Transcriber's Note: This is a very old document which contains inconsistent and unusual spelling. While most of the unusual spelling has been preserved, a number of obvious typographical errors have been corrected. For a complete list, please see the end of this document. The illustration mentioned on the Frontispiece has been lost.
DIRECTIONS For Navigating on Part of the South Coast of Newfoundland, WITH A CHART thereof, Including the ISLANDS of St. PETER's and MIQUELON, And a particular ACCOUNT of the Bays, Harbours, Rocks, Land-Marks, Depths of Water, Latitudes, Bearings, and Distances from Place to Place, the Setting of the Currents, and Flowing of the Tides, &c.
From an actual SURVEY, taken by Order of
Commodore PALLISSER, Governor of Newfoundland, Labradore, &c.
By JAMES COOK,
Surveyor of Newfoundland.
Printed for the AUTHOR, and Sold by J. MOUNT and T. PAGE on Tower-Hill, M,DCC,LXVI.
Navigating on Part of the South Coast of NEWFOUNDLAND.
N.B. All Bearings and Courses hereafter-mentioned, are the true Bearings and Courses, and not by Compass.
[Sidenote: Cape Chapeaurouge.]
Cape Chapeaurouge, or the Mountain of the Red Hat, is situated on the West side of Placentia Bay, in the Latitude of 46 deg. 53' North, and lies nearly West 17 or 18 Leagues from Cape St. Maries; it is the highest and most remarkable Land on that Part of the Coast, appearing above the rest something like the Crown of a Hat, and may be seen in clear Weather 12 Leagues.
[Sidenote: Harbours of St. Laurence]
Close to the Eastward of Cape Chapeaurouge are the Harbours of Great and Little St. Laurence. To sail into Great St. Lawrence, which is the Westermost, there is no Danger but what lies very near the Shore; taking Care with Westerly, and particularly S.W. Winds, not to come too near the Hat Mountain, to avoid the Flerrys and Eddy Winds under the high Land. The Course in is first N.W. till you open the upper Part of the Harbour, then N.N.W. half W. The best Place for great Ships to Anchor, and the best Ground is before a Cove on the East-side of the Harbour in 13 Fathom Water. A little above Blue Beach Point, which is the first Point on the West-side; here you lie only two Points open: You may Anchor any where between this Point and the Point of Low Beach, on the same Side near the Head of the Harbour, observing that close to the West Shore, the Ground is not so good as on the other Side. Fishing Vessels lay at the Head of the Harbour above the Beach, sheltered from all Winds.
To sail into Little St. Laurence you must keep the West Shore on Board, in order to avoid a sunken Rock which lies a little without the Point of the Peninsula, which stretches off from the East-side of the Harbour: You Anchor above this Peninsula, (which covers you from the Sea Winds) in 3 and 4 Fathom Water, a fine sandy Bottom. In these Harbours are good Fishing Conveniencies, and plenty of Wood and Water. Ships may Anchor without the Peninsula in 12 Fathom good Ground, but open to the S.S.E. Winds.
[Sidenote: Sauker Head.]
Sauker-Head lies 3 Miles to the Eastward of Cape Chapeaurouge, it is a pretty high round Point, off which lie some sunken Rocks, about a Cable's Length from the Shore.
[Sidenote: Garden Bank]
This Bank whereon is from 7 to 17 Fathom Water, lies about half a Mile off from Little St. Laurence, with Blue Beach Point on with the East Point of Great St. Laurence.
[Sidenote: Ferryland Head.]
Ferryland head lies S.W. 1 Mile from Cape Chapeaurouge, it is a high rocky Island, just seperated from the Main; it and Cape Chapeaurouge are sufficient Marks to know the Harbours of St. Laurence.
[Sidenote: Bay of Laun.]
West 5 Miles from Ferryland-Head, lies the Bay of Laun, in the Bottom of which are two small Inlets, called Great and Little Laun. Little Laun, which is the Eastermost, lies open to the S.W. Winds, which generally prevails upon this Coast, and therefore no Place to Anchor in. Great Laun lies in about N. by E. 2 Miles, is near half a Mile wide, whereon is from 14 to 3 Fathom Water. To sail into it, you must be careful to avoid a sunken Rock, which lies about a quarter of a Mile off from the East Point. The best Place to Anchor is on the East-side, about half a Mile from the Head, in 6 and 5 Fathom; the Bottom is pretty good, and you are shelter'd from all Winds, except S. and S. by W. which blow right in, and cause a great swell. At the Head of this Place is a Bar Harbour, into which Boats can go at half Tide; and Conveniences for a Fishery, and plenty of Wood and Water.
[Sidenote: Laun Islands.]
Off the West Point of Laun Bay lay the Islands of the same Name, not far from the Shore; the Westermost and outermost of which lie W. Southerly 10 Miles from Ferryland-head; near a quarter of a Mile to the Southward of this Island is a Rock whereon the Sea breaks in very bad Weather: There are other sunken Rocks about these Islands, but they are no ways Dangerous, being very near the Shore.
[Sidenote: Taylor's Bay.]
This Bay which lies open to the Sea, lies 3 Miles to the Westward of Laun Islands; off the East Point are some sunken Rocks near a quarter of a Mile from the Shore.
[Sidenote: Point Aux Gaul.]
A little to the Westward of Taylors Bay there stretches out a low Point of Land, called Point Aux Gaul; off which lies a Rock above Water, half a Mile from the Shore, called Gaul Shag Rock; this Rock lies West three quarters South 5 Leagues from Ferryland-Head, you have 14 Fathom close to the off Side of it, but between it and the Point are some sunken Rocks.
[Sidenote: Lamelin Bay.]
From Point Aux Gaul Shag Rock, to the Islands of Lamelin is West three quarters N. 1 League, between them is the Bay of Lamelin, wherein is very shallow Water, and several small Islands, and Rocks both above and under Water, and in the Bottom of it is a Salmon River.
[Sidenote: Lamelin Islands.]
The two Islands of Lamelin (which are but low) lie off the West Point of the Bay of the same Name, and lie West three quarters South, 6 Leagues from the Mountain of the Red Hat; but in steering along Shore make a W. by S. Course good, will carry you clear of all Danger. Small Vessels may Anchor in the Road between these Islands in 4 and 5 Fathom, tolerably well shelter'd from the Weather: Nearly in the Middle of the Passage going in between the two Islands, is a sunken Rock, which you avoid by keeping nearer to one Side than the other, the most Room is on the East-side. The Eastermost Island communicates with the Main at Low-water, by a narrow Beach, over which Boats can go at High-water, into the N.W. Arm of Lamelin Bay, where they lay in safety. Here are Conveniences for a Fishery, but little or no Wood of any Sort. Near to the South Point of the Westermost Island is a Rock pretty high above Water, called Lamelin Shag Rock; in going into the Road between the Islands, you leave this Rock on your Larboard Side.
[Sidenote: Lamelin Ledges.]
These Ledges lay along the Shore, between Lamelin Islands and Point May, which is 3 Leagues, and are very Dangerous, some of them being 3 Miles from the Land. To avoid these Ledges in the Day-time, you must not bring the Islands of Lamelin to the Southward of East, until Point May, or the Western extremity of the Land bear N. by E. from you; you may then steer to the Northward with safety, between Point May and Green Island. In the Night, or foggy Weather, you ought to be very careful not to approach these Ledges within 30 Fathom Water, least you get intangled amongst them. Between them and the Main are various Soundings from 16 to 5 Fathom.
All the Land about Cape Chapeaurouge and Laun, is high and hilly close to the Sea; from Laun Islands to Lamelin it is of a moderate Height; from Lamelin to Point May, the Land near the Shore is very low, with sandy Beaches, but a little way inland are Mountains.
[Sidenote: Island of St. Peter's.]
The Island of St. Peter's lies in the Latitude 46 Degrees 46 Minutes North. West by South near 12 Leagues from Cape Chapeaurouge, and West by South half South 5 Leagues from the Islands of Lamelin; it is about 5 Leagues in circuit, and pretty high, with a craggy, broken, uneven Surface. Coming from the Westward, as soon as you raise Gallantry Head, which is the South Point of the Island, it will make in a round Hommock like a small Island and appears if seperated from St. Peter's. On the East-side of the Island, a little to the N.E. of Gallentry-Head lay three small Islands, the innermost of which is the largest, called Dog-Island; within this Island is the Road and Harbour of St. Peter's; the Harbour is but small, and hath in it from 12 to 20 Feet Water; but there is a Bar across the Entrance, whereon there is but 6 Feet at Low-water, and 12 or 14 Feet at High-water. The Road which lies on the N.W. Side of Dog-Island will admit Ships of any Burthen, but it is only fit for the Summer Season, being open to the N.E. Winds; you may lay in 8, 10, and 12 Fathom, and for the most Part is a hard rocky Bottom, there is very little clear Ground; Ships of War commonly Buoy their Cables; the best Ground is near the North Shore. Going in or out, you must not rainge too near the East-side of Boar-Island, which is the Eastermost of the three Islands above-mentioned, for fear of some sunken Rocks which lie East about 1 Mile from it, and which is the only Danger about St. Peter's, but what lay very near the Shore.
[Sidenote: Island of Columbo.]
This Island is of a small circuit, but pretty high, and lies very near the N.E. Point of St. Peter's; between them is a very good Passage, one-third of a Mile wide, wherein is 12 Fathom Water. On the North-side of the Island is a Rock pretty high above Water, called Little Columbo; and about a quarter of a Mile N.E. from this Rock is a sunken Rock, whereon is 2 Fathom Water.
[Sidenote: Island of Langley.]
The Island of Langley, which lies on the N.W. Side of St. Peter's, is about 8 Leagues in Circuit, of a moderate and pretty equal height, except the N. end, wich is a low Point with Sand Hills along it; it is flat a little way off the low Land on both Sides of it, but all the high Part of the Island is very bold too, and the Passage between it and St. Peter's (which is 1 League broad) is clear of Danger. You may Anchor on the N.E. Side of the Island, a little to the Southward of the Sand Hills, in 5 and 6 Fathom, a fine sandy Bottom, sheltered from the Southerly, S.W. and N.W. Winds.
[Sidenote: Island of Miquelon.]
From the North Point of Langley, to the South Point of Miquelon is about 1 Mile; it is said that a few Years since they join'd together at this Place by a Neck of Sand, which the Sea has wash'd away and made a Channel, wherein is 2 Fathom Water. The Island of Miquelon is 4 Leagues in Length from North to South, but of an unequal Breadth; the Middle of the Island is high Land, called the high Land of Dunn; but down by the Shore it is low, except Cape Miquelon, which is a lofty Promontory at the Northern extremity of the Island.
[Sidenote: Dunn Harbour.]
On the S.E. Side of the Island, to the Southward of the high Land, is a pretty large Bar-Harbour, called Dunn Harbour, which will admit Fishing Shallops at half Flood, but can never be of any Utility for a Fishery.
[Sidenote: Miquelon Rocks and Bank.]
Miquelon Rocks stretches off from the East Point of the Island, under the high Land 1 Mile and a quarter to the Eastward, some are above and some under Water; the outermost of these Rocks are above Water, and you have 12 Fathom close to them, and 18 and 20 Fathom 1 Mile off. N.E. half N. 4 or 5 Miles from these Rocks lie Miquelon Bank whereon is 6 Fathom Water.
[Sidenote: Road of Miquelon.]
The Road of Miquelon (which is large and spacious) lies at the North-end, and on the East-side of the Island, between Cape Miquelon and a very remarkable round Mountain near the Shore, called Chapeaux: Off the South Point of the Road are some sunken Rocks, about a quarter of a Mile from the Shore, but every where else it is clear of Danger. The best Anchorage is near the Bottom of the Road in 6 and 7 Fathom, fine sandy Bottom; you lay open to the Easterly Winds, which Winds seldom blow in the Summer.
[Sidenote: Cape Miquelon.]
Cape Miquelon, or the Northern extremity of the Island is high bluff Land; and when you are 4 or 5 Leagues to the Eastward or Westward of it, you would take it for an Island, by reason the Land at the Bottom of the Road is very low.
[Sidenote: Seal Rocks]
The Seal Rocks are two Rocks above Water, lying 1 League and a half off from the Middle of the West-side of the Island Miquelon; the Passage between them and the Island is very safe, and you have 14 or 15 Fathom within a Cable's Length all round them.
[Sidenote: Green Island.]
This Island which is about three-quarters of a Mile in Circuit, and low, lies N.E. 5 Miles from St. Peter's, and nearly in the Middle of the Channel, between it and Point May on Newfoundland; on the South-side of this Island are some Rocks both above and under Water, extending themselves 1 Mile and a quarter to the S.W.
Description of Fortune Bay.
Fortune Bay is very large, the Entrance is form'd by Point May and Pass Island, which are 12 Leagues N. by E. and S. by W. from each other, and it is about 23 Leagues deep, wherein are a great many Bays, Harbours, and Islands.
[Sidenote: Island of Brunet.]
The Island of Brunet is situated nearly in the Middle of the Entrance into Fortune Bay, it is about 5 Leagues in Circuit, and of a tolerable Height; the East-end appears at some Points of view like Islands, by reason it is very low and narrow in two Places. On the N.E. Side of the Island is a Bay, wherein is tolerable good Anchorage for Ships in 14 and 16 Fathom, shelter'd from Southerly and Westerly Winds; you must not run too far in for fear of some sunken Rocks in the Bottom of it, a quarter of a Mile from the Shore; opposite this Bay on the South-side of the Island, is a small Cove, wherein small Vessels and Shallops can lay pretty secure from the Weather, in 6 Fathom Water; in the Middle of the Cove is a Rock above Water, and a Channel on each Side of it. The Islands laying at the West-end of Brunet, called Little Brunets, afford indifferent Shelter for Shallops in blowing Weather; you may approach these Islands, and the Island of Brunet, within a quarter of a Mile all round, there being no Danger but what lay very near the Shore.
[Sidenote: Plate Islands]
Plate Islands are three Rocks of a moderate Height, lying S.W. 1 League from the West-end of Great Brunet. The Southermost and outermost of these Rocks, lay W. by S. half S. 11 Miles from Cape Miquelon, and in a direct Line between Point May and Pass Island, 17 Miles from the former and 19 from the later; S.E. a quarter of a Mile from the Great Plate (which is the Northermost) is a sunken Rock, whereon the Sea breaks, which it the only Danger about them.
There are several strong and irregular Settings of the Tides or Currents about the Plate and Brunet Islands, which seem to have no dependency on the Moon, and the Course of the Tides on the Coast.
[Sidenote: Island of Sagona.]
The Island of Sagona, which lies N.N.E. 2 Leagues from the East-end of Brunet, is about 3 Miles and a half in circuit, of a moderate Height, and bold too all round, at the S.W. end is a small Creek that will admit Fishing Shallops; in the Middle of the Entrance is a sunken Rock which makes it exceeding narrow, and difficult to get in or out, except in fine Weather.
[Sidenote: Point May.]
Point May is the Southern Extremity of Fortune Bay, and the S.W. Extremity of this Part of Newfoundland; it may be known by a great black Rock, nearly joining to the Pitch of the Point, and something higher than the Land, which makes it look like a black Hommock on the Point; near a quarter of a Mile right off from the Point, or this round black Rock, are three sunken Rocks, whereon the Sea always breaks.
[Sidenote: Dantzic Coves.]
Near 2 Miles North from Point May, is Little Dantzic Cove, and half a Leag. from Little Dantzic is Great Dantzic Cove; these Coves are no Places of safety, being open to the Westerly Winds; the Land about them is of a moderate Height, bold too, and clear of Wood.
From Dantzic Point (which is the North Point of the Coves) to Fortune the Course is N.E. near 3 Leagues; the Land between them near the Shore is of a moderate Height, and bold too; you will have in most Places 10 and 12 Fathom two Cables Length from the Shore, 30 and 40 one Mile off, and 70 and 80 two Miles off. Fortune lies North from the East-end of Brunet, it is a Bar Place that will admit Fishing Boats at a quarter Flood; and a Fishing Village situated in the Bottom of a small Bay, wherein is Anchorage for Shipping in 6, 8, 10, and 12 Fathom; the Ground is none of the best, and you lay open to near half the Compass.
[Sidenote: Grand Bank.]
[Sidenote: Great Garnish.]
[Sidenote: Frenchman's Cove.]
Cape of Grand Bank is a pretty high Point, lying 1 League N.E. from Fortune; into the E. ward of the Cape is Ship Cove, wherein is good Anchorage for Shipping, in 8 and 10 Fathom, shelter'd from Southerly, Westerly, and N.W. Winds. Grand Bank lies E.S.E. half a League from the Cape, it is a Fishing Village, and a Bar Harbour, that will admit Fishing Shallops at a quarter Flood; to this Place and Fortune resort the Crews of Fishing Ships, who lay their Ships up in Harbour Briton. From the Cape of Grand Bank to Point Enragee, the Course is NE. a quarter E. 8 Leagues, forming a Bay between them, in which the Shore is low with several sandy Beaches, behind which are Bar Harbours that will admit Boats on the Tide of Flood, the largest of which is Great Garnish, 5 Leagues from Grand Bank, it may be known by several Rocks above Water laying before it, 2 Miles from the Shore, the outmost of these Rocks are steep too, but between them and the Shore are dangerous sunken Rocks. To the Eastward, and within these Rocks is Frenchman's Cove, wherein you may Anchor with small Vessels, in 4 and 5 Fathom Water, tolerably well shelter'd from the Sea Winds, and seems a convenient Place for the Cod Fishery: The Passage in is to the Eastward of the Rocks that are the highest above Water; between them and some other lower Rocks laying off to the Eastward from the East Point of the Cove, there is a sunken Rock nearly in the Middle of this Passage, which you must be aware of. You may Anchor any where under the Shore, between Grand Bank and Great Garnish in 8 and 10 Fathom Water, but you are only shelter'd from the Land Winds.
[Sidenote: Point Enragee.]
Point Enragee is but low, but a little way in the Country is high Land; this Point may be known by two Hommocks upon it close to the Shore, but you must be very near, otherwise the Elevation of the high Lands will hinder you from discovering them; close to the Point is a Rock under Water.
From Point Enragee to the Head of the Bay, the Course is first N.E. a quarter E. 3 Leagues to Grand Jervey; then N.E. by E. half E. 7 Leagues and a half to the Head of the Bay; the Land in general along the South-side is high, bold too, and of an uneven Height, with Hills and Vallies of various extent; the Vallies for the most Part cloathed with Wood, and water'd with small Rivulets.
[Sidenote: Bay L'Arjent.]
Seven Leagues to the Eastward of Point Enragee, is the Bay L'Argent, wherein you may Anchor in 30 or 40 Fathom Water, shelter'd from all Winds.
[Sidenote: Harbour Millee.]
The Entrance of Harbour Millee is to the Eastward of the East Point of L'Argent; before this Harbour and the Bay L'Argent is a remarkable Rock, that at a Distance appears like a Shallop under Sail. Harbour Millee branches into two Arms, one laying into the N.E. and the other towards the E. at the upper Part of both is good Anchorage, and various Sorts of Wood. Between this Harbour and Point Enragee, are several Bar Harbours in small Bays, wherein are sandy Beaches, off which Vessels may Anchor, but they must be very near the Shore to be in a moderate Depth of Water.
[Sidenote: Cape Millee.]
Cape Millee lies N.N.E. half E. 1 League from the afore-mentioned Shallop Rock, and near 3 Leagues from the Head of Fortune Bay is a high reddish barren Rock. The wedth of Fortune Bay at Cape Millee doth not exceed half a League, but immediately below it, it is twice as wide, by which this Cape may be easily known; above this Cape the Land on both Sides is high, with steep craggy Cliffs. The Head of the Bay is terminated by a low Beach, behind which is a large Pond or Bar Harbour, into which Boats can go at quarter Flood. In this and all the Bar Harbours between it and Grand Bank, are convenient Places for building of Stages, and good Beaches for drying of Fish, for great Numbers of Boats.
[Sidenote: Grand L'Pierre Harbour]
Grand L'Pierre is a good Harbour, situated on the North-side of the Bay, half a League from the Head, you can see no Entrance until you are abreast of it; there is not the least Danger in going in, and you may Anchor in any Depth from 8 to 4 Fathom, shelter'd from all Winds.
[Sidenote: English Harbour.]
English Harbour lies a little to the Westward of Grand L'Pierre, it is very small, and fit only for Boats and small Vessels.
[Sidenote: Little Bay de Leau.]
To the Westward of English Harbour is a small Bay called Little Bay de Leau, wherein are some small Islands, behind which is shelter for small Vessels.
[Sidenote: New Harbour]
This Harbour is situated opposite Cape Millee, to the Westward of Bay de Leau; it is but a small Inlet, yet hath good Anchorage on the West-side in 9, 8, 7, and 5 Fathom Water, sheltered from the S.W. Winds.
[Sidenote: Harbour Femme.]
Harbour Femme, which lies half a League to the Westward of New Harbour, lies in NE. half a League, it is very narrow, and hath in it 23 Fathom Water, before the Entrance is an Island, near to which are some Rocks above Water: the Passage into the Harbour is to the Eastward of the Island.
[Sidenote: Brewer's Hole.]
One League to the Westward of Harbour Femme, is a small Cove called Brewer's Hole, wherein is Shelter for Fishing Boats; before this Cove is a small Island near the Shore, and some Rocks above Water.
[Sidenote: Harbour la Conte.]
This Harbour is situated one Mile to the Westward of Brewer's Hole, before which are two Islands, one without the other; the outermost, which is the largest is of a tolerable Height, and lies in a Line with the Coast, and is not easy to be distinguished from the Main in sailing along the Shore. To sail into this Harbour, the best Passage is on the West-side of the outer Island, and between the two; as soon as you begin to open the Harbour, you must keep the inner Island close on Board, in order to avoid some sunken Rocks that lay near a small Island, which you will discover between the NE. Point of the outer Island, and the opposite Point on the Main; and likewise another Rock under Water, which lays higher up on the Side of the Main; this Rock appears at Low Water. As soon as you are above these Dangers, you may steer up in the middle of the Channel, until you open a fine spacious Bason, wherein you may Anchor in any Depth from 5 to 17 Fathom Water, shut up from all Winds, the Bottom is Sand and Mud. In to the Eastward of the outer Island, is a small Cove fit for small Vessels and Boats, and Conveniencies for the Fishery.
[Sidenote: Long Harbour.]
This Harbour lies 4 Miles to the Westward of Harbour La Conte, and N.E. by N. 5 Leagues from Point Enragee; it may be known by a small Island in the Mouth of it, called Gull Island; and half a Mile without this Island, is a Rock above Water, that hath the Appearance of a small Boat. There is a Passage into the Harbour on each Side of the Island, but the broadest is the Westermost. Nearly in the middle of this Passage, a little without the Island is a Ledge of Rocks, whereon is two Fathom Water; a little within the Island on the S.E. Side are some sunken Rocks, about two Cables length from the Shore laying off two sandy Coves; some of these Rocks appear at Low-water. On the N.W. Side of the Harbour, two Miles within the Island is Morgan's Cove, wherein you may Anchor in 15 Fathom Water, and the only Place you can Anchor, unless you run into, or above the Narrows, being every where else very deep Water. This Harbour runs five Leagues into the Country, at the Head of which is a Salmon Fishery.
[Sidenote: Bell Bay, and its contain'd Bays & Harbours.]
[Sidenote: Hare Harbours.]
A little to the Westward of Long Harbour, is Bell Bay, which extends three Leagues every Way, and contains several Bays and Harbours. On the East Point of this Bay, is Hare Harbour, which is fit only for small Vessels and Boats, before which are two small Islands, and some Rocks above and under Water.
[Sidenote: Mall Bay.]
Two Miles to the Northward of Hare Harbour, or the Point of Bell Bay, is Mall Bay, being a narrow Arm, laying in NE. by N. 5 Miles, wherein is deep Water, and no Anchorage until at the Head.
[Sidenote: Rencontre Islands.]
Rencontre Islands lies to the Westward of Mall Bay, near the Shore; the Westermost, which is the largest, hath a Communication with the Main at low Water; in and about this Island are shelter for small Vessels and Boats.
[Sidenote: Bell Harbour]
Bell Harbour lies one League to the Westward of Rencontre Islands: The Passage into the Harbour is on the West Side of the Island; in the Mouth of it, as soon as you are within the Island, you will open a small Cove on the E. Side, wherein small Vessels anchor, but large Ships must run up to the Head of the Harbour, and Anchor in 20 Fathom Water, there being most Room.
[Sidenote: Lally Cove.]
Lally Cove lies a little to the Westward of Bell Harbour, it is a very snug Place for small Vessels, being covered from all Winds behind the Island in the Cove.
[Sidenote: Lally Cove. Back Cove.]
Lally Head is the West Point of Lally Cove, it is a high bluff white Point; to the Northward of the Head is Lally Cove back Cove, wherein you may anchor in 16 Fathom Water.
[Sidenote: Bay of the East, and Bay of the North.]
Two Miles to the Northward of Lally Cove Head, is the Bay of the East, and Bay of the North, in both is deep Water, and no Anchorage, unless very near the Shore. At the Head of the North Bay is the largest River in Fortune Bay, and seems a good Place for a Salmon Fishery.
[Sidenote: Bay of Cinq Isles.]
The Bay of Cinq Isles lies to the Southward of the North Bay, and opposite to Lally Cove Head there is tolerable good Anchorage for large Ships on the S.W. Side of the Islands in the Bottom of the Bay. The North Arm is a very snug Place for small Vessels; at the Head of this Arm is a Salmon River.
[Sidenote: Corben Bay.]
A little to the Southward of the Bay of Cinq Isles is Corben Bay, wherein is good Anchorage for any Ships in 22 or 24 Fathom Water.
[Sidenote: Bell & Dog Islands.]
South East about two Miles from Lally Cove Head, are two Islands about a Mile from each other, the North Eastermost is called Bell Island, and the other Dog Island, they are of a tolerable Height, and bold too all round.
Between Dogg Island, and Lord and Lady Island, which lies off the S. Point of Corben Bay, is a sunken Rock, (somewhat nearer to Lord and Lady, than Dogg-Island) whereon the Sea breaks in very bad Weather, and every where round it very deep Water. About a quarter of a Mile to the Northward of the North-end of Lord and Lady Island, is a Rock that appears at low Water.
[Sidenote: Bande de La'rier Bay and Harbour.]
Bande de La'rier Bay lies on the West Point of Bell Bay, and NNW. half W. near 3 Leagues from Point Enragee, it may be known by a very high Mountain over the Bay, which rises almost perpendicular from the Sea, called Iron-Head. Chappel Island, which forms the East-side of the Bay is high Land also. The Harbour lies on the West-side of the Bay, just within the Point, formed by a narrow low Beach, it is very small, but a snug Place, and conveniently situated for the Cod Fishery. There is a tolerable good Anchorage along the West Side of the Bay from the Harbour up towards Iron Head in 18 and 20 Fathom Water.
[Sidenote: Bande de La'rier Bank.]
The Bank of Bande de La'rier, whereon is not less than 7 Fathom, lies with the Beach of Bande de Lourier Harbour, just open of the West Point of the Bay, and Boxy Point on with the North End of St. Jaques Island.
[Sidenote: St. Jaques.]
Two Miles to the W. ward of Bande de La'rier, is the Harbour of St. Jaques, which may be easily known by the Island before it. This Island is high at each End, and low in the Middle, and at a Distance looks like two Islands, it lies N. 30d. E. 8 and a half Leagues from the Cape of Grand Bank, and N. E. by E. 7 Leagues from the East-end of Brunet. The Passage into the Harbour is on the West Side of the Island; there is not the least Danger in going in, or in any Part of the Harbour; you may anchor in any Depth from 17 to 4 Fathom.
[Sidenote: Blue Pinion.]
Two Miles to the Westward of St. Jaques, is the Harbour of Blue Pinion, it is not near so large, or so safe as that of St. Jaques; near to the Head of the Harbour on the West Side is a Shoal, whereon is two Fathom at Low Water.
[Sidenote: English Cove]
A little to the Westward of Blue Pinion, is English Cove, which is very small, wherein small Vessels and Boats can Anchor; before it, and very near the Shore is a small Island.
[Sidenote: Boxy point.]
Boxy Point lies SW. by W. a quarter W. two Leagues and a half from St. Jaques Island, NNE. near 7 Leagues from the Cape of Grand Bank, and NE. half E. 13 Miles from the East End of Brunet Island; it is of a moderate Height, the most advanced to the Southward of any Land on the Coast, and may be distinguished at a considerable Distance; there are some sunken Rocks off it, but they lay very near the Shore, and are no ways dangerous.
[Sidenote: Boxy Harbour.]
NNE. three Miles from Boxey Point is the Harbour of Boxy; to sail into it you must keep Boxy Point just open of Fryer's Head (a black Head a little within the Point) in this Direction you will keep in the middle of the Channel between the Shoals which lay off from each Point of the Harbour, where the Stages are; as soon as you are within these Shoals, which cover you from the Sea Winds, you may anchor in 5 and 4 Fathom Water, fine sandy Ground.
[Sidenote: St. John's Island, Head, Bay and Harbour.]
West 1 Mile from Boxy Point is the Island of St. John's, which is of a tollerable Height, and steep too, except at the N.E. Point, where is a Shoal a little way off.
N.W. half a League from St. John's Island is St. John's Head, which is a high, steep, craggy Point. Between St John's Head and Boxy Point, is St. John's Bay, in the Bottom of which is St. John's Harbour, wherein is only Water for Boats.
[Sidenote: Gull and Shag.]
On the North-side of St. John's Head are two rocky Islands, called the Gull and Shag; at the West-end of these Islands are some sunken Rocks.
[Sidenote: Great Bay de Leau.]
One League and a half to the Northward of St. John's Head is the Great Bay de Leau, wherein is good Anchorage in various depths of Water, sheltered from all Winds. The best Passage in is on the East-side of the Island, laying in the Mouth of it; nothing can enter in on the West-side but small Vessels and Shallops.
[Sidenote: Little Bay Barrysway.]
To the Westward of Bay de Leau, 3 Miles NNW. from St. John's Head is Little Bay Barrysway, on the West-side of which is good Anchorage for large Ships in 7, 8, or 10 Fathom Water; here is good Fishing Conveniencies, with plenty of Wood and Water.
[Sidenote: Harbour Briton.]
[Sidenote: South West Arm.]
Harbour Briton lies to the Westward of Little Bay Barrysway, North 1 Leag. and a half from the Island of Sagona, and N. by E. from East-end of Brunet. The two Heads, which from the Entrance of this Harbour or Bay are pretty high, and lay from each other E.N.E. and W.S.W. above 2 Miles; near the East Head is a Rock above Water, by which it may be known: There are no Dangers in going in until you are the Length of the South Point of the S.W. Arm, which is more than a Mile within the West Head; from off this Point stretches out a Ledge of Rocks N.E. about two Cables Length; the only Place for King's Ships to Anchor is above this Point, before the S.W. Arm in 16 or 18 Fathom Water, mooring nearly East and West, and so near the Shore as to have the East Head on with the Point above-mentioned; the Bottom is very good, and the Place convenient for Wooding and Watering. In the SW. Arm is Room for a great Number of Merchant Ships, and many Conveniencies for Fishing Vessels.
[Sidenote: Jerseyman's Harbour.]
Opposite to the S.W. Arm is the N.E. Arm or Jerseyman's Harbour, which is capable of holding a great number of Ships, securely shelter'd from all Winds. To sail into it you must keep the Point of Thompson's Beach (which is the Beach Point, at the Entrance into the S.W. Arm) open of Jerseyman's Head, (which is a high bluff Head at the North Entrance into Jerseyman's Harbour) this Mark will lead you over the Bar in the best of the Channel, where you will have 3 Fathom at Low-water; as soon as you open the Harbour, haul up North, and Anchor where its most convenient in 8, 7 or 6 Fathom Water, good Ground, and shelter'd from all Winds. In this Harbour are several convenient Places for erecting many Stages, and good Beach room. Jerseymen generally lay their Ships up in this Harbour, and cure their Fish at Fortune and Grand Bank.
[Sidenote: Gull Island, and Deadman's Bay.]
From Harbour Briton to the W. end of Brunet, and to the Plate Islands, the Course is S.W. by S. 6 Leagues and a half to the Southermost Plate. From Harbour Briton to Cape Miquelon is S.W. a quarter W. 10 Leagues. From the West Head of Harbour Briton to Cannaigre Head, the Course is W. by S. Distant 2 Leagues; between them are Gull-Island and Deadman's Bay. Gull-Island lies close under the Land, 2 Miles to the Westward of Harbour Briton. Deadman's Bay is to the Westward of Gull-Island, wherein you may Anchor with the Land Winds. Between Harbour Briton and Cannaigre Head, is a Bank stretching off from the Shore between 2 and 3 Miles, whereon is various Depths of Water from 34 to 4 Fathom. Fishermen say that they have seen the Sea break in very bad Weather, a good way without Gull-Island.
[Sidenote: Cannaigre Head.]
[Sidenote: Cannaigre Bay.]
[Sidenote: Cannaigre Rocks.]
Cannaigre Head which forms the East Point of the Bay of the same Name, lies North Easterly 3 Leagues and a half from the West-end of Brunet; it is a high craggy Point, easy to be distinguished from any Point of view. From this Head to Basstarre Point, the Course is W. by N. half N. 2 Leagues, and likewise W. by N. half N. 3 Leagues and a half to the Rocks of Pass Island; but to give them a Birth make a W. by N. Course good. Between Cannaigre Head and Basstarre Point is Cannaigre Bay, which extends itself about 4 Leagues Inland, at the Head of which is a Salmon River. In the Mouth of the Bay lay the Rocks of the same Name above Water, you may approach these Rocks very near, there being no Danger but what discovers itself. The Channel between them and the North Shore is something Dangerous, by reason of a range of Rocks which lie along Shore, and extend themselves 1 Mile off.
[Sidenote: Cannaigre Harbour.]
Cannaigre Harbour which is very small, with 7 Fathom Water in it, is within a Point on the South-side of the Bay, 5 Miles above the Head: The Passage into the Harbour is on the S.E. Side of the Island, lying before it. Nearly in the Middle of the Bay, abreast of this Harbour, are two Islands of a tolerable Height, on the South-side of the Westermost Island, which is the largest, are some Rocks above Water.
[Sidenote: Dawson's Cove.]
This Cove is on the N.W. Side of the Bay, bears North, Distance about 4 Miles from the Head, and East 2 Miles from the W. end of the Great Island. In it are good Fishing Conveniences, and Anchorage for Vessels in 6 and 5 Fathom Water, but they will lay open to the Southerly Winds. Between the S.W. Point of this Cove and Basstarre Point, which is 5 Miles Distance, lays the Range of Rocks beforementioned.
[Sidenote: Basstarre Point.]
Basstarre Point which forms the West Point of Cannaigre Bay, is of a moderate Height, clear of Wood, and bold too, all the way from it to Pass-Island, which bears N.W. by W. 1 League from Basstarre Point.
The Land on the North-side of Fortune Bay for the most Part is hilly, rising directly from the Sea, with craggy, barren Hills, which extends 4 or 5 Leag. Inland, with a great Number of Rivulets and Ponds. The Land on the South side of Fortune Bay, has a different Appearance to that on the North-side, being not so full of craggy Mountains, and better cloathed with Woods, which are of a short brushy kind, which makes the face of the Country look green.
[Sidenote: Pass Island.]
Pass Island lies N. 16 deg. 30' East 7 Leagues and a half from Cape Miquelon, it is the N.W. extremity of Fortune Bay, and lies very near the Shore, is more than 2 Miles in circuit and is pretty high. On the S.W. Side are several Rocks above Water, which extend themselves 1 Mile from the Island, and on the N.W. Side is a sunken Rock at a quarter of a Mile from the Island; the Passage between this Island and the Main, which is near two Cables Length wide, is very safe for small Vessels, wherein you may Anchor in 6 Fathom, a fine sandy Bottom. This Island is well situated for the Cod Fishery, there being very good Fishing Ground about it.
[Sidenote: On the Soundings.]
In the Night time, or in foggy Weather, Ships ought to place no great Dependance on the Soundings in Fortune Bay, least they may be deceived thereby, for you have more Water in many Parts near the Shore, and in several of its contained Bays and Harbours, than in the middle of the Bay itself.
Description of Hermitage Bay.
From Pass Island to Great Jervis Harbour, at the Entrance into the Bay of Despair, the Course is N. by E. a quarter E. near three Leagues; and from Pass Island to the West End of Long Island, the Course is NNE. 8 Miles, between them is the Bay of Hermitage, which lies in ENE. 8 Leagues from Pass Island, with very deep Water in most Parts of it.
[Sidenote: Fox Islands.]
The two Fox Islands, which are but small, lie nearly in the middle of Hermitage Bay, 3 Leagues and a half from Pass Island; near to these Islands is good Fishing Ground.
[Sidenote: Hermitage Cove.]
Hermitage Cove is on the South-side of the Bay, opposite to Fox's Islands. To sail into it, you must keep between the Islands and the South Shore, where there is not the least Danger; in this Cove is good Anchorage for Shipping in 8 and 10 Fathom Water, and good Fishing Conveniences, with plenty of Wood and Water.
[Sidenote: Long Island.]
Long Island, which separates the Bay of Despair from Hermitage, is of a triangular Form, about 8 Leagues in Circuit, of a tolerable Height, is hilly, uneven and barren. The East Entrance into the Bay of Despair from Hermitage Bay, is by the West-end of Long Island; about half a Mile from the S.W. Point of the said Island, are two Rocks above Water, with deep Water all round them.
[Sidenote: Long Island Harbour.]
This Harbour lies on the South-side of Long Island, 2 Miles and a half from the West-end; before which is an Island, and several Rocks above Water, there is a narrow Passage into the Harbour on each Side of the Island; this Harbour is formed by two Arms, one laying into the North, and the other to the Eastward; they are both very narrow, and have in them from 42 to 7 Fathom Water; the East Arm is the deepest, and the best Anchorage.
[Sidenote: Round Harbour.]
This Harbour, wherein is 6 Fathom Water, lies near 2 Miles to the E. ward of Long Island Harbour, is also in Long-Island; it will only admit very small Vessels, by reason the Channel going in is very narrow.
Harbour Picarre lies N. by W. half a League from Little Fox Island, (which is the Westermost of Fox Islands) to sail into it you must keep near the West-point to avoid some sunken Rocks off the other, and anchor in the first Cove on the East-side in 9 or 10 Fathom, sheltered from all Winds.
This Harbour, which is but small, lies near the East-point of Long-Island; at the Entrance is several rocky Islands. The best Channel into the Harbour is on the West-side of these Islands, wherein is 4 Fathom Water, but in the harbour is from 15 to 24 Fathom. Here are several Places proper for erecting of Stages; and both this Harbour and Picarre are conveniently situated for a Fishery, they laying contiguous to the Fishing Ground about Fox Islands.
[Sidenote: Passage of Long Island]
Between the East-end of Long Island and the Main, is a very good Passage out of Hermitage Bay, into the Bay of Despair.
Description of the Bay of Despair.
The Entrance of the Bay of Despair lies between the West-end of Long Island and Great Jervis Island, (an Island in the Mouth of the Harbour of the same Name) the Distance from one to the other is 1 Mile and a Quarter, and in the Middle between them is no Soundings with 280 Fathoms.
[Sidenote: Great Jervis Island.]
Great Jervis Harbour is situated at the West Entrance into the Bay of Despair is a snug and safe Harbour, with good Anchorage in every Part of it, in 16, 18 or 20 Fathom, though but small will contain a great Number of Shipping, securely sheltered from all Winds, and very convenient for wooding and watering. There is a Passage into this Harbour on either Side of Great Jervis Island, the southermost is the safest, there being in it no Danger but the Shore itself. To sail in on the North-side of the Island, you must keep in the middle of the Passage, until you are within two small Rocks above Water near to each other on your Starboard-side, a little within the North Point of the Passage; you must then bring the said North Point between these Rocks, and steer into the Harbour, in that Directions will carry you clear of some sunken Rocks which lie off the West Point of the Island; these Rocks appear at Low-water. The Entrance into this Harbour may be known by the East-end of Great Jervis Island, which is a high steep craggy Point, called Great Jervis Head, and is the North Point of the South Entrance into the Harbour.
[Sidenote: North Bay.]
This is an Arm of the Bay of Despair, which extends to the Northward 5 Leagues from Great Jervis Island. In this Bay is very deep Water, and no Anchorage but in the small Bays and Coves which are on each Side of it. At the Head of the Bay of the East, which is an Arm of the North Bay, is a very fine Salmon River, and plenty of various Sorts of Wood.
[Sidenote: Eagle Island.]
To the Northward of Long Island, the Bay of Despair extends itself to the NE. about 8 Leagues, whereon are several Arms and Islands. The first is Eagle Island laying on the North-side of Long Island, about half a Cable's Length from the Shore; a little to the Eastward of it is a small Cove, wherein small Vessels can Anchor in 5 Fathom Water; off the E. Point of this Cove are some sunken Rocks, the outermost of which lay a quarter of a Mile from the Shore, and appears at half Ebb.
[Sidenote: Frenchman's Harbour.]
This harbour lies on the North-side of Long Island, 2 Miles above Eagle Island, in and before which Vessels may anchor in various Depths of Water; about a Cable's length to the Eastward of the West Point of the Harbour is a sunken Rock whereon is 8 Feet Water; a little way further to the Eastward is a small Island not far from the Shore, near to which is a Rock that just Covers at high Water.
[Sidenote: Isle Bois.]
On the North-side of the Bay, opposite to Long Island, lies the Isle Bois, it is near 3 Leagues in Length, and of a tolerable Height; the Passage on the North-side of it (called Lampadois Passage) is very safe, but very deep Water.
[Sidenote: Fox Island.]
This Island lies nearly in the middle of the Bay, between the East-end of the Isle of Bois and Long Island, it is of a round Form, pretty high, and bold too all round.
[Sidenote: Isle Riches.]
The Isle Riches lies off the East-end of the Isle of Bois, it is about a Mile in Circuit, and pretty high; on the East-side of it are some small Islands, and some sunken Rocks quite a-cross from the Island to the Main, so that in sailing up the Bay of Despair, you must leave this Island on your Starboard-side.
[Sidenote: Little River.]
This is an Arm of the Bay laying in to the Eastward from the Isle of Riches, it is very narrow, and counted a good Place for a Salmon Fishery; its Banks are stored with various Sorts of Wood.
[Sidenote: Bay Rotte.]
This is a small Bay which lays North from the East-end of the Isle of Bois, in which are some sunken Rocks near the Head.
[Sidenote: Bay of Conne.]
From the Isle of Riches the Bay extends itself to the Northward about five Miles, commonly called the Bay or River of Conne, then branches into two Arms, one still tending to the North, and the other to the Eastward; the Water is very shallow for some Distance from the Head of both. About these Arms, and the Bay of Conne, are great Plenty of all Sorts of Wood, common to this Country, such as Firr, Pine, Birch, Witch-Hasle, Spruce, &c.
All the Country about the Entrance into the Bay of Despair, and for a good Way up it is very mountainous and barren, but about the Head of the Bay it appears to be pretty level, and well cloathed with Wood.
[Sidenote: On the Tides.]
Between St. Laurence and Point May, an ESE. Moon makes high Water at the Islands of St. Peters and Miquelon, and in all Parts of Fortune Bay a S.E. Moon makes High Water. In the Bay of Despair a SE. by S. Moon makes High Water; in all which Places it flows up and down, or upon a perpendicular Spring Tides 7 or 8 Feet; but it must be observed that they are every where greatly governed by the Winds and Weather.
The Currents on the Sea Coasts from Cape Chapeaurouge towards St. Peter's, sets generally to the SW. On the South-side of Fortune Bay it sets to the Eastward, and on the North-side to the Westward.
The South West, and Westerly Winds generally blow in the Day during the Summer, and about the Evening they die away; and in the Night you have Land Breezes or Calms.
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