon Rodrigo with a good will. The King held it good to accomplish her desire; and forthwith ordered letters to be drawn up to Rodrigo of Bivar, wherein he enjoined and commanded him that he should come incontinently to Palencia, for he had much to communicate to him, upon an affair which was greatly to God's service, and his own welfare and great honour.

VI. When Rodrigo saw the letters of his Lord the King, he greatly rejoiced in them, and said to the messengers that he would fulfil the King's pleasure, and go incontinently at his command. And he dight himself full gallantly and well, and took with him many knights, both his own and of his kindred and of his friends, and he took also many new arms, and came to Palencia to the King with two hundred of his peers in arms, in festival guise; and the King went out to meet him, and received him right well, and did him honour; and at this were all the Counts displeased. And when the King thought it a fit season, he spake to him and said, that Doa Ximena Gomez, the daughter of the Count whom he had slain, had come to ask him for her husband, and would forgive him her father's death; wherefore he besought him to think it good to take her to be his wife, in which case he would show him great favour. When Rodrigo heard this it pleased him well, and he said to the King that he would do his bidding in this, and in all other things which he might command; and the King thanked him much. And he sent for the Bishop of Palencia, and took their vows and made them plight themselves each to the other according as the law directs. And when they were espoused the King did them great honour, and gave them many noble gifts, and added to Rodrigo's lands more than he had till then possessed: and he loved him greatly in his heart, because he saw that he was obedient to his commands, and for all that he had heard him say.

VII. So Rodrigo departed from the King, and took his spouse with him to the house of his mother, and gave her to his mother's keeping. And forthwith he made a vow in her hands that he would never accompany with her, neither in the desert nor in the inhabited place, till he had won five battles in the field. And he besought his mother that she would love her even as she loved him himself, and that she would do good to her and show her great honour, for which he should ever serve her with the better good will, his mother promised him so to do: and then he departed from them and went out against the frontier of the Moors.

VIII. Now the history relates that King Don Ferrando contended with King Don Ramiro of Aragon for the city of Calahorra, which each claimed as his own; in such guise that the King of Aragon placed it upon the trial by combat, confiding in the prowess of Don Martin Gonzalez, who was at that time held to be the best knight in all Spain, King Don Ferrando accepted the challenge, and said that Rodrigo of Bivar should do battle on his part, but that he was not then present. And they plighted homage on both parts to meet and bring each his knight, and the knight who conquered should win Calahorra for his Lord. Having ratified this engagement, they returned into their own lands. And immediately Ferrando sent for Rodrigo of Bivar, and told him all the matter as it then stood, and that he was to do battle. Well pleased was Rodrigo when he heard this, and he accorded to all that the King had said that he should, do battle for him upon that cause; but till the day arrived he must needs, he said, go to Compostella, because he had vowed a pilgrimage; and the King was content therewith, and gave him great gifts.

IX. Rodrigo forthwith set out upon the road, and took with him twenty knights. And as he went he did great good, and gave alms, feeding the poor and needy. And upon the way they found a leper, struggling in a quagmire, who cried out to them with a loud voice to help him for the love of God; and when Rodrigo heard this, he alighted from his beast and helped him, and placed him upon the beast before him, and carried him with him in this manner to the inn where he took up his lodging that night. At this were his knights little pleased. And when supper was ready he bade his knights take their seats, and he took the leper by the hand, and seated him next himself, and ate with him out of the same dish. The knights were greatly offended at this foul sight, insomuch that they rose up and left the chamber. But Rodrigo ordered a bed to be made ready for himself and for the leper, and they twain slept together. When it was midnight and Rodrigo was fast asleep, the leper breathed against him between his shoulders, and that breath was so strong that it passed through him, even through his breast; and he awoke, being astounded, and felt for the leper by him, and found him not; and he began to call him, but there was no reply. Then he arose in fear, and called for light, and it was brought him; and he looked for the leper and could see nothing; so he returned into the bed, leaving the light burning. And he began to think within himself what had happened, and of that breath which had passed through him, and how the leper was not there. After a while, as he was thus musing, there appeared before him one in white garments, who said unto him, Sleepest thou or wakest thou, Rodrigo? and he answered and said, I do not sleep; but who art thou that bringest with thee such brightness and so sweet an odour? Then said he, I am Saint Lazarus, and know that I was the leper to whom thou didst so much good and so great honour for the love of God; and because thou didst this for his sake hath God now granted thee a great gift; for whensoever that breath which thou hast felt shall come upon thee, whatever thing thou desirest to do, and shalt then begin, that shalt thou accomplish to thy heart's desire, whether it be in battle or aught else, so that thy honour shall go on increasing from day to day; and thou shalt be feared both by Moors and Christians, and thy enemies shall never prevail against thee, and thou shalt die an honourable death in thine own house, and in thy renown, for God hath blessed thee;—therefore go thou on, and evermore persevere in doing good; and with that he disappeared. And Rodrigo arose and prayed to our lady and intercessor St. Mary, that she would pray to her blessed son for him to watch over both his body and soul in all his undertakings; and he continued in prayer till the day broke. Then he proceeded on his way, and performed his pilgrimage, doing much good for the love of God and of St. Mary.

X. Now the day came which had been appointed for the combat concerning Calahorra, between Rodrigo and Don Martin Gonzalez, and Rodrigo was not arrived; therefore his cousin Alvar Faez Minaya undertook the battle in his stead, and ordered his horse to be harnessed right well. While he was arming himself Rodrigo came up and took the horse of Alvar Faez, and entered the lists; Don Martin Gonzalez did the same, and the judges placed them fairly, each in his place, so that neither should have the sun in his eyes. They ran their career, one against the other, and met so fiercely that their lances brake, and both were sorely wounded; but Don Martin began to address Rodrigo, thinking to dismay him: Greatly dost thou now repent, Don Rodrigo, said he, that thou hast entered into these lists with me: for I shall so handle thee that never shalt thou marry Doa Ximena thy spouse, whom thou lovest so well, nor ever return alive to Castlle. Rodrigo waxed angry at these words, and he replied, You are a good knight, Don Martin Gonzalez, but these words are not suitable to this place, for in this business we have to contend with hands and not with empty speeches; and the power is in God who will give the honour as he thinketh best. And in his anger he made at him, and smote him upon his helmet, and the sword cut through and wounded as much of the head as it could reach, so that he was sorely hurt and lost much blood. And Don Martn Gonzalez struck at Rodrigo, and the sword cut into the shield, and he plucked it towards him that with main force he made Rodrigo lose the shield; but Rodrigo did not forget himself, and wounded him again in the face. And they both became greatly enraged, and cruel against each other, striking without mercy, for both of them were men who knew how to demean themselves. But while they thus struggled Don Martin Gonzalez lost much blood, and for very weakness he could not hold himself upon his horse, but fell from his horse upon the ground; and Rodrigo alighted and went to him and slew him; and when he had slain him he asked the judges if there was any thing more to be done for the right of Calahorra: and they made answer that there was not. Then came the King Don Ferrando to him, and alighted by him, and helped to disarm him, and embraced him much; and when he was disarmed he went with him from the field, he and all the Castillians greatly rejoicing; but as great as was the pleasure of King Don Ferrando and his people, so great was the sorrow of King Don Ramiro of Aragon and of his. And he ordered them to take up Don Martin Gonzalez, and they carried the body into his own lands, and he went with it, and Calahorra remained in the power of King Don Ferrando.

XI. But when the Counts of Castille saw how Rodrigo increased day by day in honour, they took counsel together that they should plot with the Moors, and fix a day of battle with them on the day of the Holy Cross in May, and that they should invite Rodrigo to this battle, and contrive with the Moors that they should slay him; by which means they should be revenged upon him, and remain masters of Castille, which now because of him they could not be. This counsel they sent to communicate to the Moors and to the Moorish Kings who were Rodrigo's vassals, being those whom he had made prisoners and set at liberty. But they, when they saw this counsel and the falsehood which was devised, took the letters of the Counts, and sent them to Rodrigo their Lord, and sent to tell him all the secret of the treason. And Rodrigo thanked them greatly for their good faith, and took the letters and carried to the King, and showed him all the enmity of the Counts, and especially of the Count Don Garcia, who was afterwards called of Cabra. When the King saw this as it was, he was astonished at their great falsehood, and he issued his letters in which he ordered them to leave his dominions; then he went to Santiago on a pilgrimage, and ordered Rodrigo to cast these Counts out of the land; and Rodrigo did as the King commanded him. Then Doa Elvira his kinswoman, the wife of the Count Don Garcia, came and fell on her knees before him; but Rodrigo took her by the hand and raised her up, and would not hear her till she was arisen. And when he had raised her up she said. I beseech you, cousin, since you have banished me and my husband, that you would give us a letter to some King who is one of your vassals, enjoining him to befriend us, and give us something for your sake whereon we may live. So he gave her a letter to the King of Cordova, who received her and her husband well for the love of Rodrigo, and gave Cabra to him, that he and his people might dwell therein. This Count was afterwards so ungrateful to the King of Cordova that he made war upon him from Cabra which the King had given him, till Rodrigo came and took it.

XII. The history relateth that at this time while the King was in Galicia, the Moors entered Estremadura, and the people called upon Rodrigo of Bivar to help them. And when he heard the summons he made no delay, but gathered together his kinsmen and his friends, and went against the misbelievers. And he came up with them between Atienza and San Estevan de Gormaz, as they were carrying away a great booty in captives and in flocks, and there he had a brave battle with them in the field; and in fine Rodrigo conquered, smiting and slaying, and the pursuit lasted for seven leagues, and he recovered all the spoil, which was so great that two hundred horses were the fifth, for the whole spoil was worth a hundred times a thousand maraveds. Rodrigo divided the whole among his people without covetousness, and returned with great honour.

XIII. Now the greater part of these Moors had been they of Merida, Badajoz, Beja and Evora, and the King was minded to requite them in their own land according to their deeds; and he entered into the heart of their country, carrying with him fire and sword, and pressed them sorely so that they yielded vassalage. Then turning through Portugal, he won the town of Sea, which was upon the western slope of the Serra da Estrella; and also another town called Gamne, the site whereof cannot now be known, for in course of years names change and are forgotten. And proceeding with his conquests he laid siege to the city of Viseu, that he might take vengeance for the death of King Don Alfonso, his wife's father, who had been slain before that city. But the people of Viseu, as they lived with this fear before their eyes, had fortified their city well, and stored it abundantly with all things needful, and moreover, they put their trust in their Alcayde, who was an African, by name Cid Alafum, a man tried in arms. He encouraged them, saying that the city could not be taken in ten years, by a greater power than the Christians; and there were many good arbalisters in the city, who shot so strong that neither shield nor armour availed against their quarrels. King Don Ferrando therefore ordered mantles to be made, and also pavaises to protect his people; and moreover he enjoined them to fasten boards upon their shields, so that the quarrels from the crossbows might not pierce through. And he continued for eighteen days to combat the city, keeping such good watch, that neither could they within receive help from without, nor themselves issue forth; and on the eighteenth day, which was the Vesper of St. Peter's, he won the city by force of arms; and few were they who escaped from the sword of the conquerors, except those who retreated with Alafum into the castle. And on the following day at the hour of tierce they also came to terms, and yielded themselves to his mercy, saving their lives. In this manner was Viseu recovered by the Christians, and never after did that city fall into the hands of the barbarians. And the Moor who had slain King Don Alfonso fell into Ferrando's power, and the King took vengeance and punished him in all the parts which had offended; he cut off the foot which had prest down the Armatost, and lopt off the hands which had held the bow and fitted the quarrel, and plucked out the eyes which had taken the mark; and the living trunk was then set up as a butt for the archers.

XIV. In all these wars there was not a man who bore greater part, or did better feats in arms, than Rodrigo of Bivar. And the King went up against Lamego, and besieged it. Now Zadan Aben Huim, son of Huim Alboazem, the King thereof, was mightier than all the Kings who had reigned before him in Lamego, and he had peopled many places from the Douro even to the rivers Tavora and Vouga. And because he was well beloved and his city well stored and strong, all the chief Moors in that district being dismayed by the fall of Viseu, retired into it, to be under his protection. But maugre all their power. King Don Ferrando girt the city round about, and brought against it so many engines, and so many bastilles, that Zadan submitted, and opened his gates on the twenty-second of July, the day of St. Mary Magdalene, being twenty-five days after the capture of Viseu. And Zadan became tributary to the King, and the King took with him many of the Moors, to be employed in building up the churches which had fallen to ruin since the land was lost.

XV. All this while was Coimbra in the power of the misbelievers. And the Abbot of Lorvam took counsel with his Monks, and they said, Let us go to King Ferrando and tell him the state of the city. And they chose out two of the brethren for this errand. When the Moors therefore who came to hunt among the mountains took up their lodging in the Monastery as they were wont to do, these twain said unto them, We would go to the holy Dominicum, to say prayers there for our sins. So feigning this to be their errand they set forth, and came to the King in the town of Carrion, and spake unto him in council, saying, Sir King, we come to you through waters and over mountains and by bad ways, to tell you concerning Coimbra in what plight it is, if you desire to know, and in what guise the Moors dwell therein, what they are and how many, and with how little heed they keep the city. And he said unto them. I beseech ye, for the love of God, say on. Then told they him what they knew: and the King took counsel upon this matter with Rodrigo of Bivar, and Rodrigo said, that certes the Lord would help him to win the city; and he said that he would fain be knighted by the King's hand, and that it seemed to him now that he should receive knighthood at his hand in Coimbra. A covenant was then made with the two Monks, that they should go with the army against the city in the month of January without fail. Now this was in October. Incontinently the King sent to summon his knights and people, and when one part of them had assembled at Santa Maria, he bade them do all the damage they could against Coimbra, and ravage the country, which accordingly they did. In the meantime the King made a pilgrimage to Santiago, as Rodrigo had exhorted him to do; and he remained there three days and nights in prayer, offering great gifts, and taking upon himself great devotion, that it might please God to fulfil his desire. And with the help of Santiago he gathered together a great host, and went up against Coimbra in the month of January, even as he had covenanted, and laid siege to it. And he fought against the city all February, and March, and April, May and June, five months did he fight, and could not prevail against it. And when July came the food of the besiegers failed them, insomuch that they had only the dole for a few days left; then the baggage was made ready, and the sumpter-beasts and serving-men were ordered to depart for Leon, and proclamation was made in the camp that the army should remain yet four days, and on the fifth they might break up and depart every one to his own house. But then the Monks of Lorvam and the Abbot consulted together and said, Let us now go to the King and give him all the food which we have, both oxen and cows, and sheep and goats and swine, wheat and barley and maize, bread and wine, fish and fowl, even all that we have; for if the city, which God forbid, should not be won, by the Christians, we may no longer abide here. Then went they to the King and gave him all their stores, both of flocks and herds, and pulse, and wine beyond measure, which they had for a long time stored. Then was there abundance in the camp; but they who were within the city waxed feeble for hunger long suffering, because the Christians beset them on all sides, and warred upon them hotly, and brought their engines to bear on every part, and the walls of the city were broken down. When the Moors saw this they came to the King, and fell at his feet, and besought him of his mercy that he would let them depart, leaving to him the city and all that they had therein, for they asked for nothing but their lives. And the King had compassion upon them and granted their prayer; and the city was yielded to him on a Sunday at the hour of tierce, which was before a week had run out since the Monks of Lorvam had succoured the host.

XVI. Now it came to pass that while the King lay before Coimbra, there came a pilgrim from the land of Greece on pilgrimage to Santiago; his name was Estiano, and he was a Bishop. And as he was praying in the church he heard certain of the townsmen and of the pilgrims saying that Santiago was wont to appear in battle like a knight, in aid of the Christians. And when he heard this it nothing pleased him, and he said unto them, "Friends, call him not a knight, but rather a fisherman." Upon this it pleased God that he should fall asleep, and in his sleep Santiago appeared to him with a good and cheerful countenance, holding in his hand a bunch of keys, and said unto him, "Thou thinkest it a fable that they should call me a knight, and sayest that I am not so: for this reason am I come unto thee that thou never more mayest doubt concerning my knighthood; for a knight of Jesus Christ I am, and a helper of the Christians against the Moors." While he was thus saying a horse was brought him the which was exceeding white, and the Apostle Santiago mounted upon it, being well clad in bright and fair armour, after the manner of a knight. And he said to Estiano, "I go to help King Don Ferrando who has lain these seven months before Coimbra, and to-morrow, with these keys which thou seest, will I open the gates of the city unto him at the hour of tierce, and deliver it into his hand." Having said this he departed. And the Bishop when he awoke in the morning called together the clergy and people of Compostella, and told them what he had seen and heard. And as he said, even so did it come to pass; for tidings came that on that day, and at the hour of tierce, the gates of the city had been opened.

XVII. King Don Ferrando then assembled his Counts and chief captains, and told them all that the Monks of Lorvam had done, in bringing him to besiege the city, and in supplying his army in their time of need: and the Counts and chief captains made answer and said, Certes, O King, if the Monks had not given us the stores of their Monastery, thou couldest not have taken the city at this time. The King then called for the Abbot and the brethren, for they were with him in the host, and said the hours to him daily, and mass in St. Andre's, and buried there and in their Monastery as many as had died during the siege, either of arrow-wounds or by lances, or of their own infirmities. So they came before him and gave him joy of his conquest; and he said unto them, Take ye now of this city as much as ye desire, since by God's favour and your council I have won it. But they made answer, Thanks be to God and to you, and to your forefathers, we have enough and shall have, if so be that we have your favour and dwell among Christians. Only for the love of God, and for the remedy of your own soul, give us one church with its dwelling-houses within the city, and confirm unto us the gifts made to us in old times by your forefathers, and the good men to whom God give a happy rest. With that the King turned to his sons and his soldiers, and said, Of a truth, by our Creator, these who desire so little are men of God. I would have given them half the city, and they will have only a single church! Now therefore, since they require but this, on the part of God Almighty let us grant and confirm unto them what they ask, to the honour of God and St. Mamede. And the brethren brought him their charters of King Ramiro, and King Bermudo, and King Alfonso, and of Gonzalo Moniz, who was a knight and married a daughter of King Bermudo, and of other good men. And the King confirmed them, and he bade them make a writing of all which had passed between him and them at the siege of Coimbra; and when they brought him the writing, they brought him also a crown of silver and of gold, which had been King Bermudo's and which Gonzalo Moniz had given to the Monastery in honour of God and St. Mamede. The King saw the crown, how it was set with precious stones, and said to them, To what end bring ye hither this crown? And they said, That you should take it, Sire, in return for the good which you have done us. But he answered, Far be it from me that I should take from your Monastery what the good men before me have given to it! Take ye back the crown, and take also ten marks of silver, and make with the money a good cross, to remain with you for ever. And he who shall befriend you, may God befriend him; but he who shall disturb you or your Monastery, may he be cursed by the living God and by his Saints. So the King signed the writing which he had commanded to be made, and his sons and chief captains signed it also, and in the writing he enjoined his children and his children's children, as many as should come after him, to honour and protect the Monastery of Lorvam, upon his blessing he charged them so to do, because he had found the brethren better than all the other Monks in his dominions.

XVIII. Then King Don Ferrando knighted Rodrigo of Bivar in the great mosque of Coimbra, which he dedicated to St. Mary. And the ceremony was after this manner: the King girded on his sword, and gave him the kiss, but not the blow. To do him more honour the Queen gave him his horse, and the Infanta Doa Urraca fastened on his spurs; and from that day forth he was called Ruydiez. Then the King commanded him to knight nine noble squires with his own hand; and he took his sword before the altar, and knighted them. The King then gave Coimbra to the keeping of Don Sisnando, Bishop of Iria, a man, who having more hardihood than religion, had by reason of his misdeeds gone over to the Moors, and sorely infested the Christians in Portugal. But during the siege he had come to the King's service, and bestirred himself well against the Moors; and therefore the King took him into his favour, and gave him the city to keep, which he kept, and did much evil to the Moors till the day of his death. And the King departed and went to Compostella to return thanks to Santiago.

XIX. But then Benalfagi, who was the Lord of many lands in Estremadura, gathered together a great power of the Moors and built up the walls of Montemor, and from thence waged war against Coimbra, so that they of Coimbra called upon the King for help. And the King came up against the town, and fought against it, and took it. Great honour did Ruydiez win at that siege; for having to protect the foragers, the enemy came out upon him, and thrice in one day was he beset by them; but he, though sorely prest by them, and in great peril, nevertheless would not send to the camp for succour, but put forth his manhood and defeated them. And from that day the King gave more power into his hands, and made him head over all his household.

XX. Now the men of Leon besought the King that he would repeople Zamora, which had lain desolate since it was destroyed by Almanzor. And he went thither and peopled the city, and gave to it good privileges. And while he was there came messengers from the five Kings who were vassals to Ruydiez of Bivar, bringing him their tribute; and they came to him, he being with the King, and called him Cid, which signifyeth Lord, and would have kissed his hands, but he would not give them his hand till they had kissed the hand of the King. And Ruydiez took the tribute and offered the fifth thereof to the King, in token of his sovereignty; and the King thanked him, but would not receive it, and from that time he ordered that Ruydiez should be called the Cid, because the Moors had so called him.

XXI. In those days Pope Victor II. held a council at Florence, and the Emperor Henry there made his complaint against King Don Ferrando, that he did not acknowledge his sovereignty, and pay him tribute like all other Kings; and he besought the Pope to admonish him so to do. And the Pope being a German, and the friend of Henry, sent to the King to admonish him, and told him that unless he obeyed he would proclaim a crusade against him; and in like manner the Emperor, and the King of France, and the other Kings, sent to exhort him to obedience, defying him if he should refuse. When the King saw their letters he was troubled, for he knew that if this thing were done, great evil would follow to Castille and Leon. And he took counsel with his honourable men. They seeing on the one hand the great power of the Church, and on the other the great evil that it would be if Castille and Leon should be made tributary, knew not what counsel to give: howbeit at length they said to him that he should do the Pope's bidding. At this council the Cid was not present, for he had lately completed his marriage with Doa Ximena Gomez, and was then with her; but at this time he arrived, and the King showed him the letters, and told him the matter how it then stood, and what had been the advice of his good men, and besought him to speak his advice, as a good and true vassal to his Lord. When the Cid heard what had passed it grieved him to the heart, more for the counsel which had been given to the King, than because of the Pope's commands; and he turned to the King and said, In an ill day, Sir, were you born in Spain, if it be in your time to be made tributary, which it never was before; for all the honour which God hath given you, and whatever good he hath done to you, is lost if it should be so. And, Sir, whoever hath given you this counsel is not a true man, neither one who regardeth your honour nor your power. But send to defy them since they will have it so, and let us carry the war home to them. You shall take with you five thousand knights, all of whom are hidalgos, and the Moorish Kings who are your vassals will give you two thousand knights; and, Sir, you are such a one as God loves, and he will not that your honour should perish. And the King thought that he was well counselled by him, for the King was of a great heart.

XXII. Then the King ordered letters to be written, in which he besought the Pope not to proceed farther against him without just cause, for Spain had been conquered by those who dwelt therein, by the blood of them and of their fathers, and they had never been tributary, and never would be so, but would rather all die. Moreover he sent his letters to the Emperor and to the other Kings, telling them that they well knew the wrong which the Emperor did him, having no jurisdiction over him, nor lawful claim; and he besought them to let him alone that he might continue to wage war against the enemies of the faith; but if they persisted to speak against him he then sent them back their friendship, and defied them, and where they all were there would he go seek them. While this reply was on its way he gathered together his people, as he and the Cid had advised, and set forward with eight thousand and nine hundred knights, both of his own and of the Cid, and the Cid led the advanced guard. When they had passed the passes of Aspa they found that the country was up, and the people would not sell them food; but the Cid set his hand to, to burn all the country before him, and plunder from those who would not sell, but to those who brought food he did no wrong. And after such manner did he proceed, that wherever the King and his army arrived they found all things of which they could stand in need; and the news went sounding throughout all the land, so that all men trembled.

XXIII. Then Count Remon, Lord of Savoy, with the power of the King of France, gathered together twenty thousand knights and came beyond Tolosa, to hold the road against King Don Ferrando. And he met with his harbinger the Cid, who went before him to prepare lodgings, and they had a hard battle; and the men of the Count were discomfited, and he himself made prisoner and many with him, and many were slain. And the Count besought the Cid of his mercy to set him free, saying that he would give him a daughter he had, the which was right fair; and the Cid did as he besought him, and the daughter was given to him, and he set the Count free. And by this woman King Don Ferrando had his son the Cardinal Ferrando, who was so honourable a man.

XXIV. After this the Cid had another battle with all the power of France, and discomfited them, and at neither of these battles did the King and his main army arrive. So the news went sounding before them to the council, of the fierceness of the Cid; and as they all knew that he was the conqueror of battles, they knew not what to advise; and they besought the Pope that he would send to them, begging them to turn back, and saying that they did not require tribute. These letters came to the King when he had past Tolosa, and he took counsel with the Cid and with his good men, and they advised that he should send two of his good men to the Pope, who should tell him to send a Cardinal with power to make a covenant, that this demand should never again be made upon Spain; and that persons from the Emperor and from the other Kings also should come to ratify this, and meanwhile he would abide where he was. But if they did not come he would go on to them. Count Don Rodrigo, and Alvar Faez Minaya, and certain learned men, were sent with this bidding. And when they came to the Pope and gave him their letters, he was much dismayed, and he assembled the good and honourable men of the council, and asked of them what he should do. And they made answer that he must do as the King willed him, for none was so hardy as to fight against the good fortune of his vassal the Cid. Then the Pope sent Master Roberto, the Cardinal of St. Sabina, with full powers, and the representatives of the Emperor and of the other Kings came also and signed the covenant, that this demand should never again be made upon the King of Spain. And the writings which they made were confirmed by the Pope and by the Emperor and the other Kings, and sealed with their seals.

XXV. While this was doing the King abode where he was, beyond Tolosa; six months did he abide there. And the Pope sent to ask of him the daughter of Count Remon; and she was then five months gone with child; and by the advice of his vassal the Cid the King sent her, and sent to tell the Pope the whole truth, requesting that he would see she was taken care of; and the Pope ordered that she should be taken care of till the event should be. And she was delivered of the Abbot Don Ferrando; the Pope was his godfather, and brought him up right honourably, and dispensed with his bastardry that he might hold any sacred dignity; and in process of time he was made an honourable Cardinal. So the King returned with great honour into his own land, and from that time he was called Don Ferrando the Great, the Emperor's Peer; and it was said of him in songs that he had passed the passes of Aspa in despite of the Frenchmen.

XXVI. Many other things did King Don Ferrando, which are written in the book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Spain, enriching churches and monasteries, and honouring the saints and martyrs, and making war upon the misbelievers. And it came to pass when he was waxed old, that as he was one day saying his prayers, the confessor St. Isidro appeared unto him, and told him the day and hour when he should die, to the intent that he might make ready and confess his sins, and make atonement for them, and take thought for his soul, that so he might appear clean from offence before the face of God. From that day he, being certain that his end was at hand, began to discharge his soul. And he devised within himself how to dispose of the kingdoms which God had given him, that there might be no contention between his sons after his death; and he thought it best to divide his lands among them; but this which he thought best proved to be the worst, and great evil came thereof, for better had it been that he had left all to the eldest. Howbeit it was his pleasure to divide them: he had three sons, Don Sancho who was the eldest, and Don Alfonso who was the second born, and Don Garcia who was the youngest; and two daughters, Doa Urraca and Doa Elvira. The manner in which he divided his lands was this: he gave to Don Sancho the kingdom of Castille as far as to the river Pisuerga, on the side of Leon, with the border, which included the dioceses of Osma, and Segovia, and Avila, and on the side of Navarre as far as the Ebro, as he had won it from his nephew Don Sancho Garcia, King of Navarre. To Don Alfonso he gave the kingdom of Leon, and in Asturias as far as the river Deva, which runs by Oviedo, and part of Campos as far as Carrion and the river Pisuerga, with the border, which contained the dioceses of Zamora, Salamanca, and Ciudad Rodrigo, and the city of Astorga, and other lands in Galicia, with the town of Zebreros. To Don Garcia he gave the kingdom of Galicia, and all the lands which he had won in Portugal, with the title of King of Galicia, which country had had no King of its own since the kingdom of the Suevi had been overthrown by King Leovegildo. And to Doa Urraca he gave the city of Zamora with all its dependencies, and with half the Infantazgo: and the other half, with the city of Toro and its dependencies, to Doa Elvira.

XXVII. When the Infante Don Sancho knew that the King his father had made this allotment it displeased him, for he was the eldest son; and he said to his father that he neither could nor ought to make this division; for the Gothic Kings had in old time made a constitution for themselves, that the kingdom and empire of Spain never should be divided, but remain one dominion under one Lord. But the King replied that he would not for this forbear to do as he had resolved, for he had won the kingdom; then the Infante made answer, Do as you will, being my father and Lord; but I do not consent unto it. So the King made this division against the right of the Infante Don Sancho, and it displeased many in the kingdom, and many it pleased; but they who were of good understanding perceived the evil which would arise.

XXVIII. After this the King fell sick with the malady whereof he died. And he made himself be carried to Leon, and there on his knees before the bodies of the saints he besought mercy of them. And putting his crown upon his head before the holy body of St. Isidro he called upon God, saying, O Lord Jesus Christ, thine is the power over all, and thine is the kingdom, for thou art King of all kingdoms, and of all Kings, and of all nations, and all are at thy command. And now Lord I return unto thee the kingdom which thou hast given me, but I beseech thee of thy mercy that my soul may be brought to the light which hath no end. Having said thus, he stript himself of the royal robes adorned with gold in which he was arrayed, and took the crown from his head and placed it upon the altar; and he put sackcloth upon the carrion of his body, and prayed to God, confessing all the sins which he had committed against him, and took his acquittal from the Bishops, for they absolved him from his sins; and forthwith he there received extreme unction, and strewed ashes upon himself. After this, by his own order he was carried to St. Mary of Almazan in pilgrimage, and there he remained thrice nine days, beseeching St. Mary that she would have mercy upon him and intercede with her blessed Son for his soul. From thence they carried him to Cabezon, and there the Abbot Don Ferrando came to him, an honourable man, and many other honourable men of his realms, and the Cid Ruydiez, whom the King commended to the Infante Don Sancho, his son. And after he had put all his affairs in order he remained three days lamenting in pain, and on the fourth, being the day of St. John the Evangelist, he called for the Cardinal Abbot, and commended Spain and his other sons to him, and gave him his blessing, and then at the hour of sexts he rendered up his soul without stain to God, being full of years. So they carried him to Leon and buried him near his father, in the Church of St. Isidro, which he had built. Thirty and one years did King Don Ferrando the Great who was peer with the Emperor, Reign over Castille. The Queen his wife lived two years after him, leading a holy life; a good Queen had she been and of good understanding, and right loving to her husband: alway had she counselled him well, being in truth the mirror of his kingdoms, and the friend of the widows and orphans. Her end was a good end, like that of the King her husband: God give them Paradise for their reward. Amen.



BOOK II

I. The history relates how after the death of King Don Ferrando, the three Kings his sons reigned each in his kingdom, according to the division made by their father, who had divided that which should all by right have descended to the King Don Sancho. Now the Kings of Spain were of the blood of the Goths, which was a fierce blood, for it had many times come to pass among the Gothic Kings, that brother had slain, brother upon this quarrel; from this blood was King Don Sancho descended, and he thought that it would be a reproach unto him if he did not join together the three kingdoms under his own dominion, for he was not pleased with what his father had given him, holding that the whole ought to have been his. And he went through the land setting it in order, and what thing soever his people asked at his hand that did he grant them freely, to the end that he might win their hearts.

II. Now when King Don Sancho of Navarre saw that there was a new King in Castille, he thought to recover the lands of Bureva and of Old Castille as far as Laredo, which had been lost when the King his father was defeated and slain at Atapuerca in the mountains of Oca. And now seeing that the kingdom of Ferrando was divided, he asked help of his uncle Don Ramiro, King of Aragon; and the men of Aragon and of Navarre entered Castille together. But King Don Sancho gathered together his host, and put the Cid at their head; and such account did he give of his enemies, that he of Navarre was glad to enjoy Rioja in peace, and lay no farther claim to what his father had lost. Now the King of Castille was wroth against the King of Aragon, that he should thus have joined against him without cause; and in despite of him he marched against the Moors of Zaragoza, and laying waste their country with fire and sword, he came before their city, and gave orders to assault it, and began to set up his engines. When the King of Zaragoza saw the great will which the King had to do evil unto him, and that there was none to help him, he thought it best to come to his mercy, paying tribute, or serving him, or in any manner whatsoever. And he sent interpreters to King Don Sancho saying, that he would give him much gold and silver, and many gifts, and be his vassal, and pay him tribute yearly. The King received them right honourably, and when he had heard their bidding he answered resolutely, being of a great heart, All this which the King of Zaragoza sends to say unto me is well, but he hath another thing in his heart. He sends to bid me break up the siege and depart from his land, and as soon as I should have departed, he would make friends unto himself among Christians and among Moors, and fail me in all which he covenants. Nevertheless I will do this thing which your King requires of me; but if in the end he lie, I will come back upon him and destroy him, trusting in God that he cannot defend himself against me. And when the interpreters heard this they were greatly dismayed, and they returned and told their King all that he had said. And the Moors seeing that they could not help themselves, made such terms with him as it pleased him to grant, and gave him hostages that they might not be able to prove false. And they gave him gold and silver and precious stones in abundance, so that with great riches and full honourably did he and all his men depart from the siege.

III. Greatly was the King of Aragon displeased at this which King Don Sancho had done, thinking that it was to his great injury and abasement, for Zaragoza he held to be within his conquest. And he came out with all his power to cut off the King's return, and took possession of the way, and said unto him that he should not pass till he had made amends for the great dishonour which he had wrought him, in coming into his conquest and against his vassals: the amends which he required was, that he should yield unto him all the spoil, and all which the King of Zaragoza had given him, else should he not pass without battle. When King Don Sancho heard this, being a man of great heart, he made answer, that he was the head of the kingdoms of Castille and Leon, and all the conquests in Spain were his, for the Kings of Aragon had no conquests appertaining unto them, being by right his tributaries, and bound to appear at his Cortes. Wherefore he counselled him to waive this demand, and let him pass in peace. But the King of Aragon drew up his host for battle, and the onset was made, and heavy blows were dealt on both sides, and many horses were left without a master. And while the battle was yet upon the chance, King Don Sancho riding light bravely through the battle, began to call out Castille! Castille! and charged the main body so fiercely that by fine force he broke them; and when they were thus broken, the Castillians began cruelly to slay them, so that King Don Sancho had pity thereof, and called out unto his people not to kill them, for they were Christians. Then King Don Ramiro being discomfited, retired to a mountain, and King Don Sancho beset the mountain round about, and made a covenant with him that he should depart, and that the King of Zaragoza should remain tributary to Castille; and but for this covenant the King of Aragon would then have been slain, or made prisoner. This was the battle whereof the Black Book of Santiago speaketh, saying, that in this year, on the day of the Conversion of St. Paul, was the great slaughter of the Christians in Porca. In all these wars did my Cid demean himself after his wonted manner; and because of the great feats which he performed the King loved him well, and made him his Alferez; so that in the whole army he was second only to the King. And because when the host was in the field it was his office to chuse the place for encampment, therefore was my Cid called the Campeador.

IV. While King Don Sancho was busied in these wars, King Don Garca of Galicia took by force from Doa Urraca his sister a great part of the lands which the King their father had given her. And when she heard this she began to lament aloud, saying, Ah King Don Ferrando, in an evil hour didst thou divide thy kingdom, for thereby will all the land be brought to destruction. And now also will be accomplished that which my fosterer Arias Gonzalo said, for now that King Don Garca who is my younger brother, hath dispossessed me and broken the oath which he made unto my father, what will not the elder do, who made the vow by compulsion, and alway made protestation against the division! God send that as thou hast disherited me, thou mayest speedily thyself in like manner be disherited, Amen! But when King Don Sancho heard what his brother had done he was well pleased thereat, thinking that he might now bring to pass that which he so greatly desired; and he assembled together his Ricos-omes and his knights, and said unto them, The King my father divided the kingdoms which should have been mine, and therein he did unjustly; now King Don Garcia my brother hath broken the oath and disherited Doa Urraca my sister; I beseech ye therefore counsel me what I shall do, and in what manner to proceed against him, for I will take his kingdom away from him. Upon this Count Don Garcia Ordoez arose and said, There is not a man in the world, Sir, who would counsel you to break the command of your father, and the vow which you made unto him. And the King was greatly incensed at him and said, Go from before me, for I shall never receive good counsel from thee. The King then took the Cid by the hand and led him apart, and said unto him, Thou well knowest my Cid, that when the King my father commended thee unto me, he charged me upon pain of his curse that I should take you for my adviser, and whatever I did that I should do it with your counsel, and I have done so even until this day; and thou hast alway counselled me for the best, and for this I have given thee a county in my kingdom, holding it well bestowed. Now then I beseech you advise me how best to recover these kingdoms, for if I have not counsel from you I do not expect to have it from any man in the world.

V. Greatly troubled at this was the Cid, and he answered and said, Ill, Sir, would it behove me to counsel you that you should go against the will of your father. You well know that when I went to Cabezon unto him, after he had divided his kingdoms, how he made me swear to him that I would alway counsel his sons the best I could, and never give them ill counsel; and while I can, thus must I continue to do. But the King answered, My Cid, I do not hold that in this I am breaking the oath made to my father, for I ever said that the partition should not be, and the oath which I made was forced upon me. Now King Don Garca my brother hath broken the oath, and all these kingdoms by right are mine: and therefore I will that you counsel me how I may unite them, for from so doing there is nothing in this world which shall prevent me, except it be death. Then when the Cid saw that he could by no means turn him from that course, he advised him to obtain the love of his brother King Don Alfonso, that he might grant him passage through his kingdom to go against Don Garca: and if this should be refused he counselled him not to make the attempt. And the King saw that his counsel was good, and sent his letters to King Don Alfonso beseeching him to meet him at Sahagun. When King Don Alfonso received the letters he marvelled to what end this might be: howbeit he sent to say that he would meet him. And the two kings met in Sahagun. And King Don Sancho said, Brother, you well know that King Don Garcia our brother hath broken the oath made unto our father, and disherited our sister Doa Urraca: for this I will take his kingdom away from him, and I beseech you join with me. But Don Alfonso answered that he would not go against the will of his father, and the oath which he had sworn. Then King Don Sancho said, that if he would let him pass through his kingdom he would give him part of what he should gain: and King Don Alfonso agreed to this. And upon this matter they fixed another day to meet; and then forty knights were named, twenty for Castille and twenty for Leon, as vouchers that this which they covenanted should be faithfully fulfilled on both sides.

VI. Then King Don Sancho gathered together a great host, Castillians and Leonese, and they of Navarre and Biscay, Asturians, and men of Aragon and of the border. And he sent Alvar Faez, the cousin of the Cid, to King Don Garcia, to bid him yield up his kingdom, and if he refused to do this to defy him on his part. Alvar Faez, albeit unwillingly, was bound to obey the bidding of his Lord, and he went to King Don Garcia and delivered his bidding. When King Don Garcia heard it he was greatly troubled, and he cried out in his trouble and said, Lord Jesus Christ, thou rememberest the oath which we made to our father! for my sins I have been the first to break it, and have disherited my sister. And he said to Alvar Faez, Say to my brother that I beseech him not to break the oath which he made to our father; but if he will persist to do this thing I must defend myself as I can. And with this answer Alvar Faez returned. Then King Don Garcia called unto him a knight of Asturias, whose name was Ruy Ximenez, and bade him go to his brother King Don Alfonso and tell him what had past, and how King Don Sancho would take away his kingdom from him; and to beseech him as a brother that he would not let him pass through his dominions. And King Don Alfonso replied, Say to my brother that I will neither help King Don Sancho, nor oppose him; and tell him that if he can defend himself I shall be well pleased. And with this answer, Ruy Ximenez returned, and bade the King look to himself for defence, for he would find no help in his brother.

VII. Now Don Garcia was not beloved in his kingdom of Galicia, neither in Portugal, for as much as he showed little favour to the hidalgos, both Galegos and Portugueze, and vexed the people with tributes which he had newly imposed. The cause of all this was a favourite, by name Verna, to whom the King gave so much authority, that he displeased all the chief persons in his dominions, and hearkened unto him in all things; and by his advice it was that he had despoiled his sister Doa Urraca of her lands, and his sister Doa Elvira also, and had done other things, whereby Portugal and Galicia were now in danger to be lost. And the knights and hidalgos took counsel together how they might remedy these evils, and they agreed that the King should in the name of them all be advised how ill he was served, and intreated to put away his favourite. Don Rodrigo Frojaz was the one named to speak unto the King; for being a man of approved valour, and the Lord of many lands, it was thought that the King would listen more to him than to any other. But it fell out otherwise than they had devised, for Verna had such power over the mind of the King, that the remonstrance was ill received, and Don Rodrigo and the other hidalgos were contumeliously treated in public by the King. Don Rodrigo would not bear this, being a right loyal and valiant man; and he went one day into the palace, and finding Verna busied in affairs of state, he drew forth his sword and slew him; then leaving the palace, for none cared to lay hands on him, he left Portugal, and took the road toward France; many of his vassals and kinsmen and friends following him, to seek their fortunes in a country where valour would be esteemed, for they were weary of the bad Government of King Don Garca.

VIII. But when King Don Garcia knew of the league which his brethren had made to divide his kingdom between them, it was a greater trouble to him than the death of Verna, and he called his chief captains together and consulted with them; and they advised him that he should send to recall Don Rodrigo Frojaz, for having him the realm would be secure, and without him it was in danger to be lost. So two hidalgos were sent after him, and they found him in Navarre, on the eve of passing into France. But when he saw the King's letters, and knew the peril in which he then stood, setting aside the remembrance of his own wrongs, like a good and true Portugueze, he turned back, and went to the King at Coimbra. In good time did he arrive, for the captains of King Don Sancho had now gained many lands in Galicia and in the province of Beira, finding none to resist them, and the Count Don Nuo de Lara, and the Count of Monzon, and Don Garcia de Cabra, were drawing nigh unto Coimbra. When Don Rodrigo heard this and knew that the Castillians were approaching, and who they were, he promised the King either to maintain his cause, or die for it; and he besought him not to go into the battle himself, having so many vassals and so good; for it was not fitting that he should expose himself when there was no King coming against him. And it came to pass that when the scouts gave notice that the Castillians were at hand, he ordered the trumpets to be sounded, and the Portugueze sallied, and a little below the city, at the place which is now called Agoa de Mayas, the two squadrons met. Then was the saying of Arias Gonzalo fulfilled, that kinsmen should kill kinsmen, and brother fall by his brother's hand. But the Portugueze fought so well, and especially Don Rodrigo, and his brothers Don Pedro and Don Vermui Frojaz, that at length they discomfited the Castillians, killing of them five hundred and forty, of whom three hundred were knights, and winning their pennons and banners. Howbeit this victory was not obtained without great loss to themselves: for two hundred and twenty of their people were left upon the field, and many were sorely wounded, among whom, even to the great peril of his life, was Don Rodrigo Frojaz, being wounded with many and grievous wounds. In this battle was slain the Count Don Fafes Sarracem de Lanhoso, with many of his vassals, he from whom the Godinhos are descended: he was a right good knight.

IX. A sorrowful defeat was that for King Don Sancho, more for the quality of the slain than for their number; and he put himself at the head of his army, and hastened through the midst of Portugal, to go against his brother. And King Don Garcia hearing of his approach, called together his knights and hidalgos, and said unto them, Friends, we have no land whereunto to fly from the King Don Sancho my brother, let us therefore meet him in battle, and either conquer him or die; for better is it to die an honourable death than to suffer this spoiling in our country. And to the Portugueze he said, Friends, ye are right noble and haughty knights, and it is your custom to have among you few lords and good ones; now therefore make me a good one, which will be to your own great honour and profit; and if I come out of this struggle well, I shall guerdon ye well, so that ye shall understand the will I have to do good towards ye. And they made answer and said that they would stand by him to the last, and that he should not be put down by their default. Then spake he to the Galegos and said. Friends, ye are right good and true knights, and never was it yet said that lord was forsaken by you in the field. I put myself in your hands, being assured that ye will well and loyally advise me, and help me to the utmost of your power. Ye see how King Don Sancho my brother presses upon us, and we have nothing left us but to die or to conquer; but if ye know any other counsel. I beseech ye tell it now. And the Galegos answered, that they would serve and defend him loyally, and that they held it best to fight. Nevertheless they were too few in number to stand against the King Don Sancho: so they retired before him. And Don Garcia took with him three hundred horsemen, and went to the Moors, and besought them to lend him aid against his brother, saying that he would give them the kingdom of Leon. And the Moors made answer, O King, thou canst not defend thyself; how then canst thou give unto us the kingdom of Leon? Howbeit they did him honour and gave him great gifts, and he returned to his people and recovered many of the castles which he had lost.

X. Then King Don Sancho came against his brother, to besiege him in Santarem. And the Portugueze and Galegos took counsel together what they should do; for some were of advice that it was better to defend the cities and fortresses which they held, and so lengthen out the war; others that they should harass the army of the Castillians with frequent skirmishes and assaults, and never give them battle power to power, thinking that in this manner they might baffle them till the winter came on. Don Rodrigo Frojaz was at this time recovering of the wounds which he had received at Agoa de Mayas, and he said unto the King that it behoved him above all things to put his kingdom upon the hazard of a battle; for his brother being a greater lord of lands than he, and richer in money and more powerful in vassals, could maintain the war longer than he could do, who peradventure would find it difficult another year to gather together so good an army as he had now ready. For this cause he advised him to put his trust in God first, and then in the hidalgos who were with him, and without fear give battle to the King his brother, over whom God and his good cause would give him glorious victory. And to show his own good will to the King, he besought of him the leading of the van for himself and the Counts Don Pedro and Don Vermui Frojaz his brethren, and his two nephews. Greatly was the King Don Garcia encouraged by his gallant cheer, and he bade his host make ready to give battle to King Don Sancho, as soon as he should arrive; and he marched out from the city, and took his stand near unto it in a field where afterwards were the vineyards of the town. And when the banners of the Castillians were seen advancing, the Galegos and Portugueze drew up in battle array, Don Rodrigo and his brethren having the van, as he had requested, and a body of chosen knights with them.

XI. Count Don Garcia came in the front of King Don Sancho's army, and in the one wing was the Count de Monzon and Count Don Nuo de Lara; and the Count Don Fruela of Asturias in the other; and the King was in the rear, with Don Diego de Osma, who carried his banner: and in this manner were they arrayed on the one side and on the other, being ready for the onset. And King Don Garcia bravely encouraged his men, saying, Vassals and friends, ye see the great wrong which the King my brother doth unto me, taking from me my kingdom; I beseech ye help me now to defend it; for ye well know that all which I had therein I divided among ye, keeping ye for a season like this. And they answered, Great benefits have we received at your hands, and we will serve you to the utmost of our power. Now when the two hosts were ready to join battle, Alvar Faez came to King Don Sancho and said to him, Sir, I have played away my horse and arms; I beseech you give me others for this battle, and I will be a right good one for you this day; if I do not for you the service of six knights, hold me for a traitor. And the Count Don Garcia, who heard this, said to the King, Give him, Sir, what he asketh; and the King ordered that horse and arms should be given him. So the armies joined battle bravely on both sides, and it was a sharp onset; many were the heavy blows which were given on both sides, and many were the horses that were slain at that encounter, and many the men. Now my Cid had not yet come up into the field.

XII. Now Don Rodrigo Frojaz and his brethren and the knights who were with them had resolved to make straight for the banner of the King of Castille. And they broke through the ranks of the Castillians, and made their way into the middle of the enemy's host, doing marvellous feats of arms. Then was the fight at the hottest, for they did their best to win the banner, and the others to defend it; the remembrance of what they had formerly done, and the hope of gaining more honours, heartened them; and with the Castillians there was their King, giving them brave example as well as brave words. The press of the battle was here; here died Gonzalo de Sies, a right valiant Portugueze, on the part of Don Garca; but on Don Sancho's part the Count Don uo was sorely wounded and thrown from his horse; and Count Don Garca Ordoez was made prisoner, and the banner of King Don Sancho was beaten down, and the King himself also. The first who encountered him was Don Gomes Echiguis, he from whom the old Sousas of Portugal derived their descent; he was the first who set his lance against King Don Sancho, and the other one was Don Moninho Hermigis, and Don Rodrigo made way through the press and laid hands on him and took him. But in the struggle his old wounds burst open, and having received many new ones he lost much blood, and perceiving that his strength was failing, he sent to call the King Don Garca with all speed. And as the King came, the Count Don Pedro Frojaz met him and said, An honourable gift, Sir, hath my brother Don Rodrigo to give you, but you lose him in gaining it. And tears fell from the eyes of the King, and he made answer and said, It may indeed be that Don Rodrigo may lose his life in serving me, but the good name which he hath gained, and the honour which be leaveth to his descendants, death cannot take away. Saying this, he came to the place where Don Rodrigo was, and Don Rodrigo gave into his hands the King Don Sancho his brother, and asked him three times if he was discharged of his prisoner; and when the King had answered Yes, Don Rodrigo said, For me, Sir, the joy which I have in your victory is enough; give the rewards to these good Portugueze, who with so good a will have put their lives upon the hazard to serve you, and in all things follow their counsel, and you will not err therein. Having said this he kissed the King's hand, and lying upon his shield, for he felt his breath fail him, with his helmet for a pillow, he kissed the cross of his sword in remembrance of that on which the incarnate Son of God had died for him, and rendered up his soul into the hands of his Creator. This was the death of one of the worthy knights of the world, Don Rodrigo Frojaz. In all the conquests which King Don Ferrando had made from the Moors of Portugal, great part had he borne, insomuch that that King was wont to say that other Princes might have more dominions than he, but two such knights as his two Rodrigos, meaning my Cid and this good knight, there was none but himself who had for vassals.

XIII. Then King Don Garcia being desirous to be in the pursuit himself, delivered his brother into the hands of six knights that they should guard him, which be ought not to have done. And when he was gone King Don Sancho said unto the knights, Let me go and I will depart out of your country and never enter it again; and I will reward ye well as long as ye live; but they answered him, that for no reward would they commit such disloyalty, but would guard him well, not offering him any injury, till they had delivered him to his brother the King Don Garcia. While they were parleying Alvar Faez Minaya came up, he to whom the King had given horse and arms before the battle; and he seeing the King held prisoner, cried out with a loud voice, Let loose my Lord the King: and he spurred his horse and made at them; and before his lance was broken he overthrew two of them, and so bestirred himself that he put the others to flight; and he took the horses of the two whom he had smote down, and gave one to the King, and mounted upon the other himself, for his own was hurt in the rescue; and they went together to a little rising ground where there was yet a small body of the knights of their party, and Alvar Faez cried out to them aloud, Ye see here the King our Lord, who is free; now then remember the good name of the Castillians, and let us not lose it this day. And about four hundred knights gathered about him. And while they stood there they saw the Cid Ruydiez coming up with three hundred knights, for he had not been in the battle, and they knew his green pennon. And when King Don Sancho beheld it his heart rejoiced, and he said, Now let us descend into the plain, for he of good fortune cometh: and he said, Be of good heart, for it is the will of God that I should recover my kingdom, for I have escaped from captivity, and seen the death of Don Rodrigo Frojaz who took me, and Ruydiez the fortunate one cometh. And the King went down to him and welcomed him right joyfully, saying, In happy time are you come, my fortunate Cid; never vassal succoured his Lord in such season as you now succour me, for the King my brother had overcome me. And the Cid answered, Sir, be sure that you shall recover the day, or I will die; for wheresoever you go, either you shall be victorious or I will meet my death.

XIV. By this time King Don Garca returned from the pursuit, singing as he came full joyfully, for he thought that the King his brother was a prisoner, and his great power overthrown. But there came one and told him that Don Sancho was rescued and in the field again, ready to give him battle a second time. Bravely was that second battle fought on both sides; and if it had not been for the great prowess of the Cid, the end would not have been as it was: in the end the Galegos and Portugueze were discomfited, and the King Don Garca taken in his turn. And in that battle the two brethren of Don Rodrigo Frojaz, Don Pedro and Don Vermui, were slain, and the two sons of Don Pedro, so that five of that family died that day. And the King Don Sancho put his brother in better ward than his brother three hours before had put him, for he put him in chains and sent him to the strong castle of Luna.

XV. When King Don Sancho had done this he took unto himself the kingdom of Galicia and of Portugal, and without delay sent to his brother King Don Alfonso, commanding him to yield up to him the kingdom of Leon, for it was his by right. At this was the King of Leon troubled at heart; howbeit he answered that he would not yield up his kingdom, but do his utmost to defend it. Then King Don Sancho entered Leon, slaying and laying waste before him, as an army of infidels would have done; and King Don Alfonso sent to him to bid him cease from this, for it was inhuman work to kill and plunder the innocent: and he defied him to a pitched battle, saying that to whichsoever God should give the victory, to him also would he give the kingdom of Leon: and the King of Castille accepted the defiance, and a day was fixed for the battle, and the place was to be Lantada, which is near unto Carrion. The chief counsellor of King Don Alfonso was Don Pero Ansures, a notable and valiant knight, of the old and famous stock of the Ansures, Lords of Monzon, which is nigh unto Palencia; the same who in process of time was Count of Carrion and of Saldaa and Liebana, and Lord of Valladolid, a city which was by him greatly increased. This good knight commanded the army of his King Don Alfonso, and on the part of King Don Sancho came Ruydiez the Cid. Both Kings were in the field that day, and full hardily was the battle contested, and great was the mortality on either side, for the hatred which used to be between Moors and Christians was then between brethren. And that day also was the saying of Arias Gonzalo fulfilled. But in the end the skill and courage of my Cid prevailed, and King Don Alfonso was fain to avail himself of his horse's feet to save himself.

XVI. Nevertheless the power of King Don Alfonso was not yet destroyed, and he would not yield up his kingdom: and he sent to his brother a second time to bid him battle, saying that whosoever conquered should then certainly remain King of Leon; and the place appointed was at Vulpegera, beside the river Carrion. And the two armies met and joined battle, and they of Leon had the victory, for my Cid was not in the field. And King Don Alfonso had pity upon the Castillians because they were Christians, and gave orders not to slay them; and his brother King Don Sancho fled. Now as he was flying, my Cid came up with his green pennon; and when he saw that the King his Lord had been conquered it grieved him sorely: howbeit he encouraged him saying, This is nothing, Sir! to fail or to prosper is as God pleases. But do you gather together your people who are discomfited, and bid them take heart. The Leonese and Galegos are with the King your brother, secure as they think themselves in their lodging, and taking no thought of you; for it is their custom to extol themselves when their fortune is fair, and to mock at others, and in this boastfulness will they spend the night, so that we shall find them sleeping at break of day, and will fall upon them. And it came to pass as he had said. The Leonese lodged themselves in Vulpegera, taking no thought of their enemies, and setting no watch; and Ruydiez arose betimes in the morning and fell upon them, and subdued them before they could take their arms. King Don Alfonso fled to the town of Carrion, which was three leagues distant, and would have fortified himself there in the Church of St. Mary, but he was surrounded and constrained to yield.

XVII. Now the knights of Leon gathered together in their flight, and when they could not find their King they were greatly ashamed, and they turned back and smote the Castillians; and as it befell, they encountered King Don Sancho and took him prisoner, not having those in his company whom he should have had, for his people considered the victory as their own, and all was in confusion. And thirteen knights took him in their ward and were leading him away,—but my Cid beheld them and galloped after them: he was alone, and had no lance, having broken his in the battle. And he came up to them and said, Knights, give me my Lord and I will give unto you yours. They knew him by his arms, and they made answer, Ruydiez, return in peace and seek not to contend with us, otherwise we will carry you away prisoner with him. And he waxed wroth and said, Give me but a lance and I will, single as I am, rescue my Lord from all of ye: by God's help I will do it. And they held him as nothing because he was but one, and gave him a lance. But he attacked them therewith so bravely that he slew eleven of the thirteen, leaving two only alive, on whom he had mercy; and thus did he rescue the King. And the Castillians rejoiced greatly at the King's deliverance: and King Don Sancho went to Burgos, and took with him his brother prisoner.

XVIII. Great was the love which the Infanta Doa Urraca bore to her brother King Don Alfonso, and when she heard that he was made prisoner, she feared least he should be put to death: and she took with her the Count Don Peransures, and went to Burgos. And they spake with the Cid, and besought him that he would join with them and intercede with the King that he should release his brother from prison, and let him become a Monk at Sahagun. Full willing was the Cid to serve in any thing the Infanta Doa Urraca, and he went with her before the King. And she knelt down before the King her brother, and besought mercy for Don Alfonso, his brother and hers. And the King took her by the hand and raised her from her knees, and made her sit beside him, and said unto her, Now then, my sister, say what you would have. And she besought him that he would let their brother Don Alfonso take the habit of St. Benedict, in the royal Monastery of Sahagun, and my Cid, and Count Peransures and the other chief persons who were there present, besought him in like manner. And the King took my Cid aside, and asked counsel of him what he should do; and the Cid said, that if Don Alfonso were willing to become a Monk, he would do well to set him free upon that condition, and he besought him so to do. Then King Don Sancho, at my Cid's request, granted to Doa Urraca what she had asked. And he released King Don Alfonso from prison, and Don Alfonso became a Monk in the Monastery at Sahagun, more by force than of free will. And being in the Monastery he spake with Don Peransures, and took counsel with him, and fled away by night from the Monks, and went among the Moors to King Alimaymon of Toledo. And the Moorish King welcomed him with a good will, and did great honour to him, and gave him great possessions and many gifts.

XIX. When Doa Urraca knew that her brother King Don Alfonso had fled to Toledo, she sent to him three good men of the kingdom of Leon, that they should be his counsellors, for she loved him well. These were Don Pero Ansures, and Don Ferran Ansures, and Don Gonzalo Ansures, all three brethren: and they went with King Don Sancho's permission, for it was God's pleasure. Now Alimaymon rejoiced in the King Don Alfonzo, and loved him as if he had been his own son. And Don Alfonso made a covenant with him to love him and defend him and serve him alway, so long as he should remain with him, and not to depart from him without his leave; and the King covenanted on his side to love him and honour him, and defend him to the utmost of his power. And Alimaymon ordered fair palaces to be edified for him, by the wall of the Alcazar, on the outer part, that the Moors of the city might do no displeasure neither to him nor to his companions: and they were hard by a garden of the King's, that he might go out and disport himself therein whensoever it pleased him. And for these things King Don Alfonso loved to serve King Alimaymon. Nevertheless when he saw the great honour of the King of Toledo, and how powerful he was, and that he was the Lord of so great chivalry, and of the noblest city which had belonged unto the Gothic Kings, from whom he himself was descended, it grieved him in his heart to see that city in the hands of the Moors: and he said within his heart, Lord God and Father Jesus Christ, it is wholly in thy power to give and to take away, and right it is that thy will should be done, even as thou hast done it to me, to whom thou gavest a kingdom, and it was thy will to take it away from me, and thou hast made me come hither to serve the enemies who were at the service of the King my father. Lord, I put my hope in thee that thou wilt deliver me from this servitude, and give me a land and kingdom to command, and that thou wilt show unto me such favour that this land and this city shall by me be won, that thy holy body may be sacrificed in it to the honour of Christendom. This prayer he made with great devotion and with many tears; and the Lord God heard him, as hereafter you shall hear in this history. In those days King Alimaymon was at war with other Moorish Kings his enemies, and King Don Alfonso fought against them on his side, and did such good service that he quelled their power, and they durst no longer offend him. And in time of peace Don Alfonso and his companions went fowling along the banks of the Tagus, for in those days there was much game there, and venison of all kinds; and they killed venison among the mountains. And as he was thus spoiling he came to a place which is now called Brihuega, and it pleased him well, for it was a fair place to dwell in, and abounded with game, and there was a dismantled castle there, and he thought that he would ask the King for this place. And he returned to Toledo and asked it of the King, and King Alimaymon gave it him, and he placed there his huntsmen and his fowlers who were Christians, and fortified the place as his own. And the lineage of these people continued there till Don Juan, the third archbishop of Toledo, enlarged it, and peopled the parish of St. Pedro.

XX. It came to pass after this that both the Kings one day came out of Toledo, and past over the bridge of Alcantara, and went into the royal garden to disport themselves therein and take their pleasure. And at evening Don Alfonso lay down upon a bed to sleep, and King Alimaymon fell in talk with his favourites concerning his city of Toledo, how strong it was and how well provided with all things, and that he feared neither war of Moor nor Christian against it; and he asked them if it could, by any, means be lost in war. Then one of them answered and said, Sir, if you would not hold it ill, I would tell you how it might be lost, and by no other manner in the world could it be so. And the King bade him say on. And the favourite then said, If this city were beset for seven years, and the bread and the wine and the fruits should be cut down year by year, it would be lost for lack of food. All this King Don Alfonso heard, for he was not sleeping, and he took good heed of it. Now the Moors knew not that he was lying there. And when they had thus spoken, Alimaymon arose to walk in the palace, and he saw King Don Alfonso lying there as if he were sleeping: and it troubled him, and he said to his favourites, We did not heed Alfonso who is lying there, and has heard all that we have said. And the favourites made answer, Kill him, Sir. But the King said, How shall I go against my true promise? moreover he sleepeth, and peradventure hath heard nothing. And they said to him, Would you know whether or not he sleepeth? and he answered, Yea: and they said, Go then and wake him, and if he have drivelled he hath slept, but if not he hath been awake and hath heard us. Then King Don Alfonso immediately wetted the pillow, and feigned himself hard to be awakened, so that Alimaymon thought he slept.

XXI. And when the Easter of the Sheep was come, which the Moors celebrate, the King of Toledo went out of the city to kill the sheep at the place accustomed, as he was wont to do, and King Don Alfonso went with him. Now Don Alfonso was a goodly personage and of fair demeanour, so that the Moors liked him well. And as he was going by the side of the King, two honourable Moors followed them, and the one said unto the other, How fair a knight is this Christian, and of what good customs! well doth he deserve to be the lord of some great land. And the other made answer, I dreamed a dream last night, that this Alfonso entered the city riding upon a huge boar, and many swine after him, who rooted up all Toledo with their snouts, and even the Mosques therein: Certes, he will one day become King of Toledo. And while they were thus communing every hair upon King Don Alfonso's head stood up erect, and Alimaymon laid his hand upon them to press them down, but so soon as his hand was taken off they rose again; and the two Moors held it for a great token, and spake with each other concerning it, and one of King Alimaymon's favourites heard all which they said. And after the sheep had been sacrificed they returned into the city, and the favourite told the King what he had heard the two Moors say; and the King sent for them forthwith, and questioned them, and they repeated to him what they had said, even as ye have heard. And King Alimaymon said unto them, What then shall I do? and they made answer, that he should put Don Alfonso to death; but the King replied, that this he would not do, nor go against the true promise which he had given him, but that he would so deal that no evil should ever come towards himself from Alfonso. So he sent for Don Alfonso and bade him swear that he would never come against him, nor against his sons, and that no evil should come against them from him; and King Don Alfonso did as Alimaymon required, and did him homage to this effect. And thenceforth was the King of Toledo more secure of him, and held him even in greater favour than before. All this while did King Don Alfonso govern himself by the advice of Count Peransures, who alway advised him discreetly and well.

XXII. But when King Don Sancho heard how his brother had fled from the Monastery, he drew out his host and went against the city of Leon. The Leonese would fain have maintained the city against him, but they could not, and he took the city of Leon, and all the towns and castles which had been under the dominion of his brother King Don Alfonso. And then he put the crown upon his head, and called himself King of the three kingdoms. He was a fair knight and of marvellous courage, so that both Moors and Christians were dismayed at what they saw him do, for they saw that nothing which he willed to take by force could stand against him. And when the Infanta Doa Urraca, and the men of Zamora, saw that he had quiet possession of both his brother's kingdoms, they feared that he would come against them and disherit his sister also. And for this reason they took Don Arias Gonzalo to be their chief captain, Doa Urraca's foster-father, that by his means they might protect themselves, if need should be. And it came to pass as they had feared, for King Don Sancho knew that his sisters greatly loved Don Alfonso, and he thought that by their counsel he had fled from the Monastery, especially by Doa Urraca's, because Don Alfonso guided himself in all things by her counsel, holding her in place of a mother, for she was a lady of great understanding. And he went forth with his army, and took from the Infanta Doa Elvira the half of the Infantazgo which she possessed, and also from Doa Urraca the other half. And he went against Toro, the city of Doa Elvira, and took it; and then he went to Zamora to Doa Urraca, bidding her yield him up the city, and saying that he would give her lands as much as she required in the plain country. But she returned for answer, that she would in no manner yield unto him that which the King her father had given her; and she besought him that he would suffer her to continue to dwell peaceably therein, saying that no disservice should ever be done against him on her part.

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