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Diego Collado's Grammar of the Japanese Language
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[Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they are listed at the end of the text. Page numbers {99} are those of Spear's edition and are referenced in the Table of Contents, the Index and the list of typographical errors. Page numbers (99 relate to the Latin original and are referenced in the Introduction and Footnotes.

Characters that could not be fully rendered in the Latin-1 character set have been "unpacked" and shown within brackets: ẽ ĩ ũ (e, i, u with tilde: and should display normally) ǒ ǔ (hacek / caron) ō ū (macron)]

* * * * *

DIEGO COLLADO'S GRAMMAR OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE

Edited and Translated by Richard L. Spear

INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, EAST ASIAN SERIES RESEARCH PUBLICATION, NUMBER NINE

CENTER FOR EAST ASIAN STUDIES. THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS.

* * * * *

DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF JOSEPH K. YAMAGIWA

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Table of Contents

PREFACE

I INTRODUCTION 1 The Grammatical Framework 3 The Phonological System 6 The Morphological System 8 The Structure of Collado's and Rodriguez' Descriptions Contrasted 11 Bibliography 26 Editorial Conventions 28 II Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae III A GRAMMAR OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 105 Prologue to the Reader 107 The noun—Its Declension and its Gender 111 Pronouns 118 First Person Pronouns—Ego, etc. 118 Second Person Pronouns—Tu, tui, tibi, etc. 119 Third Person Pronouns—Ille, illa, illud. 120 Relative Pronouns 122 The Formation of the Verb and its Conjugation 123 The Preterit, Perfect, Imperfect, and Pluperfect 124 The Future of the First Conjugation 125 The Imperative of the First Conjugation 125 The Optative of the First Conjugation 126 The Subjunctive of the First Affirmative Conjugation 127 The Infinitive 129 The First Negative Conjugation 131 The Second Affirmative Conjugation 134 The Second Negative Conjugation 135 The Third Affirmative Conjugation 135 The Third Negative Conjugation 136 The Conjugation of the Negative Substantive Verb 137 The Conditional Particles 139 The Potential Verb 140 The Conjugation of Irregular Verbs 141 The Aforementioned Verbs—Their Formation and Diversity 143 Certain Verbs Which of Themselves Indicate Honor 147 Cautionary Remarks on the Conjugations of the Verb 148 The Adverbs: First Section 156 Adverbs of Place 156 Adverbs of Interrogation and Response 159 Adverbs of Time 159 Adverbs of Negation 160 Adverbs of Affirmation 160 Comparative Adverbs 161 Superlative Adverbs 162 Adverbs of Intensity and Exaggeration 162 Accumulative Adverbs 162 Adverbs that Conclude and Claim Attention 163 The Case Prepositions 164 Conjugation and Separation 166 Interjections 167 The Syntax and the Cases that are Governed by the Verbs 168 Japanese Arithmetic and Numerical Matters Concerning Which Much Painful Labor Is Required 174 Some Rules on the Conjugation of the Verb in the Written Language 182 IV WORKS CONSULTED 185 V INDEX TO GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES 187 VI INDEX TO GRAMMATICAL ELEMENTS 189

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Preface

The purpose of this translation of Collado's Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae of 1632 is to make more readily available to the scholarly community an annotated version of this significant document in the history of both Japanese language study and grammatical description in general.

Collado's work, derived in all its significant features from the Arte da lingoa de Iapam completed in 1608 by Joo Rodriguez, is in a strict, scholarly sense less valuable than its precursor. However, if used with the Arte as a simplified restatement of the basic structure of the language, Collado's Grammar offers to the student of the Japanese language an invaluable ancillary tool for the study of the colloquial language of the early 17th Century.

While less extensive and less carefully edited than the Arte, Collado's Grammar has much to recommend it as a document in the history of grammatical description. It is an orthodox description attempting to fit simple Japanese sentences into the framework established for Latin by the great Spanish humanist Antonio Lebrija. Thus, as an application of pre-Cartecian grammatical theory to the structure of a non-Indo-European language, the Ars Grammaticae is an important document worthy of careful examination by those wishing insight into the origins of what three centuries later was to become the purview of descriptive linguistics.

The present translation was begun with the able assistance of Ms. Roberta Galli whose contribution to my understanding of the Latin text is most gratefully acknowledged. For his continued encouragement in this undertaking I am grateful to Professor Roy Andrew Miller. Thanks are also due to the Graduate School of the University of Kansas for its support in the preparation of the manuscript and to Ms. Sue Schumock whose capable typing turned a scribbled, multi-lingual draft into a legible manuscript. The imperfections are my own.

R.L.S.

Lawrence, Kansas May, 1975

{1}

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Introduction

In 1632, as the Christian Century in Japan was drawing swiftly to a close, three works pertaining to the Japanese language were being published at Rome by the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. These works were by the Spanish Dominican Father, Diego Collado (d. 1638), who had spent the years from 1619 to 1622 in Japan. Their publication clearly reflects the vitality of the missionary spirit in that age as well as the important place reserved for language study in the propagation of the faith.

The first two works, whose manuscripts had been prepared in Madrid the year before, were a grammar and a dictionary of Japanese. The third, prepared in 1631, while the larger works were being seen through the press, was a guide to the taking of confession written in both Latin and Japanese.[1] The grammar, drafted in Spanish, was published in Latin in 1632 under the title Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae. It is this work that is translated here. The dictionary, only at the last moment supplied with Latin glosses to supplement those in Spanish, was published in the same year with the title Dictionarium sive Thesauri Linguae Iaponicae Compendium.[2] Taken together these three works by Collado constitute the final extant efforts of those who studied the Japanese language first hand during the Christian Century.[3]

Two other grammatical works must be mentioned here as central to the proper assessment of Collado's Grammar. They are both by the great Jesuit scholar, Father Joo Rodnguez (1561-1634);[4] the Arte da Lingoa de Iapam (Nagasaki, 1604-8, hereafter the Arte), and the Arte Breve da Lingoa Iapoa (Macao, 1620, hereafter Arte Breve). The first {2} is by any standards the greatest grammatical study of Japanese made during the Christian Century. It is further, as we shall see, the primary source for Collado's Grammar. The Arte Breve, on the other hand, is not directly related to Collado's work. Indeed it is clear that Rodriguez' 1620 Macao publication was unknown to Collado. Nevertheless, since the Arte Breve is an abbreviated version of the Arte with a purpose similar to the Ars Grammaticae, a comparison of these two books with respect to the way they systematize the material from the Arte is included in this introduction to contribute some insight into the treatment of the Japanese language at the beginning of the Tokugawa Period.

In presenting this translation two potential audiences are envisioned. The first, and more restricted, group is that having an interest in the history of the Japanese language. It is hoped that an English version of this work will make more readily available this significant material pertaining to the Japanese language as spoken in the early modern period. I use the word significant here to avoid granting excessive value to a work which derives such a large portion of its material and insight from Rodriguez' Arte.

The second, and wider group for whom this translation is intended is that which has a need for an edited edition of an important document in the history of grammatical description. In this area of scholarship Collado's work is of more than moderate significance. It was accepted for publication by the prestigious Propaganda Press; and, even if those more familiar with Japanese than the editorial board of that Press might have had serious reservations concerning the linguistic accuracy of the text, it is reasonable to assume that the Press judged it to be a good example of grammatical description. It thus represents a grammar of a non-European language which suited the requirements of the day for publication at Rome.[5]

{3}

In order to permit this translation of the Ars Grammaticae to be of use in both these areas of scholarship I have made an effort to reduce to a minimum those places where a knowledge of either Japanese or Latin is required for the comprehension of the translation. It is sincerely hoped that the result is not an effort that is satisfying to neither, and thus to no one.

Because of the derivative nature of the text, this translation has put aside a number of important philological problems as better dealt with within the context of Rodriguez' grammars. This decision has its most obvious consequences in the section on the arithmetic, where innumerable data require exposition. However, since a basic purpose of this translation is within the context of the history of descriptive grammar, these tantalizing side roads have been left unexplored. It is, nevertheless, hoped that this translation will serve as a convenient tool for those wishing to make a more detailed investigation into the philological questions raised by the text. But I must caution those who would undertake such an inquiry that they had best begin with a careful study of the works of Father Rodriguez.

With its limitations acknowledged, the Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae remains a document worthy of our interest, and I offer this translation in order that Collado's work may more easily find its proper place in the history of descriptive grammar.

The Grammatical Framework

Collado perceived his task to be the presentation of a grammar of Japanese which would have sufficient scope to equip those dedicated to the propagation of the faith with a knowledge of the proper spoken language of his time. While he concludes his grammar with a brief, and rather presumptuous, statement concerning the written language, his purpose is clearly to train his students in the fundamentals of colloquial speech. His sensitivity to this point is demonstrated by his carefully transforming those examples presented by Rodriguez in the written language in the Arte into correct colloquial expressions in his own grammar.

The description is, of course, prescriptive. But given its age and its purpose this ought not to be construed in the contemporary, pejorative {4} sense. Collado, as Rodriguez and indeed all the grammarians of the period, felt obligated to train their students in those patterns of speech which were appropriate to the most polite elements of society. Particularly as they addressed themselves to missionaries, they wished to warn them away from such illiteracies as might undermine their capacities to propagate the faith.

The description further reflects the traditional process conceptualization of language. This is particularly obvious in the treatment of the verb. Thus:

Praesens subiunctiui fit ex praesenti indicatiui mutato u in quo finitur in eba.... (The present subjunctive is formed from the present indicative by changing the u in which it ends to eba....) [p. 23].

In general each of the verbal forms is conceived to be the result of a specified alteration of a basic form. Likewise the nouns are treated within the framework of the declension of cases.

The treatment of Japanese forms is based upon a semantic framework within which the formal characteristics of the language are organized. For example, given the construction aguru coto ar (p. 31) and its gloss 'Erit hoc quod ist offere: idest offeret (It will be that he is to offer, or he will offer),' it is clear that the aguru coto is classified as an infinitive because of its semantic equivalence to offere. The same is true of the latter supine. If the form in Latin is closely associated with such constructions as 'easy to,' or 'difficult to,' the semantically similar form which appears as the element iomi in iominicui 'difficult to read,' must be classed as the latter supine. Rodriguez in his Arte Breve of 1620—unknown to Collado—makes an attempt to classify the structural units of Japanese along more formal lines; but in Collado's treatment the semantic, and for him logical and true, classes established by the formal structure of Latin constitute the theoretical framework through which the Japanese language is to be described.

Collado makes reference to two specific sources of influence upon his grammar. The first is included in the title to the first section of the grammar, Antonius Nebrissensis. It is to this great Spanish humanist, {5} better known as Antonio Lebrija (1444-1522), that Collado turns for the model of his description.

An examination of Lebrija's grammar, the Introductiones Latinae (Salamanca, 1481), shows that from the basic outline of his presentation, to the organization of subsections and the selection of terminology, there is little departure by Collado from his predecessor.

Even in such stylistic devices as introducing the interrogatives by giving the form, following it with "to which one responds," and then listing a number of characteristic answers; Collado is faithful to the Introductiones.

But it is from his Jesuit colleague, Father Joo Rodriguez, that Collado receives his most significant influence. There is no section of his grammar that does not reflect Rodriguez' interpretation of the raw linguistic data of Japanese. On the basis of the innumerable examples taken from Rodriguez—most of the substantive sentences are directly quoted from the Arte—as well as the parallel listing of forms and identical descriptions of certain grammatical phenomena, it is clear that the writing of the Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae consisted to no small degree of abridging the exhaustive material contained in Rodriguez' grammar and arranging it within the framework of Lebrija's Introductiones.

To say that Collado followed Lebrija in the general structure of his description is not to imply that he fell heir to all of his precursor's virtues. The Salamanca grammar of 1481 is a masterpiece of orderly presentation. Printed in lettera formata with carefully indented subdivisions, it offers the student a clear display of the conjugational system as well as long columns of Latin examples of a given grammatical structure, accompanied on the right side of the page with Spanish equivalents. Collado makes little effort at copying this orderly display. There are in his presentation no paradigms, but instead only loosely connected sentences that talk the student through the various forms of the conjugation; and there is no orderly array of examples. Add to this the innumerable factual and typographical errors, and one is left with a presentation that lacks most of the basic scholarly virtues of its precursor.

A similar criticism may be leveled against the work from the point {6} of view of Rodriguez' influence. Without matching the Introductiones in orderliness, the Arte more than compensates for its casual format by containing a mass of exhaustively collected and scrupulously presented linguistic data.[6] There was available no better source than the Arte from which Collado might have culled his examples of Japanese.

One doubt that remains in assessing Collado's use of Rodriguez' material is that perhaps his presentation of the most readily understandable material in the Arte is not so much an effort on his part to simplify the learning of Japanese for his students, as it is a reflection of his lack of adequate familiarity with the language he was teaching.

The Phonological System

A study of the phonological data reveals the Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae to be of minimal historical value. Any student of the phonology of early modern Japanese should turn to the far more reliable work of Father Rodriguez. Nevertheless, certain aspects of Collado's transcription require our attention.

The most obvious innovation in the representation of the language is Collado's transcription with an i of the palatal consonant which all his contemporaries record with a y. Thus in the text we find iomi and coie (terms for native words and Chinese borrowings) where Rodriguez writes yomi and coye. This change was affected while the text was being translated from the Spanish manuscript which uses y; and Collado himself must have felt the innovation to be of dubious value since he retained y for the spellings in the Dictionarium.[7]

Collado's handling of the nasal sounds is too inconsistent to be a reliable source for phonological data. Given his rather awkward specification that nasalization is predictable before what we must assume he means to be the voiced stops and affricates,[8] his grammar presents an uncomfortably irregular pattern in the transcription of the phenomena. Thus, on page 39 we find vo mdori ar ca? as well as {7} modori ar ca?. Again, what he presents as the ending zũba in his description of the formation of the negative conditional (p. 34) appears in tovazunba in its only occurrence in a sample sentence (p. 62). To further confound the issue such forms as tovazunba and qinpen occur in contrast to sambiacu, varambe, and varbe.

In Chart 1 the traditional pattern of the gojūonzu (chart of 50 sounds) is followed as a convenient framework in which to display the transcriptional system employed by Collado.

Chart 1

COLLADO'S TRANSCRIPTION SYSTEM

The Simple Series

/#/ /k/ /g/ /s/ /z/ /t/ /d/ /n/ /[phi]/ /b/ /p/ /m/ /y/ /r/ /w/

/a/ a ca ga sa za ta da na fa ba pa ma ia ra va /i/ i qi gui xi ji chi gi ni fi bi pi mi - ri - /u/ u cu gu su zu tu zzu nu fu bu pu mu iu ru - /e/ [ie] qe gue xe je te de ne fe be pe me ie re - /o/ ǒ co go so zo to do no fo bo po mo io ro vo

The Long Series

/au/ [v] c g s z t d n f b (p) m i r v /uu/ c (g)(s) - (t) - - f (b)(p) - i r - /ou/ [v] c (g) s z t d n (f) (b) p m i r v

The Palatal and Labial Series

/ky/ /sy/ /ty/ /ny/ /by/ /my/ /kw/ /gy/ /zy/ /dy/ /[phi]y/ /py/ /ry/ /gw/

/a/ (qua)(guia) xa ja cha gia (nha) fia bia pia (mia) (ria) qua gua /u/ qui (guia) xu ju (chu)(giu)(nhu)(fiu) - - (miu) (riu) - - /o/ qio guio xo (jo) cho gio (nho)(fio)(bio) - (mio) (rio) - - ————————————————————————————————————- /au/ qi gui x j ch gi - (fi)(bi) - mi (ri) qu gu /uu/ (qi)(gui)(x) j (ch) gi nh - - - - (ri) - - /ou/ qi (gui) x j ch gi nh fi (bi) pi (mi) (ri) - - gue ge ne be re

In this chart the phonemic grid is presented in a broad phonetic {8} notation while the underlined entries are in the form used by the text. Dashes indicate sequences which do not occur in the Christian material; while the forms in parentheses are sequences which do not occur in the text but have been reconstructed on the basis of the overall system from sequences attested to elsewhere. The forms ie, vo, v, and v have been placed in brackets to indicate that neither /e/, /o/, /oo/, or /au/ occur in the syllable initial position; and, where in the modern language they do, the text regularly spells that with an initial i or v. The forms in e at the foot of the chart represent sequences that are phonetically identical to the forms above them, but which are transcribed differently to reflect morphological considerations; e.g., the form ague from the stem ague. The phonetic values of /au/, /uu/, and /ou/ are [[IPA: Open-mid back rounded vowel]:], u, and o.

Two aspects of the usage of q should be noticed. First, as in the Arte, c is changed to q before o and u, when the sequence occurs at a morphological juncture; e.g., ioqu 'well,' and iq 'I shall go.' (This rule does not extend to a in such contexts; cf., iocatta 'was good.') Second, in contrast to the system used by Rodriguez, Collado does not feel compelled to follow q with u in all contexts. Thus what Rodriguez spells as queredomo Collado spells as qeredomo. Finally, the text records one usage of the letter h in the exclamation ha.

The Morphological System

Collado's treatment of the morphology contains one quite obvious difference from those of his predecessors: he isolates the particles of the language as separate elements of the structure. While his effort is more or less carelessly maintained by the type setter, his attempt to establish a division between the semantemes (shi) and the morphemes (ji) of Japanese by establishing formal distance between his verba and particula, reflects his consciousness that the morphological elements in Japanese are of a different order than those in Latin. At times, such as when he describes the preterit subjunctive as agueta raba, his divisions fly in the face of derivational history. But he can claim a reasonable justification for his decision by citing Rodriguez' rule for the formation of this form; "add raba to the preterit of the verb" (Arte, 18v). Perhaps it is a prejudice founded upon familiarity with {9} contemporary romanizations, but I cannot help but consider this attempt to give greater independence to the particles as an improvement in the representation of the morphological system.

In all other significant facets of the morphology Collado follows the principles established by Rodriguez with the one exception that in the over-all systematization of the verbal formation and conjugation he follows the classifications established in Lebrija's Introductiones rather than those which Rodriguez inherited from the Institutiones of Alverez. The most significant difference between the two systems is the use by Lebrija of the term subjunctive in his description of the moods where Rodriguez gives independent status to the conjunctive, conditional, concessive, and potential. As we shall see, after presenting the conjugational system of the verb within the framework of Lebrija, Collado breaks the expected sequence of his description of the verb to interject a section on conditional constructions and another on those of the potential.

In the treatment of the tenses Collado breaks with Rodriguez in not attempting to establish an imperfect for Japanese, but he does follow him in the overall classification of the conjugations. Thus:[9]

1st Conjugation verbs ending in e, gi, and e.g., ague, uru ji (xi and maraxi) 2nd Conjugation verbs ending in i e.g., iomi, u 3rd Conjugation verbs ending in ai, oi, and e.g., narai, ui

To the description of this general system Collado adds the treatment of the substantive verbs. This section in many respects is the weakest in his grammar with a portion of his description lost in composing the final text.

Since Collado does not, as Rodriguez, present the conjugations in paradigmatic form, I have extracted from his presentation the most representative forms of the verb ague, uru for each of the categories of the system, and presented them in Chart 2 for reference.

CHART 2

THE CONJUGATIONAL SYSTEM

Affirmative Negative

INDICATIVE MOOD

Present aguru aguenu Perfect agueta aguenanda {10} Pluperfect aguete atta aguenande atta Future aguezu aguru mai Future perfect aguete arǒzu ——

IMPERATIVE MOOD

Present ague io aguru na Future aguezu aguru mai

OPTATIVE MOOD

Present avare ague io caxi avare aguru na caxi Preterit aguezu mono vo aguru mai mono vo Future avare ague io caxi avare aguru na caxi

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Present agureba agueneba Perfect agueta reba aguenanda reba Pluperfect aguete atta reba —— Future ague toqi aguru mai qereba

PERMISSIVE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Present agueredomo aguenedomo Preterit agueta redomo aguenanda redomo Future aguezu redomo aguru mai qeredomo

INFINITIVE

Present aguru coto aguenu coto Preterit agueta coto aguenanda coto Future ague coto aguru mai coto

GERUND IN DI

Present aguru [jibun] aguenu [jibun] Future ague [jibun] aguru mai [jibun]

GERUND IN DO

—— aguete agueĩde

GERUND IN DUM

Present aguru tame aguenu tame Future ague tame aguru mai tame

SUPINE IN TUM

—— ague ni ——

SUPINE IN TU

—— ague ——

PARTICIPLE

Present aguru fito aguenu fito Preterit agueta fito aguenando fito Future ague fito aguru mai fito

The forms treated separately are:

THE CONDITIONAL

Present agueba aguezũba Preterit agueta raba aguenanda raba Future ague naraba aguru mai naraba

THE POTENTIAL

Present aguru r aguenu coto mo arzu Preterit aguetu r aguenanzzu r Future aguezu r aguru mail coto mo arzu

{11}

The Structure of Collado's and Rodriguez' Descriptions Contrasted

In every section of his description, Collado is indebted to the material presented by Rodriguez in his Arte da Lingoa de Iapam. The structure of the Ars Grammaticae, however, follows a much more simplistic design than that of the Arte. As a consequence Collado found it necessary to assemble his data from various sections of Rodriguez' description. In the paragraphs which follow we will briefly sketch the structural relation between these two grammars.

As he clearly states in his title to the main portion of the grammar Collado bases his description on the Introductiones of Antonio Lebriya, and more specifically upon that portion of the great Latin grammar which dealt with the parts of speech. Further, he limits himself to the spoken language rather than attempting, as does Rodriguez, an integrated treatment of both the spoken and written grammars.

Under these influences Collado's grammar takes on the following form:

A Prologue (including the phonology) 3-5 The Body of the Grammar (by parts of speech) 6-61 A Brief Syntax 61-66 A Treatment of the Arithmetic 66-74 A Note on the Written Language 74-75

In contrast Rodriguez' Arte, prepared under the influence of Alvarez' Institutiones, develops its description over the span of three books which treat both the spoken and written grammar in progressively greater detail. Thus:

The Introduction iii-v

BOOK I

The Declensions 1-2v The Conjugations 2v-54 The Parts of Speech (Rudimenta) 55-80v

BOOK II

The Syntax of the Parts of Speech 83-168 Styles, Pronunciation, Poetics, etc. 168-184

BOOK III

The Written Language 184v-206v Names, Titles, etc. 206v-212v The Arithmetic 212v-239

{12}

Given these differing formats[10] it is clear that Collado is unable to cope adequately with the more complex aspects of the grammar, specifically those syntactic constructions to which Rodriguez devotes almost an entire book.

An analysis of Collado's description and a listing of the portions of Rodriguez' grammar from which material was taken yields the following:

Collado Rodriguez

Phonology (3-5) {Parts of Speech (55-58) {Book III (173-179v)

Nouns (6-13) {Declensions (1-2v) {Parts of Speech (59-61)

Adjectives (9-11, 32-33) {Declensions (2-2v) {Conjugations (47-52) {Parts of Speech (61-67)

Pronouns (13-18) {Declensions (2v) {Parts of Speech (67-68)

Verbs (18-49) {Conjugations (6v-54v) {Parts of Speech (69-73) {Syntax (83v-112v)

Adverbs (49-57) {Parts of Speech (73v-77) {Syntax (113-125)

Prepositions (57-59) {Parts of Speech (73-73v) {Syntax (140-148v)

Conjunctions (59-60) {Parts of Speech (76-76v) {Syntax (130-137)

Exclamations (60-61) {Parts of Speech (76-76v) {Syntax (125-130)

Syntax (61-66) Book II (83-168)

Arithmetic (66-75) Book III (212v-239)

Written Language (74-75) Book III (184v-206v)

Two aspects of Japanese were not able to be described with any degree of satisfaction by Collado; the adjectives (adjectiva) and the prepositions (praepositio). His difficulties, attributable to the basic structural difference between Latin and Japanese, were compounded by the fact that Rodriguez too was unable to find a satisfactory solution to their description.

With respect to the adjectives, Collado attempts to deal with their functions in the manner appropriate to Latin, that is as a sub-class of {13} nouns (pp. 9-11). He also recognizes their formal similarity to the verb and treats them briefly as a sub-class of the substantive verb (pp. 32-33), but his heavy reliance upon the semantic categories of Latin does not permit him to follow Rodriguez who is able more clearly to recognize their formal as well as their functional distinctiveness.

Concerning prepositions, Collado was confronted with an all but insurmountable taxonomic problem. Here too Rodriguez was unable to develop a completely satisfactory descriptive framework. In the Arte the term posposio is used for those particles which function in a manner similar to the Latin prepositions; e.g., tameni, taixite, and tomoni (cf. 73-73v and 140-148v); the term artigo is used for those particles having the functions of the inflectional endings of Latin; e.g., ga, ye, and ni (cf. 1-2, 78, and 137-140); and the general term particula is used to cover the broad spectrum of particles that include adverbs, conjunctions, and exclamations, as well as those otherwise unaccounted for elements which end phrases, clauses, and sentences; e.g., no, nite, and yo (cf. 77-78 and 144-154v).

Collado, rather than attempting to refine the system suggested by Rodriguez, follows the Arte in listing as praepositio those elements which translate the Latin prepositions (pp. 57-59) but uses the term particula to cover all the other particles of the language.

This tendency of Collado's to retreat from the challenging problems left unresolved by Rodriguez constitutes the greatest weakness of his description. Given concise grammatical descriptions on the one hand and over-simplified versions of previous works on the other, the Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae unfortunately falls among the latter.

In his shorter work, the Arte Breve of 1620, Rodriguez retains the same general format, but makes every effort to reduce the description to its barest essentials. Thus:

BOOK I

A General Note on the Language 1-2 An Essay on How to Learn the Language 2v-6 The Orthography 6-8 Composition of the Syllables 8v-9v The Way to Write and Pronounce the Letters 10-12v The Declension of Nouns 13-18 The Conjugation and Formation of Verbs 18-52 {14}

BOOK II

The Rudimenta 52-59v The Syntax 59v-66v

BOOK III

The Written Language 67-75 The Various Kinds of Names 75v-98v

Of particular interest in the context of Collado's grammar is the manner in which Rodriguez displays the verbal system. While the Ars Grammaticae presents the verbal system as a series of alterational rules to be applied to the base forms, the Arte Breve goes even further than the Arte to differentiate the formational rules from the conjugational displays. Rodriguez tries several devices to elucidate his material. For example, Charts A and B below represent very early attempts to use a bordered format for linguistic description.

In order to indicate the differences to be found between the descriptions presented by Rodriguez and Collado, I have extracted the formational rules from the Arte Breve and, setting aside only two short appendices dealing with variant forms, present them here in their entirety.

THE CONJUGATION AND FORMATION OF THE TENSES AND MOODS OF THE VERBS

All the verbs of this language may be reduced (se reduzem) to four affirmative and three negative conjugations. This is because the negative conjugation of the adjectival verb, which we discussed before,[11] agrees with the second of the three conjugations; and the conjugation of the substantive verb Sǒrai, Sǒrǒ, or soro, which is an abbreviated form of Samburai, samburǒ[12] both in the affirmative and the negative is reduced to the third conjugation. At this point we will treat the three affirmative and three negative ordinary conjugations of the regular personal verbs.[13] Following this, and on account of its particular usage and formation, we will discuss the conjugation of the adjectival verb.

The verbs of this language do not change (na fẽ variedade) to show person and number as do those of Latin; rather, one form (voz) {15} is used for all persons, singular and plural. Number and person are understood according to the subject (Naminativo [sic]), or pronoun, which is joined to the verb. The moods of the verb, which in this language have distinct forms for the tenses, are indicative, imperative, conjunctive, conditional, and preterit participle. The remaining moods are made up of these forms joined to certain particles. Each mood has but three tenses which have distinct forms; these are preterit, present, and future. These forms are signified by the Japanese terms (vocabulos) Quaco, ghenzai, mirai. The preterit imperfect and pluperfect are made up of the present, preterit, and preterit participle together with the substantive verb, as will be seen below in the conjugations.

Concerning the formation of the tenses and moods of the verbs in general, one is reminded that to understand the actual root (raiz) and the natural formation of all the tenses and moods, both affirmative and negative, it is extremely important to take notice of the usage of the Goyn,[14] which are the five vowels (cinco letras vogaes) in the syllables which are below each aforementioned formation; and that it is also important to understand Canadzucai,[15] which is the way to write with Firagana as well as the way one joins together syllables, or letters, to form other words (palauras), while noticing which syllable is changed by which, what constitutes long, short, or diphthongal syllables, which combinations cause contraction (sincope), which cause augmentation (incremento) of the verb, whether one makes a syllable liquid (liquescit)[16] or not, and how the tenses of the moods are written with the same Cana.[17] The term Goyn, not only indicates the syllables, or Cana, which are transformed to others, such as Fa, Fe, Fi, Fo, Fu, which are changed to the closely related sounds Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu and Pa, Pe, Pi, Po, Pu; but it also indicates another kind of change from one sound to another in the same order (ordem), as happens among the syllables Fa, Fe, Fi, Fo, Fu. Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu. Ma, Me, Mi, Mo, Mu, {16} etc. where often by rule (regna) Ma is changed to Mi; or to the contrary Bu to Ba and Bi to Ba, and likewise for others. The greater part of the formation of the tenses of each mood is confined to such changes, as is clearly seen in the way one writes the tense forms with Cana. It is to this that another change belongs. That which exists among those syllables having a certain relationship and rapport between them, as Ma, Fa, Ba, Pa; Me, Fe, Be, Pe; Mi, Fi, Bi, Pi; Mo, Fo, Bo, Po; Mu, Fu, Bu, Pu; with Mu and V. Thus, what is written Vma in Cana is written Muma, and Mume written for Vme in order to conform more closely to its pronunciation.[18] Also Mu is written for Bu[19] so that all the harmony (armonia) in the formations of this language are contained in the rules for Goyn and Canadzucai. Those who are informed see, as native speakers, how the tenses are formed for any mood, and which letter, or syllable, must be changed to another to affect a formation. Concerning this matter there is a booklet[20] which teaches Canadzucai, and the general rules on the subject. Teachers should have this booklet to teach more easily and advantageously those students who are learning Cana. Lacking a knowledge of Goyn and Canadzucai, some of the rules which until now have been used in the formation of verbs (some of which I have let remain as they were), are not the original and natural rules as are the Goyn.[21] They are rather devices, some forming affirmative tenses and moods from negative forms and others forming them from yet other more remote sources, which appear to correspond to formational rules, but for which the proper rules are not known. The fact is that the affirmative as well as negative are formed from the affirmative, beginning with the root, as will be seen below.

Speaking in general of the formation of the verb, the forms of the indicative and imperative moods of all three conjugations are formed from the root of the verb. The rest of the tenses in the other affirmative moods are formed from either the indicative or imperative forms. In the same way, the negative indicative present is formed from the root of the verb and the other tenses of the indicative are formed from {17} the present form. The other negative moods are formed from the indicative forms.

FORMATION OF THE TENSES FOR THE INDICATIVE AND IMPERATIVE MOODS OF THE VERBS OF THE FIRST AFFIRMATIVE CONJUGATION

The final syllables of the roots of the first affirmative conjugation, by which the verbs conjugated here are known, and from which the tenses of the indicative will be formed, end in E, with the exception of the verb "to do," Xi, or Ii, with its compounds and certain other verbs which end in I. The verbs which belong to the first conjugation, are as follows [in Charts A & B].

The verb Xi "to do," with its compounds ending in Xi or Ii, follows the formation of the verbs of the first conjugation. Ii is Xi which has been changed (alterado) to Ii because it follows the letter N. Xi conforms to the rules for the syllables which are changed (se mudam) to others. Thus:

Xi In the present change Xi to Suru, xita, xe, zu, zuru, Suru. In the preterit add xeyo, xenu, or zu. Faixi Ta to the root. In the future Faisuru, faixita, faixe, change Xi to Xe. In the faixeyo, faixenu. Tayxi[22] imperative change Xi to Xe Tassuru, taxxita, taxxe, and add Yo, i, or sai. In taxxeyo, taxxenu. Gaxxi the negative add Nu, or zu Gassuru, gaxxita, gaxxe, to Xe. gaxxeyo, gaxxenu.

Zonji In the present Ii is changed Zonzuru, zonjita, zonje, to Zuru. In the preterit Ta zu, zuru, zonjeyo, is added to the root. In the zonjenu. Caronji future Ii is changed to Ie, Caronzuru, caronjita, etc. etc.

Vomonji Vomonzuru, vomonjita. Sanji Sanzuru, sanjita. Goranji Goranzuru, goranjita. Soranji Soranzuru, soranjita. Ganji Canzuru, canjita. Manji Manzuru, manjita.

Many of these verbs have another, less used, form made by adding Ru to the root; e.g., Abi, abiru; Mochiy, mochiyru; xiy, xiyru. Among these are some that have only this second form and lack the first; e.g., Mi, miru; Ni, niru; Fi, firu; Cagammi, cagammiru; Ki, kiru "to dress," as distinct from Ki, kuru "to come"; and y, yru.

{18}

CHART A

[The Formation of First Conjugation Verbs Ending in E]

- - - Syllables Roots Formation Present Preterit ========================================================= Tate, In the present Taturu. Tateta. change Te to Te, Turu. The Fate, remainder are Faturu. Fateta. from the root. See above. Ie, Maje, Change Ie to Mazuru. Majeta. Zuru in the present. The remainder are from the root. See above. Saxe, In the present Sasuru. Saxeta. Xe, change Xe to Suru. The Mairaxe, remainder are Mairasuru. Mairaxeta. from the root. See above. =====================================================

- - - Syllables Roots Future Imperative Negative ===================================================== Tate, Tate, zu, Tateyo. Tatenu, zuru. Tatei, or, zu. Te, tatesay.[23] Fate, Fate, zu Fateyo, Fatenu, zuru. etc. or, zu. Ie, Maje, Maje. Majeyo, Majenu, etc. or, zu. Saxe, Saxe. Saxeyo. Saxenu, Xe, or, zu. Mairaxe, Mairaxe. Mairaxeyo, Mairaxenu, etc. or, zu. =============================================

{19}

CHART B

- - - _Syllables_ _Roots_ _Formation_ _Present_ _Preterit_ =========================================================== Be, Curabe, _In the present Curaburu. Curabeta. tense of these eight forms, Fe, Fe, change _E_ to Furu, _or_, Feta. Vru. _In the feru. preterit add Ghe, Aghe, _Ta_ to the root. Aghuru. Agheta. In the future _, zu, zuru_ Ke, Tokoke, to the root. Todokuru. Todoketa. In the Negative Me, Motome, present add Motomuru. Motometa. _Nu_, or _zu_ Ne, Fane, to the root._ Fanuru. Faneta. Re, Fanare, Fanaruru. Fanareta. Ye, Ataye, Atayuru. Atayeta. - - - De, _In the present Dzuru. Deta. change _De_ to Ide, _Dzuru_. The Idzuru. Ideta. [De,] other tenses Mǒde, are formed, as Mǒdzuru. Mǒdeta. above, from Mede, the root._ Medzuru. Medeta. ===============================================

- - Syllables Roots Future Imperative Negative ====================================================== Be, Curabe, Curabe, Curabeyo, Curabenu, zu, zuru. ei, sai. or, Curabezu. Fe, Fe, Fe, zu, Feyo, fei, fenu, zuru. fesai. fezu. Ghe, Aghe, Aghe, Agheyo, Aghenu, etc. etc. etc. Ke, Tokoke, Todoke. Todokeyo, Todokenu, etc. etc. Me, Motome, Motone. Motomeyo, Motomenu, etc. etc. Ne, Fane, Fane. Faneyo. Fanenu. Re, Fanare, Fanare. Fanareyo. Fanarenu. Ye, Ataye, Ataye. Atayeyo. Atayenu. - - De, De, zu, Deyo, Denu. etc. etc. Ide, Ide, zu. Ideyo. Idenu. [De,] Mǒde, This verb is defective and lacks other forms. Mede, This verb is defective and has no other forms. ==========================================

{20}

FORMATION OF THE OPTATIVE, CONJUNCTIVE, AND CONDITIONAL MOODS, AND THE PARTICIPLE

The optative mood does not have forms of its own but compensates for this in part by adding to the imperative certain particles which indicate desire, in part by adding to the future indicative particles which show regret for not doing something, and in part by circumlocutions with the conditional mood and certain particles, as will be seen in the conjugations.

The conjunctive mood has two sorts of proper forms. The first is the common and ordinary form ending in Eba, corresponding to the Latin cum. The other ends in Domo, corresponding to the particle "although (posto que)." The other verbs of this mood do not have their own forms, but are expressed by circumlocutions as we shall see.[24]

The present tense of the first conjunctive is formed from the present indicative by changing the final Ru to Reba; e.g., Motomureba. For the preterit Reba is added to the preterit indicative; e.g., Motometareba. For the future the final Ru of the third form of the future indicative is changed to Reba; e.g., Motomezureba. For a second form of the future the syllable is added to the indicative preterit perfect; e.g., Motometarǒ. This particle is Ran in the written language; e.g., Motometaran.[25] An utterance (oraam) does not end in this form, but must be followed by a noun.[26]

The present tense of the second conjunctive is formed by changing the final Ru of the present indicative to Redomo; e.g., Motomuredomo. For the preterit Redomo is added to the indicative preterit perfect; e.g., Motometaredomo. Strictly speaking this form is Motomete aredomo, losing the E of the participle. Furthermore, Motometa, together with the other preterit forms in Ta is from Motometearu which is first elided to Motometaru and then by common usage (pratica) to Motometa. All of which is seen in its Canadzucai. For the future, the final Ru of the future indicative is changed to Redomo; e.g., Motomezuredomo.

The conditional mood, for the present tense, is formed by adding the syllable Ba to the root of the verb and Naraba or Ni voiteua to the {21} present tense form; e.g., Motomeba, motomuru naraba, and motomuruni voiteua. For the preterit, Raba, Naraba, or Ni voiteua are added to the indicative preterit; e.g., Motometaraba, which is in reality Motomete araba, motometa naraba, and motometani voiteua. For the future Naraba or Ni voiteua are added to the future forms; e.g., Motome naraba and motomeni voiteua. The present tense forms are also used for the future.

VERBS OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION THAT END IN I

_There are some irregular verbs ending in _I_ which follow the formational rules of the first conjugation, both affirmative and negative. There are a precise number of them. Those which have been found to date are shown below. They are formed for the present indicative by changing _I_ to _Uru_, for the preterit by adding _Ta_ to the root of the verb, and for the future by adding long _, _zu_, or _zuru_ to the same root. For the present conditional _Ba_ is added to the root, for the preterit _Raba_ is added to the preterit indicative, and for the future _Naraba_ is added to the future indicative. For the present conjunctive the _Ru_ of the present indicative is changed to _Reba_, for the preterit _Reba_ is added to the same preterit indicative, and for the future the final _Ru_ of the future is changed to _Reba_. All the other forms are formed as has been stated for the formation of the first conjugation. Thus:[27]_

{ Abi, aburu, abita, abi, zu, zuru, abiyo, or sai, abiba, { taraba. { Cabi, caburu, cabita, cabi, zu, zuru, biyo, sai, biba, { bitaraba. Abi { Carabi, caraburu, bita, bi, zu, zuru, biyo, sai, biba, taraba. { Sabi, saburu, sabita, sabi, zu, zuru, sabiyo, bisai, biba, { taraba. { Vabi, vaburu, vabita, vabi, zu, zuru, yo, sai, biba, { bitaraaba.

{ Nobi, buru, bita, bi, zu, zuru, biyo, bisai, biba, bitaraba. { Corobi, buru, bita, bi, bizu, zuru, biyo, bisai, biba, { bitaraba. Obi { Forobi, buru, bita, bi, zu, zuru, biyo, bisai, biba, bitaraba. { Fitobi, bu, bita, bi, zu, zuru, biyo, bisai, biba, bitaraba. { Fokorobi, bu, bita, bi, zu, zuru, biyo, bisai, biba, bitaraba.

Ubi { Furubi, bu, bita, bi, zu, zuru, biyo, bisai, biba, bitaraba.

{22}

Vochi, { Chi to } Voturu, chita, chi, chiyo, chiba, tureba. Cuchi, { Turu } Cuturu, chita, chi, chiyo, chiba, tureba.

Fagi, { Change } Fadzuru, fagita, gi, giyo, giba, gitaraba. Vogi, { Gi to } Vodzuru, gita, gi, giyo, giba, gitaraba. Negi, { Dzu } Nedzuru, gita, gi, giyo, giba, gitaraba.

Mochiy, } the { Mochiyuru, mochiyta, chiy, yzu, zuru, iyo, } final { yba, yttaraba. Xiy, } Y { Xiyuru, xiyta, y iyo, yba ytaraba. Mimixiy, } to { Mimixiyta, mimixiyte, Defective. Mexiy, } Yuru { Mexiytaru, mexiyte, Defective.

Y, yru, yta, y, zu, zuru, yyo, yba, yreba. To be Ki, kiru, kita ki, kiyo, &c. To wear Ki, kuru, kita, k, kzu, kzuru, koyo or koi. To Come Coru, coruru, corita, cori, &c. Furi, fururu, furita, furi, &c. Iki, ikuru, ikita, iki, &c. Ideki, idekuru, idekita, ideki, &c. Deki, dekuru, dekita, deki, &c. Voki, vokuru, vokita, voki, &c. Tuki, tukuru, tukita, tuki, &c. Vori, voruru, vorita, vori, &c. Vrami, vramuru, vramita, vrami, &c. Cagammi, cagammiru, cagammita, cagammi, &c. Mi, miru, mita, mi, &c. Ni, niru, nita, ni, &c. Sughi, sughuru, sughita, sughi, &c.

FORMATION OF THE VERBS OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION

All the roots of second conjugation verbs end in I. There are eight final syllables for these verbs; i.e., Bi, Chi, Ghi, Ki, Mi, Ni, Ri, Xi. It is by these syllables that the verbs of the second conjugation (except for those mentioned above as being in the first conjugation) are recognized, and from which the tenses are formed.

The roots ending in the syllables Bi, Ghi, Ki, Mi, and Ri change the I to V for the present tense; e.g., Tobi, tobu; Coghi, coghu; Caki, caku; Yomi, yomu; Kiri, kiru.

Those ending in Chi change to Tu for the present; e.g., Mochi, motu; Cachi, catu; Tachi, tatu.

Those ending in Ni change to Nuru for the present; e.g., Xini, xinuru; Yni, ynuru.[28]

{23}

Those ending in Xi change to Su for the present; e.g., Fanaxi, fanasu; Cudaxi, cudasu; Taraxi, tarasu.

For the preterit those ending Obi and Omi change to da; e.g., Yomi, yda; Tobi, tda; Yobi, yda; Yorocobi, yorocda. Tomi becomes tonda.

Those ending in Abi and Ami change to ǒda; e.g., Yerabi, yerǒda; Vogami, vogǒda; Yami, yǒda.

Those ending in Imi change to da; e.g., Najimi, najǔda; Nijimi, nijǔda; Ximi, xda.[29]

Those ending in Umi and Ubi change their endings to Vnda or in some instances da. While some have two forms others have only one form which is seen in use, the more general is Vnda; e.g., Musubi, musunda; Susumi, susunda or susda; Nusumi, nusunda or nusda; Sumi, sunda or sda; Cumi, cunda only.

Those ending in Ebi and Emi change to Eda; e.g., Sakebi, sakeda; Sonemi, soneda.

Those ending in Ghi change to Ida; e.g., Auoghi, auoida; Voyoghi, voyoida; Coghi, coida.

Those ending in Ni change to Inda; e.g., Xini, xinda; Yni, ynda.

Those ending in Chi and Ri change to Tta; e.g., Machi, matta; Cachi, catta; Tachi, tatta; Kiri, kitta; Chiri, chitta; Cari, catta.

Those ending in Ki and Xi change to Ita; e.g., Caki, caita; Faki, faita; Nuki, nuita; Todoki, todoita; Sosoki, sosoita; Saxi, saita; Fataxi, fataita; Maxi, maita or maxita; Coxi, coita or oxita. The following add Ta to the root; e.g., Moxi, moxita; Muxi, muxita; Fuxi, fuxita; Mexi, mexita.

The future can be formed in two ways. The first and more common way is to change I to ǒ, ǒzu, or ǒzuru; e.g., Yomi, yomǒ, yomǒzu, yomǒzuru; Yerabi, yerabǒ, etc.; Kiri, kirǒ; Xini, xinǒ; Auoghi, auogǒ.[30] Those ending in Chi change to ; e.g., Cachi, catǒ, etc.; machi, matǒ. Those ending in Xi change to ; e.g., Mǒxi, mǒsǒ; Nagaxi, nagasǒ; Mexi, mesǒ; Coxi, cosǒ, etc. The other way, which is easy too, is to change the final V of the present indicative to ǒ; e.g., Yomu, yomǒ; Kiku, kikǒ; Mǒsu, mǒsǒ; Mesu, mesǒ. Those ending in {24} u change to ; e.g., Tatu, tatǒ; Catu, catǒ. Those ending in Nuru change to ; e.g., Xinuru, xinǒ; Ynuru, ynǒ. This second rule seems to be more naturally in accord with the rules for the Japanese language.

The imperative changes the final I of the root to E. Those ending in Chi change to Te; e.g., Yome; Kike; Tamochi, tamote; Vchi, ute; Machi, mate.

The present conjunctive is formed by adding Ba to the imperative; e.g., Yomeba; Tateba.[31] For the preterit, Reba is added to the preterit indicative; e.g., Ydarebe.[32] For the future the final Ru of the future indicative is changed to Reba; e.g., Yomǒzureba. The conjunctive in Domo is formed in the same manner; e.g., Yomedomo, ydaredomo, yomǒzuredomo.

The conditional is formed from the future indicative by changing the ǒ to Aba; e.g., Yomaba; Tataba.[33] The preterit is formed by adding Raba to the indicative preterit; e.g., Ydaraba; Tattaraba.[34]

The preterit participle is formed from the preterit by changing the A to E; e.g., Yde; Kite; Tatte. The present participle, in Te, is formed by adding Te ['hand'] to the root of any verb. This is properly a substantive and thus governs the genitive as do the other substantives. It does not indicate tense; e.g., Yomite; Cakite; Machite, etc.

The negative present can be formed in two ways. The first, and that which accords with the rules for Canadzucai, is formed by changing I of the root to Anu or Azu; e.g., Corobi, corobanu, corobazu; Yomi, yomanu, etc.; Coghi, coghanu; Caki, cacanu;[35] Kiri, kiranu; ini, inanu. Those ending in Chi change to Tanu; e.g., Tachi, tatanu. Those ending in Xi change to Sanu; e.g., Fanasanu. Another formation common to all is made with the future indicative by changing ǒ to Anu or Azu; e.g., Corobǒ, corobanu, corobazu; Yomǒ, yomanu, etc.; Coghǒ, coghanu; Cakǒ, cakanu; Kirǒ, kiranu; Inǒ, inanu; Tatǒ, tatanu; Matǒ, matanu; Fanasǒ, fanasanu. This rule is common to all three conjugations by changing the affirmative future indicative ǒ to Anu and the {25} and to Nu or Zu;[36] e.g., Todome, todomenu, todomezu; Saxe, saxenu, etc.; Tate, tatenu; Mi, minu; Yomǒ, yomanu; Tatǒ, tatanu; Fanasǒ, fanasanu; Narauǒ, narananu; Vomouǒ, vomouanu; Furuuo, furuuanu. For the second conjugation preterit, those in Nu are changed to Nanda: e.g., Yomananda. For the preterit participle Da is changed to De; e.g., Yomanande. For the second form of the negative participle, the Nu is changed to Ide; e.g., Yomaide, Corobaide, Tataide, Totonouaide. For the future the particle majij[37] or mai is added to the affirmative present indicative; e.g., Yomumajij, yomumai; Matumajij, matumai.

FORMATION OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION AND THE ROOTS FROM WHICH THE TENSES ARE FORMED

The final syllables of the third conjugation are the diphthongs Ai, Oi, Vi. By these syllables the verbs are known to belong to this conjugation, and from them the tenses are formed. The present indicative is formed by changing Ai to ǒ, Oi to , and Vi to ; e.g., Narai, narǒ; Vomoi, vom; furui, fur. The preterit is formed by adding the syllable Ta to the present; e.g., Narǒta, Vomta, Furta. The future is formed by changing the final I of the root to Vǒ, vǒzu, vǒzuru; e.g., Narauǒ, narauǒzu, etc.; Vomouǒ, vomouǒzu, etc.; Furuuǒ, furuuǒzu, etc. The present imperative is formed by changing the final I to Ye; e.g., Naraye, Vomoye, Furuye.

For the present conjunctive Ba or Domo is added to the imperative; e.g., Narayeba, narayedomo; Vomoyeba, vomoyedomo; Furuyeba, furuyedomo. For the preterit Reba or Redamo[38] is added to the indicative preterit; e.g., Narǒtareba, narǒtaredomo; Vomtareba, vomtaredomo; Furtareba, furtaredomo.

The present conditional is formed by changing ǒ of the future to Aba; e.g., Narauaba, Vomouaba, Furuuaba. The preterit is formed by adding Raba to the indicative preterit; e.g., Narǒtaraba, Vomtaraba, Furtaraba.

{26}

The negative present is formed by changing the I of the root to Vanu or vazu; e.g., Narai, narauanu, narauazu; Vomoi, vomouanu, etc.; Furui, Furuuana, etc. This form can also be formed from the future by changing the ǒ to Anu or azu; e.g., Narauǒ, narananu, etc. For the preterit the Nu is changed to Nanda; e.g., Narauananda. For the preterit participle the Da is changed to De; e.g., Narauanande. For the second form the Nu of the present is changed to Ide; e.g., Narauaide, Vomouaide, Furuuaide. For the future the particle Majii,[39] maji, or mai is added to the affirmative present indicative; e.g., Narǒmajii, narǒmaji, narǒmai; Vommajii, ji, or mai; Furmajii, ji, or mai.

The verb Yy 'to speak' becomes Y, yta, yuǒ, yye, yuanu. Yei or yoi 'to become sick' becomes Y, yta, youǒ, yoye, yonanu. The substantive verb Saburai, which also belongs to this conjugation, becomes Saburǒ, saburauanu; and Sǒrai becomes Sǒrǒ, soro, sǒraite, sǒraye, sorouanu.

Rodriguez follows these formational rules with a full display of all the forms of the three conjugations. In his display he, like Alvarez before him, recapitulates the appropriate rules for each form. Collado nowhere presents his conjugational system as a paradigm but does, as we shall see, include a full complement of example sentences in his description, something which Rodriguez does not do in the Arte Breve.

Bibliography

In the examination of any portion of the Christian materials certain works are indispensable. Father Johannes Laures, S.J., Kirishitan Bunko (Tokyo, 1957) remains the basic bibliographic source for the study of all sources of the Christian Century, while Hashimoto Shinkichi, Kirishitan kyōgi no kenkyū (Tokyo, 1929) and Doi Tadao, Kirishitan gogaku no kenkyū (Tokyo, 1942) serve as indespensible guides to our understanding of the linguistic aspects of the field. A later contribution to the general bibliography has been made by Fukushima Kunimichi, Kirishitan shiryō to kokugo kenkyū (Tokyo, 1973).

The basic grammatical study of the period, based upon the shōmono materials, is Yuzawa Kōkichirō, Muromachi jidai gengo no kenkyū {27} (Tokyo, 1958). More closely related to the language reflected in the text is his "Amakusabon Heike monogatari no gohō," in Kyōiku ronbunshū (no. 539, Jan. 1929). An English treatment of the grammatical system of the period is to be found in R. L. Spear, "A Grammatical Study of Esopo no Fabulas," an unpublished doctoral thesis (Michigan, 1966). The phonology has been carefully analyzed by Ōtomo Shin'ichi, Muromachi jidai no kokugo onsei no kenkyū (Tokyo, 1963), with a valuable contribution made in English by J. F. Moran, "A Commentary on the Arte Breve da Lingoa Iapao of Joo Rodriguez, S.J., with Particular Reference to Pronunciation," an unpublished doctoral thesis (Oxford, 1971). This latter work presents an exhaustive examination of the phonological system reflected in the Arte Breve of 1620 within the framework of Berhard Bloch's phonemic theory.

Two lexical works have been used as basic references in this translation. The Vocabulario de Lingoa de Iapam (hereafter the Vocabulario) produced by the Jesuit Mission Press at Nagasaki in the years 1603 and 04. In a carefully annotated version by Professor Doi, under the title Nippo jisho (Tokyo, 1960), this work is the most important single source for the vocabulary of the period. The second work is the Dictionarium sive Thesauri Linguae Iaponicae Compendium (hereafter the Dictionarium) which is the companion piece to the present text. This dictionary has been carefully edited and cross-referenced by Ōtsuka Mitsunobu, under the title Koriyaado Ra Su Nichi jiten (Tokyo, 1966). In this form it has served as a constant aid to the translator in the determination of the proper glosses for the lexical items in the text.

The aforementioned Arte of 1604-08 by Rodriguez, has been the single most frequently used tool in the preparation of this translation.[40] As the most significant influence upon Collado's work and the source for most of his material, both theoretical and practical, I have related the two works at every point in the translation. In its Japanese version by Professor Doi, Rodorigesu Nihon daibunten (Tokyo, 1950), this work has been invaluable in gaining a clearer understanding of many of the passages which might have otherwise been obscure.

Rodriguez' Arte Breve of 1620, while having no influence upon the preparation of the Ars Grammaticae, is nevertheless of fundamental {28} importance as a work against which Collado's treatment of Japanese grammar is to be judged. This shorter grammar is as yet to be fully translated into English—Moran having limited his study to the treatment of the phonology.

With respect to the text itself I have made this translation on the basis of the facsimile edition published by the Tenri Central Library in 1972 as part of its Classica Japonica series. Ōtsuka Takanobu, Koiyaado-cho Nihongo bunten (Tokyo, 1934) and its revised edition under the title of Koriyaado Nihon bunten (Tokyo, 1957) have served as invaluable aids at every step of the translation.

Ōtsuka's second edition is of invaluable scholarly importance because it contains a cross-reference to the Spanish manuscript from which Collado prepared the printed Latin edition as well as a concordance to the Japanese vocabulary.[41] This translation attempts to supplement Ōtsuka's invaluable contribution by relating the Latin text of this grammar with Rodriguez' Arte.

Editorial Conventions

The Latin matrix of the text is printed in italic letters while the Japanese is in roman. For this translation I have reversed the convention. (In footnotes where the text is quoted the style of the original is followed.) In making editorial corrections in the Japanese material the corrected version is presented in brackets with periods to indicate the general location;

e.g., mairu mai queredomo [... qeredomo]

(The only exception to this rule is the correcting of a missing open o, q.v.) Sentences that have been taken from the Arte are indicated by the parenthetical recording of the leaf number of the citation immediately after the sentence;

e.g., x tame no chqui gia (22) 'it is....

Shorter sentences and specific words that in all likelihood have been taken from the Arte are not listed if they are to be found in the section elsewhere noted as being the source of the material covered. Any {29} significant alteration in the form of the source is noted. Since the Arte is numbered by the leaf, v is added to the number to indicate the verso.

All the corrections made by the errata (on page 75 of the text) have been applied to the text without notation unless the correction is itself in error.

The punctuation follows the text with the following exceptions;

1. In translating from Latin the English follows modern rules of punctuation.

2. Single quotes have been introduced into the text to mark glosses and translations.

3. In transcribing the Japanese citations any alteration of the original punctuation is noted.

4. The spacing of words in Japanese—a relatively casual matter in the text—has been regularized on the basis of the predominant pattern.

5. Two specific rules, based upon Collado's more or less consistent usage, are followed in the citing of verb forms:

a. In the most frequent citation of verbs, where the root form is followed by the present indicative ending, a comma is used;

e.g., ari,u; ague,uru; mochi,tu

b. In an alternate form of citation, where the two forms are given in their entirety, a colon is used;

e.g., ari:aru; ague:aguru; mochi:motu

Spelling and accentuation are treated in the following manner:

1. The long-s in all instances is represented by s.

2. The usage of v and u has been regularized: the v serves as the consonant; and u as the vowel, semi-vowel, and orthographic symbol; e.g., vaga, uie, quan, and agueta.

3. The predictable nasalization—marked by a tilde in the text—has not been included in the translation unless the presence of nasalization is morphologically significant; e.g., tobu:tda. {30}

4. The accent grave—which appears in no discernible pattern—is not transcribed in the translation.

5. The accent acute is used in the translation to mark the long u and the long, open [[IPA: Open-mid back rounded vowel]:], in those places where the length is marked by Collado. Since the most frequent typographical error in the text is the failure to mark the presence of these long syllables, I follow the convention of correcting the absence of this feature in the Latin text by using the inverted caret in the translation. Thus, the appearance in the translation of msu indicates that Collado recorded the length of this word, either by an accent acute (e.g., msu), or an inverted caret (e.g., mǒsu). The appearance of mǒsu indicates that he did not, and that its absence is being corrected. The form mǒsu in the translation is therefore the shorthand equivalent for what would more regularly be mosu [msu].

6. The circumflex, which indicates the long, closed _ o, is corrected as other errors by placing the corrected version of the item in brackets; e.g., _roppio_ [_roppi_].

* * * * *

ARS GRAMMATICAE IAPONICAE LINGVAE

IN GRATIAM ET ADIVTORIVM eorum, qui prdicandi Euangelij causa ad Iaponi Regnum se voluerint conferre.

Composita, & Sacr de Propaganda Fide Congregationi dicata Fr. Didaco Collado Ordinis Prdicatorum per aliquot annos in prdicto Regno Fidei Catholic propagationis Ministro.



ROM, Typis & impensis Sac. Congr. de Propag. Fide. MDCXXXII. SVPERIORVM PERMISSV.

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* * * * *

A Grammar of the Japanese Language

FOR THE SAKE AND HELP of those who wish to go to the Kingdom of Japan to preach the Gospel.

Composed and dedicated to the Blessed Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith by Brother Didico Collado, O.P., who was for many years in that Kingdom as a Minister for the Propagation of the Catholic Faith.



Printed by the Blessed Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. 1632 BY PERMISSION OF THE SUPERIORS.

{106}

* * * * *

It may be published if it please the Most Reverend Father, Master of the Holy Apostolic Palace. For the Archbishop of Umbria. The Vicar General.

It may be published.

Brother Nicolaus Riccardius, Master of the Holy Apostolic Palace, Order of Preachers.

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* * * * *

Prologue to the Reader

With Some Advice on the Correct Pronunciation of the Japanese Language

Long ago, at the beginning of the establishment of our orthodox faith in the Japanese kingdom, a grammar of this language was made by Father Ioannus Rodriguez of the Society of Jesus.[42] However, since things rarely turn out perfect at first attempt, and, because of the passing years that have made it difficult to find a copy of this grammar; I thought that it would honor God and the ministers who preach the faith (which cannot be taught without the use of language) if I were to select examples (and there are many) that are useful to this language, neglect those not accepted by the experts of the language, add, with the help of God (who gives words to the evangelists), the words that I have learned from experience, practice, and continuous reading, and by such means offer up a handbook of the Japanese language in which I would bring together in a brief span these examples with those precepts which the preachers (for whom I began this work) need to learn of the Japanese language. This is done because examples are necessary with the rules and precepts so that it is possible to demonstrate the rule which has just been explained. Not only have these examples been selected for the greater help and enjoyment of the students, but also their explanation has been added in Latin (which is the language most common to theologians); thus the teacher will have very little left to be desired. Even if all the elements included in this grammar, as in the dictionary (which with the help of God I plan to publish shortly),[43] are polished enough and sure enough to be used with trust; I would still want them to be submitted to the judgement of the reader so that the preaching of the faith, carried on with a more correct language, may become more fruitful.

When two vowels follow each other in any Japanese word, they are not pronounced as in the Latin word valeo or in the Spanish, vaca, but each is pronounced independently; v, a; v, o; v, i.

{108}

The letter s is pronounced as s; e.g., susumuru, susumuru.

The letter j is pronounced smoothly (blande), as in the Portuguese joa and judeo.

The letter x is also pronounced smoothly, as in the Portuguese (4 queixumes.

When there is the sign ^ over the letter o it is pronounced ou with the lips almost closed and the mouth partly closed; e.g., bupp.

When there is the sign v or over the letter o it is pronounced with the mouth open as if there were two letters, oo; e.g., tenx or gacuxǒ.[44]

If the signs we have just shown are over the letter u, it is pronounced long as if there were two letters, uu; e.g., taif or aiaǔ.

When the sign ~ is over the vowel, the sign should be pronounced like an n, not strongly but swiftly (cursim) and softly (leniter); e.g., vga.[45]

Qe and Qi are written without u, because when u follows q or c both letters are pronounced as a sinalepha;[46] e.g., qudai or quainin.

When u follows g and immediately after the u is the letter e or i, it should be pronounced as in the Spanish word guenin; but if the letter e or i follows g immediately without the u, it should be pronounced as in the Italian word giorno; e.g., xitgi.

The letter z is pronounced with the same strength as in the Spanish word zumbar; e.g., mizu.

But if there are two zz then they are pronounced more strongly; e.g., mizzu.

When there are two tt, xx, zz, qq, cq, ij, or pp[47] it is important to persist in order to obtain perfect pronunciation and the exact value of the word; for mizu means 'honey' and mizzu means 'water.' Therefore, if the words are said with the same strength or the same gentleness they can mean either 'water' or 'honey.'

When ch comes before a vowel it is pronounced as in the Spanish chimera; e.g., foch.

{109}

But if nh comes before a vowel it is pronounced as in the Spanish maa; e.g., nhuva.

The letter f is pronounced in various regions of Japan as it is in Latin. In others it is pronounced as if it were an imperfect h. For both pronunciations the lips and the mouth should be nearly, but not completely, closed.

When t is in a word (and it appears quite frequently) the student should pray that God have mercy on his pronunciation because the word is very difficult, and its pronunciation is not to be found (5 in any other language. It is not truly pronounced t, nor as s, nor as c alone, but rather by striking the tongue violently against the teeth in order to pronounce both t and , but with more than t seeming to be sounded; e.g., tutumu.

The letter r is said smoothly and softly everywhere it is found, either at the beginning or in the middle of a word; e.g., rangui, or cutabiruru.

Ya, ye, yo, and yu are pronounced as in Spanish.[48]

When words ending in i or u are pronounced by the Japanese, the last letter is almost not heard by the student. For instance, if he hears gozaru he will think he hears gozar, if he hears fitotu he will believe he hears only fitot, and when he hears axi no fara he will perceive only ax no fara.

When a word ending in a vowel is followed immediately by a consonant, particularly b or s,[49] between that vowel and consonant is pronounced the letter n, not perfectly, but softly; e.g., son gotoqu.

I have given special care to the accenting of words.[50] This has been done so that the signs that have been placed correctly over the accented letter will allow the listener to understand the meaning of the words and the sentences of the speaker. For instance, _qixi_ has the accent on both _; _fbicxi_ has it on the first _i_ and on the a.[51] This same {110} arrangement will be respected in the dictionary, with the accent being written with the same degree of correctness as is able to be achieved with great attention. If at times I have made mistakes, I am prepared to correct them immediately. Concerning what has been explained too briefly or left out of this grammar and the dictionary, learned people will be able to do that when they add a third dictionary and a third grammar, since it is easy to supply this material. Because I wish neither to be criticized by the Head of our Order (_pater familias_) and the Lord our God, nor do I wish this knowledge to be wrapped up in a handkerchief;[52] I want by these two works to help and to cooperate in the salvation of the Japanese not only by preaching but also by offering to the preachers, if I can, the tools of the language and chiefly the method by which they might better learn the Japanese language, a task made very difficult by the persecutions in Japan. Farewell, Reader, and be of good cheer. Madrid, 30 August 1631.

* * * * *

{111} (6

IN THIS GRAMMAR WE HAVE FOR THE MOST PART OBSERVED THE ARRANGEMENT WHICH ANTONIUS NEBRISSENSIS AND OTHERS HAVE FOLLOWED IN LATIN FOR THE TREATMENT OF SENTENCES, NAMELY NOUNS, PRONOUNS, ETC.

The Noun—Its Declension and Its Gender

In the Japanese language there are no case declensions as there are in Latin; but there are certain particles, which when suffixed to nouns, determine the differences between the cases for both common and proper nouns. The particles which form the nominative are five; va, ga, cara, no, and iori. The particle va is used when we want to give a sort of reduplicative[53] and specific turn to the person or thing that is signified by such a noun. It indicates either the first, second, or third person; e.g., Vatacuxi va mairanu 'I, or those related to me, will not come.' The particle no is suffixed to the second and third person, especially if they are inferior in rank or in a sentence where there is a relative construction which does not indicate a transitive action; e.g., sonata no mxita coto 'that which you said.' The particle no is also used when some indefinite form is used; e.g., iie no aru ca mii [... miio] 'see if there are houses.' The particle ga is used usually for the first and third persons of inferior status as well as for the second person when he is the most lowly or is to be humiliated; e.g., Pedro ga qita 'Peter came.' This particle is also used to indicate something indefinite, as has been said of the particle no; e.g., coco ni va iie ga nai ca? 'aren't the houses here?' It is also used in sentences that have a relative construction which does not indicate a transitive action. If the reference is to something of inferior or humble status the particle ga is also used; e.g., soregaxi ga caita fumi 'the letter which I wrote,' sochi ga ita coto 'what you said.' The particles cara and iori are used to form the {112} nominative case when the sentence shows a transitive action, especially if the sentence contains a relative construction; e.g., Deus iori cudasareta gracia 'the mercy which God gave,' tono cara core vo vxe tuqerareta 'the Lord taught this.' Sometimes the words are in the nominative case without any particle; e.g., Pedro Ioa vo iobareta 'Peter called (7 John.' There are two particles for the genitive; i.e., no and ga. The particle no is used for all persons of superior rank; e.g., Padre no v qiru mono 'the priest's clothes, or habit.' The particle ga is used for people of inferior rank; e.g., Pedro ga fumi 'Peter's letter,' sochi ga mono 'your thing,' are ga cane 'your money,' tono va iocu ga fucai fito gia 'the Lord is of great cupidity, that is to say he is very eager.' Sometimes the particle to is suffixed to the genitive; e.g., Pedro no to degozaru 'it belongs to Peter.' But since this is not a perfect way of speaking, it is better not to use it. I have cited it so that if you hear it you will understand. When two nouns are joined to form a single word, the one which is like an adjective does not require the genitive particle; e.g., cocuxu 'the Lord of the kingdom.' According to the ordinary rule we should say cocu no xu. This way of forming the genitive is very common in Japanese; e.g., Maria coto 'Mary's thing.'

Two particles form the dative; i.e., ni and ie. For example, Pedro ni mxita 'I told Peter,' Padre ie ague maraxita 'I gave, or offered, it to the priest.'

There are five particles which form the accusative case; i.e., vo, voba, va, ie, and ga. The first, vo, is the most used; e.g., Pedro vo iobe 'call Peter.' Va is used when one wishes to express in particular a noun in the accusative; e.g., niffon guchi va xiranu[54] 'I don't know Japanese.' The ending voba is the same as vo va, changing the second v to b they use it as va; e.g., fune voba nori sutete; cane bacari tori maraxita 'abandoning ship, I took only money, or gold, with me.' Ie is used to indicate the place to which one goes; e.g., Roma ie mair 'I go to Rome.' Ga is used for nouns which indicate non-living or humble things; e.g., are ie gozare, mono ga mxitai 'go there! I have something to tell you.' The accusative is also formed without any particle, as has {113} been shown in the example second before last, where the second accusative is without a particle.

The vocative is formed with the particle icani. It is not suffixed to words as are the other particles but it is prefixed instead; e.g., icani qimi core vo goronjerarei 'look at this, My Lord.'[55] Usually, however, the vocative is formed without any particle; e.g., Padre sama (8 qicaxerareio 'listen, Reverend Father.'

There are three particles for the ablative; i.e., iori, cara, and ni. The third indicates the place in which; e.g., iglesia ni gozaru 'he is in church.' Sometimes ni is used after no; e.g., sonata no ni xi aru ca? 'are you going to make it yours, or take it for yours?' But this seems much more a dative than an ablative. The particles cara and iori are more common in the formation of the ablative; e.g., Madrid cara maitta 'I came from Madrid,' Pedro iori corosareta 'he was killed by Peter.'

There are four particles used to form the plural. They are placed immediately after the noun they pluralize and before the particles which indicate case. These four particles are tachi, xu, domo, and ra. The first, tachi, forms the plural of those noble things which one wishes to honor; e.g., tono tachi 'lords.' The particle xu forms the plural for noble things but not those of the highest rank; e.g., samurai xu 'nobles (nobiles), but not lords (domini).' The particle domo is suffixed to words which indicate humble things, either abstract, animate, or inanimate; e.g., fiacux domo 'farmer,' ixi domo 'stones,' mma domo 'horses.' The particle ra forms the plural of nouns which indicate very low things which are to be despised; e.g., Iudeo ra 'Jews.'[56] The case particles which are required by the sentence are placed after the pluralizing particles; e.g., tono tachi no coto domo vo var i na 'don't speak badly about the Lords' affairs.'

There are some words that are plural in themselves; e.g., tomo gara means 'men,' Nan ban mono 'European things,' Nan ban mono vo fomuru na 'don't praise European things.'

The particle icani, which as has been indicated above forms the vocative, is not placed after but always before the pronouns which are {114} made plural, while the particles which form the plural are placed after; e.g., icani Padre tachi vo qiqi nasare io 'listen to the priests.'

But two of the four particles which form the plural, domo and ra, are with certain words singular. Varera and midomo mean 'I.' Sometimes both are found together in the singular; e.g., midomora 'I,' midomora ga 'my, or mine.' The particles domo and ra are also (9 suffixed to the singular when one wishes to humiliate the thing mentioned; e.g., hara domo ga itai 'I have a stomach ache,' asu domo va aru mai 'tomorrow will not come,' asu ra va nar mode 'tomorrow will perhaps not come.'

The particle va is suffixed to singular and plural nouns which already have a particle; e.g., coco ie va mairanu 'he will not come here,' coco cara va denu 'he did not go out from here,' coco ni va aru mai 'he will not enter here.' Sometimes va replaces the particles of the declension; e.g., fune de saie ii tuita ni, cachi va nacanaca naru mai (119v) 'I arrived with such difficulty by ship: I would undoubtedly never have arrived had I come by foot, or on foot.'[57] The particle va here replaces cara.

Japanese does not have the genders feminine, masculine, and neuter as Latin does. There are, however, certain nouns which are feminine or masculine because of their meaning. Other nouns are common to both these genders. For things which do not have a proper gender vo is placed before masculine nouns and me before feminine; e.g., voivo means 'male fish' and meivo 'female fish,' vojica means 'roe-buck,' melica [mejica] 'roe-doe,'[58] coma means 'horse,' zoiacu 'mare,' x means 'male hawk,' dai 'female hawk,' cotoi means 'bull,' meuxi 'cow,' votoco means 'man,' vonago, nhb, or vonna 'woman.' All these words are placed in the dictionary as they come to mind.

The nominal adjectives have no gender or declension but make use of the same particles as the nouns. There are however many and diverse adjectives. Certain ones end in _ai_ others in _oi_, _ei_, _ui_ and _ij_. There are other, more proper adjectives, which are formed by adding _no_ to nouns. When the first five types of adjectives are placed before nouns they are then properly adjectives and do not in any way alter the composition of {115} the sentence. But when they are placed after nouns they become more like verbs and are in fact conjugated like them; e.g., _tacai iama_ 'a high mountain,' _xiguei ideiri_ 'frequent comings and goings,' _caxicoi_ (10 _fito_ 'a wise man,' _cavaij mono_ 'a wretched thing,' _aiaui coto_ 'a dangerous thing,' _umare tuqi no cuchi_ 'one's natural, or mother tongue.' There are also adjectives ending in _na_ which, when they are placed before nouns, do not alter the construction; e.g., _qirei na coto_ 'a clean thing.' All the adjectives, except those ending in _no_, change their form in some way when they occur before verbs. Those that end in _ai_ change to _; e.g., _cono iama va tac gozaru_ 'this mountain is lofty.' Those ending in _ei_ change to _e_; e.g., _cono iama va xigue gozaru_ 'these mountains are dense.' Those ending in _oi_ change to _; e.g., _caxic gozaru_ 'he is wise.' Those ending in _ui_ change to _; e.g., _xei no fic gozaru_ 'he is small in stature.' Those ending in _ii_ [_ij_] change to _i_; e.g., _cai gozaru_ 'it itches.'[59] Among those adjectives ending in _ij_ there are many which come from verbs; e.g., _nozomi,u_ means 'to wish,' and from it comes _nozomaxij_ 'which is to be wished for.' Other adjectives come from nouns; e.g., _varambe_ means 'a child, or infant,' and from this comes _varamberaxij_ which means 'childish.' Other examples may be found in the dictionary.

Adjectives which end in na change the na to ni when they are placed before verbs; e.g., fuxin ni zonzuru 'I think it doubtful.' The adjectives that end in no sometimes change the no to na; e.g., bechi no fito changes to bechi na fito 'a different man.' Sometimes when it is followed by a verb the na changes to a ni; e.g., bechi ni gozaru 'it is different.' However, the meaning remains the same whether the word ends in na or no; e.g., bechi no fito no cuhi cara qiita [... cuchi ...] is the same as bechi na fito no cuchi cara qiita 'I heard it from the mouth of a different person.'[60] The only difference in these forms is that when the word ends in no no change occurs as a consequence of what follows. But, as has been said, those adjectives that end in na change to ni when they come before a verb. If a substantive verb follows an adjective, it is an elegant statement; e.g., cono iami va tac gozaru 'this mountain is high.' But if this kind of verb does not follow, the sense {116} is not altered since the adjective is used as a substantive verb. But this is not used before superiors. To them we will not say cono iama va tacai but rather cono iama va tac gozaru. The same is true for the other adjectives.

Adjectives usually end in i but infrequently these adjectives change to xi or to qu. Ioi, which means 'good,' changes to ioqu, or ioxi; e.g., ioqu danc xite, which has the meaning of 'offering good (11 council.'[61] There are innumerable nouns which become adjectives if na is suffixed to them; e.g., afo means 'ignorance' and from it comes the word afo na which means 'ignorant,' jiiu means 'liberty' and jiiu na means 'which is free.' Other examples are offered by the dictionary.

There are certain abstract nouns which become adjectives when they precede a vocable (vocabulis) with the meaning of 'man'; e.g., jifi means 'pity,' but when the word jin is placed after it, it becomes jifijin 'a pitiable person.' Fin means 'poverty,' but when the word nin is suffixed to it, it becomes finnin 'a poor person.' In the same way, when one suffixes ja to fin, it makes finja, which also means 'a poor person.' The word ban means 'watch,' but if the word ja is added to it, it becomes banja 'a careful person.' Many other examples can be found in the dictionary.

There are in Japanese certain words which are borrowed from Chinese, called cobita[62] or coie, and are written together to form by their union a noun and an adjective. Thus, ten mean 'heaven,' xu means 'lord,' and tenxu means 'lord of heaven.'

The preterit of verbs (which will be taken up in their place) seem to have the same strength and meaning as adjectives when they are used before nouns; e.g., iogoreta te 'dirty hands,' where iogoreta is the preterit of the verb iogore,uru 'I became dirty.' Caita qi means 'a written book' and caita is the preterit of the verb caqi,u I write.' The abstract (abstracta), or root from which the verb is formed, is itself a noun which signifies the action of the verb in the abstract; e.g., {117} facari means 'measure,' and it comes from the verb facari,u 'I measure' while fajime means 'beginning,' and comes from the verb fajime,uru 'I begin.' Others will be found in the dictionary. The prepositional particle mono, when placed before an abstract or verbal noun, forms a noun which indicates the subject who does the action; e.g., mono before caqi makes monocaqi 'one who writes.' This same particle when placed after a root forms a noun which indicates the effect of an action; e.g., caqimono 'a writing.'

The particle goto placed after these same roots forms a noun (12 which means a thing which is worthy of the action indicated by the verb; e.g., mi is the root of the verb mi,uru 'I see,' and migoto is 'a visible thing, or a thing worthy of being seen'; while qiqi is the root of the verb qiqi,u 'I hear,' and qiqigoto means 'a thing which can be heard, or is worthy of being heard.'

If we place certain substantive nouns after certain of the verbal nouns about which we have been speaking, there is formed a noun which has the meaning of the action; e.g., foxi is the root of the verb foxi,u 'to dry under the sun'; but, if ivo 'fish' is placed after it, the meaning of the expression foxiivo becomes 'fish dried in the sun.'

When the particle dgu 'instrument' is placed after the root of a verb it forms a noun meaning the cause or instrument of the action indicated by the verb; e.g., varaidgu 'the cause, or instrument of ridicule,' caqidgu 'a writing instrument, or an instrument for writing.'

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