HENRIE THE SECOND,
The Second Sonne of Geffrey Plantagenet.
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 1.] Henrie the second of that name, a French man borne, the second sonne of Geffrey Plantagenet earle of Aniou, begotten of Maud the empresse, daughter to Henrie the first, [Sidenote: 1154.] began his reigne ouer England the fiue and twentith of October, in the yeare after the creation of the world 5121. and in the yeare after the incarnation of our sauiour 1154. about the beginning of the third yeare of the emperour Frederike the first, the second of pope Anastasius the fourth, the seuenteenth yeare of Lewes the seuenth king of France, and second of Malcolme then king of Scotland. Immediatlie after he was aduertised of the death of king Stephan, he came ouer into England, landing at Ostreham about the seuenth day of December. [Sidenote: N. Triuet. Matth. Paris.] After he had got his companies togither, which by tempest were scattered in his passage, he came first to Winchester, where he receiued homage and fealtie of the Nobles of the realme resorting vnto him. This doone he set foorth towards London, where he was crowned king by Theobald archbishop of Canturburie the twentith daie of December.
[Sidenote: N. Triuet. The archbishop of Rouen.] The archbishop of Rouen, with thre of his suffragans, the archbishop of Yorke, and manie other bishops of England: Theodorus the earle of Flanders, with a great number of other earles, lords and barons were present there at his coronation. [Sidenote: Polydor.] He was at that time about the age of three and twentie yeares, and to win the peoples loue, he spake manie comfortable words vnto them, to put them in hope (as the manner is) that they should find him a louing prince. He vsed the lords also verie courteouslie. [Sidenote: Councellers chosen.] And first of all, after his attining to the crowne, he chose to him councellers of the grauest personages, and best learned in the lawes of the realme, with whose prudent aduice he perused those lawes, and amended them where he thought necessarie, commanding chieflie, [Sidenote: Ran. Higd.] that the lawes established by his grandfather Henrie the first should be obserued: [Sidenote: Thom. Becket lord chancellor] and in manie things he relied vpon the aduice of Theobald archbishop of Canturburie, at whose sute he admitted Thomas Becket to be his chancellour, which Becket the said archbishop had made archdeacon of Canturburie the yeare before.
Moreouer, by the sentence and doome of his councellers, to the intent that peace and quiet order might take place, and be the better mainteined, [Sidenote: An. Reg. 2. 1155] he commanded by waie of publishing a proclamation, [Sidenote: Nic. Triuet. Polydor. Wil. Paruus. Strangers appointed to depart the realme. Aliens auoid the land.] that all strangers (which to get somwhat by the wars had flocked into the realme, during the time of the ciuill discord betweene him and king Stephan) shuld depart home without further delaie: wherefore he appointed them a daie, before the which they should auoid vpon perill that might insue. It was a worlds woonder to se and marke how suddenlie these aliens were quite vanished, as though they had bene phantasmes. Their abiding here was nothing profitable to the subiects of the realme, as they that were accustomed to attempt one shrewd turne vpon an others necke, and thought it lawfull for them so to doo. Amongst them was a great number of Flemings, whom the king hated more than the residue.
[Sidenote: William de Ypres.] By vertue also of this edict, William of Ypres, whom king Stephan (as ye haue heard) had made earle of Kent, was constreined with others to depart the realme, king Henrie seizing all his possessions into his owne hands. [Sidenote: Castels ouerthrowne. Polydor. Matth. Paris.] Diuerse castels were throwne downe and made plaine with the ground at the kings commandement, which priuate men by king Stephans permission had builded, or else for that they stood not in such places as was thought meet and expedient; [Sidenote: Wil. Paruus. Matth. Paris.] yet some he caused to be fortified: and furthermore, tooke into his hands againe such lands and possessions as apperteined to the crowne, and were alienated vnto any manner of person, of what degre so euer he was. This wounded the minds of many with an inward grudge, as well enough perceiuing that the king would looke so nere to his owne commoditie, that nothing should be left for them that might any way be recouered and gotten to his vse.
In this yere queene Elianor being then in the citie of London, on the last of Februarie was deliuered of hir second sonne named Henrie. [Sidenote: N. Triuet. Matth. Paris. Matth. West. William Peuerell disherited.] About the same time also, William Peuerell of Notingham a noble man and of great possessions was disherited by the king for sorcerie and witchcraft, which he had practised to kill Ranulfe earle of Chester, as it was reuealed openlie, and brought to light. In accomplishing of which hainous crime and detestable act, many others were of counsell, and found giltie with him, which escaped not vnpunished.
[Sidenote: Nic. Treuet.] On the tenth of Aprill, king Henrie assembled the peres & great lords of his realme togither at Wallingford, and caused them to sweare allegiance vnto his eldest sonne William: [Sidenote: Matth. Paris. Nic. Treuet. Hugh de Mortimer. The castell of Cleberie.] prouiding, that if he chanced to die, then they should doo the like vnto his brother Henrie. Also whereas Hugh de Mortimer had fensed his castels against king Henrie, he besieged the same, and taking the castell of Cleberie, he destroied it. Wherevpon, the foresaid Hugh shortlie after was at peace with the king, and surrendred to him the two castels of Wigmore and Bridgenorth, which hitherto he had holden. [Sidenote: Roger Fitz Miles.] Moreouer, whereas there was variance kindled betwixt the king, and Roger Fitz Miles of Glocester (who was earle of Hereford) for the lands of Glocester, that variance was also quenched: for after the same Roger was dead, his brother Walter succeeding him in the earldome of Hereford, was constreined to depart with the citie of Glocester, which the king held and reteined in his owne hands.
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 2.] In the second yeare of his reigne, [Sidenote: The king goeth into the north.] king Henrie went to Yorke, and in that countrie tooke into his hands diuers castels which had bene long in possession of priuate men; [Sidenote: The castell of Scarborough.] namelie, the castell of Scarborough, which William earle of Albemarle held, and now was constreined to resign it vp, full sore against his will. [Sidenote: Wil. Paruus. Nic. Treuet. The death of the kings son William.] This yeare William the kings eldest sonne departed this life, and was buried at Reading. The realme of England was brought on all sides into verie good quiet; [Sidenote: Geffrey the kings brother rebelleth.] but yer long, word came to K. Henrie, that his brother Geffrey had begun a rebellion on the other side of the sea. For their father Geffrey (when he died) left thre sonnes behind him, Henrie, Geffrey, and William, ordeining by his testament, when Henrie should haue gotten possession of England and Normandie, that then the countrie of Aniou should remaine vnto Geffrey, and in the meane time, he to haue these three townes, Chinon, Lodun, and Mirabell, to mainteine his estate; and when the time came that the whole heritage should fall vnto him, he might by possession of these three haue a readier meane to come by all the rest. [Sidenote: Wil. Paruus.] Furthermore, fearing least his eldest sonne Henrie (who as then was absent) would not consent to the performance of this his will, he caused certeine bishops and other of the Nobles to sweare, that they should not suffer his bodie to be committed to buriall, till his sonnes had sworne to fulfill his last will and testament in all other things, but especially in this behalfe, wherin he iudged not amisse. For though Henrie was loth to take his oth, yet bicause his fathers bodie should not remaine vnburied, he was contented to sweare.
But after he had obteined the kingdome of England, his couetous desire, increasing still with abundance alreadie obteined, [Sidenote: Pope Adrian an Englishman borne. A dispensatio for an oth. Nic. Treuet.] found meanes to procure of pope Adrian the fourth (who was an Englishman borne) a dispensation for that oth: wherevpon (hauing got licence to depart from the office both of right, law and equitie) neglecting his fathers ordinance, he passed ouer into Normandie, and making war against his brother the said Geffrey, easilie expelled him out of those places, which were assigned him by bequest in his fathers testament, and so tooke the earledome of Aniou into his owne possession. Howbeit, he gaue vnto his said brother a pension of a thousand pounds English & two thousand pounds of the monie of Aniou, with the towne of Lodun, and certeine other lands to liue vpon; who neuerthelesse thinking himselfe euill vsed at the kings hands, rebelled and died.
Here we haue to note the lacke of conscience and religion, not onlie in the pretended successor of Peter in giuing a dispensasion for an oth, but also in his good ghostlie sonne, who was no lesse forward in reuolting from his oth, than the other was willing to acquite him from the force thereof. But if these men had beene profiting scholars in the vniuersitie of the pagans, as they were arrand truants and ranke dullards in the schoole of christians, they might haue learned by profane examples, that as oths are not to be rashlie taken, so they are not to be vnaduisedlie broken. Herevnto alludeth Aristotle in his Metaphysikes, shewing the cause why poetrie hath feigned that the gods in old time vsed to sweare by water, as Jupiter is reported to haue doone in this manner; [Sidenote: Ouid. Met. lib. 1. fab. 6.] —— per flumina iuro Infera sub terra Stygio labentia luco.
To signifie vnto vs, that as water is a verie ancient and excellent element, and so necessarie that without it the life of man cannot consist; euen so we ought to esteme of an oth, than the which we should thinke nothing more religious, nothing more holie, nothing more christian. [Sidenote: Ouid. Met. lib. 3. fab. 8, 9, 10.] Herevnto also tendeth the fable of the transmutation of mariners into Dolphins for periurie: importing thus much for our instruction, that the breaking of an oth, in a case that may preiudice, procureth greeuous punishments from God against them that so lewdlie doo offend. But such is the impudencie of the pope, that he will not grant dispensations onlie for oths, but for incest, for treason, and for any other sinne: which he may doo (as he boasteth) by vertue of his absolute and vniuersall iurisdiction: as we haue latelie in most lamentable sort sene exemplified. But to the course of our storie.
[Sidenote: 1156.] Shortlie after, when king Henrie had dispatched his businesse in Normandie, and made an end of troubles there betwixt him and his brother Geffrey, he returned into England, bicause he receiued aduertisement, that Malcolme king of Scotland began to make war against his subiects that bordered next vnto him, wherevpon he hasted northwards: [Sidenote: King Henrie goeth against the Scots. He wan Carleil and Newcastell and others.] and comming first into Cumberland, he tooke the citie of Carleil, seizing all that countrie into his hands; and going after into Northumberland, he wan the towne of Newcastell, with the castell of Bamburg, and tooke into his possession all that countrie which his mother the empresse had sometimes granted vnto king Dauid, as before ye haue heard: howbeit, bicause he would not seme to offer too much wrong, and be esteemed vnmindfull of former benefites receiued, [Sidenote: The earledome of Huntingto.] he suffered king Malcolme to enioy the earledome of Huntington, which king Stephan had giuen vnto his father earle Henrie, sonne to king Dauid, as before is partlie touched.
[Sidenote: William earle of Mortaigne Matth. Paris. Nic. Treuet.] William also the earle of Mortaigne, and Warren sonne of king Stephan, were compelled to surrender to king Henrie, the castell of Pemsey, the citie of Norwich, and other townes and castels which he held, apperteining to the demeane of the crowne: to whom the king in recompense restored those lands which his father king Stephan held in the daies of king Henrie the first.
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 3. 1157.] [Sidenote: Theodorike earle of Flanders.] About this time Theodorike earle of Flanders (going with his wife vnto Jerusalem) committed his sonne Philip with all his lands, to the custodie of the king of England. Hugh Bigot also resigned his castels into the kings hands.
But whilest king Henrie was about (as before ye haue heard) to recouer and get backe the portions of his kingdome made away and dismembred by his predecessors, he was informed that the Welshmen raised a rebellion against him; [Sidenote: Rebellion of Welshmen. The king inuadeth them.] to represse whose attempts, he hasted foorth with all diligence. Now at his first approch to their countrie, his souldiers being set vpon in the straits, were verie fiercelie put back by the enimies, in somuch that a rumor ran how king Henrie was slaine, which puffed vp the Welshmen with no small hope, and dawnted the Englishmen with great feare. In ded, diuerse of the English nobilitie were slaine, [Sidenote: Eustace Fitz John & Robert de Curey slaine.] and (amongst others) Eustace Fitz John, and Robert de Curey, men of great honor and reputation.
Those which escaped in returning backe, not knowing that the king passed through the straits without danger, declared to their fellowes that followed and were approching to the said straits, that (so farre as they knew) the king and all the residue were lost. [Sidenote: Henrie of Essex.] These newes so discomforted the companies, that Henrie of Essex, which bare the kings standard by right of inheritance, threw downe the same, and fled: [Sidenote: Matth. West. Wil. Paruus. A combat betwixt Henrie de Essex, and Robert de Mountfort. Matth. West.] which dishonorable ded was afterward laid to his charge by one Robert de Mountfort, with whom (by order taken of the king) he fought a combat in triall of the quarrell, and was ouercome: but yet the king qualifieng the rigor of the iudgement by mercie pardoned his life, and appointed him to be a shorne moonke, and put into the abbey of Reading, taking his lands and possessions into his hands as forfeited: howbeit this combat was not tried till about the 9. yeare of this kings reigne.
Now the king, hearing that his armie was discomfited, came to his men, and shewing himselfe to them with open visage, greatlie reuiued the whole multitude, and then proceding against the enimies, his people were afterwards more warie in looking to themselues, [Sidenote: The Welshmen submit themselues.] insomuch that at length (when the K. prepared to inuade the Welshmen both by water & land) they sought to him for peace, and wholie submitted themselues vnto his grace and mercie.
[Sidenote: The castell of Rutland and Basingwerke built. Matth. Paris.] About the same time, king Henrie builded the castell of Rutland, the castell of Basingwerke, and one house also of Templers. In the moneth of September also this yeare, the kings third sonne was borne at Oxenford, & named Richard. [Sidenote: Ann. Reg. 4.] [Sidenote: Thomas Becket lord Chancelor.] [Sidenote: 1158.] This yeare was Thomas Becket preferred to be the kings Chancellor. The king holding his Christmas at Worcester in great royaltie, sat in the church at seruice, with his crowne on his head, as the kings vsed in those daies to doo on solemne feasts: but as soone as masse was ended, he tooke his crowne from his head, [Sidenote: Matth. Paris. The king laieth his crown on the altar.] and set it downe vpon the altar in signe of humblenes, so that he neuer after passed for the wearing of a crowne. [Sidenote: Coine altered.] The same yeare also the king altered his coine, abrogating certeine peeces called basels.
In the moneth of August he went ouer into Normandie, and came to an enteruiew with the French king neere to the riuer of Eata, [Sidenote: Additions to John Pike.] where they intreated of a league, and of a marriage, which was after agred vpon, betwixt Henrie the sonne of king Henrie; and the ladie Margaret, daughter to the French king: [Sidenote: The lord chancellor Becket sent into France. Matth. West.] at which time Thomas Becket (then being the kings chancellor) was sent to Paris in great araie to fetch hir: who among other furnitures had nine long charrets (as Matthew Paris writeth.) Now when this ladie was deliuered to Thomas Becket the lord chancellor, and brought from Paris, she was appointed from thencefoorth to remaine in the house of Robert de Newburge, a Noble man of great honor, vntill such time as the mariage should be solemnized.
After the two kings were departed in sunder, K. Henrie prepared an armie against Conan duke of Britaine, who had seized the citie of Naunts into his hands, after the decease of Geffrey the kings brother, who was earle of Naunts. At length, the same Conan perceiuing himselfe not able to resist the king of England, vpon the daie of the feast of saint Michael the archangell came to king Henrie, and surrendred the citie of Naunts into his hands, with all the whole countrie therevnto belonging. Soone after which resignation, [Sidenote: Geffrey the kings fourth son born.] and vpon the 24. of August, Geffrey the kings fourth sonne was borne of his wife queene Elianor.
In December following, Theobald earle of Blois was accorded with king Henrie, to deliuer to him two of his castels. [Sidenote: Petroke earle of Perch.] Likewise Petroke earle of Perch surrendred two castels vnto king Henrie, which he had vsurped of the demeanes of Normandie in the daies of king Stephan: one of which castels the king gaue him againe, receiuing homage of him for the same.
[Sidenote: Raimond erle of Barzelone. Richard the kings sonne offered to erle Raimonds daughter.] Moreouer king Henrie and Raimond earle of Barzelone met togither at Blaime, where they concluded a league by way of allegiance, so that Richard the sonne of king Henrie should take to wife the daughter of the said Raimond in time conuenient; and that the king of England should giue vnto the said Richard the duchie of Aquitane, & the countie of Poictow. This earle Raimond had married the daughter and heire of the king of Aragon.
In the meane time, a secret grudge that had long depended betwene king Henrie and king Lewes of France did still continue, and though there was a friendship agreed betweene them (as ye haue heard) to haue extinguished the same; [Sidenote: A fained friendship.] yet was it but a fained friendship: for vpon euery new occasion they were readie to breake againe, as it came to passe shortlie after.
[Sidenote: William duke of Aquitaine.] William duke of Aquitane, grandfather to queene Elianor, married the daughter and heire of the earle of Tholouze, and going vnto the warres of the holie land, [Sidenote: Earle of saint Giles otherwise Tholouze.] he engaged that earledome vnto Raimond the earle of saint Giles, and died before he could returne. His sonne William, father to quene Elianor, suffered his earledome to remaine still vnredemed, either for want of sufficiencie, or through negligence and carelesnesse: so that the earle of saint Giles keping possession thereof vnto his dieng daie, left it to his sonne Raimond, who inioyed it likewise. Now when king Lewes (hauing married the foresaid Elianor) demanded restitution as in the right of his wife, earle Raimond flatlie at the first denied to restore it, but after considering his lacke of power to resist the kings puissance, he plied the K. with humble petitions, and so preuailed by faire words; that in the end king Lewes granted him his sister Constance in marriage (which Constance, as ye haue heard, was married before vnto Eustace the sonne of king Stephan) & with hir granted him libertie to reteine the earldome of Tholouze as it were by waie of endowment: whereto the other accorded. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 5. 1159.] [Sidenote: Matth. Paris Matt. Westm.] Howbeit king Henrie hauing married the foresaid quene Elianor, after the diuorse had betwixt hir and king Lewes, made claime to the said countie of Tholouze in the right of his wife. Herevpon earle Raimond, trusting now to the aid of his brother in law king Lewes, denied to restore it; so that king Henrie determined to recouer it by force, and entring by and by into Gascoine with an armie, he drew towards the countrie of Tholouze, & began to inuade the same with great force and courage.
[Sidenote: Wil. Paruus. William Trencheuille.] Diuerse great lords of those parties ioyned with king Henrie in his war which he attempted against the earle of saint Giles, as the earle of Barzelone, and the lord William Thencheuile, a man of great power in those quarters, hauing vnder his rule manie cities, castels and townes, notwithstanding that he had of late lost many of them by violence of the foresaid earle of Tholouze, but now by the aide of king Henrie he recouered them all. [Sidenote: N. Triuet.] Malcolme also king of Scotland came vnto king Henrie, whilest he was foorth in this iournie, to associate him in this businesse.
The earle hearing of king Henries comming with an armie, was put in great feare, and therevpon wrote letters to his brother in law king Lewes, requiring him with all sped possible to come vnto his aid. King Lewes vpon receipt of the letters, & vnderstanding the present danger of the earle, made such hast in continuing his iournie both daie and night, that he came to Tholouze, before king Henrie could arriue there. Which when king Henrie vnderstood, and perceiued how he was preuented, he changed his purpose of besieging the citie, and fell to spoiling of the countrie thereabouts: [Sidenote: The citie of Cahors. N. Triuet. The lord chancellor Becket.] at which time he recouered certaine places that latelie before had reuolted from his gouernment, & (amongst the rest) the citie of Cahors, which he furnished with men, munition and vittels, appointing his chancellor Thomas Becket to the custodie and keeping thereof: he fortified other places also which he had gotten, placing capteines and men of warre to looke vnto the defense of the same. Whilest the king was thus abrode on his iournie in the parties of Aquitaine, [Sidenote: Rob. Houed. William earle of Bullongne.] William earle of Bullongne and Mortaine the sonne of king Stephan, and Haimon earle of Glocester departed this life, which two earles went thither with him.
Finallie, when he had set things at a staie in those parties, he returned towards Normandie, and comming to the citie of Toures, he gaue the order of knighthood vnto Malcolme king of Scotland, and so in the moneth of October he came backe into Normandie, and there augmenting his armie with new supplies, [Sidenote: The countie of Beauuoisin.] entred into the countie of Beauuoisin, burned manie villages in the same, and destroied the strong castell of Gerberie, except one turret, which his souldiers could not take, by reason of the fire and smoke which staied and kept them from it. Moreouer, Simon earle of Auranches deliuered vnto king Henrie such fortresses as he held in France, as Rochfort, Montfort, and such like, which was no small discommoditie and inconuenience to the French king, bicause the garisons placed in those fortresses impeached the passage betwixt Paris and Orleance. [Sidenote: A truce taken.] But shortlie after, a truce was taken to last from the moneth of December, [Sidenote: An. Reg. 6. 1160.] vnto the feast of the holie Trinitie in the yeare next following.
[Sidenote: A peace concluded. A marriage concluded. Matth. Paris. Legats.] In the moneth of Maie also insuing, a peace was concluded vpon the former articles and conditions: for further confirmation whereof, the mariage was solemnized betwixt Henrie the kings sonne being seuen yeares of age, and the ladie Margaret daughter to the French king, being not past three yeares old: as writers doo report. The marriage was celebrated at Newborough on the second daie of Nouember, by the authoritie of two legats of the apostolike se, Henrie bishop of Pisa, and William bishop of Pauia, both preests and cardinals.
[Sidenote: Wil. Paruus. Certeine of the Ualdois came into England being Dutchme.] About the same time came certeine Dutchmen of the sort called Ualdoies ouer into this realme, to the number of thirtie or more, who held opinions in religion contrarie to the faith of the Romane church, for (as one author affirmeth) they which first spred the opinions which these men held, came from Gascoigne, and preuailed so greatlie in setting foorth their doctrine, that they mightilie increased through the large regions of Spaine, France, Italie, and Germanie: simple men (God wote) they were for the most part, as is written of them, and of no quicke capacitie. Howbeit, those which at this time came ouer into England, were indifferentlie well learned, and their principall or ringleader was named Gerard. [Sidenote: A councell at Oxford.] Now also was a councell assembled at Oxford, whereat these dogmatists were examined vpon certeine points of their profession. [Sidenote: The professions of the Ualdoies.] The forsaid Gerard vndertaking to answere for them all, protested that they were good christians, and had the doctrine of the apostles in all reuerence. Moreouer, being examined what they thought of the substance of the godhead and the merits of Christ, they answered rightlie, and to the point; [Sidenote: Their examination & protestation. The Ualdois condemned.] but being further examined vpon other articles of the religion then receiued, they swarued from the church, and namelie, in the vse of the diuine sacraments, derogating such grace from the same, as the church by hir authoritie had then ascribed thereto. To conclude, they would renounce their opinions, in somuch that they were condemned, burned in the forehead with an hot iron, and in the cold season of winter stripped naked from the girdle steed vpward, and so whipped out of the towne; [Sidenote: They are forbidden meat and drinke. They are starued to death.] with proclamation made, that no man should be so hardie as to receiue them into any house, relieue them with meat, drinke, or any other kind of meanes: wherevpon it fell out in fine that they were starued to death through cold and hunger: howbeit in this their affliction they semed to reioise, in that they suffered for Gods cause, as they made account.
[Sidenote: N. Triuet. The first falling out betwixt the K. & Thomas Becket.] The same yeare, Matthew sonne to the earle of Flanders married the ladie Marie the abbesse of Ramsie, daughter to king Stephan, and with hir had the countie of Bullongne. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 7.] [Sidenote: Matth. Paris. Matth. West.] [Sidenote: 1161.] About this mariage grew the first falling out betwixt the king and his chancellor Thomas Becket (as some haue written) but none more than the said Matthew was offended with the said chancellor, bicause he was so sore against the said contract.
King Henrie, shortlie after the marriage was consummate betwixt his sonne & the French kings daughter, got into his hands the castell of Gisors, with two other castels, situate vpon the riuer of Eata in the confines of Normandie and France. For it was accorded betwixt the two kings, that when the marriage should be finished, king Henrie should haue those thre castels, bicause they apperteined to Normandie; [Sidenote: Rog. Houed.] in the meane time, the same castels were deliuered into the hands of Robert de Poiron, Tostes de Saint Omer, and Robert Hastings, thre knights templers, who vpon the consummation of the marriages before said, and according to the trust committed to them, surrendred the possession of the said castels into the hands of king Henrie.
But the French king was not a little mooued, for that king Henrie had seized vpon them without his licence, in so much that he raised a power of armed men, and sent them into Normandie, [Sidenote: Gaguinus. The French & Normans fight.] where they had one cruell conflict aboue the rest with the Normans, till the night parted them in sunder, by meane whereof the Frenchmen withdrew to Chaumount, and the Normans to Gisors. The next daie, as the Frenchmen came foorth againe, purposing to haue won Gisors, they were beaten backe by the Normans, who issued out of the towne to skirmish with them. Thus was the warre renewed betwixt these two princes; [Sidenote: Nic. Triuet.] and by setting on of Theobald earle of Blois, the matter grew to that point, that the English and French powers comming foorthwith into the field, and marching one against an other, they approched so neere togither, that battell was presentlie looked for, first in Ueulgessine, and after in the teritorie of Dune; but yet in the end such order was taken betwixt them, that their armies brake vp.
[Sidenote: Thre knights templers. Rog. Houed.] The three Templers also ran in displeasure of the French king, for the deliuerie of the castels before they knew his mind, so that he banished them the realme of France for euermore: but king Henrie receiued them, and gaue them honorable enterteinement. Some write that there were but two castels, Gisors and Meall, which were thus put into their hands, [Sidenote: Matth. Paris.] and by them deliuered as before is mentioned.
[Sidenote: The death of Theobald archbishop of Canturburie.] About this time Theobald archbishop of Canturburie departed this life, after he had gouerned that se the space of 22. yeares, who at his going to Rome, and receipt of the pall of pope Innocent the second, was also created legat of the see apostolike, which office he exercised so diligentlie, and so much to the auaile of the church, [Sidenote: The power legantine anexed to Cant. Wil. Paru.] that the dignitie of legatship remained euer after to the archbishop of Canturburie by a speciall decre, so that they were intituled Legati nati, that is to say Legats borne (as mine author dooth report.) This Theobald greatlie fauoured Thomas Becket.
This Becket was borne in London, his father hight Gilbert, but his mother was a Syrian borne, and by religion a Saracen: [Sidenote: The authoritie of Becket.] howbeit (no regard had of his parents) he grew so highlie in fauour with the king, and might doo so much in England, [Sidenote: An. Reg. 6.] that he seemed to reigne as if he had beene associat with him also in the kingdome, and being Lord chancellor, the king sent him ouer into England (Richard Lucie being in his companie) with sundrie letters in his fauour, thereby to procure his election to that se: which was brought to passe according to the kings desire at Westminster. [Sidenote: He is consecrated archb. Wil. Paru.] Afterward he was ordeined at Canturburie on saturdaie in Witsunweke, by Henrie bishop of Winchester (although there be that write how Walter bishop of Rochester did consecrate him) which consecration was in the 44. yeare of his age, [Sidenote: 1162.] and in the fift yere after his first aduancement to the office of Lord chancellor, [Sidenote: Quadrilogium ex vita eiusdem Thom.] so that he was the eight and thirtith archbishop which gouerned in that see.
Toward the end of the same yeare, Henrie the kings sonne receiued homage of the barons, first in Normandie, and after in England. [Sidenote: The archbishop a better courtier than a preacher.] In the yeare ensuing, the king his father committed him to archbishop Becket, that he might se him brought vp and trained in maners and courtlie behauiour, as apperteined to his estate: wherevpon the archbishop in iest called him his sonne.
[Sidenote: The quene brought to bed of a daughter.] This yeare Quene Elianor was brought to bed at Rohan of a daughter named Elianor.
[Sidenote: An enteruiew.] [Sidenote: An. Reg. 9. 1163.] [Sidenote: N. Triuet.] In like maner the kings of England and France receiued pope Alexander the third at Cocie vpon Loire with all honor and reuerence, insomuch that they attended vpon his stirrup on foot like pages or lackies, the one vpon his right side, and the other on his left.
Note here the intollerable pride of this antichristian pope in assuming, and the basemindednesse of these two kings in ascribing vnto that man of sinne such dignitie as is vtterlie vnfit for his indignitie. But what will this monster of men, this Stupor mundi, this Diaboli primogenitus & hres not arrogate for his owne aduancement; like yuie climing aloft, & choking the tre by whose helpe it crepeth vp from the root to the top. But the end of this seauen horned beast so extolling and lifting it selfe vp to heauen, is —— Erebo miser claudetur in imo Atque illic miris cruciatibus afficietur.
[Sidenote: Homage of the K. of Scots.] In Januarie ensuing, the king returned into England, and the same yeare the king of Scots did homage vnto Henrie the yonger, and deliuered his yonger brother Dauid to the king his father, with diuerse other the sonnes of his lords and barons in pledge, for assurance of a perpetuall peace to be kept betweene them, with some such castels as he required.
[Sidenote: A councell at Tours.] In the meane time archbishop Thomas went to the councell holden by pope Alexander at Tours in the Octaues of Pentecost, where he resigned his bishoprike into the popes hands (as the fame went) being troubled in conscience for that he had receiued it by the kings preferment. The pope allowing his purpose, committed the same pastorlike dignitie to him againe by his ecclesiasticall power, whereby the archbishop was eased verie well of his greefe, and shortlie after his returne from his councell, seemed desirous to reduce & cause to be restored such rights as he pretended to belong vnto the church of Canturburie, whereby he ran into the displeasure of manie, and namelie of the mightiest.
Moreouer he required of the king the keping of Rochester castell, & the custodie of the tower of London. [Sidenote: The archbish. practiseth treason secretlie. Homage for the castell of Tunbridge.] He alledged also that Saltwood & Hith belonged peculiarlie to the seigniorie of his see. He called Roger earle of Clare vnto Westminster, to doo his homage, vnto him for the castell of Tunbridge: but the earle denied it through the setting on of the king, alledging all the fee thereof to apperteine rather to the king than to the archbishop. Thus was the archbishop troubled, and he grew dailie more and more out of the kings fauour. For yee must vnderstand, that this was not the first nor the second, but the eight time that the king had shewed tokens of his displeasure against him.
After this, vpon the first day of Julie, Rice prince of Southwales, with diuerse other lords and nobles of Wales, [Sidenote: Matth. Paris. Matth. West.] did homage both to the king and to his sonne Henrie at Woodstocke. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 10.] Hamline the kings bastard brother married the countesse of Warren, the widow of William earle of Mortaigne bastard sonne to king Stephan. [Sidenote: Homage of the Welshmen.] [Sidenote: 1164.] [Sidenote: N. Triuet.] This countesse was the sole daughter and heire of William the third earle of Warren, which went with Lewes king of France into the holie land, and there died. Soone after, the Welshmen rebelling with their prince Rice and his vncle Owen, did manie mischefes on the marshes: and by the death of Walter Gifford earle of Buckingham (who deceased this yeare without heire) that earledome came to the kings hands.
On the 20. daie of September were three circles seene to compasse the sun, and so continued the space of thre houres togither: [Sidenote: Matth. Paris.] which when they vanished awaie, two sunnes appeared and sprang foorth after a maruellous maner. Which strange sight the common people imagined to be a signe or token of the controuersie then kindling betwixt the king and the archbishop.
About this time the king called a parlement at Westminster, to treat of matters concerning the commonwealth, [Sidenote: Discord still kindleth betwixt the king and the archb.] wherein great discord arose betwixt the king & archbishop Becket, about certeine points touching the liberties of the church. For the king hauing an earnest zeale vnto iustice, and commanding the iudges to punish offenders without respect, vnderstood by their information, that manie things by them of the spiritualtie (against whome their authoritie might not be extended) were committed contrarie to common order: as theft, rapine, murther, and manslaughter; in so much that in his presence it was made notorious, that sith the beginning of his reigne, [Sidenote: Murthers committed by prests.] aboue an hundred manslaughters had bene committed within his realme of England by prests and men of religious orders. Herevpon being mooued in mind, he set forth lawes against the spiritualtie, wherein he shewed his zeale of iustice. For as the cause proceded from the bishops of that age, so did the fault also, sith contrarie to their owne canons they permitted prests to liue ouer licentiouslie without due correction, [Sidenote: W. Paruus.] studieng onelie to mainteine the liberties and immunities of the church, and not to reforme the irregularitie of the regulars. [Sidenote: Matth. Paris.] Of this crew was one Philip de Broc, a canon of Bedford, who being arreigned before the kings iusticer for a murther, vttered disdainefull words against the same iusticer: which when he could not denie before the archbishop, he was depriued of his prebend, and banished the land for two yeares space.
These things troubled the king, who therefore hauing alreadie set downe such orders as should bridle the spiritualtie from their wicked dooings, thought that if he might get them confirmed in parlement by consent of the bishops and clergie, then the same should take place and be receiued for lawes. [Sidenote: The king meaneth to bridle the spiritualtie fro presumptuous dealing. The prelats against the king. Ger. Dor.] Wherefore he earnestlie required at this parlement that it might be enacted against all such of the spiritualtie, as should be taken and conuicted for any henious offense, they should loose the priuiledge of the church, and be deliuered vnto the ciuill magistrate, who should se them suffer execution for their offences, in like maner as he might any of the kings subiects being laie men. For otherwise the king alledged, that they would boldlie presume to doo much more mischiefe, if after ecclesiasticall discipline, no secular correction should follow. And likelie it was that they would passe but little for their disgrading and losse of their order, who in contempt of their calling would not absteine from committing most mischieuous abhominations and hainous enormities.
Unto these reasons thus proponed by the king (to haue his purpose take effect) the archbishop and his suffragans, with the rest of the bishops, answered verie pithilie, labouring to proue that it was more against the liberties of the church, than that they might with reason well allow. Wherevpon the king being moued exceedinglie against them, demanded whether they would obserue his roiall lawes and customes, which the archbishops and bishops in the time of his grandfather did hold and obeie or not? [Sidenote: Their order saued.] Wherevpon they made answere, that they would obserue them, Saluo ordine suo, Their order in all things saued. But the king being highlie offended with such exceptions, vrged the matter so, that he would haue them to take their oth absolutely, & without all exceptions, but they would none of that. [Sidenote: The king offended with the bishops.] At length he departed from London in verie great displeasure with the bishops, hauing first taken from the archbishop Thomas all the offices and dignities which he enioied since his first being created chancellor.
Howbeit, after this, manie of the bishops seing wherevnto this broile would grow, began to shrinke from the archbishop, and inclined to the king. But the archbishop stood stiflie in his opinion, and would not bend at all, till at length not onelie his suffragans the bishops, [Sidenote: R. Houed.] but also the bishop of Liseux (who came ouer to doo some good in the matter) and the abbat of Elemosina (who was sent from the pope) persuaded him to agree to the kings will, in so much that being ouercome at last with the earnest suit of his freends, [Sidenote: R. Houed.] he came first to Woodstocke, and there promised the king to obserue his lawes, Bona fide, Faithfullie, and without all collusion or deceit.
[Sidenote: 1164.] [Sidenote: Ger. Dor. A councell at Clarendon.] Shortlie after, in the feast of S. Hilarie, a councell was holden at Clarendon, whereto the archbishop, and in manner all the lords spirituall and temporall of the land made their repaire. Here the archbishop would haue willinglie started from his promise, if first the bishops, and after the earles of Leicester and Cornewall, [Sidenote: Ger. Dor.] Robert and Reignald (which Reignald was vncle to the king) and lastlie two knights templers, had not mooued him to yeld to the kings will. But (amongst the rest) these two knights, namelie Richard de Hastings, and Hosteus de Boloigne were verie earnest with him, & at length preuailed, though not for conscience of dutie, wherewith he should haue beene touched; yet with feare of danger, which (by refusing to satisfie the kings will) he should haue brought not onelie vpon himselfe, but also vpon the other bishops there present.
These knights semed to lament his case, as if alreadie they had sene naked swords shaken about his eares. And indeed, certeine of the kings seruants that attended vpon his person after the manner of a gard, went to and fro, rushing vp and downe the chambers, shaking their bright battell axes readie appointed, and looking as if they would forthwith run vpon the bishops. Wherevpon the archbishop being touched with remorse, and seming to striue against his determinat purpose, consented to obey the kings pleasure, and so promised in the word of a prest, [Sidenote: Matt. Paris. The archbishop Becket receiueth an oth.] swering furthermore, that he would obserue the kings lawes and customes, without expressing these words, Saluo ordine meo, Mine order saued, which he had vsed before. The like oth did all the bishops take. But the archbishop refused at that time to seale to the writing that conteined the articles of the oth which he should haue obserued, requiring as it were a time to consider of them, sith in so weightie a matter nothing ought to be doone without good and deliberate aduice, wherefore he tooke with him a copie thereof, and so did the archbishop of Yorke an other, and the third remained with the king.
[Sidenote: He repenteth him in that he had receiued an oth. Matth. Paris.] Shortlie after, the archbishop considering further of this oth which he had taken, repented himselfe greeuouslie therof, in so much that he absteined from saieng of masse, till he had by confession and fruits of penance (as saith Matth. Paris) obteined absolution of the pope. For addressing and sending out messengers with all sped vnto the pope, with a certificat of the whole matter as it laie, he required to be assoiled of the bond which he had vnaduisedlie entred into. This suit was soone granted, in so much that the pope directed his especiall letters vnto him, conteining the same absolution in verie ample and large manner, as Matth. Paris dooth report. And thus began a new broile.
The archbishop in the meane time, perceiuing that the liberties of the church were now not onelie embezelled, but in maner extinguished, and being loth to make any further attempt against his former dealings, would now (without the kings knowledge) haue departed the realme, wherevpon comming to Romnie, he tooke shipping, [Sidenote: The archbishop Becket would haue fled out of the realme.] to haue passed ouer into France, and so to haue gone to the popes court. But by a contrarie wind he was brought backe into England, and thereby fell further into the kings displeasure than before, in so much that, whereas an action was commensed against him of late for a manor, which the archbishops of Canturburie had of long time held: now the matter was so vsed that the archbishop lost the manor, and was moreouer condemned to paie the arrerages, and thus his troubles increased euen through his owne malapertnesse and brainesicknesse; whereas all these tumults might haue bene composed and laid aslepe, if he had bene wise, peaceable, patient, and obedient. For, [Sidenote: M. Pal. in suo sag.] Vir bonus & sapiens qurit super omnia pacem, Vltque minora pati, metuens grauiora, cautque, Ne paruo ex igni scelerata incendia surgant.
[Sidenote: The archbishop to appeare at Northampton. R. Houed.] In the end, the archbishop was cited to appeere before the king at Northampton, where the king vsed him somewhat roughlie, placing his horsses at his Inne, and laid disobedience to his charge, for that he did not personallie appeare at a certeine place before his highnesse, vpon summons giuen vnto him for the same purpose. Wherevnto though the archbishop alledged that he had sent thither a sufficient deputie to make answere for him; [Sidenote: Sentence giuen against the archbishop.] yet could he not be so excused, but was found giltie, and his goods confiscat to the kings pleasure.
Now when the archbishop heard that sentence was in suchwise pronounced against him; "What maner of iudgement (saith he) is this? Though I hold my peace, yet the age that shall hereafter follow, will not hide it in silence; for sithens the world began, it hath not beene heard, that any archbishop of Canturburie hath bene iudged in any of the king of Englands courts for any maner of cause; partlie in regard of the dignitie and authoritie of his office, and partlie bicause he is spirituallie the father of the king and all his people. This is therefore a new forme and order of iudgement, that the archbishop should be iudged by his suffragans, or the father by his sons."
The next daie the king required of him the repaiment of fiue hundred marks, which he had lent him when he was chancellor. [Sidenote: The archbish. condemned in fiue hundred marks.] Now although he affirmed that he receiued the same by waie of gift, and not by waie of lone; yet bicause he confessed receit, he was condemned in that debt, forsomuch as he could not prooue the title the gift.
[Sidenote: An assemblie of bishops.] On the morrow after, the archbishop with his felow bishops being set in councell, by commandement of the king (& the doores fast locked that they should not get out) this was proponed against the archbishop, that whereas he held certeine bishops ses as then vacant, with abbeies, and other reuenues of his souereigne lord the king in his hands, and had made none account to him for the same of long time; [Sidenote: The archbish. called to an account.] the king required now to be answered at his hands, and that with all sped, for he would haue no delaie. The summe amounted to thirtie thousand markes.
When the archbishop had heard the variable sentences of the bishops in this case, he answered after this maner: "I would (said he) speake with two earles which are about the king," and named them. Who being called, and the doores set open, he said vnto them; "We haue not here at this present to shew whereby the thing may be more manifest: therefore we aske respit for answer till to morrow." The councell therefore brake vp, and the multitude of people, which came with the archbishop thither, being afraid of the kings displeasure, fell from him. Wherefore he caused his seruants to fetch a great number of poore and impotent people to his lodging, saieng that by the seruice of such men of warre, a more spedie victorie in short space might be gotten, than by them which in time of temptation shamefullie drew backe. Herevpon his house was filled full, and the tables set with such as his seruants had brought in, out of the lanes and streats abroad.
Upon the tuesdaie, the bishops all amazed and full of care, came vnto him; [Sidenote: The bishops persuade the archbishop to submit himself to the kings pleasure.] and bicause of the displeasure which the king had conceiued against him, counselled him to submit himselfe to the kings will, or else in fine, they told him plainelie, that he would be iudged a periured person; bicause he had sworne vnto the king as to his earthlie souereigne, touching all temporall honor in life, lim, and member; and namelie to obserue all his roiall lawes and customes, which of late he had established.
[Sidenote: The archbish. answer to his brethren.] Wherevnto he answered: "My brethren, ye see how the world roreth against me, and the enimie riseth vp, but I more lament that the sonnes of my mother fight against me. If I should hold my peace, yet would the world come to declare how ye leaue me alone in the battell, and haue iudged against me now these two daies past, I being your father, though neuer so much a sinner. But I command you by virtue of your obedience, and vpon perill of your order, that you be not present in any place of iudgement, where my person may fortune to be adiudged: [Sidenote: He appealeth to the church of Rome.] in testimonie whereof I appeale to our mother the church of Rome. Furthermore, if it chance that temporall men laie their hands vpon me, I charge you likewise by vertue of your obedience, that ye exercise the censures of the church in the behalfe of your father the archbishop as it becommeth you. This one thing know ye well, that the world roreth, the flesh trembleth and is weake, but I (by Gods grace) will not shrinke, nor leaue the flocke committed vnto me."
After this he entred into the church, and celebrated the masse of saint Stephan (otherwise than he was accustomed to doo) with his pall: [Sidenote: He goeth to the court.] which being ended, he put on his sacrificing vestures, with a cope vpon them all, and so went to the court. Furthermore, bicause he was afraid, he receiued the sacrament secretlie with him, and bearing the crosse in his right hand, and the reine of his bridell in his left, he came in that order to the court, where he alighted, and entred the place, still bearing the crosse himselfe, till he came to the kings chamber doore, the other bishops following him with great feare and trembling. Now being come thither, the bishop of Hereford would gladlie haue taken the crosse, and haue borne it before him, but he would not suffer him, saieng: "It is most reason that I should beare it my selfe, vnder the defense whereof I may remaine in safetie: and beholding this ensigne, I ned not doubt vnder that prince I serue."
[Sidenote: He is reputed a traitour.] At length, when the king had exhibited great complaints vnto them all generallie against him, they cried that he was a traitor, sith he had receiued so manie benefits at the kings hands, and now refused to doo him all earthlie honor as he had sworne to doo. To be short, when the bishops came to sit vpon the matter in councell, they appealed to the se of Rome against the archbishop, accusing him of periurie: and in the word of truth bound themselues by promise, to doo what they might to depose him, if they king would pardon them of that iudgement which now hanged ouer the archbishops head. Then comming to the archbishop they said: "Thou wast sometime our archbishop, and we were bound to obeie the: but sith thou hast sworne fealtie to the king, that is, life member, and earthlie honor, & to obserue his lawes and customes, and now goest about to destroie the same, we say that thou art guiltie of periurie, [Sidenote: The bishops disallow their archbishop.] and we will not from hencefoorth obey a periured archbishop. Therefore we cite the by appelation to appeare before the pope, there to answer thine accusors." Then they, appointed him a day, in which they ment to prosecute their appeale. "I heare you well" (said the archbishop).
The princes and peres of the realme did also iudge him a periured person and a traitour. Among whome (manie then being present) the earle of Leicester accompanied with Reignald earle of Cornewall, came vnto him and said; "The king commanded the to come and render an accompt of that which is obiected against the, or else heare thy iudgement." "Judgement?" said the archbishop, [and wherewith rising vp said,] "Naie sonne earle, first heare thou: It is not vnknowne to the how faithfull I haue bene to the king, in consideration whereof he aduanced me to the archbishops see against my will (as God can be my iudge:) for I knew mine owne infirmitie, and I was contented to take it vpon me rather for his pleasure, than for Gods cause, and therefore dooth God both withdraw himselfe and the king from me. In the time of mine election he made me fre, and discharged me of all courtlie bondage. Wherefore as touching those things from which I am fre and deliuered, I am not bound to answer, neither will I. So much as the soule is more worth than the bodie, so much the more art thou bound to obeie God and me, rather than any earthlie creature. Neither will law nor reason permit, that the sonnes should iudge or condemne the father: and therefore I refuse to stand to the iudgement either of the king, or of any other, and appeale to the pope, by whome (vnder God) I ought to be iudged, referring all that I haue vnto Gods protection and his, and vnder the defense of his authoritie I depart out of this place." Hauing thus spoken, went incontinent to take horsse.
Now as he passed on his waie, the kings seruants and others of the court did cast out manie reprochfull words against him, calling him traitor and false forsworne caitife. [Sidenote: Ger. Dor. The stout courage of the archbishop.] At which words turning himselfe, and looking backe with a sterne countenance he said; "That if it were not for his order of priesthood, and that it were lawfull for him, he would surelie clere himselfe of periurie and treason, in defending and mainteining his cause against them with weapon in hand."
When he was come to the vtter gate, he found the same fast locked, whereat they began all to be amazed: but one of his seruants espieng where a bunch of keies tied to a clubs and were hanging on a pin, he tooke them down, & tried which was the right key, by proof whereof he found it at the last, opened the gate, and let the archbishop out, the porters standing still as men amazed, and speaking not one word against it.
Now when he was got out, a great number of poore, weake and impotent people met him, saieng: "Blessed be God, which hath deliuered his seruant from the face of his enimie." Thus with a great rout or companie, and with the clergie, he was honorablie conueied to the abbie of S. Andrews: and looking behind and before him, as he passed thitherward, he said vnto those that went with him; "How glorious a procession dooth bring me from the face of the enimie? Suffer all the poore people to come into the place, that we may make merie togither in the Lord." Hauing thus spoken the people had entrance, so that all the hall, parlours, and chambers being furnished with tables and stooles, they were conuenientlie placed, and serued with vittels to the full.
[Sidenote: Rog. Houed. The archbishop Becket fled awaie in the night.] The verie same night before the cockcrowing he issued foorth by a little posterne gate, and taking with him onelie two moonks of the Cisteaux order, the one named Robert Canne, and the other S. Cayman, with one of his owne seruants called Roger de Broc, he fled awaie disguised in a white vesture and a moonks coule, and changing his name, caused himselfe to be called Dereman, & iourneied still all the night, and by daie laie close in one frends house or other; till at last he got to Sandwich, and there taking ship, he sailed ouer into Flanders, and so went to France, where at the citie of Sens he found pope Alexander, into whose bosome he emptied whole cart lodes of complaints and greeuances.
[Sidenote: Gilbert Follioth bishop of London was sent to the French king.] The king vpon knowledge that the archbishop was fled the realme, sent Gilbert Follioth bishop of London, and William earle of Arundell in spedie ambassage to, the king of France, to signifie vnto him the whole matter and circumstance of the falling out betwixt him and the archbishop, requiring him not to receiue the archbishop into his realme, but this request was little regarded of the French king, as appeared: for the archbishops cause was fauoured of manie, and the blame imputed to king Henrie, so that the archbishop found great grace with the French king, and no small fauour at the hands of the pope.
Now when king Henrie heard that he was accused by the archbishop vnto the pope, [Sidenote: Additions to Iohn Pike. Matth. Paris. Ger. Dor.] he appointed Roger archbishop of Yorke, the aforesaid Gilbert bishop of London, Hilarius bishop of Chichester, Roger bishop of Worcester, Bartholomew bishop of Excester, with diuerse bishops, deanes, archdeacons, & other learned men of good accompt to the number of 15. to passe in ambassage vnto the pope, that they might excuse his dooings, and burden the archbishop with the note of rebellion, whereof he had good proofe.
[Sidenote: Roger archbishop of Yorke with others are sent to the pope.] Being admitted to declare their message in the consistorie before the pope, they opened the whole circumstance of the matter, from the beginning to the end, declaring that betwixt Thomas the archbishop of Canturburie and the king there was a controuersie moued, and by both their consents a daie appointed for the hearing and determining thereof, as iustice should require. At the which daie (by the kings commandement) all the chefest lords of the realme both spirituall and temporall were assembled, to the end that the more generall the meting should be, the more manifest might the discouerie of the fraud and malice of the archbishop appere.
"At the daie appointed (saie they) there came before the catholike prince his presence, the Nobles of his realme: and amongst other, the archbishop the disquieter both of the kingdome & church, who (as one not well assured of the qualitie of his owne deseruings) blessed himselfe with the signe of the crosse at his comming into the court, as though he should haue come before some tyrant or schismaticall person. Notwithstanding all which contemptuous and ambitious behauiour, the kings maiestie was nothing offended, but committed the iudgement of his cause to the faithfull order of the bishops, meaning so to deliuer himselfe of all suspicion of wrong dealing. Then it rested in the bishops hands to make an end of the controuersie, and to set a finall vnion and agrement betwixt them. But the archbishop would none of that, alleging how it should be a derogation to the se apostolike and his metropoliticall dignitie, to stand before the king in iudgement, or anie other temporall magistrate. And albeit (saie they) some diminution or eclipse might haue chanced to the dignitie of the church by that iudgement, yet it had beene his part to haue dissembled the matter for the time, to the end that peace might haue bene restored to the church. He further obiected (ascribing to himselfe the name of father, which seemed to sauour somewhat of arrogancie) that the children ought not to come togither to iudge the fathers cause, but it had bene far more necessarie that the humblenesse of the sons should mitigate the pride and temper the ambition of the father."
To conclude the kings ambassadors made earnest suit, that two legats might be sent from the pope, to haue the hearing & discussing of all the matter betwixt the king and the archbishop without any other appealing. [Sidenote: The kings tale could not be heard.] But the kings tale could not be heard in that court, [Sidenote: The archbishop Becket.] the archbishop hauing alreadie persuaded the pope to the contrarie. For comming to the pope he vttered his complaint as followeth:
[Sidenote: Matt. Paris.] "Most holie father, I doo here come for succour to your audience, lamenting that the state of the church, and the liberties thereof are brought to ruine by the couetous dealing of kings and princes. Wherefore when I thought to resist the disease approching, I was suddenlie called before the king, to render accompts as a laie man about certeine wards, for whom (while I was the kings chancellor) I had notwithstanding giuen accounts; and also, when I was made bishop, and entred into the dignitie of ruling the archbishops se, I was released and discharged of all reckonings and bonds by the kings eldest sonne, and by the cheefe iusticer of the realme: so that now, where I looked to haue found aid, I was destitute thereof, to my great hinderance and vexation. Consider furthermore (I praie you) how my lords and brethren the bishops are readie at the pleasure of the Noble men of the court to giue sentence against me, so that all men being about to run vpon me, I was almost oppressed: and therfore am now come as it were to take breath in the audience of your clemencie, which dooth not forsake your children in their extreme necessitie, before whom I here stand, readie to declare and testifie that I am not to be iudged there, nor yet at all by them. For what other thing should that be, but to plucke awaie the right of the church? What else then to submit spirituall things to temporall? This example therefore once sproong vp, might giue an occasion to manie enormities to follow. The bishops doo say, 'Those things that are Cesars, ought to be restored to Cesar.' But admit that in manie things the king is to be obeied, is he therefore to be obeied in things wherein he is no king? For those belong not to Cesar, but to a tyrant. Wherein if for my sake they would not, yet ought the bishops for their owne sakes to haue resisted him. For what should be the cause of such deadlie and vnnaturall hatred, that to destroie me, they should destroie themselues? Therefore whilest for temporall things they neglect spirituall, they faile in both. Weigh then most holie father, my fleeing awaie, and my persecution, and how for your sake I haue beene prouoked with iniuries, vse your rigour, constraine them to amendement, through whose motion this hath chanced; let them not be borne out by the king, who is rather the obstinate minister, than the finder out of this practise."
The pope hauing heard his words, tooke deliberation in the matter, with the aduice of his cardinals, [Sidenote: The popes answer to the archbishop.] and therevpon answered the archbishop in effect as followeth: "That the lower power may not iudge the higher, and chefelie him whome he is bound to obeie, all the lawes both of God and man doo witnesse, and the ordinances of the ancient fathers doo manifestlie declare: Herevpon we (to whome it apperteineth to reforme disorders) doo clearelie reuerse and make void the iudgement pronounced against you by the barons and bishops, whereby as well against the order of law, as against the customes of the church, your goods were adiudged forfeit, whereas the same goods were not yours, but the churches of Canturburie, ouer which you haue the onelie cure and charge. But if those that haue violentlie entred vpon the possessions and goods of your church, and haue thereby wronged either you or yours, will not vpon admonition giuen to them, make restitution with sufficient amends, then may you (if you shall thinke conuenient) exercise ecclesiasticall iustice vpon them, and we shall allow of that which you shall reasonablie doo in that behalfe. Howbeit as touching the king himselfe we will not giue you any speciall commandement, neither yet doo we take from you any right belonging to your bishoprike office, which you receiued at your consecration. But the king onelie we will spare, and exempt from your excommunications and censures." [Sidenote: The archbish. resigneth his pall.] After these and many by-matters were ouerpassed, the archbishop resigned his pall vnto the pope, but the pope gaue it him againe, and appointed him to remaine at Pountney an abbeie of moonks Cisteaux in the diocesse of Auxerre, till the variance were brought to some good end betwixt the king and him. This was doone in the yeare of our Lord 1164.
The king hauing knowledge by his ambassadors what answer the pope had made, became greuouslie offended in his mind, and therevpon confiscated all the goods that belonged to the archbishop and his complices, and seized their reuenues into his hands, [Sidenote: Ger. Dor.] appointing one Randall de Broc to haue the custodie of all that belonged to the see, which Broc was nothing frendlie to the archbishop, being his knowne enimie of old, but fauoured the moonkes, and would not suffer that they should take wrong or displeasure at any hand.
[Sidenote: 1165.] [Sidenote: Matth. West. Matt. Paris.] In the yeare 1165. queene Elianor was deliuered of a daughter which was named Joane. Also on the 26. daie of Januarie, there chanced a maruellous earthquake in Northfolke, in the Ile of Elie, and in Suffolke, so that men as they stood on the ground were ouerthrowne therewith, and buildings so shaken, that the belles in steples knolled: the like had also chanced in the Aduent season then last before passed.
[Sidenote: The Welshmen make war on the English marshes. Wil. Paruus. Polydor. The king inuadeth Wales.] The Welshmen this yeare spoiled a great part of those countries that bordered vpon them: wherewith the king being sore mooued, leuied an armie with all sped as well of Englishmen as strangers, and (without regard of difficulties and dangers) did go against the rebels, and finding them withdrawne into their starting holes (I meane the woods and strait passages) he compassed the same about in verie forceable maner. The Welshmen perceiuing themselues now to be brought into such ieopardie, as that they could not well deuise how to escape the same, consulted what was best to be doone. After consultation, casting awaie their weapons, they came foorth to the king, asking mercie; which somewhat hardlie they obteined. Few of them were executed in comparison of the numbers that offended: but yet the capteines and chefe authors of this rebellion were so punished, that it was thought they would neuer haue presumed so rashlie to offend him in like sort againe. [Sidenote: Rog. Houed. The seuere punishment vsed by king Henry against the Welshmen.] For (as some writers affirme) he did iustice on the sonnes of Rice or Rees, & also on the sonnes and daughters of other noble men that were his complices verie rigorouslie: causing the eies of the yoong striplings to be pecked out of their heads, and their noses to be cut off or slit: and the eares of the yoong gentlewomen to be stuffed.
But yet I find in other authors, that in this iournie king Henrie did not greatlie preuaile against his enimies, but rather lost manie of his men of warre, both horssemen and footmen: for by his seuere proceeding against them, he rather made them more eger to seke reuenge, than quieted them in any tumult. [Sidenote: Ger. Dor. Ran. Cogge. Cardigan castell woonne by the Welshmen.] They tooke the castell of Cardigan, and in besieging of Briges, the king was in no small danger of his life: for one of the enimies shooting directlie at him, [Sidenote: Hubert de S. Clere conestable of Colchester.] had persed him through the bodie if Hubert de Saint Clere conestable of Colchester, perceiuing the arrow coming had not thrust himselfe betwixt the king and the same arrow, and so preseruing his maister, receiued the stripe himselfe, whereof he died presentlie after, beseching the king to be good lord to one onelie daughter which he had, [Sidenote: William de Languale.] whome the king bestowed in mariage vpon William de Languale, togither with hir fathers inheritance, which William begat of hir a sonne that bare both his name and surname. A president of gratitude & thankfulnes is here committed to memorie. And surelie the king could doo no lesse, than some way requite the venturous courage and hartie zeale of the gentleman, who with the losse of his owne life preserued the king, if not from death, yet from some dangerous wound that might haue put him to extreame anguish and paine. This may incite men to be mindfull of benefits receiued, a virtue no lesse rare than the contrarie is common, and as one saith, —— inueniuntur Quidam sed rari, acceptorum qui meritorum Assidu memores, &c.
[Sidenote: W. Paruus.] But to conclude with this iourneie which king Henrie made at this time against the Welshmen, although by reason of the cumbersome difficulties of the places, he could not enter within the countrie so farre as he wished, yet he so impounded and constreined them to kepe within the woods and mountains, that they durst not come abroad, insomuch that at the length they were glad to sue for peace.
[Sidenote: William king of Scots doth his homage to king Henrie.] William king of Scots, successor of Malcolme (who departed this life in the yeare last past) after he had receiued the crowne of Scotland, came about this present time into England, and finding king Henrie at London, did his homage to him as his predecessour Malcolme had doone before. He made suit also to haue Northumberland restored vnto him, which the king of Englands mother the empresse had in times past giuen vnto king Dauid. But king Henrie gaue diuerse reasons to excuse himselfe whie he might not deliuer that countrie to him at that present, namelie, without consent of a parlement: wherevpon king William perceiuing how the matter went, gaue ouer his suit for that present, meaning (when occasion serued) to attempt the getting thereof by force, sith that by praier and suit he sawe well inough he should not obteine it.
Moreouer, the Scotish king being required by king Henrie to go ouer with him into Normandie, granted so to doo: insomuch that king Henrie, hauing set all things in order within his realme of England, in the Lent following passed ouer into Normandie. [Sidenote: N. Triuet. Matth. Paris. Ger. Dor.] But before he tooke his iourneie, he set foorth a decree consisting of these points in effect as followeth.
[Sidenote: An edict against the archbishop Becket.] 1 That no man should bring any letters or commandement from pope Alexander, or Thomas archbishop of Canturburie into England, conteining an interdiction of the realme: vpon perill to be apprehended and punished as a traitour to the king, and an enimie to the realme.
2 That no religious person or prest should be permitted to passe the seas, or to come into the relme of England, except he had letters of safe conduct from the iusticers for passage ouer, and of the king for his returne from thence.
[Sidenote: Appeales forbidden.] 3 That no man should appeale to the said pope or archbishop, nor by their appointment hold any ple: and if any person were found dooing the contrarie herevnto, he should be taken and committed to prison.
4 That if any maner of person, either spirituall or temporall, were obedient to the sentence of the interdiction, the same person should be banished the realme without delaie, and all his linage with him, so as they should not conueie with them any of their goods, the which togither with their possessions should be seized into the kings hands.
5 That all spirituall persons, which had any benefices within England, should haue warning giuen to returne into England within foure moneths after the same summons pronounced, and that if they failed hereof, then should the king seize vpon their goods and possessions.
6 That the bishops of London and Norwich, should be (and by vertue hereof were) summoned to appeare before the kings iusticers, to make answer for that they had interdicted the lands of erle Hugh, and excommunicated him.
7 That the Peter pence should be gathered and kept.
[Sidenote: The kings of England and France enteruiew. Cro. Sigeb. Matth. Paris.] In the octaues of Easter king Henrie came to an enterview with the French king at Gisors, where they had conference togither of sundrie matters.
[Sidenote: King John borne.] This yeare the quene was deliuered of a sonne named John, who afterward was king of this realme.
[Sidenote: Ger. Dor. A contribution.] Moreouer, king Henrie calling a councell of his bishops and barons in Normandie, caused and ordeined a collection (by their aduise) to be made through all his countries and dominions of two pence in the pound of euerie mans lands and goods, iewels and apparell onelie excepted: to be paid this yeare 1166. and for the space of foure yeares next ensuing, one penie of euerie pound to be paid yearelie: and those that were not worth twentie shillings in goods or lands (being housholders notwithstanding) or bare any office, should paie a penie to this contribution, which was onelie granted for the releefe of the christians in the east parts, and those that warred against the miscreants there. The paiment thereof was appointed to be made in the feast daie of saint Remigius, or within fiftene daies after. It was also ordeined, that all such as departed this life, within the terme that this collection was in force (their debts being paid) should giue the tenth part of the residue of all their goods vnto this so necessarie a contribution.
King Henrie remaining now in Normandie, and vnderstanding that diuerse lords and barons of Maine, and the marshes of Britaine, would not in his absence shew themselues obedient vnto his wife quene Elianor, but were about to practise a rebellion, raised an armie, and went against them, easilie subduing them whom he found obstinate: [Sidenote: The castell of Foulgiers. Matth. Paris.] and besieging the castell of Foulgiers, tooke and vtterlie destroied it.
[Sidenote: Uizeley.] Soone after the archbishop of Canturburie came from Pountney to Uizeley, and there (on Ascension daie) when the church was most full of people, got him into the pulpit, [Sidenote: The archbishop Becket accursed those in England that mainteined the customs of their elders.] and with booke, bell, and candell solemnelie accurssed all the obseruers, defenders, and mainteiners, with the promoters of such customs, as within the realme of England they terme the custome of their elders: amongst others that were accursed, was Richard de Lucie, Richard the archdeacon of Poictiers, Jocelin de Bailleuille, Alane de Neuille, and manie other. But they being absent, & neither called nor conuinced (as they alleged notwithstanding they were thus excommunicated) sent their messengers vnto the archbishop, and appealed from him, and so feared not to enter into their churches.
[Sidenote: R. Houe.] He had before this also written certeine letters vnto his suffragans, denouncing some of these and other persons by expresse name accursed, not onelie for mainteining the matter against him, touching the ancient custome of the realme: but also for the schisme raised in Almaine by Reignald archbishop of Colein, for the which he accursed one John of Oxford. Moreouer, he accursed Ranulfe de Broc, Hugh de S. Clere, & Thomas Fitz Bernard, for violentlie seizing vpon and deteining the goods and possessions belonging to his archbishoprike, without his consent or agrement therevnto.
The king on the other part banished out of England, and all parts of his other dominions, all those persons that were knowen to be of kin vnto the archbishop, both yoong and old: and furthermore sent aduertisement to the abbat of Pountney and to his moonks, with whom the archbishop by the popes appointment remained, that if they kept him stil in their house, he would not faile to banish all the moonks of their order out of England. Now the archbishop, after he had remained there scarse two yeares, departed from thence of his owne accord, and came to the king of France, who courteouslie receiued him, and sent him to the abbeie of saint Columbes neere to the citie of Sens, where he remained a certeine season, as shall be shewed hereafter.
[Sidenote: Matth. Paris.] Shortlie after this, two legats named William of Pauia, and John of Naples both cardinals, [Sidenote: Legats from the pope.] came from the pope to Montmiriall, whom the archbishop suspected rather to fauour the kings cause than his: yet he was contented that they should haue the iudgment thereof committed vnto them: so that first (according to the rules of the church) restitution might be made both to him and his, of such goods as had beene taken from them. For being spoiled, as he was, he would not stand to any iudgement, nor could not be compelled thervnto by any reason (as he said.) Now when the two legats saw that they could not bring any thing to passe, they departed without any thing concluded.
[Sidenote: Comes Sagiensis. N. Triuet. Alerium.] About this time William Taiuan earle of Sagium (by the consent of his sons and nephues) deliuered into the hands of king Henrie the castels of Alerium, and Roch Laberie, with all the appurtenances to the castels belonging.
[Sidenote: Conan duke of Britaine deceasseth. Matt. Paris.] About this season also Conan the duke of Britaine departed this life, leauing behind him no issue, but one onelie daughter begot of his wife the dutchesse Constance, the daughter of the king of Scotland, which succeded him in the estate. [Sidenote: A mariage concluded betwixt Geffrey the kings son and the Duchesse of Britaine. Wil. Paruus.] Wherevpon king Henrie made earnest suit to procure a marriage betwixt hir and his sonne Geffrey, which at length he brought to passe, to the great comfort and contentation of his mind, in that his sonne had by such good fortune atteined to the dukedome of Britaine.
At that season in Britaine were certeine Noble men of such strength and power, that they disdained to acknowledge themselues subiect to any superior, in somuch that through ambitious desire of rule and preheminence, they warred continuallie one against an other, to the great destruction and vtter vndooing of their miserable countrie, so that the land sometime fruitfull by nature, was as it were a wildernes. Wherevpon, those that were the weaker, perceiuing themselues too much oppressed by the stronger, submitted themselues vnto king Henrie, and required his aid and succour. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 13.] King Henrie reioising to haue so good an occasion and opportunitie to reduce them to reason, with all speed aided these supplicants and subdued the resistants, notwithstanding their great puissance, & the strength of the places which they kept.
[Sidenote: 1167.] In the meane while Henrie came ouer to his father, and found him at Poictiers, from whence (shortlie after Easter) he remoued, [Sidenote: N. Triuet. King Henrie inuadeth the erle of Aluergnes lands.] and with an armie entred into the lands of the earle of Aluergnes, which he wasted and spoiled, bicause the said earle had renounced his allegiance to king Henrie, and made his resort to the French king, seking to sow discord betwixt the foresaid two kings: which was kindled the more by a challenge pretended about the sending of the monie ouer into the holie land, which was gathered within the countie of Tours: for the French king claimed to send it, by reason that the church there apperteined to his dominion: and the king of England would haue sent it, bicause it was gathered within the countrie that belonged to his gouernement.
[Sidenote: Ger. Dor. The earle of Bolongne prepareth 600. ships to inuade England.] This yeare a great preparation of ships was made by the earle of Bullongne, to haue inuaded England, but by the warlike prouision of Richard Lucie, lord gouernour of the realme, the sea-coasts were so prouided of sufficient defense, that the earles attempts came to nothing. The cause why he made this brag, was for that the king withheld from him certeine reuenues which he claimed to haue here in England, and therefore he ment to recouer them by force. [Sidenote: The deceasse of the empresse Maud. Matth. West.] The empresse Maud mother to the king of England (a woman in stoutnesse of stomach and warlike attempts more famous than commonlie any of that sex) deceassed this yere the 10. of Septem.
[Sidenote: The se of Lincolne void 17. yeares.] Also Robert bishop of Lincolne departed this life, after whose deceasse the se of Lincolne was vacant by the space of seuentene yeares, the king in all that meane time receiuing the profits. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 14.] [Sidenote: An ambassage from the emperour.] The elect of Colein came ambassadour from the emperour vnto the king of England, requiring to haue one of his daughters giuen in marriage vnto the emperours sonne, and an other of them vnto Henrie duke of Saxonie: which request the K. did willinglie grant, and therevpon was the queene sent for to come ouer into Normandie, and to bring hir sonne the lord Richard and hir daughter the ladie Maud with hir: [Sidenote: 1168.] which ladie was married vnto the duke of Saxonie, in the beginning of the yeare next insuing; [Sidenote: Matth. West.] and had issue by him three sons, Henrie, Otho, and William, of which the middlemost came to be emperour.
The variance still depending betwixt the king and the archbishop of Canturburie: [Sidenote: Debate betwixt the pope and the Emperour. K. Henrie offereth to aid the emperour.] there was also about the same time a great debate betwixt the emperour Frederike the first and pope Alexander the third: whervpon king Henrie wrote to the emperor, and signified vnto him, that he would aid him if ned should require against the pope, who mainteined such a runnagate traitor as the archbishop Becket was. Moreouer at the same time the king caused all his subiects within the realme of England, from the child of twelue yeares old vnto the aged person, to forsweare all obedience that might be pretended as due to the same pope Alexander. The king for the space of two yeares togither, remaining still in Normandie, and in other places beyond the seas, subdued diuerse rebels, as the earle of Angoulesme, Aimerike de Lucignie, and his sonnes Robert and Hugh.
[Sidenote: An enterview betwixt the king of England and king of France.] Also he came to an enterview with the king of France betwixt Pacie and Maunt, where they communed of such iniuries as were thought to be attempted on either part. [Sidenote: The kings meet again to commen of peace.] For the Poictouins had made their resort to the French king, and were confederate with him against their supreme lord king Henrie, and had deliuered pledges for assurance thereof, which pledges the French king would not restore. [Sidenote: A truce.] But yet there was a truce concluded betwixt them, to endure till the feast of S. John Baptist.
[Sidenote: Patrike earle of Salisburie slaine.] About the feast of Easter Patrike the earle of Salisburie was slaine by treason of the Poictouins, and was buried at Saint Hilaries: after whome his sonne William succeeded in the earledome.
The Britons practised rebellions dailie: but king Henrie entring their countrie, wan diuerse strong townes and castels, and brought them at length vnder his subiection. Moreouer in this summer season the two kings met againe at Fert Bernard to treat of peace, but they departed without concluding any agrement at all. For there were manie of the Poictouins and Britons, which tooke part with the king of France, and hauing deliuered vnto him hostages, had a promise made them, that the French king should not conclude an agrement with the king of England without their consent. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 15. 1169.] Hervpon they made warres either vpon other, till finallie (about the feast of the Epiphanie) a peace was accorded betwixt them: [Sidenote: Ger. Dor. N. Triuet.] and then Henrie the king of Englands sonne made his homage vnto the French king for the countie of Aniou: and the French king granted him the office of the Seneschalcie of France, which ancientlie belonged vnto the earles of Aniou. [Sidenote: Geffrey duke of Britaine.] Also Geffrey duke of Britaine did homage to his elder brother the aforesaid Henrie, by commandement of his father, for the duchie of Britaine. And afterwards the same Geffrey went into Britaine, and at Rheines receiued the homage and fealtie of the lords and barons of that countrie.
King Henrie in the meane while subdued certeine rebels in Gascoine, and returning into Normandie, built a goodlie towne and fortresse neere to Haie de Malafrey, ycleped Beauver.
[Sidenote: Haruey de Yuon.] About the same time one Haruey de Yuon, who had married the daughter of one William Goieth, (that died in his iournie which he tooke into the holie land) deliuered certeine castels into the hands of king Henrie, bicause he was in despaire to keepe them against Theobald earle of Chartres, who through the French kings aid, sought to dispossesse him of the same castels: wherevpon the war was renewed betwixt the king of England and the said earle of Chartres. Neuerthelesse king Henrie making no great accompt of those wars, went into Britaine with his sonne Geffrey, where going about the countrie to visit the cities and townes, he reformed many disorders, laieng as it were a maner of a new foundation of things there, fortifieng the castels, cities and townes, and communing in courteous manner with the lords and peres of the countrie, sought to win their good wils: and so in such exercises he spent a great part of the time.
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 16. 1170.] He kept his Christmasse at Nauntes, whither all the great lords and barons of Britaine resorted to him. The solemnitie of which feast being past, he entred into the lands of earle Eudo, and wasted the same, till the said earle submitted himself. At length, after the king had taken order for the good gouernement of Normandie, and his other countries on that side the sea, he returned into England in the first weke of March, but not without great danger, by reason of a tempest that tooke him on the seas, beginning about midnight, and not ceassing till 9. of the clocke in the morning, about which houre he came on land at Portesmouth, not with many of his ships, the rest being tossed and driuen to seke succour in sundrie creks and hauens of the land, and one of them which was the cheefest and newest, was lost in the middle of the flouds, together with 400. persons, men & women: among whome was Henrie de Aguell with two of his sons, Gilbert Sullemuy, and Rafe Beumont the kings physician & houshold seruant.
[Sidenote: Polydor. Dauid was made knight by K. Henrie as Houedon hath.] After this the king held his Easter at Winsor, whither William the Scotish king came with his brother Dauid, to welcome him home, and to congratulat his happie successe in his businesse on the further side the seas. They were honorablie enterteined, and at their departure princelie rewarded. [Sidenote: A prudent consideration of the king.] The king thus returned into England, punished the shiriffes of the land very greuously for their extortion, briberie, and rapine. After this, studieng how to assure the estate of the realme vnto his sons, vpon good consideration remembring that no liuing creature was more subiect to the vncerteintie of death than Adams heires, [Sidenote: Mans nature ambitious.] and that there is ingraffed such a feruent desire in the ambitious nature of man to gouerne, that so oft as they once come in hope of a kingdome, they haue no regard either of right or wrong, God or the diuell, till they be in possession of their desired prey: he thought it not the worst point of wisedome to foresee that which might happen. For if he should chance to depart this life, and leaue his sons yoong, and not able to mainteine wars through lacke of knowledge, it might fortune them through the ambition of some to be defrauded and disappointed of their lawful inheritance. Therefore to preuent the chances of fortune, he determined whilest he was aliue to crowne his eldest sonne Henrie, being now of the age of 17. yeares, and so to inuest him in the kingdome by his owne act in his life time: which deed turned him to much trouble, as after shall appeare.
Being vpon this point resolued, he called togither a parlement of the lords both spirituall and temporall at London, [Sidenote: R. Houed.] and there (on S. Bartholomews daie) proclaimed his said sonne Henrie fellow with him in the kingdome, whom after this on the sundaie following, [Sidenote: Henrie the son crowned the 18. of Julie saith Matth. Paris.] being the fouretenth daie of June 1170. Roger archbishop of Yorke did crowne according to the manner, being commanded so to doo by the king. This office apperteined vnto the archbishop of Canturburie, but bicause he was banished the realme, the king appointed the archbishop of Yorke to doo it, [Sidenote: W. Paruus.] which he ought not to haue doone without licence of the archbishop of Canturburie within the precinct of his prouince (as was alledged by archbishop Becket) who complained thereof vnto pope Alexander, and so incensed the pope, that he being highly moued by his letters, [Sidenote: The archb. of Yorke is forbidden the vse of the sacraments.] forbad not onelie the archbishop of Yorke, but also Gilbert bishop of London, and Jocelin bishop of Salisburie (who were present at the coronation) the vse of the sacraments, which made king Henrie far more displeased with the archbishop Thomas than he was before.
[Sidenote: Matt. Paris. Polydor. The king became seruitor to his sonne.] Upon the daie of coronation, king Henrie the father serued his sonne at the table as sewer, bringing vp the bores head with trumpets before it, according to the maner. Whervpon (according to the old adage, Immutant mores homines cm dantur honores) [Sidenote: Honours change manners.] the yoong man conceiuing a pride in his heart, beheld the standers-by with a more statly countenance than he had ben woont. The archbishop of Yorke, who sat by him, marking his behauior, turned vnto him, & said; [Sidenote: Yong men set vp in dignitie easilie forget themselues.] "Be glad my good sonne, there is not an other prince in the world that hath such a sewer at his table." To this the new king answered, as it were disdainefullie, thus: "Why doost thou maruell at that? My father in doing it, thinketh it not more than becommeth him, he being borne of princelie bloud onlie on the mothers side, serueth me that am a king borne hauing both a king to my father, and a queene to my mother." Thus the yoong man of an euill and peruerse nature, was puffed vp in pride by his fathers vnseemelie dooings.
But the king his father hearing his talke, was verie sorrowfull in his mind, and said to the archbishop softlie in his eare: "It repenteth me, it repenteth me my lord, that I haue thus aduanced the boy." For he gessed hereby what a one he would prooue afterward, that shewed himselfe so disobedient and froward alreadie. But although he was displeased with himselfe in that he had doone vndiscretlie, yet now when that which was doone could not be vndoone, he caused all the Nobles and lords of the realme togither with the king of Scots and his brother Dauid, to doo homage vnto his said sonne thus made fellow with him in the kingdome: but he would not release them of their oth of allegiance, wherein they stood bound to obeie him the father, so long as he liued.
Howbeit some write that he renounced his estate, first before all the lords of the land, and after caused his sonne to be crowned: but in such vncerteine points set foorth by parciall writers, that is to be receiued as a truth, which is confirmed by the order and sequele of things after doone and put in practise. For true it is, that king Henrie the father (so long as his sonne liued) did shew himselfe sometime as fellow with his sonne in gouernement, and sometime as absolute king: and after his sons decease, he continued in the entier gouernment, so long as he liued. But to proced.
The French king hearing that his sonne in law was thus crowned, and not his daughter the wife of Henrie the sonne, [Sidenote: The French king offended.] was highlie offended therewith, and threatned to make war against king Henrie the father, except his daughter Margaret might receiue the crowne also as quene immediatlie.
The cause why she was not crowned, was by reason of hir yoong yeares, and for that she had not as yet accompanied with hir husband. But K. Henrie the father vnderstanding the French kings threats, sailed ouer into Normandie, where whilest they prepared for war on both sides, by the earnest diligence of Theobald earle of Blois, [Sidenote: An enteruiew of the kings. R. Houed.] both the kings came to an enteruiew at Uendosme, where at length they were accorded, vpon promise made by king Henrie, that he would cause his sonne to be crowned againe, and with him his wife the said Margaret the French kings daughter as quene.