HENRIE THE FIRST, YOONGEST SONNE TO WILLIAM THE CONQUEROUR.
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 1. 1100.] Henrie the yoongest sonne to William the first, brother to Rufus latelie departed, the first of that name that ruled heere in England, & for his knowledge in good literature surnamed Beauclerke, was admitted king by the whole assent of the lords and commons, and began his reigne ouer England the first of August, in the yeare after the creation of the world 1067. after the birth of our Sauiour 1100. and 44. of the emperour Henrie the fourth, Paschall the second then gouerning the se of Rome, which was about the 51. yeare of Philip the first of that name king of France, and in the beginning of the reigne of Edgar king of Scotland. [Sidenote: Wil. Thorne. Geruasius Dorobernensis.] This king was consecrated and crowned at Westminster, the fift daie of August, by Thomas archbishop of Yorke, and Maurice bishop of London, bicause at that time Anselme archbishop of Canturburie was exiled. [Sidenote: Matth. Paris.] This prince had aforehand trained the people to his humor and veine, in bringing them to thinke well of him, and to conceiue a maruellous euill opinion of his brother duke Robert, persuading them moreouer, that the said duke was likelie to prooue a sharpe and rigorous gouernour, if he once obteined the crowne and dominion of the land. Moreouer, he caused to be reported for a certeine truth, that the same Robert was alreadie created king of Jerusalem. And therefore considering that the kingdome of Palestine (as the rumor ran) was of greater reuenues than that of England, there was no cause why they should staie for him, who would not willinglie leaue the greater for the lesser. By which meanes the Nobilitie and Commons were the sooner persuaded to decline from the election of the said Robert, and to receiue his brother Henrie for their lawfull king, who on the other side ceased not to promise mountaines, till his enterprise tooke effect; and then at leisure paied some of them with molhils as by the sequele of the storie shall more at large appere.
This Henrie therefore comming thus to the crowne, considered furthermore with himselfe, that hereafter, when his eldest brother Robert should returne, and vnderstand how the matter was brought about, he would thinke himselfe to haue had much wrong, and bene verie euill dealt withall, sith that as well by birthright, as also by agrement made with his brother William Rufus, he ought of right to be preferred, and therevpon would not faile but make earnest claime against him. [Sidenote: The king seketh to win the peoples fauour.] Wherefore yer he should come home out of the holie land (where he then remained) the king studied by all possible meanes how to gratifie all the states of his realme, & to plant in their harts some good opinion of him. And first of all he reformed such things as his brother had left verie preiudiciall to the estate of the church, setting the same fre which before was sore oppressed. [Sidenote: Simon Dun. Hen. Hunt. Matth. Paris.] And furthermore, somewhat to releue the common-wealth, he promised to restore the lawes of good king Edward, and to abolish or amend those which by his father and brother were alreadie ordeined to the hurt & preiudice of the old ancient liberties of the realme of England. [Sidenote: Anselme called home.] He reuoked Anselme the archbishop of Canturburie out of exile, who fled (as yee haue heard) to auoid the wrath of king William. [Sidenote: Wil. Malm. William Gifford bishop of Winchester. Hen. Hunt.] Moreouer, he placed in the see of Winchester, one William Gifford, a graue and discret person, and also ordeined moonkes of honest reputation to be abbats in certeine abbies which had beene long void, and in the hands of William his brother: in like maner he remitted certeine paiments which his brother and predecessour had caused to be raised by waie of taxes and customes. [Sidenote: Rafe bishop of Durham committed to the Tower. Simon Dun.] Besides this, on the 8. daie of September, he committed Rafe bishop of Durham to the Tower of London, by whose lewd counsell his said brother being seduced, had in his life time doone manie oppressions to his people. [Sidenote: The first ordeining of the yard measure. Wil. Malm.] He ordeined also that one length of measuring should be vsed through this realme, which was a yard, appointing it to be cut after the length of his owne arme. Manie other things he redressed, to the contentation and commoditie of his subiects, who gaue God thanks that he had in such wise deliuered them out of the hands of cruell extortioners.
[Sidenote: Wil. Malm. Polydor.] After he had thus brought the common-wealth in so good estate, he consulted with his Nobilitie, where he might best get him a wife, and thereby leaue vnlawfull companie keeping with concubines: which demand was not misliked at all. Herevpon they considered that Edgar king of Scotland had a sister named Maud, a beautifull ladie, and of vertuous conditions, who was a professed nunne in a religious house, to the end she might auoid the stormes of the world, and lead hir life in more securitie after hir fathers deceasse. This gentlewoman, notwithstanding hir vow, was thought to be a meet bedfellow for the king: wherefore he sent ambassadors to hir brother Edgar, requesting that he might haue hir in mariage. But she refusing superstitiouslie at the first to breake hir professed vow, would not heare of the offer: wherewithall king Henrie being the more inflamed, sent new ambassadors to moue the case in more earnest sort than before, in somuch that Edgar, vpon the declaration of their ambassage, set the abbesse of the house (where then she abode) in hand to persuade hir, who so effectuallie and diuerselie telling hir how necessarie, profitable, & honorable the same should be both to her countrie and kinred, did so preuaile at the last, that the yoong ladie granted willinglie to the mariage. Herevpon she was transported into England, and wedded to the king, who caused the archbishop Anselme to crowne hir queene on S. Martins daie, which fell vpon a sundaie, being the eleuenth of Nouember.
It should seme by Eadmerus, that she was neuer nunne, but onelie veiled by hir mother, and placed amongst nunnes against hir will (as she protested to the whole world) at such time as archbishop Anselme refused to solemnize the mariage betwixt them, till that doubt were cleared, and the occasion remoued, wherevpon euill disposed men would haue surmised ilfauoredlie, and reported the worst. Howbeit whether she were professed, or veiled onelie, loth she was to consent at the first (as partlie ye haue heard) but after that she was coupled with the king in mariage, she prooued a right obedient wife.
[Sidenote: The archbishop of Vienna the popes legat.] About this season the archbishop of Vienna came ouer into England with the popes authoritie (as he pretended) to be legat ouer all Briteine, which was strange newes vnto England, and greatlie woondered at (as Eadmerus saith) of all men. For it had not beene heard of in England before that time, that any person should supplie the popes roome except the archbishop of Canturburie. [Sidenote: He is not receiued for legat.] And so he departed as he came, for no man receiued him as legat, neither did he exercise anie legantine authoritie. Not long after, the king sent ambassadours to Rome, about a suit which he had against the archbishop Anselme, for that he denied not onelie to doo him homage, but also would not consecrate such bishops and ecclesiasticall gouernours as he vndertooke to inuest. Touching which matter no small trouble arose, as hereafter shall appeere.
[Sidenote: 1101.] In the meane time, Robert the kings elder brother, returning out of the holie land, came into Normandie: for after he had aduertisement of the death of his brother Rufus, and that his yoonger brother was crowned king of England, he was greatlie displeased in his mind, and meant with all sped to assaie if he might recouer it out of his hands.
[Sidenote: Ran. Higd. Duke Robert chosen king of Hierusalem.] We read, that when christian princes had woone Hierusalem, they met togither in the temple to chuse a king for the gouernement of that citie and countrie, in which conuent duke Robert was chosen before all the residue to be king there, by reason of a miracle (as some haue left recorded) wrought by quenching of a taper, and the sudden kindling thereof againe, as he held the same in his hand, standing in the church before the altar amongst other on Easter euen: [Sidenote: Polydor.] so as thereby it should be thought he was appointed among all the residue to be king, and so was nominated. But he hauing his mind more inclined to England, refused to take the charge vpon him: wherevpon after that daie he neuer greatlie prospered in anie businesse which he tooke in hand: as some doo gather. Other authors of good credit, which haue written that voiage into the holie land, make no mention of anie such matter, but declare, that Godfraie of Bolongne was by the generall consent of all the princes and capiteins there elected king, as in the description of that voiage more plainelie appereth. But now to returne from whence I haue digressed.
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 2.] When the fame was blown into England, that duke Robert was returned into Normandie, and that the people had receiued him for their duke with great triumph and ioy: [Sidenote: Duke Robert is solicited to come into England to claim the crowne.] there were diuerse which desiring innouations, deliting in alterations, and being wearie of the quiet gouernment of king Henrie, wrote letters into England to the duke, signifieng to him, that if he would make hast, and come to recouer the realme out of his brothers hands (who vsurped it by an vniust title) they would be readie to aid him with all their power. Herewithall the duke being readie of his owne accord to this enterprise, was not a little inflamed, and grew more earnest to make hast about this businesse: in so much as, where he would not seme at the first to esteme greatlie of the offer made to him by the Englishmen, who had thus written ouer vnto him (blaming generallie all the English Nobilitie, for that while he was abroad in the seruice of the christian common-wealth against the infidels, they would suffer him to be in such wise defrauded of his fathers inheritance, by his brother, through their vntruth and negligence) yet although he meant to delaie the matter, [Sidenote: Wil. Malm. Simon Dun.] and thought it rather better to dissemble with them for a time, than to commit the successe of his affaires and person to their inconstancie; shortlie after being set on fire, and still incouraged by the persuasion of Rafe bishop of Durham (who by a woonderfull wilie shift, about the first of Februarie had broken out of prison) [Sidenote: In the Kal. of Februarie. R. Houe. Hen. Hunt. Polydor.] with all speed possible he gathered an armie, purposing out of hand to passe ouer with the same into England, and to hazard his right by dent of sword, which was thus by plaine iniurie most wickedlie deteined from him.
King Henrie in the meane time vnderstanding his meaning, assembled likewise his power, and rigged foorth a great number of ships, appointing them to lie in a readinesse to stop his brothers comming to land if it might be. He himselfe, also lodged with his maine armie neere the towne of Hastings, to giue him battell if he landed thereabouts.
Duke Robert also meaning to set foreward, sent certeine of his ships before, to choose some conuenient place where he might land with his armie: which ships by chance fell into the danger of the kings nauie, but yet absteining from battell, they recouered the wind, and returned backe to the duke, signifieng from point to point how they had sped in this voiage. The duke as he was of a bold courage, and of so gentle a nature that he beleeued he should win their good wils, with whom he should haue any thing to doo, passed forward, and approching to the kings nauie, vsed such mild persuasions, that a great part of the souldiours which were aboord in the kings ships, submitted themselues vnto him, [Sidenote: Duke Robert arriued at Portsmouth. Simon Dun. Wil. Malm. Hen. Hunt. Polydor.] by whose conduct he arriued in Portsmouth hauen, and there landed with his host, about the begining of August. Now when he had rested a few daies & refreshed his men, he tooke the way towards Winchester, a great number of people flocking vnto him by the way.
The king hauing knowledge as well of the arriuall of his enimies, as also of the reuolting of his subiects, raised his campe, and came to lodge neere vnto his enimies, the better to perceiue what he attempted and purposed to doo. They were also in maner readie to haue ioined battell, when diuerse Noble men that owght good will to both the brethren, and abhorred in their minds so vnnaturall discord, began to entreat for peace, which in the end they concluded vpon, [Sidenote: Wil. Malm. Simon Dun. Hen. Hunt.] conditionallie that Henrie (who was borne after his father had conquered the realme of England) should now enioy the same, yeelding and paieng yeerelie vnto duke Robert the summe of iij. M. marks. Prouided, that whose hap of the two it should be to suruiue or outliue, he should be the others right and lawfull heire, by mutuall agreement. Conditionallie also, that those English or Normans, which had taken part either with the king or the duke, should be pardoned of all offenses that could be laid vnto them for the same by either of the princes. [Sidenote: Hen. Hunt. Wil. Thorne. Matth. West. Geruasius Dorober.] There were twelue Noble men on either part that receiued corporall othes for performance of this agrement, which being concluded vpon in this sort, duke Robert, who in his affaires shewed himselfe more credulous than suspicious, remained with his brother here in England till the feast of S. Michaell, and then shewing himselfe well contented with the composition, returned into Normandie. In the second yeare of this kings reigne, the Quene was deliuered of hir daughter Maud or Mathild, so called after hir owne name, who afterward was empresse, of whom ye shall heare by Gods grace anon in this historie.
[Sidenote: 1102.] [Sidenote: Simon Dun. Robert de Belesme earle of Shrewsburie.] The king being now rid of forren trouble, was shortlie after disquieted with the seditious attempts of Robert de Belesme earle of Shrewsburie, sonne to Hugh before named, who fortified the castell of Bridgenorth, and an other castell in Wales at a place called Caircoue, and furnished the towne of Shrewsburie, with the castels of Arundell & Tickehill (which belonged to him) in most substantiall maner. Moreouer he sought to win the fauour of the Welshmen, by whose aid he purposed to defend himselfe against the king in such vnlawfull enterprises as he ment to take in hand. But the king hauing an inkeling whereabout he went, straightwaies proclaimed him a traitor, wherevpon he got such Welshmen and Normans together as he could conuenientlie come by, with whom and his brother Arnold, he entered into Staffordshire, [Sidenote: Stafford wasted.] which they forraied and wasted excedinglie, bringing from thence a great bootie of beasts and cattell, with some prisoners, whom they led foorthwith into Wales, where they kept themselues as in a place of greatest safetie.
The king in the meane time with all conuenient sped raised a power, [Sidenote: Arundell castell besieged.] first besieging the castell of Arundell, and then planting diuerse bastillions before it, he departed from thence, and sending the bishop of Lincolne with part of his armie to besiege Tickehill, he himselfe went to Bridgenorth, [Sidenote: Bridgenorth besieged.] which he enuironed about with a mightie armie made out of all parts of his realme: so that what with gifts, large promises, and fearefull threatnings, at the last he allured to his side the fickle Welchmen, and in such wise wan them, that they abandoned the earle, and tooke part against him. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 3.] Wherevpon the king within 30. daies subdued all the townes and castels (which he held) out of his hands, [Sidenote: The earle of Shrewsburie banished the realme.] and banished him the relme, and shortlie after confined his brother Arnold for his traitorous demeanour vsed against him, whereby their attempts were brought vnto an end.
[Sidenote: A synod of bishops. Eadmerus.] After this, at the feast of saint Michaell, Anselme archbishop of Canturburie held a councell at Westminster, whereat were present the archbishop of Yorke, the bishops of London, Winchester, Lincolne, Worcester, Chester, Bath, Norwich, Rochester, and two other bishops latlie elected by the king, namelie, Salisburie and Hereford: the bishop of Excester was absent by reason of sicknesse.
[Sidenote: Abbats & Priors depriued.] At this councell or synod, diuerse abbats and priors, both French and English, were depriued of their promotions and benefices by Anselme, bicause they had come vnto them otherwise than he pretended to stand with the decres of the church; [Sidenote: Matth. Paris.] as the abbats of Persor, Ramsey, Tauestocke, Peterborow, Middleton, Burie, and Stoke, the prior of Elie, and others. [Sidenote: The cause why they wer depriued. Hen. Hunt. Sim. Dun.] The chefest cause of their deposing, was, for that they had receiued their inuestitures at the kings hands.
Diuerse constitutions were made by authoritie of this councell, but namelie this one.
[Sidenote: Eadmerus. Mariage of prests forbidden. Hen. Hunt.] 1 That preests should no more be suffered to haue wiues, which decree (as saith Henrie of Huntingdon) semed to some verie pure, but to some againe verie dangerous, least whilest diuers of those that coueted to professe such cleannesse and puritie of life as passed their powers to obserue, might happilie fall into most horrible vncleannesse, to the high dishonour of christianitie, and offense of the Almightie.
[Sidenote: Decres instituted in this councell.] 2 That no spirituall person should haue the administration of any temporall office or function, nor sit in iudgment of life and death.
[Sidenote: Against prests that were alehouse hunters.] 3 That preests should not haunt alehouses, and further, that they should weare apparell of one maner of colour, and shooes after a comelie fashion: for a little before that time, prests vsed to go verie vnsemlie.
[Sidenote: Archdeaconries.] 4 That no archdeaconries should be let to farme.
5 That euerie archdeacon should at the least receiue the orders of a deacon.
[Sidenote: Subdeacons.] 6 That none should be admitted to the orders of a subdeacon, without profession of chastitie.
[Sidenote: Prests sons.] 7 That no prests sonnes should succed their fathers in their benefices.
8 That moonks and prests which had forsaken their orders (for the loue of their wiues) should be excommunicated, if they would not returne to their profession againe.
[Sidenote: Prests to weare crowns.] 9 That prests should weare broad crownes.
[Sidenote: Tithes.] 10 That no tithes should be giuen but to the church.
[Sidenote: Benefices.] 11 That no benefices should be bought or sold.
[Sidenote: New chapels.] 12 That no new chappels should be builded without consent of the bishop.
[Sidenote: Consecration of churches.] 13 That no church, should be consecrated except prouision were first had to the maintenance of it and the minister.
[Sidenote: Abbats.] 14 That abbats should not be made knights or men of war, but should slepe & eat within the precinct of their owne houses, except some necessitie mooued them to the contrarie.
[Sidenote: Moonks.] 15 That no moonks should inioyne penance to any man without licence of their abbat, and that abbats might not grant licence, but for those of whose soules they had cure.
16 That no moonks should be godfathers, nor nuns godmothers to any mans child.
[Sidenote: Farmes.] 17 That moonks should not hold and occupie any farmes in their hands.
[Sidenote: Parsonages.] 18 That no moonks should receiue any parsonages, but at the bishops hands, nor should spoile those which they did receiue in such wise of the profits and reuenues, that curats which should serue the cures might thereby want necessarie prouision for themselues and the same churches.
[Sidenote: Contracts.] 19 That contracts made betwene man and woman without witnesses concerning mariage should be void, if either of them denied it.
[Sidenote: Wearing of haire] 20 That such as did weare their heare long should be neuerthelesse so rounded, that part of their eares might appere.
21 That kinsfolke might not contract matrimonie within the seuenth degre of consanguinitie.
[Sidenote: Buriall] 22 That the bodies of the dead should not be buried but within their parishes, least the prest might lose his dutie.
[Sidenote: Fond worshipping of men.] 23 That no man should vpon some new rash deuotion giue reuerence or honour to any dead bodies, fountaines of water, or other things, without the bishops authoritie, which hath bene well knowne to haue chanced heretofore.
24 That there should be no more buieng and selling of men vsed in England, which was hitherto accustomed, as if they had bene kine or oxen.
25 That all such as committed the filthie sinne of Sodomitrie should be accursed by the decre of this councell, till by penance & confession they should obteine absolution. Prouided that if he were a preest or any religious person, he should lose his benefice, and be made vncapeable of any other ecclesiasticall preferment: if he were a laie man, he should lose the prerogatiue of his estate. Prouided also that no religious man might be absolued of this crime, but at the bishops hands.
[Sidenote: The cursse to be read euerie sundaie] 26 That euerie sundaie this cursse should be read in euerie church.
The king also caused some necessarie ordinances to be deuised at this councell, to mooue men to the leading of a good and vpright life.
[Sidenote: S. Bartholomewes by Smithfield founded. Smithfield sometimes a common laiestall & a place of execution. An. Reg. 3.] About the third yeare of K. Henries reigne, the foundation of saint Bartholomews by Smithfield was begun by Raier one of the kings musicians (as some write) who also became the first prior thereof. In those daies Smithfield was a place where they laid all the ordure and filth of the citie. It was also the appointed place of execution, where felons and other malefactors of the lawes did suffer for their misdeeds.
In this third yeare of king Henries reigne the quene was deliuered of a sonne called William.
When the earle of Shrewesburie was banished (as ye haue heard) the state of the realme seemed to be reduced into verie good order and quietnesse: so that king Henrie being aduanced with good successe in his affaires, was now in no feare of danger any maner of waie. [Sidenote: Polydor. The king bestoweth bishopriks. Matth. Paris.] Howbeit herein he somewhat displeased the cleargie: for leaning vnto his princelie authoritie, he tooke vpon him both to nominate bishops and to inuest them into the possession of their ses: amongst whom was one Remclid, bishop of Hereford by the kings ordinance. [Sidenote: Simon Dunel.] This Remclid or Remeline did afterwards resigne that bishoprike to the king, bicause he was pursuaded he had greatlie offended in receiuing the same at a temporall mans hands.
Trulie not onelie king Henrie here in England, but also other princes and high potentates of the temporaltie about the same season, challenged this right of inuesting bishops and other cleargie men, as a thing due vnto them and their predecessors, without all prescription of time, as they alledged, which caused no small debate betwixt them and the spiritualtie, as in that which is written thereof at large by others may more easilie appeere.
[Sidenote: Anselme refuseth to consecrate the bishops inuested by the king.] Howbeit Anselme the archbishop of Canturburie more earnest in this case than any other, would not admit nor consecrate such bishops as were nominated and inuested by the king, making no account of their inuestiture: and further he tooke vpon him to admonish the K. not to violate the sacred lawes, rites and ceremonies of christian religion so latelie decred concerning those matters. But so far was the king from giuing any eare to his admonitions, that he stood the more stiffelie in his chalenge. [Sidenote: Gerard inuested archbishop of Yorke.] And where Thomas the archbishop of Yorke was not long before departed out of this transitorie life, he gaue that benefice then void to one Gerard, a man of great wit, but (as some writers report) more desirous of honor than was requisite for his calling, and willed him in despite of Anselme to consecrate those bishops whom he had of late inuested. [Sidenote: W. Gifford bishop of Winchester. Matth. Paris. Wil. Thorne. Polydor.] This Gerard therefore obeieng his commandement, did consecrate them all, William Gifford bishop of Winchester excepted; who refused to be consecrated at his hands, wherevpon he was depriued and banished the relme. The archbishop Anselme also was quite out of fauour, for that he ceased not to speake against the K. in reproouing him in this behalfe, till time that the king was contented to referre the matter to pope Paschall, and to stand to his decree and determination: [Sidenote: Polydor.] also, that such as he had placed in any bishoprike, should haue licence to go to Rome to plead their causes, whither he promised shortlie to send his ambassadours, and so he did: [Sidenote: 1103. An. Reg. 4.] [Sidenote: Ambassadors sent to Rome.] appointing for the purpose, Herbert bishop of Norwich, and Robert bishop of Lichfield, being both of his priuie councell, and William Warlewast, of whom mention is made before, who went on their waie and came to Rome, according to their commission.
[Sidenote: Anselme goeth also to Rome.] After them also folowed Anselme archbishop of Canturburie, Gerard archbishop of Yorke, & William the elect of Winchester, whom the pope receiued with a courteous kind of interteinement. But Anselme was highlie honored aboue all the residue, whose diligence and zeale in defense of the ordinances of the se of Rome, he well inough vnderstood. The ambassadours in like maner declaring the effect of their message, opened vnto the pope the ground of the controuersie begun betweene the king and Anselme, & with good arguments went about to prooue the kings cause to be lawfull. Vpon the otherside, Anselme and his partakers with contrarie reasons sought to confute the same. Wherevpon the pope declared, that sith by the lawes of the church it was decred, that the possession of any spirituall benefice, obteined otherwise than by meanes of a spirituall person, could not be good or allowable; from thencefoorth, neither the king nor any other for him, should challenge any such right to apperteine vnto them.
The kings ambassadours hearing this, were somwhat troubled in their minds: [Sidenote: Eadmerus. The saieng of Wil. Warlewast to the pope.] wherevpon Willam Warlewast burst out and said with great vehemencie euen to the popes face: "Whatsoeuer is or may be spoken in this maner to or fro, I would all that be present should well vnderstand, that the king, my maister will not lose the inuestitures of churches for the losse of his whole realme." [Sidenote: The popes answer to him.] Vnto which words Paschall himselfe replieng, said vnto him againe: "If (as thou saiest) the king thy maister, will not forgo the inuestiture of churches for the losse of his realme, know thou for certeine, and marke my words well, I speake it before God, that for the ransome of his head, pope Paschall will not at any time permit that he shall enioie them in quiet." At length by the aduise of his councell, the pope granted the king certeine priuileges and customes, which his predecessours had vsed and enioied: but as for the inuestitures of bishops, he would not haue him in any wise to meddle withall: [Sidenote: Polydor.] yet did he confirme those bishops whom the king had alreadie created, least the refusall should be occasion to sowe any further discord.
This businesse being in this maner ordered, the ambassadours were licenced to depart, who receiuing at the popes hands great rewards, and Gerard the archbishop of Yorke his pall, they shortlie after returned into England, declaring vnto the king the popes decre and sentence. The king being still otherwise persuaded, and looking for other newes, was nothing pleased with this matter. Long it was yer he would giue ouer his claime, or yeld to the popes iudgement, till that in processe of time, ouercome with the earnest sute of Anselme, he granted to obeie the popes order herein, though (as it should appeare) right sore against his will.
[Sidenote: Wil. Malm.] In this meane time, the king had seized into his hands the possessions of the archbishop of Canturburie, and banished Anselme, so that he staied at Lions in France for the space of one yeare and foure moneths, during which time there passed manie letters and messages to and fro. [Sidenote: The pope writeth courteouslie to the king.] The pope also wrote to king Henrie in verie courteous maner, exhorting him to call Anselme home againe, and to release his claime to the inuestitures of bishops, wherevnto he could haue no right, sith it apperteined not to the office of any temporall magistrate: adding furthermore, if the king would giue ouer that vngodlie and vsurped custome, that he would shew such frendlie fauour in all things, as by the sufferance of God in any wise he might be able to performe, and further would receiue not onelie him, but also his yoong soone William (whom latelie it had pleased God to send him by his vertuous wife queene Maud) into his protection, so that who so euer did hurt either of them, should be thought to hurt the holie church of Rome.
In one of the letters which the said pope wrote vnto Anselme (after that the king was contented to renounce the inuestitures aforesaid) he willed Anselme, according to the promise which he had made, to assoile as well from sinne as from penance due for the same, both the king and his wife queene Maud, with all such persons of honour as in this behalfe had trauelled with the king to induce him to be agreable to his purpose.
[Sidenote: 1104.] [Sidenote: The earle of Mellent.] [Sidenote: An. Reg. 4.] Moreouer, the earle of Mellent, and Richard de Riuers (who had counselled the king to stand stoutlie in the matter, and not to giue ouer his title of such inuestitures, sith his ancestors had vsed them so long a time before his daies, by reason whereof, in renouncing his right to the same, he should doo a thing greatlie preiudiciall to his roiall estate and princelie maiestie) were now earnest labourers to agree the king and the pope, [Sidenote: The K. persuaded to renounce his title to the inuestiture of prelates. Eadmerus.] in so much that in the end the king was persuaded by Anselme and them to let go his hold, resigning the inuestitures with staffe and ring; notwithstanding that, he reserued the right of elections, and such other roialties as otherwise apperteined to his maiestie, so that such bishops as had doone homage to the king, were not disabled thereby, but quietlie permitted to receiue their iurisdictions.
[Sidenote: Duke Robert commeth into England to visit his brother.] About this time Robert duke of Normandie came into England to see his brother: who through the sugred words and sweet enterteinment of the king, released the yeerelie tribute of 3000. markes, which he should haue had out of the realme vpon agreement (as before ye haue heard) but cheefelie inded at the request of the queene, being instructed by hir husband how she should deale with him that was knowne to be fre and liberall, without any great consideration what he presentlie granted.
Now hauing bene here a certeine time, and solaced himselfe with his brother and sister, he returned into Normandie, where shortlie after he began to repent him of his follie, in being so liberall as to release the foresaid tribute: wherevpon he menaced the king, and openlie in his reproch said that he was craftilie circumuented by him, and fatlie couzened. [Sidenote: Wil. Malm. Factious persons practise to set the two brethren at variance.] Diuerse in Normandie desired nothing more than to set the two brethren at square, and namelie Robert de Belesme earle of Shrewsburie, with William earle of Mortaigne: these two were banished the realme of England. The earle of Shrewesburie for his rebellious attempts (as before you haue heard) [Sidenote: The earle of Mortaigne.] and the earle of Mortaigne left the land of his owne willfull and stubborne mind, exiling himselfe onelie vpon hatred which he bare to the king. For being not contented with the earledome of Mortaigne in Normandie, and the earledome of Cornewall in England, he made sute also for the earledome of Kent, which his vncle Odo sometime held. Now bicause he was not onelie denied of that sute, but also by order of lawe had certeine parcels of land taken from him, which he wrongfullie deteined, he got him into Normandie, and there made war both against those places which the king held, [Sidenote: Richard earle of Chester.] and also against other that belonged to Richard earle of Chester, who was then vnder the kings tuition and gouernement by reason of his minoritie.
The threatning words of duke Robert comming at the last to king Henries eares, caused him foorthwith to conceiue verie sore displeasure against the duke, [Sidenote: A power of men sent into Normandie.] in so much that he sent ouer a power into Normandie, which finding no great resistance, did much hurt in the countrie, by fetching and carieng spoiles and preies. Againe the Normans rather fauoured than sought to hinder the enterprise of king Henrie, bicause they saw how duke Robert with his foolish prodigalitie and vndiscret liberalitie had made awaie all that belonged to his estate; so that of the whole duchie of Normandie, he had not any citie or towne of name left in his owne possession, Roan onelie excepted, which he also would haue alienated, if the citizens would haue consented to his fond motion. [Sidenote: Gemeticensis.]
[Sidenote: 1105.] [Sidenote: The k. passeth ouer to Normandie. An. Reg. 6. Simon Dun. Gemeticensis. Polydor.] Now king Henrie hearing of the good successe of his men, passed ouer himselfe soone after with a mightie armie, and with little adoo tooke Eureux or (as others haue) Baieux and Caen, which cities when he had furnished with sufficient garisons of men, he repassed the sea into England, bicause the winter approched, and the wether waxed troublesome for such as laie in the field. Herevpon duke Robert considering how vnable he was (by reason that his people failed him at ned) to resist king Henrie, sith the Britans also, and they of Aniou, tooke part with the said king, he thought good to laie armour aside, and to passe ouer into England, to entreat with him by way of brotherlie amitie, in full hope by that meanes to auoid this present danger. [Sidenote: 1106. An. Reg. 7.] But at his arriuall here, he learned how the king his brother as then was at Northampton: wherefore he hasted thither, and comming to him, made earnest sute for peace, beseching the king in respect of brotherlie loue to grant the same; or if it were that he regarded not the goodwill of his naturall brother, to consider at least wise what apperteined to his accustomed gentlenesse, and to think with himselfe that warre betwixt brethren could not be mainteined without reproch, nor that victorie be honorable which was obteined against his owne flesh. Wherefore he required him not to refuse peace, freendship, and voluntarie beneuolence, sith he was now readie to render all that euer he had into his hands.
The king nothing mooued herewith, but as one that disdained to make a direct answer, murmured certeine things with himselfe, and turned away from the duke, as one that either by experience knew his brothers light and vnstable mind, or as one that determined to be reuenged of him euen to the vttermost. [Sidenote: The brethren depart in displeasure.] Duke Robert also, abhorring and vtterlie detesting this his brothers pride, streightwaies returned home, purposing with himselfe to the hazard of warre, sith he sawe no hope to be had in brotherlie loue and amitie. Wherevpon he prouided for wars with all his power, seeking aid from all places where he might get any, though the king his brother gaue him small leisure thereto, [Sidenote: K. Henrie passeth into Normandie to pursue his brother.] who followed him incontinentlie with a new supplie of souldiours, desiring nothing more than to get him within his danger.
Soone after, both the brethren approching neere togither, ech of them pitched their campe within the sight of other, preparing themselues to giue battell with princelie stomachs. [Sidenote: They ioine in battell.] The king surmounting the duke his brother in number, first bringeth foorth his men in order of battell, and streightwaies the duke likewise, both being readie to trie the matter by dint of sword. Then the one prouoking the other, and the trumpets sounding aloft, the conflict began. The kings souldiers trusting too much in their owne force, by reason of their great multitude, brake their arraie, and assailed their enimies on ech side verie disorderlie: but the Normans being wiselie ordered and instructed by their duke, kept themselues close togither: so that the kings battell, which had without order stept foorth to assaile them, finding sturdie resistance, began now to result or giue backe: for not onelie duke Robert but also William earle of Mortaigne preased foreward amongst their men, and fought valiantlie with their owne hands. Whervpon the king, when he perceiued how his men began to shrinke, cried vpon them to staie, and withall commanded his horssemen to breake vppon the flanks of his enimies battell: which they did, with such violence that they disparkled the same, and caused the enimies to scatter. Herewith also the kings footmen, togither with the horssemen inuaded the Normans afresh, who neuerthelesse resisted a while, till being compassed about in maner on euerie side, they began to flee: [Sidenote: The Normans vanquished.] as oftentimes it chanceth, when a few driuen in sunder by a multitude, are assailed on all sides. The king then hauing vanquished his aduersaries, followeth the chase, and maketh great slaughter of them, though not without some losse of his owne: for the Normans despairing of safetie, turned oftentimes againe vpon their pursuers.
[Sidenote: The earle of Mortaigne. Eadmerus. W. Crispine. W. Ferreis. Robert de Estoutuille. The number slaine.] Duke Robert and the earle of Mortaigne fighting most manfullie in the verie prease of enimies, were taken or (as other saie) betraied, and deliuered into their enimies hands: beside which twaine, William Crispine, William Ferreis, Robert Estoutuille the elder, with foure hundreth men of armes, and to the number of 10. thousand footmen were taken. As for the number that were slaine in this battell, there is none that declareth the certeintie: but yet it is reported by diuers writers, that no one battell in those daies was sorer fought, nor with greater bloudshed either in Normandie, or elsewhere.
[Sidenote: Gemeticensis.] Gemeticensis sheweth breefelie, that king Henrie was offended with his brother duke Robert, for alienating the duchie of Normandie his inheritance, & for wasting his reuenues with such riotous demeanour as he vsed, so that he left himselfe nothing but the citie of Roan, which he had not passed to haue giuen awaie also, if the citizens would thereto haue granted their consent. The king (I saie) taking displeasure herewith, went ouer into Normandie, and assuming a mightie power, first besieged Baieux, & then halfe destroieng it, he tooke it by force. After this he tooke Caen also, and then besieged a castell called Tenerchbray perteining to the earle of Mortaigne, during which siege his brother Robert, and the said earle of Mortaigne came with a great multitude of people in hope to be reuenged of the king, and to chase him out of the countrie. But the punishment of God fell so vpon them, that they were both taken, and manie of their freends with them, as Robert de Estoutuille, William de Crispine, and others, who were brought before king Henrie as prisoners. Thus did almightie God grant vnto the king a notable victorie without bloodshed, for he lost not a man: as for his aduersaries, there died in the field not past three score persons.
[Sidenote: Wil. Mal.] This semeth also to agree with that which Wil. Malmesburie writeth: for he saith, that king Henrie with small adoo brought into his hands duke Robert, who with a great troope of men came against him then lodging nere the said castell of Tenerchbray. [Sidenote: Robert de Belesme.] The earle of Mortaigne was also taken, but the earle of Shrewsburie escaped by flight, notwithstanding he was apprehended, as he went about to practise some priuie conspiracie against the king. [Sidenote: The 27. of September chro. de Nor.] This battell was fought (as the same Wil. Malme. affirmeth) vpon a saturdaie, being the daie of S. Michaell, In gloria, and (as maybe thought) by the prouident iudgment of God, to the end that Normandie should be subdued vnto England on that daie, in the which 40. yeares passed, king William the Conquerour first set foot on land at Hastings, when he came out of Normandie to subdue England. [Sidenote: Simon Dun.] Neither dooth Simon Dunelmensis varie in anie thing from Gemeticensis touching the conclusion of this businesse, and the taking of duke Robert.
[Sidenote: Matth. West.] [Sidenote: 1107.] These wars being thus finished, and the countrie set in quiet, which through the mere folie of duke Robert was woonderfullie impouerished, the king receiued the keies of all the townes and castels that belonged either to the duke or the earle of Mortaigne, and furnished the same with garisons to be kept for his behoofe. Hauing thus pacified the countrie of Normandie, he came to Bec or Bechellouin, where archbishop Anselme then remained, whome by mediation of freends he receiued to fauour againe, [Sidenote: Anselme returneth home.] and sending him ouer into England, immediatlie after followed himselfe.
[Sidenote: Duke Robert prisoner in the castell of Cardiff. Gemeticensis.] Duke Robert being also spoiled of his dominions, lands and liberties, was shortlie committed to prison within the castell of Cardiff in Wales, where he remained about the space of 26. yeares, and then died. He gouerned the duchie of Normandie 19. yeares, he was a perfect and expert warrior, & comparable with the best capiteines that then liued, had he bene somwhat more warie and circumspect in his affaires, and therewithall constant in his opinion. [Sidenote: Polydor.] His worthie acts valiantlie and fortunatlie atchiued against the infidels, are notified to the world by manie and sundrie writers to his high commendation and long lasting praise. It is said also, that he was after his taking once set at libertie by king Henrie, and bound to forsweare the realme of England and Normandie, being appointed to auoid within the space of 40. daies, and twelue houres. But bicause he was perceiued to practise somewhat against the king, he was eftsoones taken againe, and hauing his eies put out, committed to prison, where finallie worne through age and grefe of mind, he ended his miserable life. The forme of banishing men out of the realme, was ordeined by Edward the Confessor, and remained as a law in vse till these our daies, for the benefit of them which fled to any church or other priuiledged place, thereby to escape the punishment of death due for their offenses. By a latter custome it was also deuised, that they should beare a crosse in their hand, as a signe that they were pardoned of life, for the holie place sake where they sought for succour.
[Sidenote: Matth. West.] But duke Robert (as it should appeere by that which others write) found no such fauour, saue onlie libertie to walke abroad in the kings forests, parks, and chases nere the place where he was appointed to remaine; so that vpon a daie, as he was walking abroad, he got a horsse, and with all post hast rode his waie, in hope to haue escaped: howbeit his keepers being aduised thereof, followed him with hue and crie, and at length ouertooke him in a medow, where he had laid his horsse vp to the bellie in a quauemire. Then being brought backe, his keepers kept him in close prison, aduertising the king of his demeanour: wherevpon he commanded that the sight of his eies should be put out, but so, as the balles of them should remaine unbroken, for the auoiding of a noisome deformitie that otherwise would ensue, if the glassie tunicles should take hurt.
In his returne out of the holie land, he maried one Sibell, the earle of Conuersans sister in Puglia, hir father hight Roger or Geffrey (as some bookes haue) [Sidenote: Iohn Pike.] and was nephue to Robert Guyshard duke of Puglia, and by hir had issue one sonne named William afterward earle of Flanders, whereof (God willing) more shall be said hereafter.
Here must I leaue duke Robert, and speake somwhat of Anselme the archbishop, who shortlie after his returne into England, receiued letters from pope Paschall, wherein Anselme was authorised to dispose and order things as should seme to him most expedient. Now, whereas the greater and better part of the English clergie consisted of prests sonnes, he committed to his discretion the order to dispense with them; namelie, that such as were of commendable life and sufficient learning, might be admitted to the ministerie, as the necessitie of time and state of the church should require. [Sidenote: Richard prior of Elie.] The pope also by the same letters gaue Anselme authorise to absolue Richard the prior of Elie, vpon his satisfaction pretermitted, and to restore him to the gouernement of the priorie of Elie, if the king thought it conuenient.
[Sidenote: 1107.] About the calends of August, in this yeare 1107, the king held a councell of bishops, abbats, and other lords of his realme in his pallace at London, where in the absence of Anselme, the matter touching the inuestitures of churches, was argued vpon for the space of thre daies togither, and in the end bicause the pope had granted the homages of bishops and other prelats to the king, which his predecessor Urban had forbidden, togither with the inuestitures; the king was contented to consent to the popes will in forbearing the same. So that when Anselme was come, the king in presence of him and a great multitude of his people, granted and ordeined, that from thenceforth no bishop nor abbat should be inuested within the realme of England, by the hand either of the king or any laie man: on the other side it was granted againe by Anselme, that no person elected into the prelacie, should be depriued of his consecration for dooing his homage to the king.
These things thus ordred, the churches which through England had bin long vacant, were prouided of gouernors, which were placed without any inuestiture of staffe or ring. About this time, Anselme consecrated fiue bishops at Canturburie in one day, archbishop William to the se of Winchester, Roger that was the kings chancellor to Salisburie, William Warlewast to Excester, Remaline the quenes chancellor to Hereford, and one Urban to Glamorgan in Wales.
[Sidenote: Polydor. Ran. Higd.] About this season a great part of Flanders being drowned by an exundation or breaking in of the sea, a great number of Flemings came into England, beseching the king to haue some void place assigned them, wherein they might inhabit. [Sidenote: Flemings coming ouer into England, haue places appointed them to inhabit.] At the first they were appointed to the countrie lieng on the east part of the riuer of Twed: but within foure yeres after, they were remooued into a corner by the sea side in Wales, called Penbrokeshire, to the end they might be a defense there to the English against the vnquiet Welshmen.
[Sidenote: Wil. Malms.] It should appeare by some writers, that this multitude of Flemings consisted not of such onelie as came ouer about that time by reason their countrie was ouerflowne with the sea (as ye haue heard) but of other also that arriued here long before, euen in the daies of William the Conquerour, through the freendship of the quene their countriewoman, sithens which time their number so increased, that the realme of England was sore pestered with them: wherevpon king Henrie deuised to place them in Penbrokeshire, as well to auoid them out of the other parts of England, as also by their helpe to tame the bold and presumptuous fiercenesse of the Welshmen. Which thing in those parties they brought verie well to passe: for after they were setled there, they valiantlie resisted their enimies, and made verie sharpe warres vpon them, sometimes with gaine, and sometimes with losse.
[Sidenote: 1108.] [Sidenote: A councell. Sim. Dunel. Eadmerus.] [Sidenote: An. Reg. 9.] In the yeare 1108. Anselme held an other synod or councell, whereat in presence of the king, and by the assent of the earles and barons of the realme it was ordeined.
[Sidenote: Prests are sequestred fro their wiues.] 1 That prests, deacons, and subdeacons should liue chastlie, and kepe no women in their houses, except such as were neere of kin to them.
2 That such preests, deacons, and subdeacons, as contrarie to the inhibition of the councell holden at London, had either kept their wiues, or married other (of whom as Eadmerus saith, there was no small number) they should put them quite away, if they would continue still in their presthood.
3 That neither the same wiues should come to their houses, nor they to the houses where their wiues dwelled: but if they had any thing to say to them, they should take two or thre witnesses, and talke with them abroad in the street.
4 That if any of them chanced to be accused of breaking this ordinance, he should be driuen to purge himselfe with six sufficient witnesses of his owne order, if he were a prest: if a deacon, with foure: and if a subdeacon, with two.
5 That such preests as would forgo seruing at the altar, and holie order (to remaine with their wiues) should be depriued of their benefices, and not suffered to come within the quire.
[Sidenote: Archdeacons and canons.] 6 That such as contemptuouslie kept still their wiues, and presumed to say masse, if being called to satisfaction, they should neglect it, they should then be excommunicated. Within compasse of which sentence all archdeacons and prebendarie canons were comprised, both touching the forgoing of their women, and auoiding of their companie; and also the punishment by the censures of the church, if they transgressed the ordinance.
[Sidenote: Archdeacons to be sworn.] 7 That euerie archdeacon should be sworne, not to take any monie for fauouring any person transgressing these statutes: and that they should not suffer any preests, whome they knew to haue wiues, either to say masse, or to haue any vicars. The like oth should a deane receiue. Prouided that such archdeacons or deanes as refused this oth, should be depriued of their roomes.
[Sidenote: Penance.] 8 That prests, who leauing their wiues, would be content to serue God & the altar, should be suspended from that office, by the space of fortie daies, and be allowed to haue vicars in the meane time to serue for them: and after, vpon performance of their inioined penance by the bishop, they might return to their function.
[Sidenote: Polydor. Philip king of Fran. dead. Lewis le gros K. of France.] In this meane time king Henrie being aduertised of the death of Philip king of France, and not knowing what his sonne Lewes, surnamed Crassus might happilie attempt in his new preferment to the crowne, sailed ouer into Normandie, to see the countrie in good order, and the townes, castels, and fortresses furnished accordinglie as the doubtfull time required. [Sidenote: Ambassadors from the emperour.] Now after he had finished his businesse on that side, he returned into England, where he met with ambassadours sent to him from the emperour Henrie. The effect of whose message was, to require his daughter Maud in mariage vnto the said emperour, wherevnto (though she was not then past fiue yeares of age) he willinglie consented, and shewing to the ambassadours great signes of loue, [Sidenote: Maud the kings daughter fianced vnto the emperour.] he caused the espousals by waie of procuration to be solemnized with great feasts and triumphs. This being ended, he suffered the ambassadors honored with great gifts and princelie rewards to depart.
[Sidenote: Eadmerus. The death of Gerard archbishop of Yorke. Thomas the kings chapleine succeded in that se.] About this time Gerard archbishop of Yorke died, whom one Thomas the kings chapleine succeeded, who for lacke of monie to furnish his iournie, and for other causes (as in his letters of excuse, which he wrot to Anselme it dooth appeere) could not come to Canturburie for to be consecrated of him in so short a time as was conuenient. But Anselme at length admonished him by letters, that without delaie he should dispatch and come to be consecrated. [Sidenote: The doubt of Anselme.] And wheras Anselme vnderstood that the same Thomas was purposed to send vnto Rome for his pall, he doubted, least if the pope should confirme him in his see by sending to him his pall, he would happilie refuse to make vnto him profession of his due obedience. [Sidenote: Anselme writeth to the Pope.] Wherefore to preuent that matter, Anselme wrote to pope Paschall, requiring him in no wise to send vnto the nominated archbishop of Yorke his pall, till he had (according to the ancient customes) made profession to him of subiection, least some troublesome contentions might thereof arise, to the no small disquieting of the English church. He also aduertised pope Paschall, that bicause he permitted the emperour to inuest bishops, and did not therefore excommunicate him, king Henrie threatened, that without doubt he would resume the inuestitures into his hands, thinking to hold them in quiet as well as he; and therefore besought him to consider what his wisedome had to doo therein with sped, least that building which he had well erected, should vtterlie decaie, & fall againe into irrecouerable ruine. For K. Henrie maketh diligentlie inquirie (saith he) what order you take with the emperour.
[Sidenote: The popes answer to Anselme.] The pope receiuing and perusing these letters, wrote againe vnto Anselme a verie freendlie answer concerning the archbishop of Yorke. And as for suffering of the emperour to haue the inuestitures, he signified to him that he neither did nor would suffer him to haue them: but that hauing borne with him for a time, he now ment verie shortlie to cause him to feele the weight of the spirituall sword of S. Peter, which alreadie he had drawen out of the scaberd, therewith to strike if he did not the sooner forsake his horrible errour & naughtie opinion.
[Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorke refuseth to come vnto Canturburie to be consecrated.] There was another cause also that moued Anselme to doubt of the archbishop of Yorke his meaning, as after it appeered. For being summoned to come and receiue his consecration at Canturburie (as alreadie yee haue heard) through counsell of the canons Yorke he refused so to doo: bicause they informed him that if he so did, it should be greatlie preiudiciall to the liberties of that se, whose archbishop was of like authoritie in all things vnto the archbishop of Canturburie, so that he was bound onelie to fetch his consecration and benediction at Canturburie, but in no wise to acknowledge anie subiection vnto that se. [Sidenote: Looke in the 15. pa. of the debate betwene Thomas of Yorke & Lanfranke of Canturburie.] For ye must vnderstand, that there was great stomaching betwixt the clergie of the two prouinces, Canturburie and Yorke, about the metropolitane prerogatiue: and euer as occasion serued, and as they thought the fauor of the prince, or opportunitie of time might aduance their quarels, they of Yorke sticked not to vtter their grefes, in that (as they tooke it) some iniurie was offered them therein.
[Sidenote: 1109] The archbishop of Yorke being thus instructed by the canons of his church, signified to archbishop Anselme the cause why he came not at his summons. The copie of a parcell whereof is here exemplified. "Causam, qua differtur sacratio mea, quam nemo studiosius qum ego vellet accellerare, qui protulerunt, non desistunt corroborare. Quamobrem, qum periculosum & qum turpe sit, contra consensum ecclesi, cui prfici debeo, regimen ipsius inuadere, vestra discretio nouerit. Sed & qum formidabile & qum sit euitandum, sub specie benedictionis maledictionem induere," &c: that is;
"The cause why my consecration is deferred, which no man liuing would wish to be doone with more speed than I my selfe: those that haue prolonged it, ceasse not to confirme. Wherefore how dangerous and how dishonest it should be for me to inuade the gouernment of that church, which I ought to rule, without cosent of the same, your discretion rightwell vnderstandeth. Yea and how dreadful a thing it is, and how much to be auoided to receiue a cursse, vnder colour of a blessing," etc.
Anselme hauing alreadie written twice vnto the said Thomas archbishop of Yorke about this matter, and now receiuing this answer, could not be quiet in mind, and therevpon taking aduice with certeine bishops whom he called vnto him, determined to send two bishops vnto the said Thomas of Yorke: [Sidenote: The bishop of London deane to the archbishop of Canturburie. The bishop of Rochester his chapleine.] and so the bishop of London (as deane to the archbishop of Canturburie) & the bishop of Rochester (as his household chapleine) were sent to commune with him, who met them at his manour of Southwell, where they declared to him the effect of their message: but he deferred his answer, till a messenger which he had sent to the king (as then being in Normandie) was returned, and so without any full answer the bishops came backe againe.
Howbeit shortlie after, there came to Canturburie a messenger on the behalfe of the archbishop of Yorke, with letters inclosed vnder the kings seale, by the tenour whereof the king commanded Anselme, that the consecration of the archbishop of Yorke might staie till the feast of Easter; and if he might returne into England by that daie, he promised (by the aduice had therein of the bishops and barons of his realme) that he would set a direction betwixt them in all matters, whereof anie controuersie had beene moued heretofore: or if he could not returne so soone, he would yet take such order, that brotherlie loue & concord might remaine betwixt them. When he that brought these letters required an answer, Anselme answered, [Sidenote: A stout prelat.] that he would signifie his mind to the king, and not to his maister. Immediatlie therefore as the deane of Chichester sent ouer from Anselme, with a moonke of Bechellouin to the king, to informe him of all the matter, and to besech his maiestie, by his authority to prouide, that no discord should rise to the diuiding of the present state of the church of England. Furthermore, whereas he had commanded him to grant vnto Thomas the archbishop of Yorke, a time of respit; [Sidenote: Anselme sendeth to the king.] he should take for certeine answer, that he would rather suffer himselfe to be cut in peeces, than to grant so much as one hours space on the said Thomas of Yorke, whom he knew alreadie to haue set himselfe vniustlie against the ancient constitutions of holie fathers, and against the Lord himselfe. The messengers declared these things to the king, and brought word backe againe at their returne, that the king had heard their message with fauourable mind, and promised by the power of God, to declare to the world that he coueted vnitie, and not any diuision in the church of England.
[Sidenote: Anselme sick.] All this while Anselme was detained with long and greuous sicknesse, and yet not forgetfull of the obstinate dealing of Thomas of Yorke, he wrote letters vnto him, by vertue whereof he suspended him from exercising all pastorall function, till he had reformed his errour, submitted himselfe to receiue his blessing, and acknowledged his subiection to the church of Canturburie, as his predecessours Thomas and Gerard had doone, and before them other ancients, as custome had prescribed. Thus he charged him, vpon paine of cursing, except he would renounce his archbishops dignitie: for in so dooing he did grant him licence to vse the office and ministerie of a prest (which before time he had taken vpon him) or else not.
In the same letters he prohibited all the bishops within the precinct of the Ile of Britaine, that in no wise they should consecrate him, vpon paine of cursing: and if he should chance to be consecrated by any stranger, that in no wise they should (vnder the like paine) receiue him for archbishop, or communicate with him in any condition. [Sidenote: Letters from Anselme.] Euerie bishop also within the whole Ile of Britaine had a copie of these leters directed to him from Anselme vnder his seale, commanding them to behaue themselues therein according to the contents, and as they were bound by the subiection which they owght to the church of Canturburie. The letters were dated alike in March.
[Sidenote: 1109. An. Reg. 10.] Notwithstanding all this, vpon the 21. of Aprill insuing, Anselme ended his life in the sixteenth yere after his first preferment to that se, being threscore and sixtene yeeres of age. He was an Italian, borne in Piemont, nere to the Alpes, [Sidenote: Augusta Prtoriana.] in a citie called Aosta, he was brought vp by Lanfranke, and before he was made archbishop, was abbat of the monasterie of Bechellouin in Normandie.
[Sidenote: Matth. West. The first erection of the bishoprike of Elie. Eadmerus.] About the same time was the bishops se of Elie erected by the king, who appointed one Haruie to be the first bishop there, who before had bene bishop of Bangor. Cambridgeshire was annexed to that see, which bicause it had of former time belonged to the see of Lincolne, the king gaue vnto the bishop of Lincolne (as it were in recompense) the towne of Spalding which was his owne. [Sidenote: Richard prior of Elie.] The prior of Elie, named Richard, desirous to honour himselfe and his house with the title of a bishops dignitie, procured the erection of that bishoprike, first moouing the king therein, and after persuading with the bishop of Lincolne to grant his good will: but yet yer the matter was brought to perfection, this prior died, and so the said Haruie enioied the roome: [Sidenote: Polydor.] wherein the prouerbe tooke place, that One soweth, but an other reapeth (as Polydor alledgeth it.) But to proced.
[Sidenote: Eadmerus.] Shortlie after the deceasse of Anselme, a Legat came from Rome, bringing with him the pall for the archbishop of Yorke. [Sidenote: A legate from Rome.] Howbeit now that Anselme was dead, the said Legat wist not what to doo in the matter, bicause he was appointed to deliuer the pall first and immediatlie vnto Anselme, and further therein to deale (concerning the bestowing thereof) as should seme good vnto him.
In the feast of Pentecost next insuing, the king returned from Normandie, and held his court at London, where after the solemnitie of that feast, he called an assemblie of the bishops, to vnderstand what was to be doone in the matter, for the consecration of the archbishop of Yorke. Here were the letters shewed which the archbishop Anselme had (a little before his death) directed vnto euerie of the bishops as before yee haue heard. [Sidenote: The earle of Mellent.] Which when the earle of Mellent had read, and vnderstood the effect, he asked what he was that durst receiue any such letters without the kings assent and commandement: [Sidenote: Samson bishop of Worcester.] At length the bishops aduising themselues what they had to doo, required Samson bishop of Worcester to declare his opinion, who boldlie spake these words; "Although this man, who is elected archbishop, is my sonne, whome in times past I begot of my wife, and therfore ought to seeke his aduancement as nature and worldlie respects might mooue me: yet am I more bound vnto the church of Canturburie, my mother, which hath preferred me to this honor that I doo beare, and by the ministerie of a bishoplike office hath made me partaker of that grace, which it hath deserued to enioy of the Lord. Wherefore I would it should be notified vnto you all, that I meane to obeie in euerie condition the commandement conteined in the letters of our father Anselme concerning the matter which you haue now in hand. For I will neuer giue mine assent, that Thomas nominated archbishop of Yorke shall be consecrated, till he haue professed his due and canonicall obedience touching his subiection to [Sidenote: Looke in pa. 15, where you shall se this matter determined.] the church of Canturburie. For I my selfe was present when my brother Thomas archbishop of Yorke, constreined both by ancient customes and inuincible reasons, did professe the like subiection vnto archbishop Lanfranke, and all his successours the archbishops of Canturburie."
[Sidenote: The protestations of the bishops to the king.] These words thus vttered by the bishop of Worcester, all the bishops returned togither, comming before the kings presence, boldlie confessed that they had receiued Anselmes letters, and would not doo any thing contrarie to the tenour of the same. Whereat the earle of Mellent shooke the head, as though he ment to accuse them of contempt towards the king. But the king himselfe vttered his mind, and said, that whatsoeuer other men thought of the matter, he suerlie was of the like mind with the bishops, & would be loth to run in danger of Anselms cursse. Wherefore it was determined, that the elect of Yorke should either acknowledge his subiection to the church of Canturburie, or else forgo his dignitie of archbishop: wherevpon in the end he came to London, and there vpon the 28. daie of Maie was consecrated by Richard bishop of London, as deane to the se of Canturburie. Then hauing the profession or protestation of his subiection to the se of Canturburie deliuered him vnder seale, he brake vp the same, and read the writing in maner and forme following:
[Sidenote: The tenour of the profession which the archbishop of Yorke made vnto the archbishop of Canturburie.] "Ego Thomas Eboracensis ecclesi consecrandus metropolitanus, profiteor subiectionem & canonicam obedientiam sanct Dorobernensi ecclesi, & eiusdem ecclesi primati canonic electo & consecrato, & successoribus suis canonic inthronizatis, salua fidelitate domini mei Henrici regis Anglorum, & salua obedientia ex parte mea tenenda, quam Thomas antecessor meus sanct Roman ecclesi ex parte sua professus est:" that is;
"I Thomas to be consecrated metropolitane archbishop of Yorke, professe my subiection and canonicall obedience vnto the holie church of Canturburie, and to the primate of the same church, canonicallie elected and consecrated, and to his successours canonicallie inthronized, sauing the faith which I owe vnto my souereigne lord Henrie king of the English, and sauing the obedience to be holden of my part, which Thomas my predecessour professed on his behalfe vnto the holie church of Rome."
When this writing was read, the bishop of London tooke it, and deliuered it vnto the prior of Canturburie, appointing him to kepe the same as a testimoniall for the time to come. [Sidenote: 1110.] Thus was Thomas the archbishop of Yorke consecrated, being the 27. in number that had gouerned that se, who when he was consecrated, the popes Legate went vnto Yorke, and there deliuered to the same archbishop the pall, wherewith when he was inuested, he departed and returned to Rome, as he was appointed.
At the feast of Christmasse next insuing, the king held his court at London with great solemnitie. The archbishop of Yorke prepared to haue set the crown on the king's head, and to haue soong masse afore him, bicause the archbishops see at Canturburie was void. But the bishop of London would not suffer it, claiming as high deane to the se of Canturburie to execute that office, and so did, leading the king to the church after the maner. [Sidenote: Strife betwixt bishops.] Howbeit when they should come to sit downe at dinner, there kindled a strife betwixt the said two bishops about their places, bicause the bishop of London, for that he had beene ordeined long before the archbishop, and therefore not onelie as deane to the see of Canturburie, but also by reason of prioritie, pretended to haue the vpper seat. But the king perceiuing their maner, would not heare them, but commanded them out of his house, and get them to dinner at their innes.
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 11.] About the same time the cause of the mariage of prests and their keeping of women came againe into question, so that by the kings commandement, [Sidenote: Prests prohibited to marrie or kepe women.] they were more streightlie forbidden the companie of women than before in Anselmes time. For after his deceasse, diuerse of them (as it were promising to themselues a new libertie to doo that which in his life time they were constreined sore against their willes to forbeare) deceiued themselues by their hastie dealing. For the king being informed thereof, by the force of the ecclesiasticall lawes compelled them to stand to and obeie the decree of the councell holden at London by Anselme (as before ye haue heard) at least wise in the sight of men. But if so it be (saieth Eadmerus) that the prests attempt to doo worsse, as it were to the condemnation and reproofe of Anselmes dooings, let the charge light on their heads, sith euerie man shall beare his owne burthen: for I know (saith he) that if fornicatours and adulterers God will iudge, the abusers of their one cousins (I will not say their owne sisters and daughters) shall not suerlie escape his iudgement.
[Sidenote: The riuer of Trent dried vp.] About the same time manie woonders were seene and heard of. The riuer of Trent nere to Notingham, for the space of a mile ceassed to run the woonted course during the time of foure & twentie houres, so that the chanell being dried vp, men might passe ouer to and fro drie shod.
[Sidenote: Monsters.] Also a sow brought foorth a pig with a face like a man, & a chicken was hatched with foure feet. [Sidenote: A comet. Wil. Thorne. Matth. West.] Moreouer a comet or blasing star appered in a strange sort: for rising in the east, when it once came aloft in the firmament, it kept not the course forward, but seemed to go backeward, as if it had bin retrograde.
[Sidenote: Iohn Stow. Robert the kings base son created earle of Glocester.] About this season the king maried Robert his base sonne to the ladie Maud, daughter and heire to Robert Fitzham, and withall made his said sonne earle of Glocester, who afterwards builded the castels of Bristow and Cardiff, with the priorie of S. James in Bristow, where his bodie was buried.
[Sidenote: 1111. An. Reg. 12.] In the yeare following, Foulke earle of Aniou, enuieng the prosperous estate of king Henrie, and lamenting the case of duke Robert, [Sidenote: Fabian. The citie of Constances taken. The king passeth into Normandie.] wan the citie of Constances, by corrupting certeine of the kings subiects the inhabitants of the same. Whereof king Henrie being aduertised, passed ouer into Normandie, recouered the said citie, punished the offenders, reuenged himselfe of the earle, and returned into England.
[Sidenote: 1112.] Now, as also before, the king continued his inordinate desire of inriching himselfe, for the fulfilling of which hungrie appetite (called Sacra of the poets Per antiphrasin) he pinched manie so sore, that they ceased not to speake verie ill of his dooings. He did also incurre the misliking of verie manie people, bicause he kept still the se of Canturburie in his hands, and would not bestow it, for that he found sweetnesse in all the profits and reuenues belonging therevnto, during the time that it remained vacant, [Sidenote: The archbishops se of Canturburie in the kings hand foure years.] which was the space of foure yeares, or thereabouts. [Sidenote: 1113. An. Reg. 13.] In like maner, when he was admonished to place some met man in the roome, he would saie, that he was willing to bestow it, but he tooke the longer time, for that he meant to find such a one to prefer therto as should not be too far behind Lanfranke and Anselme in doctrine, vertue and wisedome. And sith there was none such yet to be found, he suffered that se to be void till such could be prouided. [Sidenote: The kings excuse.] This excuse he pretended, as though he were more carefull for the placing of a worthie man, than of the gaine that followed during the time of the vacation. [Sidenote: 1114. An. Reg. 14.] Howbeit not long after, he translated one Richard bishop of London to that archbishoprike, who enioieng it but a while, he gaue the same to one Rafe then bishop of Rochester, [Sidenote: Eadmerus.] and made him archbishop of Canturburie, being the 35. in order that ruled that see. He was elected at Windsor the 26. daie of Aprill, and on the 16. daie of Maie installed at Canturburie, great preparation being made for the feast which was holden at the same. Soone after likewise he sent for his pall to Rome, which was brought from Paschall by one Anselme nephue vnto the late archbishop Anselme. [Sidenote: The popes authoritie not regarded in England.] About this time also the pope found himselfe greued, for that his authoritie was but little estemed in England, & for that no persons were permitted to appeale to Rome in cases of controuersie, and for that (without seeking to obteine his licence and consent) they did kepe their synods & councels about ecclesiasticall affaires, neither would obeie such Legats as he did send, nor come to the conuocations which they held. In so much that one Cono the popes Legat in France had excommunicated all the prests of Normandie, bicause they would not come to a synod which they had summoned. [Sidenote: The bishop of Excester sent to Rome.] Wherevpon the king being somewhat troubled, by aduice of his councell, sent the bishop of Excester to Rome, (though he were then blind) to talke with the pope concerning that matter.
[Sidenote: Thurstane archbishop of Yorke.] Not long after this Thomas the archbishop of Yorke died: after whom succeeded Thurstane, a man of a loftie stomach, but yet of notable learning, who euen at the verie first began to contend with Rafe the archbishop of Canturburie about the title and right of the primasie. And though the king aduised him to stand to the order which the late archbishops of Yorke had obserued, yet he would not staie the matter, sith he saw that archbishop Rafe being sicke and diseased, could not attend to preuent his dooings. [Sidenote: Giles Aldane bishop of S. Ninian.] Thurstane therfore consecrated certeine bishops of Scotland, and first of all Giles Aldane the elect bishop of S. Ninian, who promised and tooke his oth (as the manner is) to obeie him in all things as his primate.
[Sidenote: Floriacensis. Wigorniensis. Worcester burnt. Polydor. The Welshmen inuade the english marshes. K. Henrie entreth into Wales with an armie.] The citie of Worcester about this season was by a casuall fire almost wholie burnt vp and consumed. Which mishap, bicause that citie ioineth nere vnto Wales, was thought to be a signification of troubles to folow by the insurrection of the Welshmen: who conceiuing hope of good speed by their good successe in the wars held with William Rufus, began now to inuade & waste the English marshes. Whervpon king Henrie desirous to tame their hautie stomachs (bicause it was a grefe to him still to be vexed with such tumults and vprisings as they dailie procured) assembled a mightie armie and went into Wales. Now bicause he knew the Welshmen trusted more to the woods and mountains, than to their owne strength, he beset all the places of their refuge with armed men, and sent into the woods certeine bands to laie them waste, & to hunt the Welsh out of their holes. The soldiours (for their parts) neded no exhortation: for remembring the losses susteined afore time at the Welshmens hands, they shewed well by their fresh pursute, how much they desired to be reuenged, so that the Welsh were slaine on each hand, and that in great numbers, till the king perceiued the huge slaughter, & saw that hauing throwne away their armour and weapons, they sought to saue themselues by flight, he commanded the souldiours to ceasse from killing, and to take the residue that were left prisoners, if they would yeld themselues: which they did, and besought the king of his mercie and grace to pardon and forgiue them.
[Sidenote: Garisons placed in Wales by K. Henrie. Floriacensis. Wigorniensis.] The king thus hauing vanquished and ouercome the Welshmen, placed garisons in sundrie townes & castels, where he thought most necessarie, and then returned to London with great triumph. Thither shortlie after came ambassadours from the emperour, requiring the kings daughter affianced (as before you haue heard) vnto him, and (being now viripotent or mariable) desired that she might be deliuered vnto them. [Sidenote: A subsidie raised by the king to bestowe with his daughter. Hen. Hunt. Polydor.] King Henrie hailing heard their sute and willing with sped to performe the same, raised a great tax among his subiects, rated after euerie hide of land which they held, & taking of ech one thre shillings towards the paiment of the monie which was couenanted to be giuen with hir at the time of the contract. Which when the king had leuied, with much more, towards the charges to be emploied in sending hir foorth, he appointed certeine of his greatest peres to safe conduct hir vnto hir husband, who with all conuenient speed conueied hir into Germanie, and in verie honorable maner there deliuered hir vnto the foresaid emperour. [Sidenote: The king goeth ouer into Normandie.] After this, the king went into Normandie, and there created his sonne William duke of that countrie, causing the people to sweare fealtie and obedience to him, whereof rose a custome, that the kings of England from thencefoorth (so long as Normandie remained in their hands) made euer their eldest sonnes dukes of that countrie. When he had doone this with other his businesse in Normandie, he returned into England.
[Sidenote: 1114.] [Sidenote: The sea decreaseth. Wonders. Wil. Thorne.] In this yeare about the fiftenth daie of October, the sea so decreased and shranke from the old accustomed water-markes and coasts of the land here in this realme, that a man might haue passed on foot ouer the sands and washes, for the space of a whole daie togither, so that it was taken for a great woonder. It was also noted, that the maine riuers (which by the tides of the sea vsed to ebbe and flow twice in 24. houres) became so shallow, that in many places men might go ouer them without danger, [Sidenote: Simon Dun. Ran. Higd. Matth. Westm.] and namlie the riuer of Thames was so lowe for the space of a day and a night, that horsses, men, and children passed ouer it betwixt London bridge and the tower, and also vnder the bridge, the water not reaching aboue their knes. Moreouer, in the moneth of December, the aire appeared red, as though it had burned. [Sidenote: 1115. An. Reg. 16.] In like maner, the Winter was verie extreame cold with frosts, by reason whereof at the thawing and breaking of the yce, the most part of all the bridges in England were broken and borne downe.
[Sidenote: 1116. An. Reg. 17.] [Sidenote: Griffin ap Rice dooth much hurt on the marshes. Polydor.] Not long after this, Griffin ap Rees tooke a great preie and bootie out of the countries subiect to the king within the limits of Wales, and burned the kings castels, bicause he would not restore such lands and possessions vnto him as apperteined to his father Res or Rice. Howbeit, the king (notwithstanding this businesse) being not otherwise troubled with any other warres or weightie affaires, deferred his voiage into those quarters, and first called a councell of his lords both spirituall and temporall at Salisburie on the nintenth daie of March, wherein manie things were ordeined for the wealth and quiet state of the land. And first he sware the Nobilitie of the realme, that they should be true to him and his sonne William after his deceasse. Secondlie, he appeased sundrie matters then in controuersie betwixt the Nobles and great Pers, causing the same to be brought to an end, and the parties made freends: the diuision betwixt the archbishops of Yorke and Canturburie (which had long depended in triall, and could not as yet haue end) excepted. [Sidenote: Thurstane refuseth to obey the kings pleasure. Eadmerus.] For ambitious Thurstane would not stand to any decre or order therin, except he might haue had his whole will, so that the king taking displeasure with him for his obstinate demeanor, commanded him either to be conformable to the decre made in Lanfranks time, or else to renounce his miter, which to doo (rather than to acknowledge any subiection to the archbishop of Canturburie) he semed to be verie willing at the first, but afterwards repented him of his speech passed in that behalfe. Now when the councell was ended, and the king went ouer into Normandie, he followed, trusting by some meanes to persuade the king, that he might haue his furtherance to be consecrated, without recognizing any obedience to the se of Canturburie: but the king would not heare him, whereby the matter rested long in sute, as heereafter shall appeare.
Hereby it is plaine (as Polydor saith) how the bishops in those daies were blinded with couetousnesse and ambition, not considering that it was their duties to despise such worldlie pompe, as the people regard, and that their calling required a studious endeuour for the health of such soules as fell to their charge. Neither yet remembred they the simplicitie of Christ, and his contempt of worldlie dignitie, when he refused to satisfie the humor of the people, who verie desirouslie would haue made him a king, but withdrew himselfe, and departed to a mountaine himselfe alone. They were rather infected with the ambition of the apostles, contending one with another for the primasie, forgetting the vocation whereto Christ had separated them, not to rule as kings ouer the gentiles; but to submit their necks to the yokes of obedience, as they had Christ their maister an example and president.
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[Sidenote: The first vse of parlements in England.] Here is to be noted, that before this time, the kings of England vsed but seldome to call togither the states of the realme after any certeine maner or generall kind of processe, to haue their consents in matters to be decreed. But as the lords of the priuie councell in our time doo sit onlie when necessitie requireth, so did they whensoeuer it pleased the king to haue any conference with them. So that from this Henrie it may be thought the first vse of the parlement to haue proceeded, which sith that time hath remained in force, and is continued vnto our times, insomuch that whatsoeuer is to be decreed touching the state of the commonwealth and conseruation thereof, is now referred to that councell. And furthermore, if any thing be appointed by the king or any other person to be vsed for the wealth of the realme, it shall not yet be receiued as law, till by authoritie of this assemblie it be established.
Now bicause the house should not be troubled with multitude of vnlearned comoners, whose propertie is to vnderstand little reason, and yet to conceiue well of their owne dooings: there was a certeine order taken, what maner of ecclesiasticall persons, and what number and sort of temporall men should be called vnto the same, and how they should be chosen by voices of free holders, that being as atturnies for their countries, that which they confessed or denied, should bind the residue of the realme to receiue it as a law. This counsell is called a parlement, by the French word, for so the Frenchmen call their publike assemblies.
[Sidenote: The maner of the parlement in England] The maner of their consulting heere in England in their said assemblies of parlement is on this wise. Whereas they haue to intreat of matters touching the commoditie both of the prince and of the people, that euerie man may haue free libertie to vtter what he thinketh, they are appointed to sit in seuerall chambers, the king, the bishops, and lords of the realme sit in one chamber to conferre togither by themselues; and the commoners called knights for the shires, citizens of cities, and burgesses of good townes in another. These choose some wise, eloquent, and learned man to be their prolocutor or speaker (as they terme him) who propoundeth those things vnto them that are to be talked of, and asketh euerie mans opinion concerning the conclusion thereof. In like sort, when any thing is agreed vpon, and decreed by them in this place (which they call the lower house in respect of their estate) he declareth it againe to the lords that sit in the other chamber called the higher house, demanding likewise their iudgments touching the same. For nothing is ratified there, except it be agreed vpon by the consent of the more part of both those houses. Now when they haue said their minds, and yeelded their confirmation therevnto, the finall ratification is referred to the prince; so that if he thinke good that it shall passe for a law, he confirmeth also by the mouth of the lord Chancelor of the realme, who is prolocutor to the lords alwaies by the custome of that house.
The same order is vsed also by the bishops and spiritualtie in their conuocation houses. For the bishops sit in one place by themselues as in the higher house, and the deanes, archdeacons, and other procurators of the spiritualtie in an other, as in the lower house, whose prolocutor declareth to the bishops what is agreed vpon by them. Then the archbishop (by consent of the more part of them that are assembled in both those conuocation houses) ratifieth and pronounceth their decrees for lawes, remitting (notwithstanding) the finall ratification of them to the temporall houses.
This is the order of the lawgiuing of England; and in such decrees (established by authoritie of the prince, the lords spirituall and temporall, and the commons of this realme thus assembled in parlement) consisteth the whole force of our English lawes. Which decrees are called statutes, meaning by that name, that the same should stand firme and stable, and not be repealed without the consent of an other parlement, and that vpon good and great consideration.
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About this season, one Owin (whome some name prince of Wales) was slaine, [Sidenote: Simon Dun.] as Simon Dunelmen. writeth, but by whom, or in what sort, he sheweth not. In this eightenth yeare of king Henries reigne, on All hallowes daie, or first of Nouember, great lightning, thunder, and such a storme of haile fell, that the people were maruellouslie amazed therwith. Also on the thirtenth of December, there happened a great earthquake, and the moone was turned into a bloodie colour: which strange accidents fell about the middest of the night. At the same time quene Maud, wife to king Henrie departed this life. But now to returne to other dooings.