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Dogs and All About Them
by Robert Leighton
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DOGS AND ALL ABOUT THEM

BY

ROBERT LEIGHTON

ASSISTED BY

EMINENT AUTHORITIES ON THE VARIOUS BREEDS

WITH SEVENTEEN FULL-PAGE PLATES



[Frontispiece: SMOOTH-COATED ST. BERNARD: CH. THE VIKING. (_From the Painting by Lilian Cheviot.)]



[Transcriber's Note: The capital letter "P" has been used throughout to represent the pound sign of British currency.]



PREFACE

The popularity of the dog as a companion, as a guardian of property, as an assistant in the pursuit of game, and as the object of a pleasurable hobby, has never been so great as it is at the present time. More dogs are kept in this country than ever there formerly were, and they are more skilfully bred, more tenderly treated, and cared for with a more solicitous pride than was the case a generation ago. There are fewer mongrels in our midst, and the family dog has become a respectable member of society. Two million dog licences were taken out in the British Isles in the course of 1909. In that year, too, as many as 906 separate dog shows were sanctioned by the Kennel Club and held in various parts of the United Kingdom. At the present time there exist no fewer than 156 specialist clubs established for the purpose of watching over the interests of the different breeds.

Recognising this advance in our national love of dogs and the growing demand for information on their distinguishing characteristics, I am persuaded that there is ample room for a concise and practical handbook on matters canine. In preparing the present volume, I have drawn abundantly upon the contents of my larger and more expensive New Book of The Dog, and I desire to acknowledge my obligations to the eminent experts who assisted me in the production of the earlier work and whose contributions I have further utilised in these pages. I am indebted to Mr. W. J. Stubbs for his clear exposition of the points of the Bulldog, to Colonel Claude Cane for his description of the Sporting Spaniels, to Lady Algernon Gordon Lennox for her authoritative paragraphs on the Pekinese, to Mr. Desmond O'Connell for his history of the Fox-terrier, and to Mr. Walter S. Glynn, Mr. Fred Gresham, Major J. H. Bailey, Mr. E. B. Joachim and other specialists whose aid I have enlisted.

In the following chapters the varieties of the dog are classified in the order of (1) Non-Sporting and Utility breeds, (2) Hounds, Gundogs and other Sporting breeds, (3) the Terriers, (4) Toy and Miniature breeds.

ROBERT LEIGHTON.



CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1. General History of the Dog 2. The English Mastiff 3. The Bulldog 4. The St. Bernard 5. The Newfoundland 6. The Great Dane 7. The Dalmatian 8. The Collie 9. The Old English Sheepdog 10. The Chow Chow 11. The Poodle 12. The Schipperke 13. The Bloodhound 14. The Otterhound 15. The Irish Wolfhound 16. The Deerhound 17. The Borzoi, or Russian Wolfhound 18. The Greyhound 19. The Whippet 20. The Foxhound 21. The Harrier and the Beagle 22. The Pointer 23. The Setters 24. The Retrievers 25. The Sporting Spaniel 26. The Basset-Hound 27. The Dachshund 28. The Old Working Terrier 29. The White English Terrier 30. The Black and Tan Terrier 31. The Bull-Terrier 32. The Smooth Fox-Terrier 33. The Wire-Hair Fox-Terrier 34. The Airedale Terrier 35. The Bedlington Terrier 36. The Irish Terrier 37. The Welsh Terrier 38. The Scottish Terrier 39. The West Highland White Terrier 40. The Dandie Dinmont 41. The Skye and Clydesdale Terriers 42. The Yorkshire Terrier 43. The Pomeranian 44. The King Charles Spaniels 45. The Pekinese and Japanese 46. The Maltese Dog and the Pug 47. The Brussels Griffon 48. The Miniature Breeds 49. Practical Management 50. Breeding and Whelping 51. Some Common Ailments of the Dog and their Treatment 52. The Dog and the Law



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

The Smooth-Coated St. Bernard, Ch. The Viking (From the painting by Lilian Cheviot.) Frontispiece

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Mayor's Bulldog, Ch. Silent Duchess

Mr. George Sinclair's St. Bernard, Ch. Lord Montgomery

Mrs. Vale Nicolas's Newfoundland, Ch. Shelton Viking

Mrs. H. Horsfall's Great Dane, Ch. Viola of Redgrave

Mr. R. A. Tait's Collie, Ch. Wishaw Leader

Bloodhound, Ch. Chatley Beaufort. Bred and owned by Mrs. G. A. Oliphant, Shrewton, Wilts.

Mrs. Armstrong's Deerhound, Ch. Talisman

Mrs. Aitcheson's Borzoi, Ch. Strawberry King

Mr. H. Reginald Cooke's Retriever, Ch. Worsley Bess

Three generations of Mr. R. de C. Peele's Blue Roan Cocker Spaniels, Ch. Ben Bowdler (Father), Ch. Bob Bowdler (Son), and Ch. Dixon Bowdler (Grandson)

Fox-Terriers: 1. Mrs. J. H. Brown's, Ch. Captain Double 2. Mr. J. C. Tinne's, Ch. The Sylph 3. Mr. T. J. Stephen's Wire-Hair, Ch. Sylvan Result

Mr. Fred. W. Breakell's Irish Terrier, Ch. Killarney Sport

Mrs. Spencer's Dandie Dinmont, Ch. Braw Lad

A Typical Airedale Head

Mr. W. L. McCandlish's Scottish Terrier, Ems Cosmetic

Col. Malcolm's West Highland White Terriers Sonny and Sarah

Miss E. McCheane's Skye Terriers, Ch. Fairfield Diamond and Ch. Wolverley Chummie

Toy Dogs: Miss Stevens' Typical Japanese Puppy Mrs. Vale Nicolas's Pomeranian, Ch. The Sable Mite Miss M. A. Bland's Pomeranian, Ch. Marland King Lady Hulton's Blenheim, Ch. Joy The Hon. Mrs. Lytton's King Charles, Ch. The Seraph

Toy Dogs: 1. Mrs. Gresham's Pug, Ch. Grindley King 2. Mrs. T. Whaley's Brussels Griffon, Glenartney Sport 3. Pekinese, Ch. Chu-erh of Alderbourne



CHAPTER I

GENERAL HISTORY OF THE DOG

There is no incongruity in the idea that in the very earliest period of man's habitation of this world he made a friend and companion of some sort of aboriginal representative of our modern dog, and that in return for its aid in protecting him from wilder animals, and in guarding his sheep and goats, he gave it a share of his food, a corner in his dwelling, and grew to trust it and care for it. Probably the animal was originally little else than an unusually gentle jackal, or an ailing wolf driven by its companions from the wild marauding pack to seek shelter in alien surroundings. One can well conceive the possibility of the partnership beginning in the circumstance of some helpless whelps being brought home by the early hunters to be tended and reared by the women and children. The present-day savage of New Guinea and mid-Africa does not, as a rule, take the trouble to tame and train an adult wild animal for his own purposes, and primitive man was surely equally indifferent to the questionable advantage of harbouring a dangerous guest. But a litter of woolly whelps introduced into the home as playthings for the children would grow to regard themselves, and be regarded, as members of the family, and it would soon be found that the hunting instincts of the maturing animal were of value to his captors. The savage master, treading the primeval forests in search of food, would not fail to recognise the helpfulness of a keener nose and sharper eyes even than his own unsullied senses, while the dog in his turn would find a better shelter in association with man than if he were hunting on his own account. Thus mutual benefit would result in some kind of tacit agreement of partnership, and through the generations the wild wolf or jackal would gradually become gentler, more docile, and tractable, and the dreaded enemy of the flock develop into the trusted guardian of the fold.

In nearly all parts of the world traces of an indigenous dog family are found, the only exceptions being the West Indian Islands, Madagascar, the eastern islands of the Malayan Archipelago, New Zealand, and the Polynesian Islands, where there is no sign that any dog, wolf, or fox has existed as a true aboriginal animal. In the ancient Oriental lands, and generally among the early Mongolians, the dog remained savage and neglected for centuries, prowling in packs, gaunt and wolf-like, as it prowls to-day through the streets and under the walls of every Eastern city. No attempt was made to allure it into human companionship or to improve it into docility. It is not until we come to examine the records of the higher civilisations of Assyria and Egypt that we discover any distinct varieties of canine form.

Assyrian sculptures depict two such, a Greyhound and a Mastiff, the latter described in the tablets as "the chained-up, mouth-opening dog"; that is to say, it was used as a watch-dog; and several varieties are referred to in the cuneiform inscriptions preserved in the British Museum. The Egyptian monuments of about 3000 B.C. present many forms of the domestic dog, and there can be no doubt that among the ancient Egyptians it was as completely a companion of man, as much a favourite in the house, and a help in the chase, as it is among ourselves at present. In the city of Cynopolis it was reverenced next to the sacred jackal, and on the death of a dog the members of the household to which he had belonged carefully shaved their whole bodies, and religiously abstained from using the food, of whatever kind, which happened to be in the house at the time. Among the distinct breeds kept in Egypt there was a massive wolf-dog, a large, heavily-built hound with drooping ears and a pointed head, at least two varieties of Greyhound used for hunting the gazelle, and a small breed of terrier or Turnspit, with short, crooked legs. This last appears to have been regarded as an especial household pet, for it was admitted into the living rooms and taken as a companion for walks out of doors. It was furnished with a collar of leaves, or of leather, or precious metal wrought into the form of leaves, and when it died it was embalmed. Every town throughout Egypt had its place of interment for canine mummies.

The dog was not greatly appreciated in Palestine, and in both the Old and New Testaments it is commonly spoken of with scorn and contempt as an "unclean beast." Even the familiar reference to the Sheepdog in the Book of Job—"But now they that are younger than I have me in derision, whose fathers I would have disdained to set with the dogs of my flock"—is not without a suggestion of contempt, and it is significant that the only biblical allusion to the dog as a recognised companion of man occurs in the apocryphal Book of Tobit (v. 16), "So they went forth both, and the young man's dog with them."

The pagan Greeks and Romans had a kindlier feeling for dumb animals than had the Jews. Their hounds, like their horses, were selected with discrimination, bred with care, and held in high esteem, receiving pet names; and the literatures of Greece and Rome contain many tributes to the courage, obedience, sagacity, and affectionate fidelity of the dog. The Phoenicians, too, were unquestionably lovers of the dog, quick to recognise the points of special breeds. In their colony in Carthage, during the reign of Sardanapalus, they had already possessed themselves of the Assyrian Mastiff, which they probably exported to far-off Britain, as they are said to have exported the Water Spaniel to Ireland and to Spain.

It is a significant circumstance when we come to consider the probable origin of the dog, that there are indications of his domestication at such early periods by so many peoples in different parts of the world. As we have seen, dogs were more or less subjugated and tamed by primitive man, by the Assyrians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans, as also by the ancient barbaric tribes of the western hemisphere. The important question now arises: Had all these dogs a common origin in a definite parent stock, or did they spring from separate and unrelated parents?

Half a century ago it was believed that all the evidence which could be brought to bear upon the problem pointed to an independent origin of the dog. Youatt, writing in 1845, argued that "this power of tracing back the dog to the very earliest periods of history, and the fact that he then seemed to be as sagacious, as faithful, and as valuable as at the present day, strongly favours the opinion that he was descended from no inferior and comparatively worthless animal; and that he was not the progeny of the wolf, the jackal, or the fox, but was originally created, somewhat as we now find him, the associate and friend of man."

When Youatt wrote, most people believed that the world was only six thousand years old, and that species were originally created and absolutely unchangeable. Lyell's discoveries in geology, however, overthrew the argument of the earth's chronology and of the antiquity of man, and Darwin's theory of evolution entirely transformed the accepted beliefs concerning the origin of species and the supposed invariability of animal types.

The general superficial resemblance between the fox and many of our dogs, might well excuse the belief in a relationship. Gamekeepers are often very positive that a cross can be obtained between a dog fox and a terrier bitch; but cases in which this connection is alleged must be accepted with extreme caution. The late Mr. A. D. Bartlett, who was for years the superintendent of the Zoological Gardens in London, studied this question with minute care, and as a result of experiments and observations he positively affirmed that he had never met with one well-authenticated instance of a hybrid dog and fox. Mr. Bartlett's conclusions are incontestable. However much in appearance the supposed dog-fox may resemble the fox, there are certain opposing characteristics and structural differences which entirely dismiss the theory of relationship.

One thing is certain, that foxes do not breed in confinement, except in very rare instances. The silver fox of North America is the only species recorded to have bred in the Zoological Gardens of London; the European fox has never been known to breed in captivity. Then, again, the fox is not a sociable animal. We never hear of foxes uniting in a pack, as do the wolves, the jackals, and the wild dogs. Apart from other considerations, a fox may be distinguished from a dog, without being seen or touched, by its smell. No one can produce a dog that has half the odour of Reynard, and this odour the dog-fox would doubtless possess were its sire a fox-dog or its dam a vixen.

Whatever may be said concerning the difference existing between dogs and foxes will not hold good in reference to dogs, wolves, and jackals. The wolf and the jackal are so much alike that the only appreciable distinction is that of size, and so closely do they resemble many dogs in general appearance, structure, habits, instincts, and mental endowments that no difficulty presents itself in regarding them as being of one stock. Wolves and jackals can be, and have repeatedly been, tamed. Domestic dogs can become, and again and again do become, wild, even consorting with wolves, interbreeding with them, assuming their gregarious habits, and changing the characteristic bark into a dismal wolf-like howl. The wolf and the jackal when tamed answer to their master's call, wag their tails, lick his hands, crouch, jump round him to be caressed, and throw themselves on their backs in submission. When in high spirits they run round in circles or in a figure of eight, with their tails between their legs. Their howl becomes a business-like bark. They smell at the tails of other dogs and void their urine sideways, and lastly, like our domestic favourites, however refined and gentlemanly in other respects, they cannot be broken of the habit of rolling on carrion or on animals they have killed.

This last habit of the domestic dog is one of the surviving traits of his wild ancestry, which, like his habits of burying bones or superfluous food, and of turning round and round on a carpet as if to make a nest for himself before lying down, go far towards connecting him in direct relationship with the wolf and the jackal.

The great multitude of different breeds of the dog and the vast differences in their size, points, and general appearance are facts which make it difficult to believe that they could have had a common ancestry. One thinks of the difference between the Mastiff and the Japanese Spaniel, the Deerhound and the fashionable Pomeranian, the St. Bernard and the Miniature Black and Tan Terrier, and is perplexed in contemplating the possibility of their having descended from a common progenitor. Yet the disparity is no greater than that between the Shire horse and the Shetland pony, the Shorthorn and the Kerry cattle, or the Patagonian and the Pygmy; and all dog breeders know how easy it is to produce a variety in type and size by studied selection.

In order properly to understand this question it is necessary first to consider the identity of structure in the wolf and the dog. This identity of structure may best be studied in a comparison of the osseous system, or skeletons, of the two animals, which so closely resemble each other that their transposition would not easily be detected.

The spine of the dog consists of seven vertebrae in the neck, thirteen in the back, seven in the loins, three sacral vertebrae, and twenty to twenty-two in the tail. In both the dog and the wolf there are thirteen pairs of ribs, nine true and four false. Each has forty-two teeth. They both have five front and four hind toes, while outwardly the common wolf has so much the appearance of a large, bare-boned dog, that a popular description of the one would serve for the other.

Nor are their habits different. The wolf's natural voice is a loud howl, but when confined with dogs he will learn to bark. Although he is carnivorous, he will also eat vegetables, and when sickly he will nibble grass. In the chase, a pack of wolves will divide into parties, one following the trail of the quarry, the other endeavouring to intercept its retreat, exercising a considerable amount of strategy, a trait which is exhibited by many of our sporting dogs and terriers when hunting in teams.

A further important point of resemblance between the Canis lupus and the Canis familiaris lies in the fact that the period of gestation in both species is sixty-three days. There are from three to nine cubs in a wolf's litter, and these are blind for twenty-one days. They are suckled for two months, but at the end of that time they are able to eat half-digested flesh disgorged for them by their dam—or even their sire.

We have seen that there is no authenticated instance of a hybrid between the dog and the fox. This is not the case with the dog and the wolf, or the dog and the jackal, all of which can interbreed. Moreover, their offspring are fertile. Pliny is the authority for the statement that the Gauls tied their female dogs in the wood that they might cross with wolves. The Eskimo dogs are not infrequently crossed with the grey Arctic wolf, which they so much resemble, and the Indians of America were accustomed to cross their half-wild dogs with the coyote to impart greater boldness to the breed. Tame dogs living in countries inhabited by the jackal often betray the jackal strain in their litters, and there are instances of men dwelling in lonely outposts of civilisation being molested by wolves or jackals following upon the trail of a bitch in season.

These facts lead one to refer to the familiar circumstance that the native dogs of all regions approximate closely in size, coloration, form, and habit to the native wolf of those regions. Of this most important circumstance there are far too many instances to allow of its being looked upon as a mere coincidence. Sir John Richardson, writing in 1829, observed that "the resemblance between the North American wolves and the domestic dog of the Indians is so great that the size and strength of the wolf seems to be the only difference. I have more than once mistaken a band of wolves for the dogs of a party of Indians; and the howl of the animals of both species is prolonged so exactly in the same key that even the practised ear of the Indian fails at times to discriminate between them."

As the Eskimo and Indian dogs resemble the North American wolf, so the dog of the Hare Indians, a very different breed, resembles the prairie wolf. Except in the matter of barking, there is no difference whatever between the black wolf-dog of the Indians of Florida and the wolves of the same country. The same phenomenon is seen in many kinds of European dogs. The Shepherd Dog of the plains of Hungary is white or reddish-brown, has a sharp nose, short erect ears, shaggy coat, and bushy tail, and so much resembles a wolf that Mr. Paget, who gives the description, says he has known a Hungarian mistake a wolf for one of his own dogs. Many of the dogs of Russia, Lapland, and Finland are comparable with the wolves of those countries. Some of the domestic dogs of Egypt, both at the present day and in the condition of mummies, are wolf-like in type, and the dogs of Nubia have the closest relation to a wild species of the same region, which is only a form of the common jackal. Dogs, it may again be noted, cross with the jackal as well as with wolves, and this is frequently the case in Africa, as, for example, in Bosjesmans, where the dogs have a marked resemblance to the black-backed jackal, which is a South African variety.

It has been suggested that the one incontrovertible argument against the lupine relationship of the dog is the fact that all domestic dogs bark, while all wild Canidae express their feelings only by howls. But the difficulty here is not so great as it seems, since we know that jackals, wild dogs, and wolf pups reared by bitches readily acquire the habit. On the other hand, domestic dogs allowed to run wild forget how to bark, while there are some which have not yet learned so to express themselves.

The presence or absence of the habit of barking cannot, then, be regarded as an argument in deciding the question concerning the origin of the dog. This stumbling block consequently disappears, leaving us in the position of agreeing with Darwin, whose final hypothesis was that "it is highly probable that the domestic dogs of the world have descended from two good species of wolf (C. lupus and C. latrans), and from two or three other doubtful species of wolves—namely, the European, Indian, and North African forms; from at least one or two South American canine species; from several races or species of jackal; and perhaps from one or more extinct species"; and that the blood of these, in some cases mingled together, flows in the veins of our domestic breeds.



CHAPTER II

THE ENGLISH MASTIFF

Of the many different kinds of dogs now established as British, not a few have had their origin in other lands, whence specimens have been imported into this country, in course of time to be so improved by selection that they have come to be commonly accepted as native breeds. Some are protected from the claim that they are indigenous by the fact that their origin is indicated in their names. No one would pretend that the St. Bernard or the Newfoundland, the Spaniel or the Dalmatian, are of native breed. They are alien immigrants whom we have naturalised, as we are naturalising the majestic Great Dane, the decorative Borzoi, the alert Schipperke, and the frowning Chow Chow, which are of such recent introduction that they must still be regarded as half-acclimatised foreigners. But of the antiquity of the Mastiff there can be no doubt. He is the oldest of our British dogs, cultivated in these islands for so many centuries that the only difficulty concerning his history is that of tracing his descent, and discovering the period when he was not familiarly known.

It is possible that the Mastiff owes his origin to some remote ancestor of alien strain. The Assyrian kings possessed a large dog of decided Mastiff type, and used it in the hunting of lions. It is supposed by many students that the breed was introduced into early Britain by the adventurous Phoenician traders who, in the sixth century B.C., voyaged to the Scilly Islands and Cornwall to barter their own commodities in exchange for the useful metals. Knowing the requirements of their barbarian customers, these early merchants from Tyre and Sidon are believed to have brought some of the larger pugnaces, which would be readily accepted by the Britons to supplant, or improve, their courageous but undersized fighting dogs.

In Anglo-Saxon times every two villeins were required to maintain one of these dogs for the purpose of reducing the number of wolves and other wild animals. This would indicate that the Mastiff was recognised as a capable hunting dog; but at a later period his hunting instincts were not highly esteemed, and he was not regarded as a peril to preserved game; for in the reign of Henry III. the Forest Laws, which prohibited the keeping of all other breeds by unprivileged persons, permitted the Mastiff to come within the precincts of a forest, imposing, however, the condition that every such dog should have the claws of the fore-feet removed close to the skin.

The name Mastiff was probably applied to any massively built dog. It is not easy to trace the true breed amid the various names which it owned. Molossus, Alan, Alaunt, Tie-dog, Bandog (or Band-dog), were among the number. The names Tie-dog and Bandog intimate that the Mastiff was commonly kept for guard, but many were specially trained for baiting bears, imported lions, and bulls.

There is constant record of the Mastiff having been kept and carefully bred for many generations in certain old English families. One of the oldest strains of Mastiffs was that kept by Mr. Legh, of Lyme Hall, in Cheshire. They were large, powerful dogs, and longer in muzzle than those which we are now accustomed to see. Another old and valuable strain was kept by the Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth. It is to these two strains that the dogs of the present day trace back.

Mr. Woolmore's Crown Prince was one of the most celebrated of Mastiffs. He was a fawn dog with a Dudley nose and light eye, and was pale in muzzle, and whilst full credit must be given to him for having sired many good Mastiffs, he must be held responsible for the faults in many specimens of more recent years. Unfortunately, he was indiscriminately bred from, with the result that in a very short time breeders found it impossible to find a Mastiff unrelated to him.

It is to be deplored that ever since his era there has been a perceptible diminution in the number of good examples of this fine old English breed, and that from being an admired and fashionable dog the Mastiff has so declined in popularity that few are to be seen either at exhibitions or in breeders' kennels. At the Crystal Palace in 1871 there were as many as sixty-three Mastiffs on show, forming a line of benches two hundred yards long, and not a bad one among them; whereas at a dog show held twenty-five years later, where more than twelve hundred dogs were entered, not a single Mastiff was benched.

The difficulty of obtaining dogs of unblemished pedigree and superlative type may partly account for this decline, and another reason of unpopularity may be that the Mastiff requires so much attention to keep him in condition that without it he is apt to become indolent and heavy. Nevertheless, the mischief of breeding too continuously from one strain such as that of Crown Prince has to some extent been eradicated, and we have had many splendid Mastiffs since his time. Special mention should be made of that grand bitch Cambrian Princess, by Beau. She was purchased by Mrs. Willins, who, mating her with Maximilian (a dog of her own breeding by The Emperor), obtained Minting, who shared with Mr. Sidney Turner's Beaufort the reputation of being unapproached for all round merit in any period.

The following description of a perfect Mastiff, taken from the Old English Mastiff Club's Points of a Mastiff, is admirable as a standard to which future breeders should aim to attain.

* * * * *

POINTS OF THE MASTIFF: GENERAL CHARACTER AND SYMMETRY—Large, massive, powerful, symmetrical and well-knit frame. A combination of grandeur and good nature, courage and docility. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF HEAD—In general outline, giving a square appearance when viewed from any point. Breadth greatly to be desired, and should be in ratio to length of the whole head and face as 2 to 3. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BODY—Massive, broad, deep, long, powerfully built, on legs wide apart, and squarely set. Muscles sharply defined. Size a great desideratum, if combined with quality. Height and substance important if both points are proportionately combined. SKULL—Broad between the ears, forehead flat, but wrinkled when attention is excited. Brows (superciliary ridges) slightly raised. Muscles of the temples and cheeks (temporal and masseter) well developed. Arch across the skull of a rounded, flattened curve, with a depression up the centre of the forehead from the medium line between the eyes, to half way up the sagittal suture. FACE OR MUZZLE—Short, broad under the eyes, and keeping nearly parallel in width to the end of the nose; truncated, i.e. blunt and cut off square, thus forming a right angle with the upper line of the face, of great depth from the point of the nose to under jaw. Under jaw broad to the end; canine teeth healthy, powerful, and wide apart; incisors level, or the lower projecting beyond the upper, but never sufficiently so as to become visible when the mouth is closed. Nose broad, with widely spreading nostrils when viewed from the front; flat (not pointed or turned up) in profile. Lips diverging at obtuse angles with the septum, and slightly pendulous so as to show a square profile. Length of muzzle to whole head and face as 1 to 3. Circumference of muzzle (measured midway between the eyes and nose) to that of the head (measured before the ears) as 3 to 5. EARS—Small, thin to the touch, wide apart, set on at the highest points of the sides of the skull, so as to continue the outline across the summit, and lying flat and close to the cheeks when in repose. EYES—Small, wide apart, divided by at least the space of two eyes. The stop between the eyes well marked, but not too abrupt. Colour hazel-brown, the darker the better, showing no haw. NECK, CHEST AND RIBS—Neck—Slightly arched, moderately long, very muscular, and measuring in circumference about one or two inches less than the skull before the ears. Chest—Wide, deep, and well let down between the fore-legs. Ribs arched and well-rounded. False ribs deep and well set back to the hips. Girth should be one-third more than the height at the shoulder. Shoulder and Arm—Slightly sloping, heavy and muscular. FORE-LEGS AND FEET—Legs straight, strong, and set wide apart; bones very large. Elbows square. Pasterns upright. Feet large and round. Toes well arched up. Nails black. BACK, LOINS AND FLANKS—Back and loins wide and muscular; flat and very wide in a bitch, slightly arched in a dog. Great depth of flanks. HIND-LEGS AND FEET—Hind-quarters broad, wide, and muscular, with well developed second thighs, hocks bent, wide apart, and quite squarely set when standing or walking. Feet round. TAIL—Put on high up, and reaching to the hocks, or a little below them, wide at its root and tapering to the end, hanging straight in repose, but forming a curve, with the end pointing upwards, but not over the back, when the dog is excited. COAT—COLOUR—Coat short and close lying, but not too fine over the shoulders, neck and back. Colour, apricot or silver fawn, or dark fawn-brindle. In any case, muzzle, ears, and nose should be black, with black round the orbits, and extending upwards between them.

* * * * *

Size is a quality very desirable in this breed. The height of many dogs of olden days was from thirty-two to thirty-three inches. The height should be obtained rather from great depth of body than length of leg. A leggy Mastiff is very undesirable. Thirty inches may be taken as a fair average height for dogs, and bitches somewhat less. Many of Mr. Lukey's stood 32 inches and over; Mr. Green's Monarch was over 33 inches, The Shah 32 inches, and Cardinal 32 inches.

The method of rearing a Mastiff has much to do with its ultimate size, but it is perhaps needless to say that the selection of the breeding stock has still more to do with this. It is therefore essential to select a dog and bitch of a large strain to obtain large Mastiffs. It is not so necessary that the dogs themselves should be so large as that they come from a large strain. The weight of a full-grown dog should be anything over 160 lb. Many have turned over the scale at 180 lb. The Shah, for instance, was 182 lb. in weight, Scawfell over 200 lb.

One of the great difficulties that breeders of Mastiffs and all other large dogs have to contend against is in rearing the puppies; so many bitches being clumsy and apt to kill the whelps by lying on them. It is, therefore, always better to be provided with one or more foster bitches. At about six weeks old a fairly good opinion may be formed as to what the puppies will ultimately turn out in certain respects, for, although they may change materially during growth, the good or bad qualities which are manifest at that early age will, in all probability, be apparent when the puppy has reached maturity. It is, therefore, frequently easier to select the best puppy in the nest than to do so when they are from six to nine or ten months old.

Puppies should be allowed all the liberty possible, and never be tied up: they should be taken out for steady, gentle exercise, and not permitted to get too fat or they become too heavy, with detrimental results to their legs. Many Mastiff puppies are very shy and nervous, but they will grow out of this if kindly handled, and eventually become the best guard and protector it is possible to have.

The temper of a Mastiff should be taken into consideration by the breeder. They are, as a rule, possessed of the best of tempers. A savage dog with such power as the Mastiff possesses is indeed a dangerous creature, and, therefore, some inquiries as to the temper of a stud dog should be made before deciding to use him. In these dogs, as in all others, it is a question of how they are treated by the person having charge of them.

The feeding of puppies is an important matter, and should be carefully seen to by anyone wishing to rear them successfully. If goat's milk is procurable it is preferable to cow's milk. The price asked for it is sometimes prohibitory, but this difficulty may be surmounted in many cases by keeping a goat or two on the premises. Many breeders have obtained a goat with the sole object of rearing a litter of puppies on her milk, and have eventually discarded cow's milk altogether, using goat's milk for household purposes instead. As soon as the puppies will lap they should be induced to take arrowroot prepared with milk. Oatmeal and maizemeal, about one quarter of the latter to three quarters of the former, make a good food for puppies. Dog biscuits and the various hound meals, soaked in good broth, may be used with advantage, but no dogs, either large or small, can be kept in condition for any length of time without a fair proportion of meat of some kind. Sheep's paunches, cleaned and well boiled, mixed with sweet stale bread, previously soaked in cold water, make an excellent food and can hardly be excelled as a staple diet. In feeding on horseflesh care should be taken to ascertain that the horse was not diseased, especially if any is given uncooked.

Worms are a constant source of trouble from the earliest days of puppy-hood, and no puppy suffering from them will thrive; every effort, therefore, should be made to get rid of them.

With proper feeding, grooming, exercise, and cleanliness, any large dog can be kept in good condition without resort to medicine, the use of which should be strictly prohibited unless there is real need for it. Mastiffs kept under such conditions are far more likely to prove successful stud dogs and brood bitches than those to which deleterious drugs are constantly being given.



CHAPTER III

THE BULLDOG

The Bulldog is known to have been domiciled in this country for several centuries. Like the Mastiff, of which it is a smaller form, it is a descendant of the "Alaunt," Mastive, or Bandog, described by Dr. Caius, who states that "the Mastyve or Bandogge is vaste, huge, stubborne, ougly and eager, of a hevy, and burthenous body, and therefore but of little swiftnesse, terrible and frightful to beholde, and more fearce and fell than any Arcadian curre."

The first mention of "Bulldog" as the distinctive name of this now national breed occurs in a letter, written by Prestwich Eaton from St. Sebastian to George Wellingham in St. Swithin's Lane, London, in 1631 or 1632, "for a good Mastive dogge, a case of bottles replenished with the best lickour, and pray proceur mee two good bulldoggs, and let them be sent by ye first shipp." Obviously the name was derived from the dog's association with the sport of bull-baiting. The object aimed at in that pursuit was that the dog should pin and hold the bull by the muzzle, and not leave it. The bull was naturally helpless when seized in his most tender part. As he lowered his head in order to use his horns it was necessary for the dog to keep close to the ground, or, in the words of the old fanciers of the sport, to "play low." Larger dogs were at a disadvantage in this respect, and, therefore, those of smaller proportions, which were quite as suitable for the sport, were selected. The average height of the dogs was about 16 inches, and the weight was generally about 45 lbs., whilst the body was broad, muscular, and compact, as is shown in Scott's well-known engraving of "Crib and Rosa."

When bull-baiting was prohibited by law the sportsmen of the period turned their attention to dog-fighting, and for this pastime the Bulldogs were specially trained. The chief centres in London where these exhibitions took place were the Westminster Pit, the Bear Garden at Bankside, and the Old Conduit Fields in Bayswater. In order to obtain greater quickness of movement many of the Bulldogs were crossed with a terrier, although some fanciers relied on the pure breed. It is recorded that Lord Camelford's Bulldog Belcher fought one hundred and four battles without once suffering defeat.

The decline of bull-baiting and dog-fighting after the passing of the Bill prohibiting these sports was responsible for a lack of interest in perpetuating the breed of Bulldogs. Even in 1824 it was said to be degenerating, and gentlemen who had previously been the chief breeders gradually deserted the fancy. At one time it was stated that Wasp, Child, and Billy, who were of the Duke of Hamilton's strain, were the only remaining Bulldogs in existence, and that upon their decease the Bulldog would become extinct—a prophecy which all Bulldog lovers happily find incorrect.

The specimens alive in 1817, as seen in prints of that period, were not so cloddy as those met with at the present day. Still, the outline of Rosa in the engraving of Crib and Rosa, is considered to represent perfection in the shape, make, and size of the ideal type of Bulldog. The only objections which have been taken are that the bitch is deficient in wrinkles about the head and neck, and in substance of bone in the limbs.

The commencement of the dog-show era in 1859 enabled classes to be provided for Bulldogs, and a fresh incentive to breed them was offered to the dog fancier. In certain districts of the country, notably in London, Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, and Dudley, a number of fanciers resided, and it is to their efforts that we are indebted for the varied specimens of the breed that are to be seen at the present time.

In forming a judgment of a Bulldog the general appearance is of most importance, as the various points of the dog should be symmetrical and well balanced, no one point being in excess of the others so as to destroy the impression of determination, strength, and activity which is conveyed by the typical specimen. His body should be thickset, rather low in stature, but broad, powerful, and compact. The head should be strikingly massive and large in proportion to the dog's size. It cannot be too large so long as it is square; that is, it must not be wider than it is deep. The larger the head in circumference, caused by the prominent cheeks, the greater the quantity of muscle to hold the jaws together. The head should be of great depth from the occiput to the base of the lower jaw, and should not in any way be wedge-shaped, dome-shaped, or peaked. In circumference the skull should measure in front of the ears at least the height of the dog at the shoulders. The cheeks should be well rounded, extend sideways beyond the eyes, and be well furnished with muscle. Length of skull—that is, the distance between the eye and the ear—is very desirable. The forehead should be flat, and the skin upon it and about the head very loose, hanging in large wrinkles. The temples, or frontal bones, should be very prominent, broad, square and high, causing a wide and deep groove known as the "stop" between the eyes, and should extend up the middle of the forehead, dividing the head vertically, being traceable at the top of the skull. The expression "well broken up" is used where this stop and furrow are well marked, and if there is the attendant looseness of skin the animal's expression is well finished.

The face, when measured from the front of the cheek-bone to the nose, should be short, and its skin should be deeply and closely wrinkled. Excessive shortness of face is not natural, and can only be obtained by the sacrifice of the "chop." Such shortness of face makes the dog appear smaller in head and less formidable than he otherwise would be. Formerly this shortness of face was artificially obtained by the use of the "jack," an atrocious form of torture, by which an iron instrument was used to force back the face by means of thumbscrews. The nose should be rough, large, broad, and black, and this colour should extend to the lower lip; its top should be deeply set back, almost between the eyes. The distance from the inner corner of the eye to the extreme tip of the nose should not be greater than the length from the tip of the nose to the edge of the under lip. The nostrils should be large and wide, with a well-defined straight line visible between them. The largeness of nostril, which is a very desirable property, is possessed by few of the recent prize-winners.

When viewed in profile the tip of the nose should touch an imaginary line drawn from the extremity of the lower jaw to the top of the centre of the skull. This angle of the nose and face is known as the lay-back, and can only properly be ascertained by viewing the dog from the side.

The inclination backward of the nose allows a free passage of the air into the nostrils whilst the dog is holding his quarry. It is apparent that if the mouth did not project beyond the nose, the nostrils would be flat against the part to which the dog was fixed, and breathing would then be stopped.

The upper lip, called the "chop," or flews, should be thick, broad, pendant and very deep, hanging completely over the lower jaw at the sides, but only just joining the under lip in front, yet covering the teeth completely. The amount of "cushion" which a dog may have is dependent upon the thickness of the flews. The lips should not be pendulous.

The upper jaw should be broad, massive, and square, the tusks being wide apart, whilst the lower jaw, being turned upwards, should project in front of the upper. The teeth should be large and strong, and the six small teeth between the tusks should be in an even row. The upper jaw cannot be too broad between the tusks. If the upper and lower jaws are level, and the muzzle is not turned upwards the dog is said to be "down-faced," whilst if the underjaw is not undershot he is said to be "froggy." A "wry-faced" dog is one having the lower jaw twisted, and this deformity so detracts from the general appearance of the dog as seriously to handicap him in the show-ring.

The underjaw projects beyond the upper in order to allow the dog, when running directly to the front, to grasp the bull, and, when fixed, to give him a firmer hold. The eyes, seen from the front, should be situated low down in the skull, as far from the ears, the nose, and each other as possible, but quite in front of the forehead, so long as their corners are in a straight line at right angles with the stop, and in front of the forehead. They should be a little above the level of the base of the nasal bone, and should be quite round in shape, of moderate size, neither sunken nor prominent, and be as black in colour as possible—almost, if not quite, black, showing no white when looking directly to the front.

A good deal of a Bulldog's appearance depends on the quality, shape, and carriage of his ears. They should be small and thin, and set high on the head; that is, the front inner edge of each ear should, as viewed from the front, join the outline of the skull at the top corner of such outline, so as to place them as wide apart, as high, and as far from the eyes as possible. The shape should be that which is known as "rose," in which the ear folds inward at the back, the upper or front edge curving over outwards and backwards, showing part of the inside of the burr. If the ears are placed low on the skull they give an appleheaded appearance to the dog. If the ear falls in front, hiding the interior, as is the case with a Fox-terrier, it is said to "button," and this type is highly objectionable. Unfortunately, within the last few years the "button" and "semi-tulip" ear have been rather prevalent amongst the specimens on the show bench.

If the ear is carried erect it is known as a "tulip" ear, and this form also is objectionable. Nevertheless at the beginning of the nineteenth century two out of every three dogs possessed ears of this description.

The neck should be moderate in length, very thick, deep, muscular, and short, but of sufficient length to allow it to be well arched at the back, commencing at the junction with the skull. There should be plenty of loose, thick, and wrinkled skin about the throat, forming a dewlap on each side from the lower jaw to the chest.

The chest should be very wide laterally, round, prominent, and deep, making the dog appear very broad and short-legged in front. The shoulders should be broad, the blades sloping considerably from the body; they should be deep, very powerful, and muscular, and should be flat at the top and play loosely from the chest.

The brisket should be capacious, round, and very deep from the shoulder to the lowest part, where it joins the chest, and be well let down between the fore-legs. It should be large in diameter, and round behind the fore-legs, neither flat-sided nor sinking, which it will not do provided that the first and succeeding ribs are well rounded. The belly should be well tucked up and not pendulous, a small narrow waist being greatly admired. The desired object in body formation is to obtain great girth at the brisket, and the smallest possible around the waist, that is, the loins should be arched very high, when the dog is said to have a good "cut-up."

The back should be short and strong, very broad at the shoulder and comparatively narrow at the loins. The back should rise behind the shoulders in a graceful curve to the loins, the top of which should be higher than the top of the shoulders, thence curving again more suddenly to the tail, forming an arch known as the "roach" back, which is essentially a characteristic of the breed, though, unfortunately, many leading prize-winners of the present day are entirely deficient in this respect. Some dogs dip very considerably some distance behind the shoulders before the upward curve of the spine begins, and these are known as "swamp-backed"; others rise in an almost straight line to the root of the tail, and are known as "stern-high."

The tail should be set on low, jut out rather straight, then turn downwards, the end pointing horizontally. It should be quite round in its whole length, smooth and devoid of fringe or coarse hair. It should be moderate in length, rather short than long, thick at the root, and taper quickly to a fine point. It should have a downward carriage, and the dog should not be able to raise it above the level of the backbone. The tail should not curve at the end, otherwise it is known as "ring-tailed." The ideal length of tail is about six inches.

Many fanciers demand a "screw" or "kinked" tail, that is, one having congenital dislocations at the joints, but such appendages are not desirable in the best interests of the breed.

The fore-legs should be very stout and strong, set wide apart, thick, muscular, and short, with well-developed muscles in the calves, presenting a rather bowed outline, but the bones of the legs must be straight, large, and not bandy or curved. They should be rather short in proportion to the hind-legs, but not so short as to make the back appear long or detract from the dog's activity and so cripple him.

The elbows should be low and stand well away from the ribs, so as to permit the body to swing between them. If this property be absent the dog is said to be "on the leg." The ankles or pasterns should be short, straight, and strong. The fore-feet should be straight and turn very slightly outwards; they should be of medium size and moderately round, not too long or narrow, whilst the toes should be thick, compact, and well split up, making the knuckles prominent and high.

The hind-legs, though of slighter build than the fore-legs, should be strong and muscular. They should be longer, in proportion, than the fore-legs in order to elevate the loins. The stifles should be round and turned slightly outwards, away from the body, thus bending the hocks inward and the hind-feet outward. The hocks should be well let down, so that the leg is long and muscular from the loins to the point of the hock, which makes the pasterns short, but these should not be so short as those of the fore-legs. The hind-feet, whilst being smaller than the forefeet, should be round and compact, with the toes well split up, and the knuckles prominent.

The most desirable weight for a Bulldog is about 50 lbs.

The coat should be fine in texture, short, close, and smooth, silky when stroked from the head towards the tail owing to its closeness, but not wiry when stroked in the reverse direction.

The colour should be whole or smut, the latter being a whole colour with a black mask or muzzle. It should be brilliant and pure of its sort. The colours in order of merit are, first, whole colours and smuts, viz., brindles, reds, white, with their varieties, as whole fawns, fallows, etc., and, secondly, pied and mixed colours. Opinions differ considerably on the colour question; one judge will set back a fawn and put forward a pied dog, whilst others will do the reverse. Occasionally one comes across specimens having a black-and-tan colour, which, although not mentioned in the recognised standard as being debarred, do not as a rule figure in the prize list. Some of the best specimens which the writer has seen have been black-and-tans, and a few years ago on the award of a first prize to a bitch of this colour, a long but non-conclusive argument was held in the canine press. Granted that the colour is objectionable, a dog which scores in all other properties should not be put down for this point alone, seeing that in the dog-fighting days there were many specimens of this colour.

In action the Bulldog should have a peculiarly heavy and constrained gait, a rolling, or "slouching" movement, appearing to walk with short, quick steps on the tip of his toes, his hind-feet not being lifted high but appearing to skim the ground, and running with the right shoulder rather advanced, similar to the manner of a horse when cantering.

The foregoing minute description of the various show points of a Bulldog indicates that he should have the appearance of a thick-set Ayrshire or Highland bull. In stature he should be low to the ground, broad and compact, the body being carried between and not on the fore-legs. He should stand over a great deal of ground, and have the appearance of immense power. The height of the fore-leg should not exceed the distance from the elbow to the centre of the back, between the shoulder blades.

Considerable importance is attached to the freedom and activity displayed by the animal in its movements. Deformed joints, or weakness, are very objectionable. The head should be strikingly massive and carried low, the face short, the muzzle very broad, blunt, and inclined upwards. The body should be short and well-knit, the limbs, stout and muscular. The hind-quarters should be very high and strong, but rather lightly made in comparison with the heavily-made fore-parts.

It must be acknowledged that there are many strains of this breed which are constitutionally unsound. For this reason it is important that the novice should give very careful consideration to his first purchase of a Bulldog. He should ascertain beyond all doubt, not only that his proposed purchase is itself sound in wind and limb, but that its sire and dam are, and have been, in similarly healthy condition. The dog to be chosen should be physically strong and show pronounced muscular development. If these requirements are present and the dog is in no sense a contradiction of the good qualities of its progenitors, but a justification of its pedigree, care and good treatment will do the rest. It is to be remembered, however, that a Bulldog may be improved by judicious exercise. When at exercise, or taking a walk with his owner, the young dog should always be held by a leash. He will invariably pull vigorously against this restraint, but such action is beneficial, as it tends to develop the muscles of the shoulders and front of the body.

When taking up the Bulldog fancy, nine out of every ten novices choose to purchase a male. The contrary course should be adopted. The female is an equally good companion in the house or on the road; she is not less affectionate and faithful; and when the inevitable desire to attempt to reproduce the species is reached the beginner has the means at once available.

It is always difficult for the uninitiated to select what is likely to be a good dog from the nest. In choosing a puppy care should be taken to ensure it has plenty of bone in its limbs, and these should be fairly short and wide; the nostrils should be large and the face as short as possible. The chop should be thick and heavily wrinkled and the mouth square. There should be a distinct indent in the upper jaw, where the bone will eventually curve, whilst the lower jaw should show signs of curvature and protrude slightly in front of the upper jaw. The teeth from canine to canine, including the six front teeth, should be in a straight line.

See that the ears are very small and thin, and the eyes set well apart. The puppy having these properties, together with a domed, peaked, or "cocoanut" shaped skull, is the one which, in nine cases out of ten, will eventually make the best headed dog of the litter.

The breeding of Bulldogs requires unlimited patience, as success is very difficult to attain. The breeder who can rear five out of every ten puppies born may be considered fortunate. It is frequently found in what appears to be a healthy lot of puppies that some of them begin to whine and whimper towards the end of the first day, and in such cases the writer's experience is that there will be a speedy burial.

It may be that the cause is due to some acidity of the milk, but in such a case one would expect that similar difficulty would be experienced with the remainder of the litter, but this is not the usual result. Provided that the puppies can be kept alive until the fourth day, it may be taken that the chances are well in favour of ultimate success.



Many breeders object to feeding the mother with meat at this time, but the writer once had two litter sisters who whelped on the same day, and he decided to try the effect of a meat versus farinaceous diet upon them. As a result the bitch who was freely fed with raw beef reared a stronger lot of puppies, showing better developed bone, than did the one who was fed on milk and cereals.

Similarly, in order that the puppy, after weaning, may develop plenty of bone and muscle, it is advisable to feed once a day upon finely minced raw meat. There are some successful breeders, indeed, who invariably give to each puppy a teaspoonful of cod liver oil in the morning and a similar dose of extract of malt in the evening, with the result that there are never any rickety or weak dogs in the kennels, whilst the development of the bones in the skull and limbs is most pronounced.

Owing to their lethargic disposition, young Bulldogs are somewhat liable to indigestion, and during the period of puppyhood it is of advantage to give them a tablespoonful of lime water once a day in their milk food.

Many novices are in doubt as to the best time to breed from a Bull bitch, seeing that oestrum is present before she is fully developed. It may be taken as practically certain that it is better for her to be allowed to breed at her first heat. Nature has so arranged matters that a Bull bitch is not firmly set in her bones until she reaches an age of from twelve to eighteen months, and therefore she will have less difficulty in giving birth to her offspring if she be allowed to breed at this time. Great mortality occurs in attempting to breed from maiden bitches exceeding three years of age, as the writer knows to his cost.

It is desirable, in the case of a young bitch having her first litter, for her master or mistress to be near her at the time, in order to render any necessary assistance; but such attentions should not be given unless actual necessity arises.

Some bitches with excessive lay-back and shortness of face have at times a difficulty in releasing the puppy from the membrane in which it is born, and in such a case it is necessary for the owner to open this covering and release the puppy, gently shaking it about in the box until it coughs and begins to breathe.

The umbilical cord should be severed from the afterbirth about four inches from the puppy, and this will dry up and fall away in the course of a couple of days.

In general, it is true economy for the Bulldog breeder to provide a foster-mother in readiness for the birth of the expected litter; especially is this so in the case of a first litter, when the qualifications for nursing by the mother are unknown. Where there are more than five puppies it is also desirable to obtain a foster-mother in order that full nourishment may be given to the litter by both mothers.

The best time of the year for puppies to be born is in the spring, when, owing to the approaching warm weather, they can lead an outdoor life. By the time they are six months old they should have sufficient stamina to enable them to withstand the cold of the succeeding winter. It has been ascertained that Bulldogs which have been reared out of doors are the least liable to suffer from indigestion, torpidity of the liver, asthma or other chest ailments, whilst they invariably have the hardiest constitution.

Bulldogs generally require liberal feeding, and should have a meal of dry biscuit the first thing in the morning, whilst the evening meal should consist of a good stew of butcher's offal poured over broken biscuit, bread, or other cereal food. In the winter time it is advantageous to soak a tablespoonful of linseed in water overnight, and after the pods have opened to turn the resulting jelly into the stew pot. This ensures a fine glossy coat, and is of value in toning up the intestines. Care must, however, be taken not to follow this practice to excess in warm weather, as the heating nature of the linseed will eventually cause skin trouble.

With these special points attended to, the novice should find no difficulty in successfully becoming a Bulldog fancier, owner, and breeder.

In conclusion, it cannot be too widely known that the Bulldog is one of the very few breeds which can, with perfect safety, be trusted alone to the mercy of children, who, naturally, in the course of play, try the patience and good temper of the firmest friend of man.

THE MINIATURE BULLDOG

Fifty or sixty years ago, Toy—or, rather, as a recent edict of the Kennel Club requires them to be dubbed, Miniature—Bulldogs were common objects of the canine country-side. In fact, you can hardly ever talk for ten minutes to any Bulldog breeder of old standing without his telling you tall stories of the wonderful little Bulldogs, weighing about fifteen or sixteen pounds, he either knew or owned in those long-past days!

Prominent among those who made a cult of these "bantams" were the laceworkers of Nottingham, and many prints are extant which bear witness to the excellent little specimens they bred. But a wave of unpopularity overwhelmed them, and they faded across the Channel to France, where, if, as is asserted, our Gallic neighbours appreciated them highly, they cannot be said to have taken much care to preserve their best points. When, in 1898, a small but devoted band of admirers revived them in England, they returned most attractive, 'tis true, but hampered by many undesirable features, such as bat ears, froggy faces, waving tails, and a general lack of Bulldog character. However, the Toy Bulldog Club then started, took the dogs vigorously in hand, and thanks to unceasing efforts, Toy Bulldogs have always since been catered for at an ever increasing number of shows. Their weight, after much heated discussion and sundry downs and ups, was finally fixed at twenty-two pounds and under.

The original aim of Miniature Bulldogs—i.e. to look like the larger variety seen through the wrong end of a telescope—if not actually achieved, is being rapidly approached, and can no longer be looked upon as merely the hopeless dream of a few enthusiasts.

To enumerate in detail the Miniature Bulldog scale of points is quite unnecessary, as it is simply that of the big ones writ small. In other words, "the general appearance of the Miniature Bulldog must as nearly as possible resemble that of the Big Bulldog"—a terse sentence which comprises in itself all that can be said on the subject.

As companions and friends Miniature Bulldogs are faithful, fond, and even foolish in their devotion, as all true friends should be. They are absolutely and invariably good-tempered, and, as a rule, sufficiently fond of the luxuries of this life—not to say greedy—to be easily cajoled into obedience. Remarkably intelligent, and caring enough for sport to be sympathetically excited at the sight of a rabbit without degenerating into cranks on the subject like terriers. Taking a keen interest in all surrounding people and objects, without, however, giving way to ceaseless barking; enjoying outdoor exercise, without requiring an exhausting amount, they are in every way ideal pets, and adapt themselves to town and country alike.

As puppies they are delicate, and require constant care and supervision; but that only adds a keener zest to the attractive task of breeding them, the more so owing to the fact that as mothers they do not shine, being very difficult to manage, and generally manifesting a strong dislike to rearing their own offspring. In other respects they are quite hardy little dogs, and—one great advantage—they seldom have distemper. Cold and damp they particularly dislike, especially when puppies, and the greatest care should be taken to keep them thoroughly dry and warm. When very young indeed they can stand, and are the better for, an extraordinary amount of heat.

THE FRENCH BULLDOG (BOULEDOGUE FRANCAIS)

There appears to be no doubt that the French Bulldog originated in England, and is an offshoot of the English miniature variety Bulldog, not the Bulldog one sees on the bench to-day, but of the tulip-eared and short underjawed specimens which were common in London, Nottingham, Birmingham, and Sheffield in the early 'fifties. There was at that time a constant emigration of laceworkers from Nottingham to the coast towns of Normandy, where lace factories were springing into existence, and these immigrants frequently took a Bulldog with them to the land of their adoption. The converse method was also adopted. Prior to 1902 French Bulldogs were imported into this country with the object of resuscitating the strain of bantam Bulldogs, which in course of years had been allowed to dwindle in numbers, and were in danger of becoming extinct.

There are superficial similarities between the English and the French toy Bulldog, the one distinguishing characteristic being that in the French variety the ears are higher on the head and are held erect. Until a few years ago the two were interbred, but disputes as to their essential differences led the Kennel Club to intervene and the types have since been kept rigidly apart, the smart little bat-eared Bulldogs of France receiving recognition under the breed name of Bouledogues Francais.



CHAPTER IV

THE ST. BERNARD

The history of the St. Bernard dog would not be complete without reference being made to the noble work that he has done in Switzerland, his native land: how the Hospice St. Bernard kept a considerable number of dogs which were trained to go over the mountains with small barrels round their necks, containing restoratives, in the event of their coming across any poor travellers who had either lost their way, or had been overcome by the cold. We have been told that the intelligent animals saved many lives in this way, the subjects of their deliverance often being found entirely buried in the snow.

Handsome as the St. Bernard is, with his attractive colour and markings, he is a cross-bred dog. From the records of old writers it is to be gathered that to refill the kennels at the Hospice which had been rendered vacant from the combined catastrophes of distemper and the fall of an avalanche which had swept away nearly all their hounds, the monks were compelled to have recourse to a cross with the Newfoundland and the Pyrenean sheepdog, the latter not unlike the St. Bernard in size and appearance. Then, again, there is no doubt whatever that at some time the Bloodhound has been introduced, and it is known for a certainty that almost all the most celebrated St. Bernards in England at the present time are closely allied to the Mastiff.

The result of all this intermixture of different breeds has been the production of an exceedingly fine race of dogs, which form one of the most attractive features at our dog shows, and are individually excellent guards and companions. As a companion, the St. Bernard cannot be surpassed, when a large dog is required for the purpose. Most docile in temperament and disposition, he is admirably suited as the associate of a lady or a child.

The St. Bernard is sensitive to a degree, and seldom forgets an insult, which he resents with dignity. Specimens of the breed have occasionally been seen that are savage, but when this is the case ill-treatment of some sort has assuredly been the provoking cause.

The dogs at the Hospice of St. Bernard are small in comparison with those that are seen in England belonging to the same race. The Holy Fathers were more particular about their markings than great size. The body colour should be brindle or orange tawny, with white markings; the muzzle white, with a line running up between the eyes, and over the skull, joining at the back the white collar that encircles the neck down to the front of the shoulders. The colour round the eyes and on the ears should be of a darker shade in the red; in the centre of the white line at the occiput there should be a spot of colour. These markings are said to represent the stole, chasuble and scapular which form part of the vestments worn by the monks; but it is seldom that the markings are so clearly defined; they are more often white, with brindle or orange patches on the body, with evenly-marked heads.

In England St. Bernards are either distinctly rough in coat or smooth, but the generality of the Hospice dogs are broken in coat, having a texture between the two extremes. The properties, however, of the rough and smooth are the same, so that the two varieties are often bred together, and, as a rule, both textures of coat will be the result of the alliance. The late M. Schumacher, a great authority on the breed in Switzerland, averred that dogs with very rough coats were found to be of no use for work on the Alps, as their thick covering became so loaded with snow and their feet so clogged that they succumbed under the weight and perished. On that account they were discarded by the monks.

In connection with the origin of the St. Bernard, M. Schumacher wrote in a letter to Mr. J. C. Macdona, who was the first to introduce the breed into Great Britain in any numbers: "According to the tradition of the Holy Fathers of the Great Saint Bernard, their race descends from the crossing of a bitch (a Bulldog species) of Denmark and a Mastiff (Shepherd's Dog) of the Pyrenees. The descendants of the crossing, who have inherited from the Danish dog its extraordinary size and bodily strength, and from the Pyrenean Mastiff the intelligence, the exquisite sense of smell, and, at the same time, the faithfulness and sagacity which characterise them, have acquired in the space of five centuries so glorious a notoriety throughout Europe that they well merit the name of a distinct race for themselves."

From the same authority we learn that it is something like six hundred years since the St. Bernard came into existence. It was not, however, till competitive exhibitions for dogs had been for some years established that the St. Bernard gained a footing in Great Britain. A few specimens had been imported from the Hospice before Mr. Cumming Macdona (then the Rev. Cumming Macdona) introduced us to the celebrated Tell, who, with others of the breed brought from Switzerland, formed the foundation of his magnificent kennel at West Kirby, in Cheshire. Albert Smith, whom some few that are now alive will remember as an amusing lecturer, brought a pair from the Hospice when returning from a visit to the Continent and made them take a part in his attractive entertainment; but the associations of the St. Bernard with the noble deeds recorded in history were not then so widely known, and these two dogs passed away without having created any particular enthusiasm.

Later on, at a dog show at Cremorne held in 1863, two St. Bernards were exhibited, each of whom rejoiced in the name of Monk, and were, respectively, the property of the Rev. A. N. Bate and Mr. W. H. Stone. These dogs were exhibited without pedigrees, but were said to have been bred at the Hospice of St. Bernard. Three years later, at the National Show at Birmingham, a separate class was provided for the saintly breed, and Mr. Cumming Macdona was first and second with Tell and Bernard. This led to an immediate popularity of the St. Bernard. But Tell was the hero of the shows at which he appeared, and his owner was recognised as being the introducer into this country of the magnificent variety of the canine race that now holds such a prominent position as a show dog.

The names of Tell and Bernard have been handed down to fame, the former as the progenitor of a long line of rough-coated offspring; the latter as one of the founders of the famous Shefford Kennel, kept by Mr. Fred Gresham, who probably contributed more to the perfecting of the St. Bernard than any other breeder. His Birnie, Monk, Abbess, Grosvenor Hector, and Shah are names which appear in the pedigrees of most of the best dogs of more recent times. When Mr. Gresham drew his long record of success to a close there came a lull in the popularity of the breed until Dr. Inman, in partnership with Mr. B. Walmsley, established a kennel first at Barford, near Bath, and then at The Priory, at Bowden, in Cheshire, where they succeeded in breeding the finest kennel of St. Bernards that has ever been seen in the world. Dr. Inman had for several years owned good dogs, and set about the work on scientific principles. He, in conjunction with Mr. Walmsley, purchased the smooth-coated Kenilworth from Mr. Loft, bred that dog's produce with a brindle Mastiff of high repute, and then crossed back to his St. Bernards with the most successful results. Dr. Inman was instrumental in forming the National St. Bernard Club, which was soon well supported with members, and now has at its disposal a good collection of valuable challenge cups. The dogs bred at Bowden carried all before them in the show ring, and were continually in request for stud purposes, improving the breed to a remarkable extent.

At the disposal of Messrs. Inman and Walmsley's kennel, there were such admirable dogs as the rough-coated Wolfram—from whom were bred Tannhauser, Narcissus, Leontes and Klingsor—the smooth-coated dogs, the King's Son and The Viking; the rough-coated bitch, Judith Inman, and the smooth Viola, the last-named the finest specimen of her sex that has probably ever been seen. These dogs and bitches, with several others, were dispersed all over England, with the exception of Klingsor, who went to South Africa.

Almost all the best St. Bernards in Great Britain at the present time have been bred or are descended from the Bowden dogs.



The following is the description of the St. Bernard as drawn up by the members of the St. Bernard Club:

* * * * *

HEAD—The head should be large and massive, the circumference of the skull being more than double the length of the head from nose to occiput. From stop to tip of nose should be moderately short; full below the eye and square at the muzzle; there should be great depth from the eye to the lower jaw, and the lips should be deep throughout, but not too pendulous. From the nose to the stop should be straight, and the stop abrupt and well defined. The skull should be broad and rounded at the top, but not domed, with somewhat prominent brow. EARS—The ears should be of medium size, lying close to the cheek, but strong at the base and not heavily feathered. EYES—The eyes should be rather small and deep set, dark in colour and not too close together; the lower eyelid should droop, so as to show a fair amount of haw. NOSE—The nose should be large and black, with well developed nostrils. The teeth should be level. EXPRESSION—The expression should betoken benevolence, dignity, and intelligence. NECK—The neck should be lengthy, muscular, and slightly arched, with dewlap developed, and the shoulders broad and sloping, well up at the withers. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BODY—The chest should be wide and deep, and the back level as far as the haunches, slightly arched over the loins; the ribs should be well rounded and carried well back; the loin wide and very muscular. TAIL—The tail should be set on rather high, long, and in the long-coated variety bushy; carried low when in repose, and when excited or in motion slightly above the line of the back. LEGS—The fore-legs should be perfectly straight, strong in bone, and of good length; and the hind-legs very muscular. The feet large, compact, with well-arched toes. SIZE—A dog should be at least 30 inches in height at the shoulder, and a bitch 27 inches (the taller the better, provided the symmetry is maintained); thoroughly well proportioned, and of great substance. The general outline should suggest great power and capability of endurance. COAT—In the long-coated variety the coat should be dense and flat; rather fuller round the neck; the thighs feathered but not too heavily. In the short-coated variety, the coat should be dense, hard, flat, and short, slightly feathered on thighs and tail. COLOUR AND MARKINGS—The colour should be red, orange, various shades of brindle (the richer colour the better), or white with patches on body of one of the above named colours. The markings should be as follows; white muzzle, white blaze up face, white collar round neck; white chest, forelegs, feet, and end of tail; black shadings on face and ears. If the blaze be wide and runs through to the collar, a spot of the body colour on the top of the head is desirable.

The weight of a dog should be from 170 lbs. to 210 lbs.; of a bitch 160 lbs. to 190 lbs.

* * * * *

During the past twenty-five years St. Bernards have been bred in this country very much taller and heavier than they were in the days of Tell, Hope, Moltke, Monk, Hector, and Othman. Not one of these measured over 32 inches in height, or scaled over 180 lbs., but the increased height and greater weight of the more modern production have been obtained by forcing them as puppies and by fattening them to such an extent that they have been injured in constitution, and in many cases converted into cripples behind. The prizewinning rough-coated St. Bernard, as he is seen to-day is a purely manufactured animal, handsome in appearance certainly, but so cumbersome that he is scarcely able to raise a trot, let alone do any tracking in the snow. Usefulness, however, is not a consideration with breeders, who have reared the dog to meet the exigencies of the show ring. There is still much left to be desired, and there is room for considerable improvement, as only a few of the more modern dogs of the breed approach the standard drawn up by the Clubs that are interested in their welfare.



CHAPTER V

THE NEWFOUNDLAND

The dogs which take their name from the island of Newfoundland appeal to all lovers of animals, romance, and beauty. A Newfoundland formed the subject of perhaps the most popular picture painted by Sir Edwin Landseer; a monument was erected by Byron over the grave of his Newfoundland in proximity to the place where the poet himself hoped to be buried, at Newstead Abbey, and the inscription on his monument contains the lines so frequently quoted:

"But the poor dog in life the firmest friend, The first to welcome, foremost to defend, Whose honest heart is still his master's own, Who labours, fights, lives, breathes for him alone.

To mark a friend's remains these stones arise: I never knew but one, and here he lies."

Robert Burns, also, in his poem, "The Twa Dogs," written in 1786, refers to a Newfoundland as being an aristocrat among dogs. Doubtless, other breeds of dogs have been the subjects of popular pictures and have had their praises sung by poets, but the Newfoundlands have yet a further honour, unique amongst dogs, in being the subject for a postage stamp of their native land. All these distinctions and honours have not been conferred without reason for no breed of dogs has greater claim to the title of friend of man, and it has become famous for its known readiness and ability to save persons in danger, especially from drowning. It is strong and courageous in the water, and on land a properly trained Newfoundland is an ideal companion and guard. Innumerable are the accounts of Newfoundlands having proved their devotion to their owners, and of the many lives saved by them in river and sea; and when Sir Edwin Landseer selected one of the breed as the subject of his picture entitled, "A Distinguished Member of the Humane Society," he was justified not only by the sentiment attaching to this remarkable race of dogs, but also by the deeds by which Newfoundlands have made good their claim to such great distinction, and the popular recognition of this, no doubt, in some degree added to the great esteem in which this painting has always been held.

The picture was painted in 1838, and, as almost everyone knows, represents a white and black Newfoundland. The dog portrayed was typical of the breed, and after a lapse of over seventy years, the painting has now the added value of enabling us to make a comparison with specimens of the breed as it exists to-day. Such a comparison will show that among the best dogs now living are some which might have been the model for this picture. It is true that in the interval the white and black Newfoundlands have been coarser, heavier, higher on the legs, with an expression denoting excitability quite foreign to the true breed, but these departures from Newfoundland character are passing away—it is to be hoped for good. The breed is rapidly returning to the type which Landseer's picture represents—a dog of great beauty, dignity, and benevolence of character, showing in its eyes an almost human pathos.

Some twenty-five to thirty years ago there was considerable discussion among owners of Newfoundlands in this country as to the proper colour of the true breed, and there were many persons who claimed, as some still claim, that the black variety is the only true variety, and that the white and black colouring indicates a cross-breed. Again Landseer's picture is of value, because, in the first place, we may be almost certain that he would have selected for such a picture a typical dog of the breed, and, secondly, because the picture shows, nearly half a century prior to the discussion, a white and black dog, typical in nearly every respect, except colour, of the black Newfoundland. There is no appearance of cross-breeding in Landseer's dog; on the contrary, he reveals all the characteristics of a thoroughbred. Seventy years ago, therefore, the white and black variety may be fairly considered to have been established, and it is worthy of mention here that "Idstone" quoted an article written in 1819 stating that back in the eighteenth century Newfoundlands were large, rough-coated, liver and white dogs. It is clear, also, that in 1832 Newfoundlands in British North America were of various colours. Additional evidence, too, is provided, in the fact that when selecting the type of head for their postage stamp the Government of Newfoundland chose the Landseer dog. Therefore, there are very strong arguments against the claim that the true variety is essentially black.

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