RICHARD THE FIRST, Second sonne to Henrie the second.
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 1. 1189.] [Sidenote: Wil. Paruus.] Richard the first of that name, and second sonne of Henrie the second, began his reigne ouer England the sixt day of Julie, in the yere of our Lord 1189. in the seauen and thirteeth yeare of the emperour Frederike the first, in the eleuenth yere of the reigne of Philip the second king of France, and king William surnamed the Lion as yet liuing in the gouernement of Scotland.
This Richard, immediatlie after the solemnities of his fathers funerals were ended, made hast to Rouen, where he was ioifullie receiued, and proclamed duke of Normandie, receiuing the inuesture according to the custome, on the twentith day of Julie. [Sidenote: Matt. Paris.] Then studieng to set all things in good order on that side the sea, he made search where his fathers treasure was preserued, and therevpon attached Stephan de Turnham, who was seneschall or gouernour (as we may call him) of Aniou, [Sidenote: Stephan de Turnham committed to prison.] and committing him to prison, compelled him to make deliuerie of all such summes of monie as he had hid and laid vp in certeine castels by the commandement of the late king his father.
[Sidenote: Matth. Paris. Polydor.] Whilest he was thus occupied, his brother John came to him, to whom he ioifullie gaue the welcome, and besides all other things which his father had bequeathed vnto him by his testament in England, amounting to the value of foure thousand pounds of yearelie rent, with the earledome of Mortaigne, [Sidenote: Isabell daughter to the earle of Glocester married to John y^e kings brother.] he procured a marriage for him (being now a widower) for his further aduancement with the ladie Isabell, daughter to Robert earle of Glocester, which earle had appointed the said John to be his heire as before is mentioned, although Baldwine the archbishop of Canturburie forbad the mariage, [Sidenote: She is named by diuerse authors Hauisia. Matth. Paris. R. Houed.] bicause they were coosens in the third degree of consanguinitie. To Robert earle of Leicester also he restored all his lands which had bene taken from him, and such persons as his father had disherited, he restored likewise to their former rights and possessions, howbeit those had forsaken his father, and taken part with him against his said father, he semed now so much to mislike, that he remooued them vtterlie from his presence, and contrariwise preferred such as had continued faithfull vnto his father in time of the troubles.
[Sidenote: Matt. Paris.] At length, king Richard remembring himselfe of his mother quene Elianor, who had bene separated from the bed of hir husband for the space of sixtene yeares, and was as yet deteined in prison in England, wrote his letters vnto the rulers of the realme, [Sidenote: The kings mother set at libertie.] commanding them to set hir againe at libertie, and withall appointed hir by his letters patents, to take vpon hir the whole gouernment of the kingdome in his absence. The quene being thus deliuered, and hauing now the cheefe authoritie & rule in hir hands, rode in progresse about the realme, to se the estate thereof; and as she passed from place to place, she shewed gladsome countenance to the people wheresoeuer she came, dooing also what she could to pleasure them, that she might thereby win their good willes to hir, and to hir sonne: but speciallie remembring by hir late experience and tast thereof, what an irksome & most greuous thing imprisonment was, she caused the gailes to be opened, and foorthwith set no small number of prisoners at libertie by the way as she passed through the countries, according to the verse of Virgil, Non ignara mali miseris succurrere disco.
In the meane time, king Richard concluding a league with Philip king of France, receiued all those places againe which were taken from his father by the same Philip, togither with his wife Adela, whom vpon suspicion that she had beene dishonested in hir person before, without anie sufficient proofe thereof had, he forsooke, & sent hir home with hir dowrie, and otherwise with great and princelie gifts, most bountifullie inriched, hauing alreadie concluded a marriage with the ladie Berengaria, daughter to Garsias king of Nauarre, who was sent into Sicill vnto hir sister Joane, that he might marrie hir there, as he passed that waie towards the holie land.
Whilest these things passed thus in these parties, the christians in the holie land dailie sent hither for aid, [Sidenote: The 2. kings of England & France determine to go into the holie land] wherevpon the two kings of France and England tooke counsell togither, and determined with all conuenient speed to ioine their powers, & with ships prepared for that purpose to saile into Syria. Hauing thus concluded, they went about to prepare themselues of necessarie prouision for so long a iournie. Now when king Richard had set in order his affaires in Normandie and France, he came ouer into England, [Sidenote: At Southhampton the 21 of August saith Ger. Dor. Rog. Houed. Matth. Paris.] landing at Portesmouth the 13. of August. With him also came his brother John, vnto whom he assigned the castels of Marlebridge, Lutegareshall, Peake, Bollesour, the honor of Wallingford, Tikehill and Eie, with the earledoms of Mortaigne, Dorset, Sumerset, Notingham, Derbie, Deuonshire, and Cornewall, with the earledome of Lancaster, intituling him earle of the same, whereby he was so exalted in state and degree, that he semed in manner of a tetrarch, hauing as it were a fourth part of the realme in gouernance: but yet the king held some of the castels (in those counties and honors thus giuen to his brother) in his owne hands. Moreouer, vnto William Marshall he gaue in marriage the daughter of Richard earle of Chepstow, togither with the earledome which hir father possessed: and to Gilbert Fitz Roger the sonne of Rainfrey he gaue the daughter of William de Lancaster. After he was landed (as before ye haue heard) he hasted to Winchester, where his mother quene Elianor with the most part of the English nobilitie had laine a good space to attend his comming, and there on the euen of the assumption of our ladie, the king was by them receiued with great ioy and triumph.
Here is to be noted, that whilest the quene and lords laie in Winchester waiting for the kings arriuall, Geffrey Riddle the bishop of Elie departed this life. He is named by Geruasius Dorobernensis the proud bishop of Elie: but he might rather haue named him the rich bishop, for he left in his cofers no small quantitie of treasure, of the which thre thousand and two hundred marks came to the kings part towards the charges of his coronation. No maruell though Geruasius spake somewhat in his dispraise, for (as he himselfe confesseth) he was no frend but an enimie to moonks.
But to let this passe, soone after the kings comming into England, he was informed that the Welshmen had broken into the English marshes, and destroyed certeine townes; to represse whose presumptuous attempts he made towards them, but was yet staied for that time, & reuoked by his mother. [Sidenote: His fathers treasure.] At Salisburie he found his fathers treasure, highlie reioising, for that the summe was far greater than he thought it would haue prooued, for besides the pretious stones, apparell, and iewels, it was reported he had there the sum of nine hundred thousand pounds in readie coine. [Sidenote: R. Houed. Gau. Vinsaf. Nic. Triuet. The second of September saith Ger. Dor.] With this good hap king Richard not a little aduanced, came to London on the first of September, where he had appointed prouision to be made for his coronation, and so calling a councell of the Nobles of the realme, he receiued the crowne with all due and accustomed solemnitie, at the hands of Baldwin the archbishop of Canturburie, the third daie of September.
[Sidenote: The order of his coronatio. Matth. Paris.] At his coronation, first the archbishops of Canturburie, Roan, Trier, and Dublin, which were present, with all the other bishops, abbats, and cleargie, apparelled in rich copes, and hauing the crosse, holie water and censures carried afore them, came to fetch him vnto the doore of his priuie chamber, and there receiuing him, they led him vnto the church at Westminster, till he came before the high altar with a solemne procession. [Sidenote: Rog. Houed.] In the middle of the bishops and cleargie went foure barons, bearing candlesticks with tapers, after whom came Geffrey de Lucie bearing the cap of maintenance, and John Marshall next to him, bearing a great and massiue paire of spurs of gold: then followed William Marshall earle of Striguill alis Pembroke, who bare the roiall scepter, in the top wherof was set a crosse of gold: and William de Patrike earle of Salisburie going next him, bare the warder or rod, hauing on the top thereof a doue. Then came thre other earles, Dauid brother to the king of Scots, the earle of Huntington, John the kings brother earle of Mortaigne, and Robert earle of Leicester, ech of them bearing a sword vpright in his hand with the scabberds richlie trimmed and adorned with gold.
The earle of Mortaigne went in the midst betwixt the other two. [Sidenote: Rog. Houed.] After them followed six earles and barons, bearing a checker table, vpon the which was set the kings scochens of armes, and then followed William Mandeuill earle of Albemarle, bearing a crowne of gold a great heigth before the king, who followed the same, hauing Hugh bishop of Durham on the right hand, and Reignold bishop of Bath on the left, ouer whom a canapie was borne: and in this order he came into the church at Westminster, where before the high altar in the presence of the cleargie & the people, laieng his hand vpon the holie euangelists and the relikes of certeine saincts, [Sidenote: The king his oth.] he tooke a solemne oth, that he should obserue peace, honour, and reuerence to almightie God, to his church, and to the ministers of the same all the daies of his life. Also that he should exercise vpright iustice to the people committed to his charge, and that he should abrogate and disanull all euill lawes and wrongfull customes, if anie were to be found within the precinct of his realme, and mainteine those that were good and laudable.
This doone, he put off all his garments from the middle vpwards, his shirt excepted which was open on the shoulders, that he might be annointed. The archbishop of Canturburie annointed him then in thre places, to wit, on the head, on the shoulders, and on the right arme, with praiers in such case accustomed. After this, he couered his head with a linnen cloth hallowed, and set his cap aloft thereon; and then when he had put on his roiall garments and vppermost robe, the archbishop tooke vnto him the sword wherewith he should beat downe the enimies of the church; which doone, two earles put his shoes vpon his feet, and hauing his mantell put on him, the archbishop forbad him on the behalfe of almightie God, not to presume to take vpon him this dignitie except he faithfullie meant to performe those things which he had there sworne to performe. Wherevnto the king made answer, that by Gods grace he would performe them. Then the king tooke the crowne beside the altar, and deliuered it to the archbishop, which he set vpon the kings head, deliuering to him the scepter to hold in his right hand, and the rod roiall in his left hand, & thus being crowned he was brought backe by the bishops and barons, with the crosse and candelsticks, and three swords passing foorth before him vnto his seat. When the bishop that sang the masse came to the offertorie, the two bishops that brought him to the church, led him to the altar, and brought him backe againe.
Finallie when masse was doone, and all things ended in order as was requisit, he was brought with solemne procession into his chamber, where he put off his heauie rich apparell, and put on a crowne and other garments more light and easie, and so went to dinner, whereat wanted no store of meats & drinks, which were serued out in most princelie and bountifull wise.
[Sidenote: Wil. Paruus.] Vpon this daie of king Richards coronation, the Jewes that dwelt in London and in other parts of the realme, being there assembled, had but sorie hap, as it chanced. [Sidenote: The Jewes ment to present him with a rich gift.] For they meaning to honour the same coronation with their presence, and to present to the king some honourable gift, whereby they might declare themselues glad for his aduancement, and procure his freendship towards them, for the confirming of their priuileges & liberties, according to the grants and charters made to them by the former kings: he of a zealous mind to Christes religion, [Sidenote: Matt. Paris.] abhorring their nation (and doubting some sorcerie by them to be practised) commanded that they should not come within the church when he should receiue the crowne, nor within the palace whilest he was at dinner.
But at dinner time, among other that pressed in at the palace gate, diuerse of the Jewes were about to thrust in, [Sidenote: A Jew striken.] till one of them was striken by a Christian, who alledging the kings commandement, kept them backe from comming within the palace. Which some of the vnrulie people perceiuing, and supposing it had bene doone by the kings commandement, tooke lightlie occasion thereof, [Sidenote: The people fall vpon the Jewes and beat them.] and falling vpon the Jewes with staues, bats and stones, beat them and chased them home to their houses and lodgings. Herewith rose a rumor through the citie, that the king had commanded the Jewes to be destroied, and therevpon came running togither, to assault them in their houses, which when they could not easilie breake vp nor enter, by reason the same were strongly builded, [Sidenote: Their houses are set on fire.] they set fire on them, so that diuers houses were consumed, not onelie of the Jewes, but also of their neighbours, so hideous was the rage of the fire. Here we see that Regis ad exemplum totus componitur orbis.
The king being aduertised of this riotous attempt of the outragious people, sent some of his councellours, as Ranulfe de Glanuille lord Justice, and other officers to appease the tumult: but their authoritie was nothing regarded, nor their persuasions any whit reuerenced, but their thretnings rather brought themselues in danger of life among the rude sort of those that were about to spoile, rob, and sacke the houses and shops of the Jewes: to the better accomplishment of which their vnlawfull act, the light that the fire of those houses which burned, gaue after it was once night, did minister no small helpe and occasion of furtherance. [Sidenote: Jewes burnt to death.] The Jewes that were in those houses which were set on fire, were either smoldred and burned to death within, or else at their comming foorth most cruellie receiued vpon the points of speares, billes, swords and gleaues of their aduersaries that watched for them verie diligentlie.
This outrage of the furious and disordered people continued from the middest of the one day, till two of the clocke on the other; the commons all that while neuer ceassing their furie against that nation, but still killing them as they met with any of them, in most horrible, rash and vnreasonable maner. At length, rather wearied with their cruell dooings, than satisfied with spoile, or mooued with respect of reason or reuerence of their prince, they withdrew themselues from their riotous enterprise, after they had executed manie vnlawfull and horrible enormities. This great riot well deserued sore and greuous punishment, but yet it passed ouer without correction, in respect of the great number of the transgressors, and for that the most part of men for the hatred generallie concerned against the obstinate frowardnesse of the Jewes, liked the dooings hereof well inough, interpreting it to be a good token, that the ioifull daie of the kings aduancement to the crowne should be dolefull vnto the Jewes, in bringing them to such slaughter and destruction. Finallie, after that the tumult was ceassed, the king commanded that no man should hurt or harme any of the Jewes, and so they were restored to peace, after they had susteined infinit damage.
The occasion of this tragedie and bloudie tumult (redounding to the Jewes great vexation and pitifull distresse, but to the satisfieng of the peoples furious and vnbridled pronesse to crueltie) sprang principallie from the king, who if he had not so lightlie esteemed of the Jewes when they repaired vnto him with their present, in signe of submission and hope of obteining their sute then purposed to be exhibited; this hurlie burlie had not insued. For it was a violent example & a mightie motiue to the people to maligne the Jewes; as also a hart-grefe to them in respect of their reiection, when the prince gaue them so discourteous a repulse. Here therefore is to be obserued, that the people is the princes ape, as one verie well saith. For looke whereto he is inclined, note wherein he delighteth; the same is the practise of the people: in consideration whereof the mightie ones of the world haue speciall cause to haue an eie to their course of life, & to set caueats before their actions, that the people may in them se none but good signes of commendable & vertuous imitation. For [Sidenote: Pal. in suo sag.] —— regis imago Vulgus, & ad mores accedere principis optat. Qualis enim rex est talis quoque subditus illi Esse solet populus, studijsque tenetur ijsdem.
[Sidenote: A councell at Pipewell.] Shortlie after, to wit, the 15. day of September, a councell was holden at Pipewell, where the bishops and abbats being assembled, there were in presence of the king and of the archbishop of Canturburie elected certeine bishops and abbats to such places as then were vacant: and amongst other, William de Longchampe the kings chancellor was elected to the se of Elie, [Sidenote: Wil. Paruus.] Geffrey the kings bastard brother vnto the archbishoprike of Yorke, who was the 32. in number that had gouerned the same, Geffrey de Lucie to Winchester, one Hubert Walter to Salisburie, and Richard archdeacon of Elie, and the kings treasurer to the see of London. The abbeies that were prouided of abbats were these, Glastenburie, Shirborne, Persore and Feuersham. [Sidenote: The bishop of Whitherne consecrated. Rog. Houed.] In like manner, John the elect of Whitherne was consecrated bishop of that see, by the hands of the archbishop of Dublin. Also in this councell the king ordeined Hugh bishop of Durham, and William Mandeuille earle of Albemarle, lord chefe iustices of England, hauing deposed Ranulfe de Glanuille from that roome.
Moreouer, the king being thus established in the estate of the kingdome, did not forget his iournie which he had promised into the holie land, but with all diligence made his prouision, and namelie he sought to gather monie to furnish his charges, and so therevpon leuied a tax, engaged, sold, and let to farme his lands, tols, customs, and other his reuenewes, [Sidenote: Matt. Par.] with certeine counties and offices, so that he made an exceeding summe of monie. He also found, that Ranulfe de Glanuille lord chefe iustice, and other of the head magistrates had not behaued themselues vprightlie in the administration of their offices; so that he both deposed the said lord cheefe iustice as is aforesaid, and almost all the shiriffes and their deputies within the realme of England, putting them to greeuous fines for their offenses and transgressions, and so by that meanes he got no small deale of monie.
[Sidenote: Wil. Paruus.] Here note by the waie, how William Paruus affirmeth, that where this Ranulfe Glanuille, being a man of high wisedome and stept into age, saw that, manie things were doone by the new king, not so aduisedlie, nor with such foresight as they ought to be, sought of his owne accord to be discharged of his office, that he might the better prepare himselfe to go in that iournie to the holie land, as by taking vpon him the crosse he had vowed in the daies of king Henrie, and so he solemnelie renounced his office, which other (nothing so worthie of it) did afterwards inioy.
Moreouer, the king vnderstanding that Hugh Putsey or Pudsey bishop of Durham, being a verie aged man, had much monie, [Sidenote: The bishop of Durham Sadberge.] he sold to him the manour of Seggesfield or Sadberge, with the wapentake belonging to the same, and also found meanes to persuade him to buy his owne prouince, which he did, giuing to the king an inestimable summe of monie, [Sidenote: The bishop of Durham made an earle.] and was therevpon created an earle by the king for the same: wherevpon he was intituled both bishop and earle of Durham, whereat the king would iest afterwards and saie; "What a cunning craftesman am I, that haue made a new earle of an old bishop?"
Furthermore, the same bishop gaue to the king a thousand markes to be made chefe iustice of England, and that he might tarrie at home, and not go into the holie land. And bicause he would not be reprooued of any person, he obteined of the apostolike se (which faileth no man that is surcharged with white or red mettall, and would be eased) a licence for a summe of monie to be dispensed with for that iournie. The king thus being earnestlie bent to make commoditie of those things, for the which he might get any monie at all, [Sidenote: The citizens of London present monie to the King. Polydor. Liberties granted to London. Two bailiffes.] the citizens of London presented vnto him a great summe towards the furnishing foorth of his enterprise. Wherevpon to acquite their courtesie, he granted them large priuileges, and ordeined that the citie should be ruled by two head officers, which they should choose amongst themselues remoueable from yeare to yeare by the name of bailiffes. The names of the two first bailiffes chosen by force of that ordinance, were Henrie Cornehill, and Richard Fitz Reiner.
The citie before those daies euer since the comming in of William Conquerour, and a good while before his time, [Sidenote: Port Greues.] was gouerned by certeine officers or rulers named Port Greues (which word is deriued of two Saxon words, as Port and Greue. By Port is meant a towne, and by Greue a gardian or ruler, as who should saie, A keper or ruler of a towne.) These rulers with the lawes & customes then vsed within this citie, were registered in a booke called (as some haue said) Doomesdaie, but through negligence after these lawes and customes were changed and altered, the booke was lost, so that the remembrance of such rulers as were before the daies of this Richard the first are not to be had. These bailiffes euer entred at Michaelmasse, and so continued foorth their yeare.
Thus began the citie first to receiue the forme and state of a common-wealth, and to be diuided into felowships, which they call crafts or corporations. Such also are admitted to the fellowships of these companies, [Sidenote: Apprentises.] as haue truelie serued as apprentises a certeine number of yeares, as seuen at the least, vnder which time of seruice expired, there is none made fre, nor suffered to inioy the liberties of that citie, sauing such as are borne free, [Sidenote: Fremen.] that is to saie, of fremen within the citie, of whome at this time, it is not much materiall to make any further report. The citie thus consisting of the said craftes or occupations, chooseth out of the same a senat or companie of graue councellours, whom they name Aldermen (E) changed into (A) according to the old Saxon pronuntiation. [Sidenote: Wards.] It is also diuided into 26. tribes or wards, of the which euerie one hath his seuerall Alderman, or ouerseer, who haue both authoritie sufficient, and large priuileges to mainteine the good gouernement of their portions withall. Out of the number of these, there is another officer yearelie chosen and appointed, [Sidenote: The Maior.] called the Maior, who ruleth all the rest.
But now to returne vnto the further dooings of king Richard before his departure out of England towards his iournie into the land of Palestine, commonlie called Holie land, it is said, he made such sale of things apperteining to him, as well in right of the crowne, as otherwise, [Sidenote: K. Richard setteth things on sale. Ran. Higd. Wil. Paruus.] that it semed to diuerse he made his reckoning neuer to returne againe, in so much that some of his councellours told him plainelie, that he did not well in making things awaie so freelie, to the dishonoring of his maiestie, and preiudice of his successour; vnto whome he answered, "that in time of need it was no euill policie for a man to help himselfe with his owne," and further ioined hereto these words, "that if London at that time of ned would be bought, he would surelie sell it, if he might met with a conuenient merchant that were able to giue him monie inough for it."
Another way he had also to gather riches, and that was this. He had a licence of pope Innocent the third, to dispense with such as pleased him within his realme, for their vowes made to go into the holie land, although they had taken on them the crosse for that purpose, namelie such as he should appoint to remaine behind him for the defense of his countrie: and of these also he tooke abundantlie, and diuerse other he compelled to fine, namelie, to the end that he might get their monie likewise, that hereby he obteined no small summe toward the furniture of his iournie. But both pope & prince forgat in the meane while, that Boni pastoris est tondere pecus non excoriare.
This yeare also in the moneth of Nouember, as Matthew Paris saith, Johannes de Anagnia a cardinall and legat from the pope arriued here in England, comming on land at Douer, and bicause the king was as then in the north parts, the same cardinall was prohibited on the behalfe of the kings mother quene Elianor, to passe any further without the kings commandement. And so he staied there thirtene daies at the charges of the archbishop of Canturburie, till the king came to those parties, by whose wisedome a direction was taken for the quieting of the controuersie betwixt the archbishop, and the moonkes of Canturburie, for the chappell church of Hakington now called S. Stephans.
[Sidenote: R. Houed.] In the same moneth of Nouember, by the kings appointment, Geffrey the elect of Yorke, who was the kings brother, with other barons and lords of Yorkeshire, [Sidenote: William king of Scots.] receiued William king of Scotland at the water of Tweed, and from thence with all due reuerence and honour they brought him vnto Canturburie, [Sidenote: A councell called at Canturburie. Polydor. An oth. Matth. Paris.] where the king had called a councell of the lords of his realme both spirituall and temporall, in the which euerie of them tooke an oth to be true to the king, and to continue in due obedience vnder him and his lawes, which oth also the king of Scots receiued, being there present, and likewise king Richards brethren earle John and Geffrey the archbishop of Yorke.
[Sidenote: Matth. Paris. Polydor.] The king of Scots therefore hauing receiued this oth, and thinking the time to serue his purpose for redeming of those castels, which were deliuered to king Henrie as gages for his ransome, paid now vnto king Richard ten thousand markes, [Sidenote: Restitution made to the K. of Scots. Wil. Paruus.] and had restitution for the same, that is of Berwike, Roxburgh, Sterling, and Edenburgh. But William Paruus saieth, that Edenburgh was restored to him in the daies of king Henrie, by reason of his wife which he tooke in the parties beyond the seas: and herewith agreth the Scotish chronicle. King Richard also assigned to queene Elianor his mother, the accustomed dower, with manie lordships and honours beside, as an augmentation thereof. [Sidenote: Rog. Houed.] About which time died William de Mandeuille earle of Albemarle at Rouen, and Hugh de Putsey the nephue of the bishop of Durham died at Aclet, and was buried at Durham. [Sidenote: N. Triuet.] Also Formalis archbishop of Trier died at Northampton, and was there buried in the church of S. Andrews.
In the meane time, king Richard still desirous to furnish himselfe with monie, deuised yet another shift, and feigned that he had lost his seale; wherefore he commanded a new to be made, which being doone, he caused it to be proclaimed and published in euerie countrie, [Sidenote: Matth. Paris.] that those to whome he had granted any thing by his ded or charter, meaning to inioy the same in suretie, should not thinke it much to come and haue it confirmed by his new seale, least afterward the other being lost, their lawfull titles might be called into question. Wherevpon manie that could not come to him whilest he was in England, were glad to follow him, and saile ouer into Normandie, and there to fine at his pleasure for the new seale, to the end that their writings might be confirmed thereby, and made so much the more sure to them and their successours. For the same businesse also Remigius the prior of S. Albons, and manie other went ouer to their great costs, charges, and trauell, after he was transported into France.
I find moreouer about the same time, that the kings brother earle John exhibited a sore complaint against the Romane legat and other bishops, for that the archbishop of Canturburie, after the appeale made vnto the apostolike sea, had put his lands vnder interdiction for his mariage made with the earle of Glocesters daughter: which when the legat heard, he foorthwith confirmed the appeale, and released the earles lands of the aforesaid interdiction. The same time also, the tenth part of all the mooueable goods thorough the realme of England was leuied to the aid of the warres in the holie land. And this collection passing vnder the name of an almes, was extended vpon the goods as well of the spirituall men as temporall.
After all this, K. Richard desirous to set order in the gouernment of his realme, [Sidenote: Hugh bishop of Durham gouerneth the north parts. Matth. Paris.] appointed Hugh bishop of Durham to haue the rule of the north parts as cheefe iustice from Humber northwards toward Scotland, deliuering vnto him also the keeping of Winchester castell: the residue of the kingdome (with the custodie of the towre) he assigned to the gouernance of William Longchampe bishop of Elie, [Sidenote: William Logchampe bishop of Elie.] whome he had made cheefe iustice of that part, and chancellour of the realme, a man of great diligence and knowledge in the administration of things, but verie factious and desirous of rule, honour and riches farre aboue all measure. And with these two he ioined in commission Hugh Bardulfe, William Marshall earle of Chepstow, or rather Penbrooke, Geffrey Fitz-Peter, & William Brewer, men of great honour, wisedome, and discretion.
[Sidenote: R. Houed. King Richard passeth ouer in to Normandie.] On the fift day of December, he departed from Canturburie, and went to Douer, there to take water, and so on the eleuenth day of December he passed ouer vnto Calice, where he found Philip earle of Flanders readie to receiue him, who attended vpon him till he came into Normandie, [Sidenote: 1190.] where the king held his Christmas at Burun, [Sidenote: Vadum sancti Remigij. A league betwixt y^e kings of England and France.] and immediatlie came to an enteruiew with the French king at Gue S. Remige, where they concluded peace togither, to be kept betwixt them & their countries on ech part; the which was put in writing, and confirmed with their oths and seales in the feast of saint Hilarie.
[Sidenote: R. Houed.] Furthermore, about the purification of our ladie, Elianor the quene mother, and the ladie Alice sister to the French king, Baldwine archbishop of Canturburie, John bishop of Norwhich, Hugh bishop of Durham, Geffrey bishop of Winchester, Reignold bishop of Bath, William Bishop of Elie, Hubert bishop of Salisburie, and Hugh bishop of Chester, with Geffrey the elect of Yorke and John earle of Mortaigne the kings two brethren, by commandement of the king passed ouer into Normandie, to commen with him before his setting forward.
Some write, that now at this present, the king should ordeine or rather confirme the bishop of Elie his chancellour to be lord chefe iustice ouer all England, and the bishop of Durham to be lord iustice from Trent northwards. [Sidenote: Contention betwixt two ambitious bishops.] But whensoeuer they were thus aduanced to such dignities, howsoeuer they came by them, directlie or indirectlie, true it is, that immediatlie therevpon, strife and discord did arise betwixt them: for waxing proud and insolent, they disdained ech other, contending which of them should bare most rule and authoritie, insomuch that whatsoeuer semed good to the one, the other misliked, as in cases where parteners in authoritie are equall, it often happeneth. The like hereof is noted before betwene the archbishops of Canturburie and Yorke in diuerse kings reignes. For the nature of ambition is to delight in singularitie, to admit no peere, to giue place to no superior, to acknowledge no equall. Hereto alludeth the poet verie neatlie, and exemplifieth it in the old Romans, the order of whose actions is continued at this day, as by the words insuing may be gathered, and ordinarilie obserued booth here and elsewhere; [Sidenote: M. Pal. in sua virg.] —— olim Romulid orabant, iacto post terga pudore Plebeios, quoties suffragia venabantur, Cerdonmq; animos precibus seruilibus atq; Turpibus obsequijs captabant, muneribsq; Vt proprijs rebus curarent publica omissis; Prq; forum medium multis comitantibus irent, Inflati vt vento folles, ac fronte superba, &c.
Moreouer, at the same time he caused his two brethren, earle John, and Geffrey the elect archbishop of Yorke to take an oth not to returne into England during the terme of thre yeares next insuing, without his consent and licence first had. This he did, foreseing what might happen, prouiding as it were against such practises as his brethren might happilie attempt against him. But yet his mother quene Elianor procured him to reuoke that decree immediatlie, least it might seeme to the world, that hir sonnes should stand in feare one of another. [Sidenote: Erle John licenced to returne into England.] And so the earle of Mortaigne was licenced to returne into England at his pleasure, swearing an oth at his departure to obeie the kings beheast, and truelie to serue him, according to the dutie of a good and loiall subiect. The bishop of Elie lord chancellour and cheefe iustice of England was also sent backe hither into this realme, to set forward things behoouefull for the kings iournie.
[Sidenote: The bishop of Elie returneth.] In like maner the king sent to Rome to obteine that the said bishop of Elie might be constituted the popes legat through both the prouinces of Canturburie and Yorke, and likewise through Wales and Ireland. Which was soone granted by the bulles of pope Clement the third, bearing date the 5. of June. For the which office the bishops gaue him 1500. marks, to the great offense of the king, as he shewed afterward to cardinall Octauian that came to visit him when he arriued in the riuer of Tiber, being vpon his iourneie towards Messina, as after may appeare. But in the meanetime, calling togither the lords, and peeres of those his dominions on that side the sea, [Sidenote: Polydor.] to wit, Normandie, Britaine, Aniou, Poitou, and Guien, he consulted with them what number of soldiors and how many ships it should be conuenient for him to take with him and furnish into Asia: and herewith he did command them also to obeie Robert earle of Leicester, whome he appointed to remaine amongst them as his lieutenant or vicegerent of those parts during his absence.
But here to leaue king Richard in consultation for matters appertaining to his iournie, and shew brieflie what happened (by the waie) to the Jewes, [Sidenote: W. Paruus.] which as then dwelt heere in England, after that king Richard was passed ouer into Normandie: ye haue heard how after the riot against them at London, when the king was crowned, he tooke order that they should remaine in peace vnder his protection, and commanded that no person should in anie wise molest them. But now after that he was gone ouer, and that the souldiers (which prepared themselues to follow him) began to assemble in routs, the heads of the common people began to wax wild and faine would they haue had some occasion of raising a new tumult against the Jewes, [Sidenote: The hatred borne to the Jewes.] whome (for their vnmercifull vsurie practised to the vndooing of manie an honest man) they most deadlie hated, wishing most earnestlie their expulsion out of England. Hervpon by reason of a riot committed latelie against them, at the towne of Lin in Norfolke, where manie of them were slaine, other people in other parts of the realme, taking occasion hereat, as if they had bene called vp by the sound of a bell or trumpet, arose against them in those townes where they had any habitations, and robbed and bet them after a disordered and most riotous maner.
[Sidenote: Iohn Textor.] As at Stamford (on the faire day in Lent); at Lincolne and at Yorke, in which citie after a number of them had bene besieged certeine daies within a towre of the kings (whither they fled for succour) one of their learned gouernours caused foure hundred of their companie to consent to haue their throts cut one at an others hands, [Sidenote: Fiue hundred saith Houeden and Textor] he himselfe cutting his wiues throt first, whose name was Anna, then his childrens, one after another, and last of all slue himselfe onelie rather than he would fall into the hands of the christians, that had thus long besieged them. The rest perceiuing what their great Rabbi had doone, set fire vpon all their goods and substance, which they had gotten into the tower with them, and so consuming the same, would haue burnt also the residue of their fellowes which would not agre to the Rabbies counsell, in the cruell murthering of themselues, if they had not taken a strong turret hard by within that tower, and defended themselues both from the fire and crueltie of their brethren, who had made awaie themselues in such manner as I haue said: and that to the number of foure hundred, or (as some write) fiue hundred at the least.
On the morow, those that were saued, called out to the people, and not onelie shewed how and after what sort their fellowes were dispatched, but also offered to be baptised, and forsake their Judaisme, if they might haue their liues saued from the imminent & present danger wherein they saw themselues to be wrapped, through the furie of the people. To be short, this thing was granted, and they came foorth, howbeit they were no sooner entred into the prease, but they were all slaine, and not one man of them preserued.
After this also, the people ran to the cathedrall church, and broke into those places where their bonds and obligations laie, by the which they had diuerse of the kings subiects bound vnto them in most vnconscionable sort, and for such detestable vsurie as (if the authors that write thereof were not of credit) would hardlie be beleeued. All which euidences or bonds they solemnelie burned in the middest of the church. After which, ech went his waie, the souldiers to the king, and the commons to their houses, and so was the citie quieted. This happened at Yorke on Palmesundaie eeue, being the 17. of March: and vpon the 15. of that moneth, those that inhabited in the towne of S. Edmundsburie in Suffolke, were set vpon, and manie of them slaine. The residue that escaped, through the procurement of the abbat then named Samson, were expelled, so that they neuer had anie dwellings there since that time.
Thus were the Jewes vnmercifullie dealt with in all places in maner through this realme, the first beginning whereof chanced at London (as before ye haue heard) and the next at Lin, of which I thinke it good to note some part of the maner therof, although breeflie, and so to returne to my purpose. The occasion therefore of the tumult at Lin chanced by this meanes: it fortuned that one of the Jewes there was become a christian, wherewith those of his nation were so mooued, that they determined to kill him where soeuer they might find him. And herevpon they set vpon him one daie as he came by, through the streets: he to escape their hands fled to the next church; but his countriemen were so desirous to execute their malicious purpose, that they followed him still, and inforced themselues to breake into the church vpon him. Herewith the noise being raised by the christians that sought to saue the conuerted Jew, a number of mariners being forreners, that were arriued there with their vessells out of sundrie parts, and diuerse also of the townesmen came to the rescue, and setting vpon the Jewes, caused them to flee into their houses.
The townesmen were not verie earnest in pursuing of them, bicause of the kings proclamation and ordinance before time made in fauour of the Jewes: [Sidenote: The slaughter made of the Jews at Lin.] but the mariners followed them to their houses, slue diuerse of them, robbed and sacked their goods, and finallie set their dwellings on fire, and so burnt them vp altogither. These mariners being inriched with the spoile of the Jewes goods, and fearing to be called to accompt for their vnlawfull act by the kings officers, got them foorthwith to shipboord, and hoising vp sailes, departed with their ships to the sea, and so escaped the danger of that which might haue bene otherwise laid to their charge. The townesmen being called to an accompt excused themselues by the mariners, burdening them with all the fault. But although they of Lin were thus excused, yet they of Yorke escaped not so easilie. For the king being aduertised of such outrage, doone contrarie to the order of his lawes and expresse commandement, wrote ouer to the bishop of Elie his chancellour, charging him to take cruell punishment of the offenders.
The bishop with an armie went to Yorke, but the cheefe authors of the riot hearing of his comming, fled into Scotland: yet the bishop at his comming to the citie, caused earnest inquirie to be made of the whole matter. The citizens excused themselues, & offered to proue that they were not of counsel with them that had committed the riot, neither had they aided nor comforted them therein an anie maner of wise. And in ded the most part of them that were the offenders, were of the countries and townes nere to the citie, with such as were crossed into the holie land, and now gone ouer to the king, so that verie few or none of the substantiall men of the citie were found to haue ioined with them. [Sidenote: The citizens of Yorke put to their fine for slaughter of the Jewes.] Howbeit this would not excuse the citizens, but that they were put to their fine by the stout Bishop, euerie of them paieng his portion according to his power and abilitie in substance, the common sort of the poore people being pardoned, and not called into iudgement, sith the ringleaders were fled and gone out of the waie: and thus much by waie of digression touching the Jews.
Now to returne vnto the king, who in this meane time was verie busie to prouide all things necessarie to set forward on his iournie; his ships which laie in the mouth of the riuer of Saine, being readie to put off, he tooke order in manie points concerning the state of the common-wealth on that side, and chefelie he called to mind, that it should be a thing necessarie for him, to name who should succeed him in the kingdome of England, if his chance should not be to returne againe from so long and dangerous a iournie. [Sidenote: Matt. West.] He therefore named (as some suppose) his nephue Arthur, the sonne of his brother Geffrey duke of Britaine, to be his successour in the kingdome, a yoong man of a likelie proofe and princelie towardnesse, but not ordeined by God to succed ouer this kingdome.
About the same time the bishop of Elie, lord chancellour and cheefe iustice of England, tooke vp to the kings vse, of euerie citie in England two palfries and two sumpter horsses, & of euerie abbeie one palfrie and one sumpter horsse, & euerie manour within the realme found also one palfrie and one sumpter horsse. Moreouer, the said bishop of Elie, deliuered the gouernement of Yorkeshire to his brother Osbert de Longchampe: and all those knights of the said shire, the which would not come to make answer to the law vpon summons giuen them, he commanded to be apprehended and by and by cast in prison. Also when the bishop of Durham was returned from the king and come ouer into England to go vnto his charge, at his meeting with the lord chancellour at Elie (notwithstanding that he shewed him his letters patents of the grant made to him to be iustice from Trent northward) the said lord chancellour taking his iournie to Southwell with him, [Sidenote: The bishop of Durham restreined of libertie.] there deteined him as prisoner, till he had made surrender to him of the castell of Windsor, & further had deliuered to him his sonnes, Henrie de Putsey, and Gilbert de la Ley, as pledges that he should keepe the peace against the king and all his subiects, vntill the said prince should returne from the holie land. And so he was deliuered for that time, though shortlie after, and whilest he remained at Houeden, there came to him Osbert de Longchampe the lord chancellours brother, and William de Stuteuille, the which caused the said bishop to find sufficient suretie that he should not thence depart without the kings licence, or the lord chancellors, so long as the king should be absent. Herevpon the bishop of Durham sent knowledge to the king how and in what sort he had bene handled by the chancellor.
In the meane time the king was gone into Gascoigne, [Sidenote: William de Chisi.] where he besieged a castell that belonged to one William de Chisi, and tooke both the castell and the owner, whome he caused to be hanged for the spoiles and robberies which he had committed vpon pilgrims that passed by those parts toward Compostella, to visit the bodie of saint James. After this, the king came backe vnto Chinon in Aniou, [Sidenote: The kings nauie is set foorth.] and there tooke order for the setting foorth of his nauie by sea, ouer which he appointed chefe gouernours Gerard archbishop of Aux, Bernard bishop of Baieux, [Sidenote: Baion. Sablius, or Sabuille.] Robert de Sablius, Richard de Camuille, and William de Fortz de Vlerun, commanding all those that should passe foorth with his said nauie, to be obedient vnto these persons as his deputies and lieutenants. Herewith they were appointed to prouide victuals to serue all those that should go by sea for the space of 60 daies.
[Sidenote: Polydor.] The king also made the same time certeine ordinances to be obserued among the seafaring men which tended to this effect:
[Sidenote: Slaiers of men.] 1 First, that if any man chanced to slea an other on the shipboord, he should be bound to the dead bodie and so throwne into the sea.
2 Secondlie, if he killed him on land, he should yet be bound to him as before, and so buried quicke togither.
[Sidenote: Brallers. Punishment for blouddrawers.] 3 Thirdlie, if any man should be conuicted by lawfull witnesse, that he drew any weapon to strike any other, or chanced by striking at any man to draw bloud of him that was smitten, he should lose his hand.
4 Fourthlie, if he gaue but a blowe with his fist without bloudshedding, he should be plunged three seuerall times ouer head and eares in the water.
[Sidenote: Reuilers.] 5 Fifthlie, if any man reuiled another, he should for euerie time so misusing himselfe, forfeit an ounce of siluer.
[Sidenote: Theft and pickeries.] 6 Sixtlie, that if anie man were taken with theft or pickerie, and thereof conuicted, he should haue his head polled, and hot pitch powred vpon his pate, and vpon that, the feathers of some pillow or cushion shaken aloft, that he might thereby be knowne for a theefe, and at the next arriuall of the ships to any land, be put foorth of the companie to seeke his aduenture, without all hope of returne vnto his fellowes.
These were the statutes which this famous prince did enact at the first for his nauie, which sithens that time haue been verie much inlarged. About the same time John Bishop of Whiterne in Scotland, suffragane to the church of Yorke, ordeined Geffrey archbishop of Yorke, prest. [Sidenote: Wil. Paruus.] At the same season also the election of the same Geffrey was confirmed by pope Clement, who among other things that he wrote to the chapiter of Yorke on his behalfe, in the end he addeth these words: "We do therefore admonish you all, and by the apostolicall bulles command you, that you exhibit both reuerence and honour vnto him as vnto your prelat, that thereby you may appeare commendable both before God and man. Giuen at Lateran in the nones of March and third yeare of our gouernment."
Whilest these things were in dooing, there came into France legats from the said Clement, to mooue the two kings to make all the sped possible towards their iourneie, bicause of the great danger wherein things stood in Palestine, requiring present helpe. Herevpon king Richard (his men and prouision being readie) commanded that his ships should set forward, [Sidenote: Polydor. King Richard set forward on his iournie. Rog. Houed.] & to coast about by the streicts of Giberalterre to come vnto Marseilles, where he appointed to met them, and so with a chosen companie of men he also set foorth thitherwards by land, and comming to Tours, receiued the scrip and staffe as a pilgrime should, at the hands of the archbishop there.
After this, both the kings of England and France met at Vizeley in the octaues of the natiuitie of S. John Baptist, and when they had remained there two daies they passed foorth to the citie of Lion; [Sidenote: An. Reg. 2.] where the two kings departed in sunder, and each one kept his iournie, the one toward Guenes, where his nauie was appointed to come to him, and the other to Marseilles, there to met with his flet, according to his appointment. [Sidenote: The English flet staied by contrarie winds.] But the English ships being let and staied by the way by contrarie winds and rigorous tempests, which tossed them to and fro vpon the coasts of Spaine, could not come in any conuenient time vnto Marseilles, [Sidenote: Twentie gallies & twelue other vessels saith Houed.] so that king Richard thinking long to tarrie for them, & perceiuing they could not kepe their appointed time, he hired ships from all places thereabouts, and embarking himselfe and his men in the same, [Sidenote: Vpon the seauenth day of August saith Houeden.] vpon saint Laurence euen, sailed foorth towards Sicile, where he was appointed to met with king Philip.
[Sidenote: Rog. Houed.] Here is to be noted, that king Richard made not all that iourneie from Marseilles to Messina by sea, but sundrie times comming on land, hired horsses, and rode foorth alongst the coast, appointing with his ships and gallies where to meet him, and sometimes he rested certeine daies togither in one place or other as at Portdelphin, at Naples, and at Salerne, from whence there departed from him Baldwine archbishop of Canturburie, Hubert bishop of Salisburie, and the lord Ranulfe de Glanuille, the which taking vpon them to go before, with prosperous wind and weather in short space landed at Acon, which was then besieged, as you shall heare hereafter.
At Rome the king came not, but being within the streame of the riuer of Tiber, there came to him a cardinall named Octauianus, bishop of Hostia, [Sidenote: King Richard blameth the court of Rome for couetousnesse.] to whome be spake manie reprochfull words of the couetousnesse vsed in the court of Rome (a vice reputed the common nursse of all mischefes, as one verie well noteth, Vbi auaritia est, habitant ferm omnia ibidem Flagitia, impietas, periuria, furta, rapin, Fraudes atq; doli, insidiq; & proditiones, Iurgia & infand cdes, &c.) Bicause they had receiued seauen hundred marks for the consecration of the bishop of Mauns, and 1500. marks for the confirming of the bishop of Elie the popes legat. And againe no small summe of monie they had receiued of the archbishop of Burdeaux, when vpon an accusation brought against him by the cleargie of his prouince he should haue bene deposed. In the meane time whiles king Richard thus passed forward towards Messina, the nauie that was appointed to coast about Spaine and to met him at Marseilles, was tossed (as before is said) with wind and tempests, and a part thereof, that is, to wit, ten ships driuen here and there on the coasts of Spaine, of which number nine arriued at Lisbone and the tenth being a ship of London arriued at the citie of Sylua, which was then the vttermost citie of Spaine, that was inhabited with christians.
The Saracens at that time made warres against the king of Portingale, so that the Portingales stood in ned of aid, in so much that they of Sylua did not onelie intreat the Englishmen to staie with them for a time, but also got grant of them to breake their ship, with the timber whereof they might the better fortifie their towne, promising that their king should recompense them with an other as good as theirs, and also further satisfie them for their seruice, during the time of their abode therein defense of that citie. Likewise of those that arriued at Lisbone there went to the number of fiue hundred vnto saint Iranes, [Sidenote: The king of Portingale.] where the king of Portingale then was, looking to be assaulted by his enimies: [Sidenote: Almiramumoli king of the Saracens.] but by the counterfet death of the great K. of the Saracens named Boiac Almiramumoli (who feared these new succours, and doubted the sequele of his dooings, to the end he might depart with honour, he fained himselfe dead) the king of Portingale was for that time presentlie deliuered out of danger.
Herevpon he returned to Lisbone, where he found three score and thre other ships of king Richards nauie there newlie arriued, [Sidenote: Robert de Sabuuille. Richard de Camuille.] ouer the which were chefe capteins Robert de Sabuuille, and Richard de Camuille: which at their comming to land could not so gouerne their people, but that some naughtie fellowes amongst them fell to breaking and robbing of orchards: some also entring into the citie, behaued themselues verie disorderlie. But yet by the comming of the king, their lewdnesse was staied; so that he seemed not to seke reuenge of the pilgrims, but rather with courteous meanes to bridle their vnlawfull attempts: wherevnto the diligence of the English capteines not a little preuailed for a while, but yet for all that could be done on both sides, within three daies after, a new tumult was raised betwixt the English pilgrims and the townesmen, and diuerse hurt and killed on either part.
[Sidenote: A mutinie betwixt the Englishmen and the townsmen of Lisbone.] Wherevpon the king caused the gates of the citie to be shut, and all those that were come from the ships into the citie to eat and drinke (being in number about seauen hundred) were apprehended and committed to ward: [Sidenote: Englishmen committed to prison.] and before they could be released, sir Robert Sabuuille and sir Richard Camuille were glad to agree with the king, so as all former offenses being remitted, and things taken by either part restored, the Englishmen promised to obserue the peace against the king of Portingale and his people; and he likewise couenanted for him and his subiects, that they should kepe the peace against all pilgrims that went foorth in this voiage, and vse them like his frends, and thus the quarell ceased.
Soone after, the English nauie departed from Lisbone, and came into the mouth of the riuer of Taie, betwene Caperico and Belem, where the same daie on saint James eue the lord William de Forzdulerun arriued also with thre and thirtie other ships, [Sidenote: The English ships met togither.] and so then they were in all about an hundred and six sailes verie well furnished and manned, and so from thence taking their course towards Marseilles, finallie they arriued there in the octaues of the assumption of our ladie; and staieng there an eight daies (till they had repaired such things about their ships as were nedfull) they set forward againe, and came to Messina in Sicile in the feast of the exaltation of the crosse. On the sunday following also came the French king thither, hauing lost no small part of his nauie by tempests of weather.
[Sidenote: They arriue at Messina.] King Richard as then remained at Salern, and hearing that his nauie was gone towards Messina, he departed thence on the thirteenth day of September, and hasted forth towards Messina, passing by Melphi and Cocenza, and so at length comming to Faro de Messina, he passed the same, [Sidenote: K. Richard arriueth at Messina.] and on the 23. day of September arriued at Messina with great noise of trumpets and other instruments, to the woonder of the French king and others that beheld his great puissance and roiall behauiour now at this comming. The same time he went vnto the French kings lodging, to commen with him of their businesse: and immediatlie the French king tooke the sea, in purpose to haue passed forward on his iournie but by contrarie wind he was staied and kept backe within the hauen, wherevpon both the kings determined to winter there, and in the meane time to prouide themselues of alle things necessarie for their iournie, against the beginning of the next spring. On the 30. of September he receiued his sister the quene of Sicile, the widow of William the late king of that Ile, whom he placed in a strong fortresse, which he tooke the same day and left therein a conuenient garison of men of armes and demilances for the safegard of the place and of his said sister.
But now for the better vnderstanding of the cause of such quarelling as fell out betwixt the Englishmen and the Sicilians, ye shall vnderstand that a little before the arriuall of the kings of England and France in those parts, king William of Sicile was departed this life, leauing no issue behind him. Wherevpon the lords of the Ile elected one Tancred to their king, a bastard sonne of Roger sometime king of that land, and grandfather to this last decessed king William. This Tancred though he receiued king Richard verie courteouslie; yet he greatlie trusted him not, bicause he demanded the dowrie of his sister quene Joane, wife to the late king William to be restored, whereas he had not readie monie to discharge it.
[Sidenote: A chaire of gold.] Furthermore to depart with the citie of Mount saint Angelo; with all the countrie therevnto belonging; which was inded assigned to hir for hir dowrie, he thought in no wise profitable: [Sidenote: K. Richards demands for the dowrie of his sister wife to K. William.] but king Richard did not onelie require that citie and countie with a chaire of gold, according to the custome of that kingdome in right of his sister, as due to hir by way of hir dowrie, but also he required to his owne vse a table of gold conteining twelue foot in length, and one foot and a halfe in breadth, & two tressels of gold to beare vp the same table, with 24. siluer cups, and as manie dishes of siluer, with a tent of silke of such largenesse that two hundred knights might sit at meat within it: also fortie thousand measures of wheat, with as manie of barlie, and as manie of wine, beside one hundred armed gallies, with all furniture and vittels sufficient to serue the gallie-men in the same for the terme of two yeares. These things he demanded as due to him being heire to his father king Henrie, accordinglie as was deuised by king William in his last will and testament, which demands seemed intollerable to the said Tancred: so that if he could haue shifted the matter, he was loth to haue heard thereof.
Moreouer, bicause pope Clement in right of the church pretended a title to the realme of Sicile, now that king William was dead without heires, he doubted of some practise that might be made against him betwixt king Richard and the pope. Wherevpon he thought to prouide against all attempts that might be made, fortifieng his townes & castels with strong garisons, and tooke counsell with the citizens of Messina, by what meanes he might soonest dispatch his countrie of that present danger, and procure K. Richard to get him forward on his iournie.
Whilest these things were in hand, there was ministred to the English men occasion of displeasure: for as it oftentimes chanceth (where an armie is) certeine of the vnrulie souldiers within Messina vsed themselues somewhat riotouslie, wherevpon the citizens offended therewith, got them to armour, and chased all the souldiers out of the citie. King Richard who laie in campe without the walles nere to the citie, was so highlie displeased herewith, that he caused his men to arme themselues, and to prepare ladders and other necessarie things to assault the citie: but by the mediation of the French king & curteous excuse of king Tancred (alledging the fault to rest onelie in a sort of rude citizens, whome he promised to punish) the matter was taken vp, and staied for a time, till at length it was perceiued, that the Sicilians subtilie went about to feed king Richard with faire words, till he should be readie to set forwards on his iournie, and so should the matter passe without further punishment.
Herevpon king Richard, not minding to be so mocked at their hands, approched one daie to the wals and gates with his armie in good araie of battell to giue the assault, [Sidenote: K. Richard assalteth and entreth the citie by force.] which was doone so earnestlie, and so well mainteined, that finallie the citie was entred by force, and manie of the citizens slaine, but the slaughter had bene much greater, if king Richard had not commanded his men to spare the sword, mooued with the lamentable noise of poore people crieng to him for mercie and grace. The Englishmen hauing got possession of the citie pight vp the banners with the armes of the king of England round about the wals, wherewith the French king was sore displeased, and required that the same might be taken downe, and his set vp: but the king of England would not so agre. Neuerthelesse to pacifie the French kings mood, he deliuered the citie of Messina into the custodie of the knights Templers and Hospitalers, till he might be satisfied of such things as he demanded of king Tancred.
After this on the 8. daie of October, the two kings of England and France, before a great number of earles, barons, and others, both of the cleargie and temporaltie, [Sidenote: The two kings of England and France receiue a solemne oth.] tooke their solemne othes, that the one should defend the other, and also either others armie in this iournie, both comming and going, without fraud or deceipt: and the like oth was receiued by the earles and barons on both parties. Then the two kings by aduise and consent of both their armies deuised these ordinances.
[Sidenote: Ordinances deuised.] 1 That all pilgrims which chanced to die in this iournie might dispose at their pleasure all their armour, horsses, and apparell, and halfe of those things which they had with them, so that they sent nothing home into their countries, and the other halfe should be at the discretion of Walter archbishop of Rouen, Manser bishop of Langres, of the maister of the temple, and of the maister of the Hospitall, of Hugh duke of Burgoigne, of Rafe de Coucie, of Drogo de Marlow, of Robert Sabuill, Andrew de Chauennie, and of Gilbert Wascoile, which should imploie the same towards the support of the wars in the holie land against the infidels as they thought most expedient.
[Sidenote: Plaie forbidden.] 2 That no man should plaie at anie game within the armie for monie, except knights and chapleins, the which should not loose in one daie and night aboue 20 shillings, they to forfeit an 100 shillings so oft as they lost aboue that summe: the persons aforenamed to haue the same to be distributed as afore is said. The two kings might plaie, and command their seruants in their presence likewise to plaie, so that they exceded not the summe of 20 shillings. And also the seruants of archbishops, bishops, earles and barons, by their maisters commandement might play, not exceding that summe: but if anie seruants or mariners, or other of like degre, were found to play without licence, the seruants should be whipped naked three daies round about the campe, except they ransomed foorth themselues, at the pleasure of the persons aboue named: and the mariners should be plunged ouer head and eares in the sea three mornings togither, after the vse of seamen, except they redeem that punishment, at the discretion likewise of the said persons: and those of other like meane degres being neither knights nor chapleins should be punished as seruants.
[Sidenote: Borrowing.] 3 That if anie pilgrime borrowed anie thing of an other whilest he was on his iournie, he should be bound to paie it: but if he borrowed it before his setting foorth, he was not bound to answer it till his returne home.
[Sidenote: Souldiers or mariners departing from their masters.] 4 That if anie mariner or seruant, reteined in wages with anie man in this iournie, departed from his master without licence, no other person might receiue him, and if he did, he should be punished at the discretion of the forenamed persons.
[Sidenote: Vittelers.] 5 That no vitteler or other should buy any bread to sell againe, nor any meale within the compasse of the campe, except the same were brought by a stranger, neither might they buy any paast or other thing to sell againe in the campe, or within a league of it.
6 That if anie man bought corne wherof to make bread, it was appointed how much he should gaine in one measure beside the bran.
7 That other occupiers, which vsed buieng and selling of wares, should gaine one penie in 10 pence, neither should anie man refuse anie of the kings coine, except it were broken within the circle.
8 That no man should buy anie flesh to sell it againe, except a liuing beast, which he should kill within the campe.
9 That no man should make bread to sell, but after the rate of penie loaues. Wherin the penie English was appointed to go for foure pence Aniouine. All these ordinances with other were decreed and ordeined to be obserued and kept by the counsell, consent, and agreement of the kings of England, France, and Sicile.
[Sidenote: Polydor.] But to returne now to the dissention betwixt the Englishmen and them of Messina: ye shall vnderstand that the tumult being once ceassed, and diuerse of the chefe offenders in the late commotion put to death, king Tancred shortlie after came thither, and sought to auoid all suspicion out of king Richards head, that he might conceiue of him for being in anie wise culpable in that which his subiects of Messina had attempted against him, and therefore hauing recouered monie of his freends, he restored vnto king Richard the dowrie of his sister quene Joane, and further offered vnto him to ioine in new alliance with him, offering his daughter in mariage vnto Arthur duke of Britaine, the kings nephue, with a great summe of monie for hir dowrie, if it so should please him.
King Richard accepted the offer, and so ioined in peace and affinitie with the king of Sicile, receiuing of him twentie thousand ounces of gold for the same mariage to be had, and an honorable dowrie assigned foorth of the lands that belonged to the said Arthur for the said ladie to inioy during hir life, in case she suruiued hir husband. And if it so chanced, that by the death of either of them the mariage could not take place, then should king Richard restore the same twentie thousand ounces of gold againe. But beside these twentie thousand ounces of gold thus giuen by king Tancred for the mariage of his daughter, he gaue other twentie thousand ounces to king Richard for an acquitance and quite claime of all manner of duties, rights, and demands, which either he or his sister might pretend, either by reason of anie bequest, dowrie, or anie other manner of waie.
Here is to be noted, that before this conclusion of peace was had, king Richard prouided for his owne defense, in case that king Tancred and his people would haue attempted force against him, in so much that he fortified certeine places, and built a strong castell aloft vpon the top of an hill fast by Messina, which castell he called Mategriffon. Also whereas the admirall of Sicile called Margaret, and one Jordane del Poine, men of great authoritie vnder king Tancred, fled out of Messina with all their families and riches, which they had either in gold or siluer, king Richard seized vpon their houses, their gallies, and possessions, so that he made himselfe as strong as he could, to resist all attempts that might be made against him by his enimies. But now to proced.
The variance being thus appeased betwixt them, great discord chanced to arise betwixt king Richard and king Philip, who was much offended with king Richard, for that he had thus vsed violence against them of Messina, and compelled king Tancred to agre with him for monie, [Sidenote: The lawes of Herberrough.] to the great offense and breach of the lawes of Herberrough, sith the Sicilians verie liberallie aided and furnished the christians armie with vittels and necessarie prouisions. The Frenchmen also had much enuie thereat, [Sidenote: Englishmen and Frenchmen fought.] that shortlie after vpon a small occasion they picked a quarell against the Englishmen, and from words fell to strokes on both sides, so that there had beene much hurt & slaughter committed, [Sidenote: Discord in an armie the hinderer of all profitable enterprises.] if the two kings had not doone their best to appease the fraie begun.
But this businesse though it was quietlie as then taken vp and staied, yet bred it such displeasure betwixt the princes and their people, that it turned to the great hurt and hinderance of their good proceedings in their whole enterprise, so that the occasion of a full and perfect victorie easilie slipped out of their hands, as you shall heare hereafter.
An other also of the chefest causes of grudge betwixt the two kings was, for that king Richard in familiar talke confessed vnto king Philip, that he would marie the king of Nauarres daughter, and clerelie forsake his sister Adela: which greued king Philip not a little, though he dissembled the matter for a time, and rather alledged other causes of displeasure, wherewith to defame king Richard to the world, as one that sought his owne commoditie in spoiling those whom he ought rather to haue defended. But to proceed.
Whilest the English and French armies thus soiourned all the winter time in Sicile, notwithstanding the troubles aforesaid, to the hinderance of king Richards purposes, for the making of his prouisions readie for his iournie, he yet caused engins to be framed, his ships to be newlie calked, rigged and repaired of such hurts as they had receiued both in their long voiage which they had made, and also by certeine wormes, the which during their lieng there, had in diuerse places gnawne and eaten them through to the great danger of their losse, and vtter decaie. [Sidenote: Wreckes pardoned.] Moreouer at the same time he pardoned all wrecks by sea through all his dominions, releasing for euer all his right to the same, in such wise that euerie person making wrecke by sea, and comming aliue to land, should haue all his goods fre and cleare to himselfe. Furthermore he decred, that if he chanced to perish in the ship, then his sons and daughters, brethren or sisters, that could prooue themselues to be next heires to him, should haue the same goods; but if he had neither sonne nor daughter, brother nor sister, then should the king haue those goods by waie of his prerogatiue.
This resignation made by king Richard, was confirmed by his charter giuen at Messina in the moneth of October and second yeare of his reigne. Also vpon a godlie repentance wherewith it did please the mercifull God to touch his hart, he called all those prelats togither which were then with him at Messina into the chappell of Reginald de Moiac, [Sidenote: K. Richards confession.] & there in presence of them all falling downe vpon his knees he confessed the filthie life which he had in lecherous lust before that time led, and humblie receiued penance inioined him by the same bishops, and so became a new man, fearing God, and delighting to liue after his lawes.
[Sidenote: Abbat Joachim.] Furthermore hearing of the great fame of abbat Joachim, he sent for him ouer into Calabria, who came to Messina, and being asked sundrie questions by king Richard, he made woonderfull answer thereto: as in Houeden and other writers it may appere, which for breefenesse I passe ouer. About the same time he gaue vnto his nephue Otho, the sonne of his sister Maud, sometime duchesse of Saxonie, the countie of Yorke. But although some were contented to receiue him as their lord, and to doo homage to him, yet other refused him, alledging that they would not renounce their fealties due to the king, till they might se him againe, & talke with him face to face. Wherevpon the king changing his purpose, gaue vnto the said Otho the countie of Poictou in steed of the said countie of Yorke, as after shall appeere.
[Sidenote: 1191.] The two kings of England and France held their Christmasse this yeare at Messina, and still the king of England vsed great liberalitie in bestowing his treasure freelie amongst knights and other men of warre, [Sidenote: The large expenses of K. Richard.] so that it was thought he spent more in a moneth than anie of his predecessours euer spent in a whole yeare. In the moneth of Februarie he sent his gallies to Naples, there to receiue his mother and his wife that should be, to wit the ladie Berengaria daughter to the king of Nauarre, and Philip earle of Flanders that came with them. But his mother quene Elianor and the ladie Berengaria went to Brindize in Puglia, where they were honorablie receiued of Margaret king Tancreds admirall. [Sidenote: The earle of Flanders.] Moreouer the earle of Flanders comming to Naples, and finding there the gallies of king Richard, went aboord the same, and so came to Messina, at the first following the king of England in all things, till the French king hauing enuie thereat, allured him awaie, and then he hoong altogither on his sleue. The first daie of March the king of England departed from Messina, to go to the citie of Cathina, there to common with king Tancred, who came thither to meet him.
[Sidenote: K. Richard talketh with king Tancred.] Here king Richard vnderstood, that the French king had sollicited king Tancred to set vpon the king of England and his armie, to chase them out of his realme: and for the more easie accomplishment thereof, he had promised him his aid, whensoeuer he would giue the aduenture. King Tancred deliuered also to king Richard such letters as the French king had written to him concerning this matter. Wherevpon at his returne to Messina, king Richard shewed by his frowning countenance, that he was nothing pleased with the French king, but sought occasions to get him out of his companie.
The French king perceiuing it, required to vnderstand the cause of this sudden mutation: wherevpon king Richard nothing fearing his power, declared the truth plainelie vnto him by the mouth of the earle of Flanders: and when the other denied the practise, he for proofe of the thing, shewed him the same letters which king Tancred had deliuered vnto him. The French king was not a little abashed hereat, and wist not well what to saie, nor what excuse to make, the matter was so plaine. But yet at length he said: "Well now I perceiue the king of England seeketh to haue some quarell whie he may refuse to marrie with my sister. For these are but forged matters, and no truth resteth in them."
When the king of England vnderstood this maner of answer, he replied in this wise; "That as for the French kings sister, he might not marrie, for as much as he was able to produce good witnesse to prooue that his father had lien with hir and got a child of hir. And as for his priuie proceding and practise with Tancred, he neded no further testimonie than his owne hand and his seale, the partie himselfe being present who receiued them, the messenger also being not far off that carried them betwene both the parties."
When the French king was throughlie informed of the first point, through counsell of the earle of Flanders and others, he pacified himselfe, and was contented to release the king of England of his faith giuen by oth for the contract made with his sister Alice: in consideration of which releasement and deliuerance, the king of England couenanted to giue yearelie to the French king two thousand marks of starling coine for the terme of fiue yeares togither: and at his returne home, it was agreed, that he shuld also deliuer vnto the French king his sister the said ladie Alice, with the towne of Gisors, and all other things which the French king had granted to him with his said sister. On the other part, the French king granted, that the dutchie of Britaine should apperteine to the dominion of the dutchie of Normandie, so as the duke of Britaine should be accompted the liege man of the duke of Normandie, and that the duke of Normandie should answer the French king for both the dutchies, as well of Britaine as Normandie. These agrements were ratified and confirmed with solemne oths receiued, and charters giuen vnder their hands and seales, vpon the 30. of March.
[Sidenote: The French king setteth foorth from Messina towards the holie land.] About this time the French king (now that the season of the yeare was come) set forward toward the holie land, leauing king Richard behind him in Sicile: and the two and twentith day after his setting foorth from Messina, he arriued at the siege of Acres or Acon. The same day also that the French king departed from Messina, queene Elianor the mother of king Richard arriued there, bringing with hir the ladie Berengaria the daughter of Sanctius the king of Nauarre, [Sidenote: Quene Elianor returneth by Rome.] and the fourth day after quene Elianor tooke leaue of hir sonne king Richard, and departed homeward towards England, taking hir iournie by Rome about the businesse of Geffrey the elect of Yorke, as to entreat the pope that he would confirme and consecrate him archbishop, or to authorise some other to doo it in his name. The ladie Berengaria remained behind with the kings sister Joane quene of Sicile.
After this in the moneth of Aprill, on the Wednesday in the passion weeke, king Richard (after he had finished and made an end of all conclusions with king Tancred) did also set forward with his sister Joane, who tooke with hir the ladie Berengaria daughter to the king of Nauarre, affianced to him long before, as aboue is partlie mentioned. [Sidenote: Matth. Paris. 130. ships and 53. galies saith Rog. Houed.] His nauie consisted in thirteene mightie great ships with triple sailes, an hundred carikes or rather hulkes, and fiftie gallies. He was no sooner abroad in the maine sea, but a great tempest arose, wherewith his whole nauie was sore tossed and turmoiled vp and downe the seas, and at length driuen on the coast of Cypres, where seking to take harbour, & to come on land, the Cypriots would not suffer him, but shewed countenance to driue him backe, and to resist his landing. Also whereas six of his ships were so driuen by force of tempest from the residue, that thre of them perished, and three being cast vpon the shoare of Cypres before the kings arriuall there, the souldiers and other people in the same were compelled to come on land for sauing their liues, where otherwise they stood in danger of drowning, the people of the Ile assailing them in right cruell sort, slue diuerse, and tooke the residue prisoners, and so deteined them for a certeine season.
King Richard then vnderstanding this iniurie to him doone by the Cypriots, & perceiuing they would resist his landing, prepared himselfe and his people to enter vpon them by force. The king of Cypres Isakius or Cursach (whome Houeden nameth emperour of Cypres) had assembled the most part of all the power of men that he might make (though few of them were armed, or had any great skill in feats of warre) and caused them to set boords, logs of wood, benches, formes, and great chests afore them, as a defense, and as it were in steed of a wall, that by succour thereof they might the better kepe off their enimie from landing.
But K. Richard, so incouraged his men by his presence, & hartened them with such comfortable words as he vttered vnto them, that rowing to the shoare with their galies and small botes, hauing the archers afore them, [Sidenote: The Englishmen take land & chase their enimies.] they easilie got to land, droue their enimies backe, and so farre pursued them (being but footmen, weatherbeaten, wearie, and weat) as conuenientlie they might, for the shortnes of time. King Richard hauing thus got foot on land, approched the towne of Limezun, which he with his souldiers entred, and finding it emptie of people (which were fled awaie) but full of riches and great plentie of victuals, as corne, wine, oile, and flesh, he seized therevpon.
The same day also the kings sisters and the ladie Berengaria with the residue of the kings nauie entred the hauen of Limezun. In the meane time the king of Cypres (hauing escaped from the battell) got togither his men which were fled and dispersed sundrie waies, and incamped within six miles of king Richard, threatning that the next day he would eftsoones giue battell: which when king Richard vnderstood, he caused his people to be armed the next morning long before day, and so comming by guides vnto the place where the Cypriots with their king were lodged, [Sidenote: King Richard with a camisado vanquisheth the Cypriots, & chaseth them out of their campe. Iohn Textor.] suddenlie they assailed them yer they had anie warning of his marching towards them, by reason whereof they were slaine like beasts in great numbers. Howbeit, their king and a few other escaped and fled away naked, hauing no time to put on their apparell, his treasure, horsse, armour and standard were taken, which standard king Richard straitwaies determined to send vnto saint Edmunds shrine, and so did.
Having thus vanquished his aduersaries, he came backe to Limezun: and the third day after, [Sidenote: The K. of Jerusalem and other noble men doo fealtie vnto king Richard.] Guie king of Jerusalem and his brother Geffrey de Lucignan with the prince of Antioch Raimond and his sonne named also Raimond earle of Tripoli, with other noble men, arriued at Limezun aforesaid, to visit king Richard, and to offer him their seruices, and so became his men, in swearing fealtie to him against all other persons whatsoeuer.
The same day the king of Cypres perceiuing himselfe vnable to resist the great puissance of king Richards armie, sent ambassadours, [Sidenote: The offers of the king of Cypres.] and offered to king Richard the summe of twentie thousand marks of gold, in recompense of the monie which his men that were drowned had about them, and also to restore those to libertie which he had taken prisoners, and to make deliuerie to their hands of all their goods. Furthermore he offered to go with him into the holie land personallie, and to serue him with an hundred knights 400 light horssemen, and 500 well armed footmen, & also to deliuer to king Richard his daughter and heire in hostage, [Sidenote: The king of Cypres submitteth himselfe.] and to acknowledge him his souereigne lord, by swearing to him fealtie for his kingdome, as for that which he should confesse to hold of him.
King Richard accepted these offers, and so the king of Cypres came in and sware fealtie to king Richard, in presence of the king of Jerusalem, the prince of Antioch, and other barons, and promised vpon his oth then receiued, not to depart till all things couenanted on his part were performed. Then king Richard assigned tents for him and his to lodge in, and appointed certeine knights and other men of warre to haue the custodie of him. But the same day after dinner vpon repentance of that which he had doone, he deceiued his keepers and stale awaie, sending knowledge backe to the king that he would not stand to the couenants, which were concluded vpon betwixt them.
King Richard seemed to like the matter well enough, and foorthwith deliuered a part of his armie vnto the king of Jerusalem and to the prince of Antioch, appointing them to persue the king of Cypres by land, whilest he with one part of his gallies and Robert de Turneham with the other might search about the coast by sea, to prohibit his passage by water. In euerie place where they came, such ships and gallies as they found they seized into their hands, and no resistance was made against them, by reason the people fled to the woods and mountains, leauing the cities, townes and castels void in all steds, [Sidenote: Robert de Turneham.] where the king or the said sir Robert de Turneham with their vessels began to appere. When they had taken their pleasure thus alongst the coasts, they returned againe vnto Limezun. The king of Jerusalem and the other that went foorth by land, when they could not sped of their purpose, returned also, in which meane time a great number of Cypriots came in, and submitting themselues to king Richard, were receiued as his subiects.
[Sidenote: The king of England marieth the ladie Berengaria. She is crowned quene.] On the 12. daie of Maie, the ladie Berengaria daughter to the king of Nauarre was maried according to a precontract vnto king Richard at Limezun aforesaid in the Ile of Cypres, one of the kings chaplins executing the order of the marriage. The same daie also she was crowned by the bishop of Eureux, the archbishops of Apamea and Aux, with the bishop of Baion ministring vnto him. After the solemnitie of this marriage and coronation ended, king Richard set forward with his armie into the countrie of Cypres, and first wan (by surrender) the citie of Nichosia, and after the strong castell of Cherin, within the which was the daughter of the king of Cypres, which ladie humblie yeelded hir selfe vnto K. Richard, (who counting it reproach to be extreme with such as submit themselues, and speciallie the female sex, according to the old saieng, Pacere subiectis nobilis scit ira leonis) had pitie of hir case, and sent hir to his wife the new quene, willing that she might be honorablie vsed. From thence passing forward, [Sidenote: Castels deliuered to the king of England.] these castels were deliuered into his hands, Baffes and Buffeuent, Den, Amur, Candace, and afterwards all the other castels and cities, townes and places of strength within that Ile one after an other. Finallie, hearing that the king of Cypres was inclosed in an abbie called Cap S. Andrew, he marched thitherwards: [Sidenote: The king of Cyprus again submitteth himselfe to the king of England.] but when the king of Cypres heard of his approch, he came foorth and submitted himselfe wholie into his hands. [Sidenote: Rafe Fitz Geffrey.] The king first appointed him to the keping of his chamberlaine Rafe Fitz Geffrey, and after sent him into the citie of Tripoli, there to be kept in close prison. Who when he heard he should be committed to close prison, and remaine in fetters, said, "that if he laie in irons, he should shortlie end his life." Wherevnto king Richard when he heard of it, answered: "He saith well, and therefore bicause he is a noble man, and our mind is not to haue him dead, but onelie to be kept safe from starting anie more awaie, and dooing new hurt, let him be chained in giues and fetters made of siluer," and so he was.
But to proced. After the king had set the countrie of Cypres in good staie, [Sidenote: He arriued there on the saturdaie in Whitsunwek, being the saturdaie also next before the feast of S. Barnabie. Galfridus. Vinsant.] he deliuered the keeping thereof vnto Richard de Camuille and Robert de Turneham. This doone vpon the wednesdaie in the Whitsunweke he tooke the sea againe, and passed ouer to the citie of Acres, which as then was besieged by the christian armie, as ye may read in the description of the holie land, onelie giuing you to vnderstand, that such was the valiancie of king Richard shewed in manfull constreining of the citie, that his praise was greatlie bruted both amongst the christians and also the Saracens.
Howbeit the secret enimitie betwixt him and the French king eftsoones reuiued, by occasion of such discord as chanced betwixt Guido king of Jerusalem, and Conrade the marques of Tire, so that parties were taken, and whereas both the Pisans and Geneuois did offer their seruice vnto king Richard, yet bicause the Geneuois were confederat with the French king, who tooke part with the marques, he refused them, [Sidenote: Pisans and Geneuois.] and receiued the Pisans, ioining himselfe with king Guido to support him against his enimies.
Here is to be remembred, that before king Richard arriued at the siege, he incountred on the sea a mightie great ship called a Drommond, [Sidenote: Matt. Paris. Nic. Triuet. Saphaldine the brother of Saladine.] which one Saphaldine the brother of Saladine a prince of the Saracens had sent, to refresh them with vittels. This ship king Richard caused fercelie to be assailed with his gallies, and at length bowged hir with all the vittels and prouision within the same, as wild-fire, barels of firie serpents, armour and weapons of sundrie sorts, besides all the mariners and men of warre, except such as were taken to mercie and saued aliue, being about 200 in the whole, whereas there were aboord the same ship 500 men of warre, [Sidenote: Matth. Paris. N. Triuet.] as some write, though other haue but 800.
But now to other accidents that chanced this yere. On Midsummer eeue there was such an eclipse of the sunne, [Sidenote: An eclipse of the sunne.] the moone being the same time 27 daies old, that for the space of thre houres (for so long it lasted) such darkness came ouer the face of the earth, [Sidenote: The seuenth houre of the daie saith Matth. Paris.] that euen in the daie time (for this eclipse began about nine of the clocke in the morning) the stars appeared plainelie in the element.
In the same moneth of June, Richard de Camuille, whome the king had left (as ye haue heard) gouernour in Cypres, chanced to fall sicke, and comming without licence to the siege of Acres, [Sidenote: Richard de Camuille deceasseth.] there died. After whose death the Cypriots and those called Griffones and Ermians reuolted from the English obedience, and chose to them a king, one that was a moonke of the familie of Isachus their former king: but Robert de Turneham, who after the deceasse of Richard Camuille remained sole gouernour of the Ile, gathered a power of men togither, and giuing battell to the new king (whom Houeden nameth also emperour) vanquished him with his complices, tooke him prisoner, and hanged him on a paire of galowes. The same moneth also died Rafe Fitz Geffrey, who had the other king Isac in custodie, and then king Richard deliuered him to the knights of the hospitall, who sent him to the castell of Margant, there safelie to be kept as prisoner to the vse of the king of England.
Now will we returne vnto the affaires of England and make some mention of the dooings there. Yee shall vnderstand, that after king Richard was set forward on his iournie, William Longchampe lord chancellour and bishop of Elie, [Sidenote: Polydor.] appointed (as ye haue heard) gouernour of the realme, began to exercise his authoritie to the vttermost, taking vpon him the state of a prince, rather than of a subiect. He had of late (as before ye haue heard) procured such fauor at the hands of pope Clement, [Sidenote: The Lord chancellor called the popes legat in England.] that he was instituted by him legat of the apostolike see here in England, so that pretending a rule both ouer the clergie and temporaltie, and by reason that he had both the authoritie of pope and king in his hands, he vsed the same to his most aduantage, as well in causes ecclesiasticall as temporall, whereby he wrought manie oppressions both against them of the clergie and temporaltie. [Sidenote: The statelie port of the lord chancellor. Ran. Higd.] He mainteined such a port and countenance in his dooings, that he would ride with a thousand horsses, by meanes whereof when he came to lie at abbeis and other places (bringing with him such a traine) he was verie burdenous vnto them, speciallie when he laie at their houses any space of time.
[Sidenote: A conuocation.] This man called a conuocation at Westminster, wherein at the suit of Hugh Nouant bishop of Chester, it was decreed, [Sidenote: Moonks of Couentrie displaced. Polydor. Ran. Higd. Wil. Paruus. The occasion. Ran. Higd.] that the moonks of Couentrie should be displaced, and secular canons brought into that house to supplie their roomes. Which was doone by the authoritie of the said lord chancellour, being bribed by the foresaid bishop of Chester (as some writers haue recorded) for displeasure which he bare to the moonks, by reason of a fraie which they had made vpon the said bishop in their church at Couentrie, and drawne bloud of him before the alter there, as he alledged.
[Sidenote: Wil. Paruus.] But some haue written, that the bishop of Chester procured a licence of the pope, to alter the state of that church in sort aboue mentioned, which is most likelie, surmising against the moonks, that they were most manifest and stubborne disturbers of that peace and quietnesse which ought to remaine amongst churchmen: [Sidenote: Ran. Higd. Polydor.] and yet he himselfe sowed the strife and dissention amongst them, and namelie betwene the prior and his couent. Moreouer, the said lord chancellour depriued such rulers of their administrations and gouernements, as the king had appointed to beare any high authoritie within the realme, pretending not onelie the kings commandement, but also alleadging a reason which mooued him so to doo, as thus, [Sidenote: The L. chancellors reason.] that he might thereby take awaie all occasions of grudges from the people, which otherwise might thinke, and would not sticke to saie, that they were oppressed by the rule of manie kings in sted of one king. [Sidenote: The bishop of Durham. The bishop of Winchester.] He did also depriue Hugh the bishop of Durham of all his honour and dignitie, and put the bishop of Winchester to great trouble. Moreouer, doubting least the Nobles of the realme would rise against him, and put him out of his place; he sought to kepe them lowe, and spoiled them of their monie and substance. [Sidenote: The lord chancellors meaning to kepe earle John lowe.] Likewise pretending a colour of doubt, least earle John the kings brother should attempt any thing against his brother the king now in his absence, he sought also to kepe him vnder. To be brefe, he plaied in all points the right part of a tyrant, and shewed himselfe such a one in all respects as mainteined his title, [Sidenote: Pal. in suo cap.] Non disceptando aut subtilibus argumentis Vincere, sed ferro mauult sua iura tueri, Pontifices nunc bella iuuant, sunt ctera nuga, Nec prcepta patrum nec Christi dogmata curant, Iactant se dominos rerum & sibi cuncta licere.
At length the king receiued aduertisement from his mother queene Elianor of his demeanor, and that there was great likeliehood of some commotion to insue, if spedie remedie were not in time prouided. Wherevpon being then in Sicile, [Sidenote: Walter the archbishop of Rouen sent into England.] he sent Walter the archbishop of Rouen into England with commission, to ioine in administration of the kingdome with his chancellor the said bishop of Elie. But the archbishop comming into England was so slenderlie interteined of the chancellour, [Sidenote: He is little regarded of the lord chancellor.] and in effect so litle regarded, that notwithstanding his commission and instructions brought from the king, he could not be permitted to beare any rule. But the chancellour deteining the same wholie in his hands, ordered all things at his pleasure, without making the archbish. of Rouen, or any other of counsel with him, except such as it pleased him to admit for the seruing of his owne turne.
He certeinelie beleued (as manie other did) that king Richard would neuer returne with life into England againe, which caused him to attempt so manie vnlawfull enterprises, and therefore he got into his hands all the castels and fortresses belonging to the crowne, and furnished them with garisons of souldiers, as he thought necessarie, depriuing such capteins of their roomes as he suspected not to fauour his procedings.
One Gerard de Camuille had bought of the king the keping of the castell of Lincolne, vnto whome also the sheriffewike of the shire was committed for a time, but the lord chancellour, perceiuing that he bare more good will vnto earle John the kings brother than to him (which John he most suspected) he tooke from him the shiriffewike, & demanded also to haue the castell of Lincolne deliuered into his hands, which Gerard refused to deliuer, and perceiuing that the chancellor would practise to haue it by force, he fled vnto earle John, requiring him of competent aid and succour.
The chancellor on the other part, perceiuing what hatred diuerse of the Nobles bare him, thought good to prouide for his owne suertie the best that he could, and therefore sent for a power of men from beyond the sea: but bicause he thought it too long to staie till they arriued, he came to Lincolne with such power as he could make, [Sidenote: The lord chancellor besiegeth the castell of Lincolne.] and besieged the castell. Erle John the kings brother aduertised hereof, raised such numbers of men as he might make of his freends, seruants and tenants, [Sidenote: Earle John winneth the castels of Notingham and Tickhill.] and with small a doo wan the castels of Notingham and Tickhill within two daies space. This doone, he sent to the lord chancellour, commanding him either to breake vp his siege, or else to prepare for battell. The chancellour considering with himselfe that there was small trust to be put in diuerse of those lords that were with him, bearing good will to [Sidenote: The chancellor raiseth his siege with dishonour.] earle John, and but hollow harts towards him, raised his siege and departed with dishonour.