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"There is no part of history so generally useful as that which relates to the progress of the human mind, the gradual improvement of reason, the successive advances of science, the vicissitudes of learning and ignorance, which are the light and darkness of thinking beings, the extinction and resuscitation of arts, and the revolutions of the intellectual world." —SAMUEL JOHNSON, Rasselas.


This book aims to furnish a concise and connected account of human progress during ancient, medieval, and early modern times. It should meet the requirements of those high schools and preparatory schools where ancient history, as a separate discipline, is being supplanted by a more extended course introductory to the study of recent times and contemporary problems. Such a course was first outlined by the Regents of the University of the State of New York in their Syllabus for Secondary Schools, issued in 1910.

Since the appearance of the Regents' Syllabus the Committee of Five of the American Historical Association has made its Report (1911), suggesting a rearrangement of the curriculum which would permit a year's work in English and Continental history. Still more recently the Committee on Social Studies of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, in its Report (1916) to the National Education Association has definitely recommended the division of European history into two parts, of which the first should include ancient and Oriental civilization, English and Continental history to approximately the end of the seventeenth century, and the period of American exploration.

The first twelve chapters of the present work are based upon the author's Ancient History, published four years ago. In spite of many omissions, it has been possible to follow without essential modification the plan of the earlier volume. A number of new maps and illustrations have been added to these chapters.

The selection of collateral reading, always a difficult problem in the secondary school, is doubly difficult when so much ground must be covered in a single course. The author ventures, therefore, to call attention to his Readings in Ancient History. Its purpose, in the words of the preface, is "to provide immature pupils with a variety of extended, unified, and interesting extracts on matters which a textbook treats with necessary, though none the less deplorable, condensation." A companion volume, entitled Readings in Medieval and Modern History, will be published shortly. References to both books are inserted in footnotes.

At the end of what has been a long and engrossing task, it becomes a pleasant duty to acknowledge the help which has been received from teachers in school and college. Various chapters, either in manuscript or in the proofs, have been read by Professor James M. Leake of Bryn Mawr College; Professor J. C. Hildt of Smith College; Very Rev. Patrick J. Healy, Professor of Church History in the Catholic University of America; Professor E. F. Humphrey of Trinity College; Dr. James Sullivan, Director of the Division of Archives and History, State Dept. of Education of New York; Constantine E. McGuire, Assistant Secretary General, International High Commission, Washington; Miss Margaret E. McGill, of the Newton (Mass.) High School; and Miss Mabel Chesley, of the Erasmus Hall High School, Brooklyn. The author would also express appreciation of the labors of the cartographers, artists, and printers, to whose accuracy and skill every page of the book bears witness.


LINCOLN, NEBRASKA, February, 1917

[Illustration: ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL GEMS. 1 Steatite from Crete, two lions with forefeet on a pedestal, above a sun 2 Sardonyx from Elis, a goddess holding up a goat by the horns 3 Rock crystal a bearded Triton 4 Carnelian, a youth playing a trigonon 5 Chalcedony from Athens, a Bacchante 6 Sard, a woman reading a manuscript roll, before her a lyre 7 Carnelian, Theseus 8 Chalcedony, portrait head, Hellenistic Age 9 Aquamarine, portrait of Julia daughter of the emperor Titus 10 Chalcedony, portrait head, Hellenistic Age 11 Carnelian, bust portrait of the Roman emperor Decius 12 Beryl, portrait of Julia Domna wife of the emperor Septimius Severus 13 Sapphire, head of the Madonna 14 Carnelian, the judgment of Paris, Renaissance work 15 Rock crystal, Madonna with Jesus and St. Joseph, probably Norman Sicilian work]








1. The Study of History 2. Prehistoric Peoples 3. Domestication of Animals and Plants 4. Writing and the Alphabet 5. Primitive Science and Art 6. Historic Peoples


7. Physical Asia 8. Babylonia and Egypt 9. The Babylonians and the Egyptians 10. The Phoenicians and the Hebrews 11. The Assyrians 12. The World Empire of Persia


13. Social Classes 14. Economic Conditions 15. Commerce and Trade Routes 16. Law and Morality 17. Religion 18. Literature and Art 19. Science and Education


20. Physical Europe 21. Greece and the Aegean 22. The Aegean Age (to about 1100 B.C.) 23. The Homeric Age (about 1100-750 B.C.) 24. Early Greek Religion 25. Religious Institutions—Oracles and Games 26. The Greek City-State 27. The Growth of Sparta (to 500 B.C.) 28. The Growth of Athens (to 500 B.C.) 29. Colonial Expansion of Greece (about 750-500 B.C.) 30. Bonds of Union among the Greeks


31. The Perils of Hellas 32. Expeditions of Darius against Greece 33. Xerxes and the Great Persian War 34. Athens under Themistocles, Aristides, and Cimon 35. Athens under Pericles 36. The Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C. 37. The Spartan and Theban Supremacies, 404-362 B.C. 38. Decline of the City-State


39. Philip and the Rise of Macedonia 40. Demosthenes and the End of Greek Freedom 41. Alexander the Great 42. Conquest of Persia and the Far East, 334-323 B.C. 43. The Work of Alexander 44. Hellenistic Kingdoms and Cities 45. The Hellenistic Age 46. The Graeco-Oriental World


47. Italy and Sicily 48. The Peoples of Italy 49. The Romans 50. Early Roman Society 51. Roman Religion 52. The Roman City State 53. Expansion of Rome over Italy, 509 (?)-264 B.C. 54. Italy under Roman Rule 55. The Roman Army


56. The Rivals Rome and Carthage, 264-218 B.C. 57. Hannibal and the Great Punic War, 218-201 B.C. 58. Roman Supremacy in the West and in the East, 201-133 B.C. 59. The Mediterranean World under Roman Rule 60. The Gracchi 61. Marius and Sulla 62. Pompey and Caesar 63. The Work of Caesar 64. Antony and Octavian 65. The End of an Epoch


66. Augustus, 31 B.C.-l4 A.D. 67. The Successors of Augustus, 14-96 A.D. 68. The "Good Emperors," 96-180 A.D. 69. The Provinces of the Roman Empire 70. The Roman Law and the Latin Language 71. The Municipalities of the Roman Empire 72. Economic and Social Conditions in the First and Second Centuries 73. The Graeco-Roman World


74. The "Soldier Emperors," 180-284 A.D. 75. The "Absolute Emperors," 284-395 A.D. 76. Economic and Social Conditions in the Third and Fourth Centuries 77. The Preparation for Christianity 78. Rise and Spread of Christianity 79. The Persecutions 80. Triumph of Christianity 81. Christian Influence on Society


82. Germany and the Germans 83. Breaking of the Danube Barrier 84. Breaking of the Rhine Barrier 85. Inroads of the Huns 86. End of the Roman Empire in the West, 476 A.D. 87. Germanic Influence on Society


88. The Classical City 89. Education and the Condition of Children 90. Marriage and the Position of Women 91. The Home and Private Life 92. Amusements 93. Slavery 94. Greek Literature 95. Greek Philosophy 96. Roman Literature 97. Greek Architecture 98. Greek Sculpture 99. Roman Architecture and Sculpture 100. Artistic Athens 101. Artistic Rome


102. The Ostrogoths in Italy, 488-553 A.D. 103. The Lombards in Italy, 568-774 A.D. 104. The Franks under Clovis and His Successors 105. The Franks under Charles Martel and Pepin the Short 106. The Reign of Charlemagne, 768-814 A.D. 107. Charlemagne and the Revival of the Roman Empire, 800 A.D. 108. Disruption of Charlemagne's Empire, 814-870 A.D. 109. Germany under Saxon Kings, 919-973 A.D. 110. Otto the Great and the Restoration of the Roman Empire, 962 A.D. 111. The Anglo-Saxons in Britain, 449-839 A.D. 112. Christianity in the British Isles 113. The Fusion of Germans and Romans


114. The Roman Empire in the East 115. The Reign of Justinian, 527-565 A.D. 116. The Empire and its Asiatic Foes 117. The Empire and its Foes in Europe 118. Byzantine Civilization 119. Constantinople


120. Development of the Christian Church 121. Eastern Christianity 122. Western Christianity: Rise of the Papacy 123. Growth of the Papacy 124. Monasticism 125. Life and Work of the Monks 126. Spread of Christianity over Europe 127. Separation of Eastern and Western Christianity 128. The Greek Church 129. The Roman Church


130. Arabia and the Arabs 131. Mohammed: Prophet and Statesman, 622-632 A.D. 132. Islam and the Koran 133. Expansion of Islam in Asia and Egypt 134. Expansion of Islam in North Africa and Spain 135. The Caliphate and its Disruption, 632-1058 A.D. 136. Arabian Civilization 137. The Influence of Islam


138. Scandinavia and the Northmen 139. The Viking Age 140. Scandinavian Heathenism 141. The Northmen in the West 142. The Northmen in the East 143. Normandy and the Normans 144. Conquest of England by the Danes; Alfred the Great 145. Norman Conquest of England; William the Conqueror 146. Results of the Norman Conquest 147. Norman Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily 148. The Normans in European History


149. Rise of Feudalism 150. Feudalism as a System of Local Government 151. Feudal Justice 152. Feudal Warfare 153. The Castle and Life of the Nobles 154. Knighthood and Chivalry 155. Feudalism as a System of Local Industry 156. The Village and Life of the Peasants 157. Serfdom 158. Decline of Feudalism


159. Characteristics of the Medieval Church 160. Church Doctrine and Worship 161. Church Jurisdiction 162. The Secular Clergy 163. The Regular Clergy 164. The Friars 165. Power of the Papacy 166. Popes and Emperors, 962-1122 A.D. 167. Popes and Emperors, 1122-1273 A.D. 168. Significance of the Medieval Church


169. Causes of the Crusades 170. First Crusade, 1095-1099 A.D. 171. Crusaders' States in Syria 172. Second Crusade, 1147-1149 A.D., and Third Crusade, 1189-1192 A.D. 173. Fourth Crusade and the Latin Empire of Constantinople, 1202-1261 A.D. 174. Results of the Crusades


175. The Mongols 176. Conquests of the Mongols, 1206-1405 A.D. 177. The Mongols in China and India 178. The Mongols in Eastern Europe 179. The Ottoman Turks and their Conquests, 1227-1453 A.D. 180. The Ottoman Turks in Southeastern Europe


181. Growth of the Nations 182. England under William the Conqueror, 1066-1087 A.D., the Norman Kingship 183. England under Henry II, 1154-1189 A.D., Royal Justice and the Common Law 184. The Great Charter, 1215 A.D. 185. Parliament during the Thirteenth Century 186. Expansion of England under Edward I, 1272-1307 A.D. 187. Unification of France, 987-1328 A.D. 188. The Hundred Years' War between England and France, 1337-1453 A.D. 189. The Unification of Spain (to 1492 A.D.) 190. Austria and the Swiss Confederation, 1273-1499 A.D. 191. Expansion of Germany


192. Growth of the Cities 193. City Life 194. Civic Industry—the Guilds 195. Trade and Commerce 196. Money and Banking 197. Italian Cities 198. German Cities, the Hanseatic League 199. The Cities of Flanders


200. Formation of National Languages 201. Development of National Literatures 202. Romanesque and Gothic Architecture, the Cathedrals 203. Education, the Universities 204. Scholasticism 205. Science and Magic 206. Popular Superstitions 207. Popular Amusements and Festivals 208. Manners and Customs


209. Meaning of the Renaissance 210. Revival of Learning in Italy 211. Paper and Printing 212. Revival of Art in Italy 213. Revival of Learning and Art beyond Italy 214. The Renaissance in Literature 215. The Renaissance in Education 216. The Scientific Renaissance 217. The Economic Renaissance


218. Medieval Geography 219. Aids to Exploration 220. To the Indies Eastward—Prince Henry and Da Gama 221. The Portuguese Colonial Empire 222. To the Indies Westward: Columbus and Magellan 223. The Indians 224. Spanish Explorations and Conquests in America 225. The Spanish Colonial Empire 226. French and English Explorations in America 227. The Old World and the New


228. Decline of the Papacy 229. Heresies and Heretics 230. Martin Luther and the Beginning of the Reformation in Germany, 1517-1522 A.D. 231. Charles V and the Spread of the German Reformation, 1519-1556 A.D. 232. The Reformation in Switzerland: Zwingli and Calvin 233. The English Reformation, 1533-1558 A.D. 234. The Protestant Sects 235. The Catholic Counter Reformation 236. Spain under Philip II, 1556-1598 A.D. 237. Revolt of the Netherlands 238. England under Elizabeth, 1558-1603 A.D. 239. The Huguenot Wars in France 240. The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648 A.D.


241. The Divine Right of Kings 242. The Absolutism of Louis XIV, 1661-1715 A.D. 243. France under Louis XIV 244. The Wars of Louis XIV 245. The Absolutism of the Stuarts, 1603-1642 A.D. 246. Oliver Cromwell and the Civil War, 1642-1649 A.D. 247. The Commonwealth and the Protectorate, 1649-1660 A.D. 248. The Restoration and the "Glorious Revolution," 1660-1689 A.D. 249. England in the Seventeenth Century

APPENDIX—Table of Events and Dates



Disk of Phaestus. A Papyrus Manuscript. A Prehistoric Egyptian Grave. A Hatchet of the Early Stone Age. Arrowheads of the Later Stone Age. Early Roman Bar Money. Various Signs of Symbolic Picture Writing. Mexican Rebus. Chinese Picture Writing and Later Conventional Characters. Cretan Writing. Egyptian and Babylonian Writing. The Moabite Stone (Louvre, Paris). Head of a Girl (Musee S. Germain, Paris). Sketch of Mammoth on a Tusk found in a Cave in France. Bison painted on the Wall of a Cave. Cave Bear drawn on a Pebble. Wild Horse on the Wall of a Cave in Spain. A Dolmen. Carved Menhir. Race Portraiture of the Egyptians. The Great Wall of China. Philae. Top of Monument containing the Code of Hammurabi (British Museum, London). Khufu (Cheops), Builder of the Great Pyramid. Menephtah, the supposed Pharaoh of the Exodus. Head of Mummy of Rameses II (Museum of Gizeh). The Great Pyramid. The Great Sphinx. A Phoenician War Galley. An Assyrian. An Assyrian Relief (British Museum, London). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon. The Tomb of Cyrus the Great. Darius with his Attendants. Rock Sepulchers of the Persian Kings. A Royal Name in Hieroglyphics (Rosetta Stone). An Egyptian Court Scene. Plowing and Sowing in Ancient Egypt. Transport of an Assyrian Colossus. Egyptian weighing Cow Gold. Babylonian Contract Tablet. An Egyptian Scarab. Amenhotep IV. Mummy and Cover of Coffin (U.S. National Museum, Washington). The Judgment of the Dead. The Deluge Tablet (British Museum, London). An Egyptian Temple (Restored). An Egyptian Wooden Statue (Museum of Gizeh). An Assyrian Palace (Restored). An Assyrian Winged Human headed Bull. An Assyrian Hunting Scene (British Museum, London). A Babylonian Map of the World. An Egyptian Scribe (Louvre, Paris). Excavations at Nippur. Excavations at Troy. Lions' Gate, Mycenae. Silver Fragment from Mycenae (National Museum, Athens). A Cretan Girl (Museum of Candia, Crete). Aegean Snake Goddess (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston). A Cretan Cupbearer (Museum of Candia, Crete). The Francois Vase (Archaeological Museum, Florence). Consulting the Oracle at Delphi. The Discus Thrower (Lancelotti Palace, Rome). Athlete using the Strigil (Vatican Gallery, Rome). "Temple of Neptune," Paestum. Croesus on the Pyre. Persian Archers (Louvre, Paris). Gravestone of Aristion (National Museum, Athens). Greek Soldiers in Arms. The Mound at Marathon. A Themistocles Ostrakon (British Museum, London). An Athenian Trireme (Reconstruction). "Theseum". Pericles (British Museum, London). An Athenian Inscription. The "Mourning Athena" (Acropolis Museum, Athens). A Silver Coin of Syracuse. Philip II. Demosthenes (Vatican Museum, Rome). Alexander (Glyptothek, Munich). The Alexander Mosaic (Naples Museum). A Greek Cameo (Museum, Vienna). The Dying Gaul (Capitoline Museum, Rome). A Graeco-Etruscan Chariot (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). An Etruscan Arch. Characters of the Etruscan Alphabet. An Early Roman Coin. A Roman Farmer's Calendar. Cinerary Urns in Terra Cotta (Vatican Museum, Rome). A Vestal Virgin. Suovetaurilia (Louvre, Paris). An Etruscan Augur. Coop with Sacred Chickens. Curule Chair and Fasces. The Appian Way. A Roman Legionary. A Roman Standard Bearer (Bonn Museum). Column of Duilius (Restored). A Carthaginian or Roman Helmet (British Museum, London). A Testudo. Storming a City (Reconstruction). Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Spada Palace, Rome). Marcus Tullius Cicero (Vatican Museum, Rome). Gaius Julius Caesar (British Museum, London). A Roman Coin with the Head of Julius Caesar. Augustus (Vatican Museum, Rome). Monumentum Ancyranum. Pompeii. Nerva (Vatican Museum, Rome). Column of Trajan. The Pantheon. The Tomb of Hadrian. Marcus Aurelius in his Triumphal Car (Palace of the Conservatori, Rome). Wall of Hadrian in Britain. Roman Baths, at Bath, England. A Roman Freight Ship. A Roman Villa. A Roman Temple. The Amphitheater at Arles. A Megalith at Baalbec The Wall of Rome A Mithraic Monument Modern Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives Madonna and Child Christ the Good Shepherd (Imperial Museum, Constantinople) Interior of the Catacombs The Labarum Arch of Constantine Runic Alphabet A Page of the Gothic Gospels (Reduced) An Athenian School (Royal Museum, Berlin) A Roman School Scene Youth reading a Papyrus Roll House of the Vettii at Pompeii (Restored) Atrium of a Pompeian House Pompeian Floor Mosaic Peristyle of a Pompeian House A Greek Banquet A Roman Litter Theater of Dionysus, Athens A Dancing Girl The Circus Maximus (Restoration) Gladiators A Slave's Collar Sophocles (Lateran Museum, Rome) Socrates (Vatican Museum, Rome) Corner of a Doric Facade Corner of an Ionic Facade Corinthian Capital Composite Capital Tuscan Capital Interior View of the Ulpian Basilica (Restoration) A Roman Aqueduct The Colosseum (Exterior) The Colosseum (Interior) A Roman Cameo Tomb of Theodoric at Ravenna Charlemagne (Lateran Museum Rome) The Iron Crown of Lombardy Cathedral at Aix la Chapelle Ring Seal of Otto the Great Anglo Saxon Drinking Horn St. Martin's Church, Canterbury Canterbury Cathedral A Mosaic of Justinian The Three Existing Monuments of the Hippodrome, Constantinople Religious Music The Nestorian Monument Papal Arms St. Daniel the Stylite on his Column Abbey of Saint Germain des Pres, Paris A Monk Copyist Mecca A Letter of Mohammed A Passage from the Koran Naval Battle showing Use of "Greek Fire" Interior of the Mosque of Cordova Capitals and Arabesques from the Alhambra Swedish Rock Carving A Runic Stone A Viking Ship Norse Metal Work (Museum, Copenhagen) Alfred the Great Alfred's Jewel (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) A Scene from the Bayeux Tapestry (Museum of Bayeux, Normandy) Trial by Combat Mounted Knight Pierrefonds Chateau Gaillard (Restored) King and Jester Falconry Farm Work in the Fourteenth Century Pilgrims to Canterbury A Bishop ordaining a Priest St. Francis blessing the Birds The Spiritual and the Temporal Power Henry IV, Countess Matilda, and Gregory VII Contest between Crusaders and Moslems "Mosque of Omar," Jerusalem Effigy of a Knight Templar Richard I in Prison Hut-Wagon of the Mongols (Reconstruction) Tomb of Timur at Samarkand Mohammed II The "White Tower" A Passage from Domesday Book Windsor Castle Extract from the Great Charter Coronation Chair, Westminster Abbey A Queen Eleanor Cross Royal Arms of Edward III English Archer Walls of Carcassonne A Scene in Rothenburg House of the Butchers' Guild, Hildesheim, Germany Baptistery, Cathedral, and "Leaning Tower" of Pisa Venice and the Grand Canal Belfry of Bruges Town Hall of Louvain, Belgium Geoffrey Chaucer Roland at Roncesvalles Cross Section of Amiens Cathedral Gargoyles on the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris View of New College, Oxford Tower of Magdalen College, Oxford Roger Bacon Magician rescued from the Devil The Witches' Sabbath Chess Pieces of Charlemagne Bear Baiting Mummers A Miracle Play at Coventry, England Manor House in Shropshire, England Interior of an English Manor House Costumes of Ladies during the Later Middle Ages Dante Alighieri Petrarch An Early Printing Press Facsimile of Part of Caxton's "Aeneid" (Reduced) Desiderius Erasmus (Louvre, Paris) Cervantes William Shakespeare Shakespeare's Birthplace, Stratford-on-Avon Richard II Geographical Monsters An Astrolabe Vasco da Gama Christopher Columbus (Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid) Isabella Ship of 1492 A.D. The Name "America" Ferdinand Magellan Aztec Sacrificial Knife Aztec Sacrificial Stone Cabot Memorial Tower John Wycliffe Martin Luther Charles V John Calvin Henry VIII Ruins of Melrose Abbey Chained Bible St. Ignatius Loyola Philip II The Escorial William the Silent Elizabeth Crown of Elizabeth's Reign London Bridge in the Time of Elizabeth The Spanish Armada in the English Channel Cardinal Richelieu (Louvre, Paris.) Gustavus Adolphus Cardinal Mazarin Louis XIV Versailles Medal of Louis XIV Marlborough Gold Coin of James I A Puritan Family Charles I Execution of the Earl of Strafford Oliver Cromwell Interior of Westminster Hall Great Seal of England under the Commonwealth (Reduced) Boys' Sports Silver Crown of Charles II A London Bellman Coach and Sedan Chair Death Mask of Sir Isaac Newton


Distribution of Semitic and Indo-European Peoples. Physical Map of Asia. Egyptian Empire (about 1450 B.C.) Canaan as divided among the Tribes. Solomon's Kingdom. Assyrian Empire (about 660 B.C.) Lydia, Media, Babylonia, and Egypt (about 550 B.C.) Persian Empire at its Greatest Extent (about 500 B.C.) Ancient Trade Routes Phoenician and Greek Colonies. Physical Map of Europe. Ancient Greece and the Aegean. Aegean Civilization. Greek Conquests and Migrations. The World according to Homer, 900 B.C. Greece at the Opening of the Persian Wars, 490 B.C. Vicinity of Athens. Greece at the Opening of the Peloponnesian War. Route of the Ten Thousand. Empire of Alexander the Great (about 323 B.C.) Kingdoms of Alexander's Successors (about 200 B.C.) The World according to Eratosthenes, 200 B.C. The World according to Ptolemy, 150 A.D. Ancient Italy and Sicily. Vicinity of Rome. Expansion of Roman Dominions in Italy, 509-264 B.C. Colonies and Military Roads in Italy. Expansion of Roman Dominions, 264-133 B.C. Expansion of Roman Dominions, 133-31 B.C. Expansion of Roman Dominions, 31 B.C.-180 A.D. Plan of Jerusalem and its Environs. Roman Britain. Roman Empire (about 395 A.D.) Palestine. Growth of Christianity to the End of the Fourth Century. Germanic Migrations to 476 A.D. Europe at the Deposition of Romulus Augustulus, 476 A.D. Plan of the Ulpian Basilica Plan of Ancient Athens Plan of the Parthenon Plan of Ancient Rome Europe at the Death of Theodoric, 526 A.D. Europe at the Death of Justinian, 565 A.D. Growth of the Frankish Dominions, 481-768 A.D. Europe in the Age of Charlemagne, 800 A.D. The Frankish Dominions as divided by the Treaties of Verdun (843 A.D.) and Mersen (870 A.D.) Europe in the Age of Otto the Great, 972 A.D. Anglo-Saxon Britain Peoples of Europe at the Beginning of the Tenth Century The Roman Empire in the East during the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries Vicinity of Constantinople Plan of Constantinople Plan of Kirkstall Abbey, Yorkshire Growth of Christianity from the Fifth to the Fifteenth Century Expansion of Islam Discoveries of the Northmen in the West England under Alfred the Great Dominions of William the Conqueror Plan of Chateau Gaillard Plan of Hitchin Manor, Hertfordshire Germany and Italy during the Interregnum, 1254-1273 A.D. Mediterranean Lands after the Fourth Crusade, 1202-1204 A.D. The Mongol Empire Russia at the End of the Middle Ages Empire of the Ottoman Turks at the Fall of Constantinople, 1453 A.D. Dominions of the Plantagenets in England and France Scotland in the Thirteenth Century Unification of France during the Middle Ages Unification of Spain during the Middle Ages Growth of the Hapsburg Possessions The Swiss Confederation, 1291-1513 A.D. German Expansion Eastward during the Middle Ages Trade Routes between Northern and Southern Europe in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries Medieval Trade Routes Plan of Salisbury Cathedral, England The World according to Cosmas Indicopleustes, 535 A.D. The Hereford Map, 1280 A.D. Behaim's Globe Portuguese and Spanish Colonial Empires in the Sixteenth Century The West Indies An Early Map of the New World (1540 A.D.) The Great Schism, 1378-1417 A.D. Europe at the Beginning of the Reformation, 1519 A.D. Extent of the Reformation, 1524-1572 A.D. The Netherlands in the Sixteenth Century Western Europe in the Time of Elizabeth Europe at the End of the Thirty Years' War, 1648 A.D. Acquisitions of Louis XIV and Louis XV Europe after the Peace of Utrecht, 1713 A.D. England and Wales—The Civil Wars of the Seventeenth Century Ireland in the Sixteenth Century


Ancient and Medieval Gems Stonehenge The Rosetta Stone (British Museum, London) The Vaphio Gold Cups (National Museum, Athens) Greek Gods and Goddesses: Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Aphrodite Aphrodite of Melos (Louvre, Paris) Hermes and Dionysus (Museum of Olympia) Sarcophagus from Sidon (Imperial Ottoman Museum, Constantinople) Laocooen and his Children (Vatican Museum, Rome) Victory of Samothrace (Louvre, Paris) Oriental, Greek, and Roman Coins A Scene in Sicily Bay of Naples and Vesuvius Relief on the Arch of Titus The Parthenon Views of Pediment and Frieze of Parthenon Acropolis of Athens (Restoration) Acropolis of Athens from the Southwest Roman Forum and Surrounding Buildings (Restored) Roman Forum at the Present Time Sancta Sophia, Constantinople Fountain of Lions in the Alhambra The Taj Mahal, Agra Campanile and Doge's Palace, Venice Illuminated Manuscript Reims Cathedral Cologne Cathedral Interior of King's College Chapel, Cambridge Ghiberti's Bronze Doors at Florence St. Peter's, Rome Italian Paintings of the Renaissance Flemish, Spanish, and Dutch Paintings of the Renaissance



All serious students of history should have access to the American Historical Review (N. Y., 1895 to date, quarterly, $4.00 a year). This journal, the organ of the American Historical Association, contains articles by scholars, critical reviews of all important works, and notes and news. The History Teacher's Magazine is edited under the supervision of a committee of the American Historical Association (Philadelphia, 1909 to date, monthly, $2.00 a year). Every well-equipped school library should contain the files of the National Geographic Magazine (Washington, 1890 to date, monthly, $2.00 a year) and of Art and Archeology (Washington, 1914 to date, monthly, $3.00 a year). These two periodicals make a special feature of illustrations.


Useful books for the teacher's library include H. E. Bourne, The Teaching of History and Civics in the Elementary and the Secondary School (N. Y., 1902, Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.50), Henry Johnson, The Teaching of History (N. Y., 1915, Macmillan, $1.40), H. B. George, Historical Evidence (N.Y., 1909, Oxford University Press, American Branch, 75 cents), Frederic Harrison, The Meaning of History and Other Historical Pieces (New ed., N.Y., 1900, Macmillan, $1.75), J. H. Robinson, The New History (N. Y., 1912, Macmillan, $1.50), and H. B. George, The Relations of History and Geography (4th ed., N. Y., 1910, Oxford University Press, American Branch, $1.10). The following reports are indispensable:

The Study of History in Schools. Report to the American Historical Association by the Committee of Seven (N. Y., 1899, Macmillan, 50 cents).

The Study of History in Secondary Schools. Report to the American Historical Association by a Committee of Five (N. Y., 1911, Macmillan, 25 cents).

Historical Sources in Schools. Report to the New England History Teachers' Association by a Select Committee (N. Y., 1902, Macmillan, out of print).

A History Syllabus for Secondary Schools. Report by a Special Committee of the New England History Teachers' Association (N. Y., 1904, Heath, $1.32).

A Bibliography of History for Schools and Libraries. Published under the auspices of the Association of History Teachers of the Middle States and Maryland (2d ed., N. Y., 1915, Longmans, Green, and Co., 60 cents).


The most useful dictionaries of classical antiquities are H. B. Walters, A Classical Dictionary (N. Y., 1916, Putnam, $6.50) and H. T. Peck, Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities (N. Y., 1897, American Book Co., $6.00). Cambridge University, England, has published A Companion to Greek Studies, edited by L. Whibley (2d ed., N. Y., 1906, Putnam, $6.00), and A Companion to Latin Studies, edited by J. E. Sandys (N. Y., 1911, Putnam, $6.00). These two volumes treat every phase of ancient life in separate essays by distinguished scholars. For chronology, genealogies, lists of sovereigns, and other data the most valuable works are Arthur Hassall, European History, 476-1910 (new ed., N. Y., 1910, Macmillan, $2.25), G. P. Putnam, Tabular Views of Universal History (new ed., N. Y., 1915, Putnam, $2.50), and Karl J. Ploetz, A Handbook of Universal History, translated by W. H. Tillinghast (Boston, 1915, Houghton Mifflin Co., $3.00).


The Illustrated Topics for Ancient History, arranged by D. C. Knowlton (Philadelphia, McKinley Publishing Co., 65 cents), contain much valuable material in the shape of a syllabus, source quotations, outline maps, pictures, and other aids. The following syllabi have been prepared for collegiate instruction:

Botsford, G. W. A Syllabus of Roman History (N. Y., 1915, Macmillan, 50 cents).

Munro, D. C., and SELLERY, G. C. A Syllabus of Medieval History, 395- 1500 (N. Y., 1913, Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.00).

Richardson, O. H. Syllabus of Continental European History from the Fall of Rome to 1870 (Boston, 1904, Ginn, boards, 75 cents).

Stephenson, Andrew. Syllabus of Lectures on European History (Terre Haute, Ind., 1897, Inland Publishing Co., $1.50).

Thompson, J. W. Reference Studies in Medieval History (2d ed., Chicago, 1914, University of Chicago Press, $1.25). A rich collection of classified references.


An admirable collection of maps for school use is W. R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas (N. Y., 1911, Holt, $2.50), with about two hundred and fifty maps covering the historical field. The latest and one of the best of the classical atlases is Murray's Small Classical Atlas, edited by G. B. Grundy (N. Y., 1904, Oxford University Press, American Branch, $1.35). A special feature of this work is the adoption of the system of colored contours to indicate configuration. The Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography in "Everyman's Library" (N. Y., 1910, Dutton, 35 cents) might well be purchased by every student. Other valuable works are E. W. Dow, Atlas of European History (N. Y., 1907, Holt, $1.50) and Ramsay Muir, A New School Atlas of Modern History (N. Y., 1911, Holt, $1.25). Much use can be made of the inexpensive and handy Literary and Historical Atlas of Europe by J. G. Bartholomew in "Everyman's Library" (N. Y., 1910, Dutton, 35 cents).


Kiepert's New Wall Maps of Ancient History (Chicago, Rand, McNally, and Co.) and Johnston's Classical Series (Chicago, A. J. Nystrom and Co.) may be obtained singly, mounted on common rollers, or by sets in a case with spring rollers. The text is in Latin. The Spruner-Bretschneider Historical Maps are ten in number, size 62 x 52 inches, and cover the period from A.D. 350 to 1815. The text is in German (Chicago, Nystrom, each $6.00; Rand, McNally, and Co., each $6.50). Johnston's Maps of English and European History are sixteen in number, size 40 x 30 inches, and include four maps of ancient history (Chicago, Nystrom, each $2.50). A new series of European History Maps, thirty-nine in number, size 44 x 32 inches, has been prepared for the study of ancient history by Professors J. H. Breasted and C. F. Huth, and for medieval and modern history by Professor S. B. Harding (Chicago, Denoyer-Geppert Co., complete set with tripod stand, $52.00; in two spring roller cases, $73.00). These maps may also be had separately. The maps in this admirable series omit all irrelevant detail, present place names in the modern English form, and in choice of subject matter emphasize the American viewpoint. The school should also possess good physical wall maps such as the Sydow-Habenicht or the Kiepert series, both to be obtained from Rand, McNally, and Co. The text is in German. Phillips's Model Test Maps and Johnston's New Series of Physical Wall Maps are obtainable from A. J. Nystrom and Co. The only large charts available are those prepared by MacCoun for his Historical Geography Charts of Europe. The two sections, "Ancient and Classical" and "Medieval and Modern," are sold separately (N. Y., Silver, Burdett, and Co., $15.00). A helpful series of Blackboard Outline Maps is issued by J. L. Engle, Beaver, Penn. These are wall maps, printed with paint on blackboard cloth, for use with an ordinary crayon. Such maps are also sold by the Denoyer-Geppert Co., Chicago.


The "Studies" following each chapter of this book include various exercises for which small outline maps are required. Such maps are sold by D. C. Heath and Co., Boston, New York, Chicago. Useful atlases of outline maps are also to be had of the McKinley Publishing Co., Philadelphia, Atkinson, Mentzer and Grover, Chicago, W. B. Harison, New York City, and of other publishers.


The best photographs of ancient works of art must usually be obtained from the foreign publishers in Naples, Florence, Rome, Munich, Paris, Athens, and London, or from their American agents. Such photographs, in the usual size, 8 x 10 inches, sell, unmounted, at from 6 to 8 francs a dozen. All dealers in lantern slides issue descriptive catalogues of a great variety of archaeological subjects. In addition to photographs and lantern slides, a collection of stereoscopic views is very helpful in giving vividness and interest to instruction in ancient history. An admirable series of photographs for the stereoscope, including Egypt, Palestine, Greece, and Italy, is issued by Underwood and Underwood, New York City. The same firm supplies convenient maps and handbooks for use in this connection. The Keystone stereographs, prepared by the Keystone View Company, Meadville, Penn., may also be cordially recommended. The architecture, costumes, amusements, and occupations of the Middle Ages in England are shown in Longmans' Historical Illustrations (six portfolios, each containing twelve plates in black-and-white, Longmans, Green, and Co., 90 cents, each portfolio). The same firm issues Longmans' Historical Wall Pictures, consisting of twelve colored pictures from original paintings illustrating English history (each picture, separately, 80 cents; in a portfolio, $10.50). Other notable collections are Lehmann's Geographical Pictures, Historical Pictures, and Types of Nations, and Cybulski's Historical Pictures (Chicago, Denoyer-Geppert Co.; each picture separately mounted on rollers, $1.35 to $2.25). The New England History Teachers' Association publishes a series of Authentic Pictures for Class Room Use, size 5 x 8 inches, price 3 cents each. The Catalogue of the Collection of Historical Material at Simmons College, prepared by the New England History Teachers' Association (2d ed., Boston, 1912, Houghton Mifflin Co., 25 cents), contains an extensive list of pictures, slides, models, and other aids to history teaching. Among the more useful collections in book form of photographic reproductions and drawings are the following:

Fechneimer, Hedwig. Die Plastik der Aegypter (2d. ed., Berlin, 1914, B. Cassirer, 12 marks). 156 plates of Egyptian sculpture.

Fougeres, Gustvae. La vie publique et privee des Grecs et des Romains (2d ed., Paris, 1900, Hachette, 15 francs). An album of 85 pictures.

Furtwaengler, Adolf. Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture (N. Y., Scribner, $15.00).

Hekler, Anton. Greek and Roman Portraits (N. Y., 1913, Putnam, $7.50). 311 plates, with comment and bibliography.

Hill, G. F. Illustrations of School Classics (N. Y., 1903, Macmillan, $2.50).

Muzik, H., and Perschinka, F. Kunst und Leben im Altertum (Vienna, 1909, F. Tempsky; Leipzig, G. Freytag, 4.40 marks).

Osborne, Duffield. Engraved Gems (N. Y., 1913, Holt, $6.00).

Parmentier, A. Album historique (Paris, 1894-1905, Colin, 4 vols., each 15 francs). Illustrations covering the medieval and modern periods, with descriptive text in French.

Rheinhard, Hermann. Album des klassischen Altertums (Stuttgart, 1882, Hoffman, 18 marks). 72 pictures in colors.

Rouse, W. H. D. Atlas of Classical Portraits. Greek Section, Roman Section (London, 1898, Dent, 2 vols., each 1s. 6d.). Small, half-tone engravings, accompanied by brief biographies.

Schreiber, Theodor. Atlas of Classical Antiquities (N. Y., 1895, Macmillan, $6.50).


To vitalize the study of geography and history there is nothing better than the reading of modern books of travel. Among these may be mentioned:

Allinson, F. G. and Allinson, Anne C. E. Greek Lands and Letters (Boston, 1909, Houghton Mifflin Co., $2.50). An entertaining work of mingled history and geography.

Barrows, S. J. The Isles and Shrines of Greece (Boston, 1898, Little, Brown, and Co., $2.00).

Clark, F. E. The Holy Land of Asia Minor (N. Y., 1914, Scribner, $1.00). Popular sketches.

Dunning, H. W. To-day on the Nile (N. Y., 1905, Pott, $2.50).

——— To-day in Palestine (N. Y., 1907, Pott, $2.50).

Dwight, H. G. Constantinople, Old and New (N. Y., 1915, Scribner, $5.00).

Edwards, Amelia B. A Thousand Miles up the Nile (2d ed., N. Y., 1888, Dutton, $2.50).

Forman, H. J. The Ideal Italian Tour (Boston, 1911, Houghton Mifflin Co., $1.50). A brief and attractive volume covering all Italy.

Hay, John. Castilian Days (Boston, 1871, Houghton Mifflin Co., $1.25).

Hutton, Edward, Rome (N. Y., 1909, Macmillan, $2.00).

Jackson, A. V. W. Persia, Past and Present (N. Y., 1906, Macmillan, $4.00).

Lucas, E. V. A Wanderer in Florence (N. Y., 1912, Macmillan, $1.75).

Manatt, J. I. Aegean Days (Boston, 1913, Houghton Mifflin Co., $3.00). Describes the most important islands of the Aegean.

Marden, P. S. Greece and the Aegean Islands (Boston, 1907, Houghton Mifflin Co., $3.00).

Paton, W. A. Picturesque Sicily (2d ed., N. Y., 1902, Harper, $2.50).

Richardson, R. B. Vacation Days in Greece (N. Y., 1903, Scribner, $2.00).

Warner, C. D. In the Levant (N. Y., 1876, Harper, $2.00).


The following works of historical fiction comprise only a selection from a very large number of books suitable for supplementary reading. For extended bibliographies see E. A. Baker, A Guide to Historical Fiction (new ed., N. Y., 1914, Macmillan, $6.00) and Jonathan Nield, A Guide to the Best Historical Novels and Tales (3d ed., N. Y., 1904, Putnam, $1.75). An excellent list of historical stories, especially designed for children, will be found in the Bibliography of History for Schools and Libraries, parts viii-ix.

Bulwer-Lytton, Edward. The Last Days of Pompeii (Boston, 1834, Little, Brown, and Co., $1.25).

Champney, Elizabeth W. The Romance of Imperial Rome (N. Y., 1910, Putnam, $3.50).

Church, A. J. Roman Life in the Days of Cicero (N. Y., 1883, Macmillan, 50 cents).

——— Stories of Charlemagne and the Twelve Peers of France (N. Y., 1902, Macmillan, $1.75).

Cox, G. W. Tales of Ancient Greece (Chicago, 1868, McClurg, $1.00).

Dahn, Felix, Felicitas (Chicago, 1883, McClurg, 75 cents). Rome, 476 A.D.

Doyle, A. C. The White Company (Boston, 1890, Caldwell, 75 cents). The English in France and Castile, 1366-1367 A.D.

Ebers, Georg, Uarda (N. Y., 1877, Appleton, 2 vols., $1.50). Egypt, fourteenth century B.C.

Eliot, George. Romola (N. Y., 1863, Dutton, 35 cents). Florence and Savonarola in the latter part of the fifteenth century.

Fenelon, Francois. Adventures of Telemachus, translated by Dr. Hawkesworth (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., $2.25).

Hale, E. E. In His Name (Boston, 1873, Little, Brown, and Co., $1.00). The Waldenses about 1179 A.D.

Hardy, A. S. Passe Rose (Boston, 1889, Houghton Mifflin Co., $1.25). Franks and Saxons of Charlemagne's time.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter (N. Y., 1850, Dutton, 35 cents). Massachusetts in the seventeenth century.

Henty, G. A. The Young Carthaginian (N. Y., 1886, Scribner, $1.50). Second Punic War.

Hugo, Victor. Notre Dame (N. Y. 1831, Dutton, 35 cents). Paris, late fifteenth century.

Irving, Washington. The Alhambra (N. Y., 1832, Putnam, $1.00). Sketches of the Moors and Spaniards.

Jacobs, Joseph (editor). The Most Delectable History of Reynard the Fox (N. Y., 1895, Macmillan, $1.50).

Kingsley, Charles S. Hypatia (N. Y., 1853, Macmillan, $1.25). Alexandria, 391 A.D.

——— Westward Ho! (N. Y., 1855, Button, 35 Cents). Voyages of Elizabethan seamen and the struggle with Spain.

Kipling, Rudyard. Puck of Pooks Hill (N. Y., 1906, Doubleday, Page, and Co., $1.50). Roman occupation of Britain.

Lang, Andrew. The Monk of Fife (N. Y., 1895, Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.25). The Maid of Orleans and the Hundred Years' War.

Lane, E. W. (translator). The Arabian Nights' Entertainments (2d ed., N. Y., 1859, Macmillan, 35 cents).

London, Jack. Before Adam (N. Y., 1907, Macmillan, $1.50). Prehistoric life.

Manzoni, Alessandro. The Betrothed (N. Y., 1825, Macmillan, 2 vols., 70 cents). Milan under Spanish rule, 1628-1630 A.D.

Mason, Eugene (translator). Aucassin and Nicolette and other Medieval Romances, and Legends (N. Y., 1910, Dutton, 35 cents).

Newman, J. H. Callista (N. Y., 1856, Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.25). Persecution of Christians in North Africa, 250 A.D.

Reade, Charles. The Cloister and the Hearth (N. Y., 1861, Dutton, 35 cents). Eve of the Reformation.

Scheffel, J. Von. Ekkehard, translated by Helena Easson (N. Y., 1857, Dutton, 35 cents). Germany in the tenth century.

Scott, (Sir) Walter. The Talisman (N. Y., 1825, Dutton, 35 cents). Reign of Richard I, 1193 A.D.

——— Ivanhoe (N. Y., Heath, 50 cents). Richard I, 1194 A.D.

Sienkiewicz, Henryk. Quo Vadis? (Boston, 1896, Little, Brown, and Co., $2.00). Reign of Nero.

Stevenson, R. L. The Black Arrow (N. Y., 1888, Scribner, $1.00). War of the Roses.

"Twain, Mark." A Connecticut Yankee at the Court of King Arthur (N. Y., 1889, Harper, $1.75).

Wallace, Lew. Ben-Hur; a Tale of the Christ (N. Y., 1880, Harper, $1.50).

Waterloo, Stanley. The Story of Ab (2d ed., N. Y., 1905, Doubleday, Page, and Co., $1.50). Prehistoric life.


It is unnecessary to emphasize the value, as collateral reading, of historical poems and plays. To the brief list which follows should be added the material in Katharine Lee Bates and Katharine Coman, English History told by English Poets (N. Y., 1902, Macmillan, 60 cents).

Browning, Robert. Echetlos and Pheidippides.

Burns, Robert. The Battle of Bannockburn.

Byron (Lord). Song of Saul before His Last Battle, The Destruction of Sennacherib, Belshazzar's Feast, Prometheus, "Greece" (The Corsair, canto iii, lines 1-54), "Modern Greece" (Childe Harold, canto ii, stanzas 85-91), "The Death of Greece" (The Giaour, lines 68-141), "The Isles of Greece" (Don Juan, canto in), and "The Colosseum" (Childe Harold, canto iv, stanzas 140-145).

Clough, A. H. Columbus.

Coleridge, S. T. Kubla Khan.

Domett, Alfred. A Christmas Hymn

Drayton, Michael. The Battle of Agincourt.

Dryden, John. Alexander's Feast.

Jonson, Ben. Hymn to Diana.

Keats, John. Ode on a Grecian Urn.

Kingsley, Charles. Andromeda and The Red King.

Landor, W. S. Orpheus and Eurydice.

Longfellow, H. W. "The Saga of King Olaf" (Tales of a Wayside Inn) and The Skeleton in Armor.

Lowell, J. R. Rhoecus and The Shepherd of King Admetus.

Macaulay, T. B. Lays of Ancient Rome ("Horatius," "Virginia," "The Battle of Lake Regillus," and "The Prophecy of Capys"), The Armada, and The Battle of Ivry.

Miller, Joaquin. Columbus.

Milton, John. Ode on the Morning of Christ's Nativity.

Praed, W. M. Arminius.

Rossetti, D. G. The White Ship.

Schiller, Friedrich. The Maid of Orleans, William Tell, Maria Stuart, and Wallenstein.

Scott, (Sir) Walter. "Flodden Field" (Marmion, canto vi, stanzas 19-27, 33-35).

Shakespeare, William. Coriolanus, Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, King John, Richard the Second, Henry the Fourth, parts i and ii, Henry the Fifth, Henry the Sixth, parts i, ii, and iii, Richard the Third, Henry the Eighth, and The Merchant of Venice.

Shelley, P. B. To the Nile, Ozymandias, Hymn of Apollo, Arethusa, and Song of Proserpine.

Tennyson, Alfred. Ulysses, Oenone, The Death of Oenone, Demeter and Persephone, The Lotus-Eaters, Boadicea, St. Telemachus, St. Simeon Stylites, Sir Galahad, and The Revenge: a Ballad of the Fleet.

Thackeray, W. M. King Canute.

Wordsworth, William. Laodamia.


Full information regarding the best translations of the sources of ancient, medieval, and modern history is to be found in one of the Reports previously cited—Historical Sources in Schools, parts ii-iv. The use of the following collections of extracts from the sources will go far toward remedying the lack of library facilities.

Botsford, G. W., and Botsford, Lillie S. Source Book of Ancient History (N. Y., 1912, Macmillan, $1.30).

Davis, W. S. Readings in Ancient History (Boston, 1912, Allyn and Bacon, 2 vols., $2.00).

Duncalf, Frederic, and Krey, A. C. Parallel Source Problems in Medieval History (N. Y., 1912, Harper, $1.10).

Fling, F. M. A Source Book of Greek History (N. Y., 1907, Heath, $1.12).

Munro, D. C. A Source Book of Roman History (N. Y., 1904, Heath, $1.12).

Ogg, F. A. A Source Book of Medieval History (N. Y., 1907, American Book Co., $1.50).

Robinson, J. H. Readings in European History (Abridged ed., Boston, 1906, Ginn, $1.50).

Thallon, Ida C. Readings in Greek History (Boston, 1914, Ginn, $2.00).

Thatcher, O. J., and McNeal, E. H. A Source Book for Medieval History (N. Y., 1905, Scribner, $1.85).

Webster, Hutton. Readings in Ancient History (N. Y., 1913, Heath, $1.12).

——— Readings in Medieval and Modern History (N. Y., 1917, Heath, $1.12).

Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History (N. Y., 1894-1899, Longmans, Green, and Co., 6 vols., each $1.50).


Most of the books in the following list are inexpensive, easily procured, and well adapted in style and choice of topics to the needs of immature pupils. A few more elaborate and costly volumes, especially valuable for their illustrations, are indicated by an asterisk (*). For detailed bibliographies, often accompanied by critical estimates, see C. K. Adams, A Manual of Historical Literature (3d ed., N. Y., 1889, Harper, $2.50), and the Bibliography of History for Schools and Libraries, parts iii-v.


Carlyle, Thomas. On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History (N. Y., 1840, Dutton, 35 cents).

Creasy, E. S. The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World from Marathon to Waterloo (N. Y., 1854, Dutton, 35 cents).

Gibbins, H. De B. The History of Commerce in Europe (26. ed., N. Y., 1897, Macmillan, 90 cents).

Herbertson, A. J., and Herbertson, F. D. Man and His Work (3d ed., N. Y., 1914, Macmillan, 60 cents). An introduction to the study of human geography.

Jacobs, Joseph. The Story of Geographical Discovery (N. Y., 1898, Appleton, 35 cents).

Jenks, Edward. A History of Politics (N. Y., 1900, Dutton, 35 cents). A very illuminating essay.

Keane, John. The Evolution of Geography (London, 1899, Stanford, 6s.). Helpfully illustrated.

Myres, J. L. The Dawn of History (N. Y., 1912, Holt, 50 cents).

Pattison, R. P. B. Leading Figures in European History (N. Y., 1912, Macmillan, $1.60). Biographical sketches of European statesmen from Charlemagne to Bismarck.

Reinach, Salomon. Apollo; an Illustrated Manual of the History of Art throughout the Ages, translated by Florence Simmonds (last ed., N. Y., 1914, Scribner, $1.50). The best brief work on the subject.

Seignobos, Charles. History of Ancient Civilization, edited by J. A. James (N. Y., 1906, Scribner, $1.25).

——— History of Medieval and of Modern Civilization, edited by J. A. James (N. Y., 1907, Scribner, $1.25).


Clodd, Edward. The Story of Primitive Man (N Y., 1895, Appleton, 35 cents). Generally accurate and always interesting.

——— The Childhood of the World (2d ed., N. Y., 1914, Macmillan, $1.25).

Elliott, G. F. S. Prehistoric Man and His Story (Philadelphia, 1915, Lippincott, $2.00).

Holbrook, Florence. Cave, Mound, and Lake Dwellers (N. Y., 1911, Heath, 44 cents).

Mason, O. T, Woman's Share in Primitive Culture (N. Y., 1900, D. Appleton, $1.75). The only work on the subject; by a competent anthropologist.

* Osborn, H. F. Men of the Old Stone Age (N. Y., 1915 Scribners, $5.00). An authoritative, interesting, and amply illustrated work.

* Spearing, H. G. The Childhood of Art (N. Y., 1913, Putnam, $6.00). Deals with primitive and Greek art; richly illustrated.

Starr, Frederick. Some First Steps in Human Progress (Chautauqua, N. Y., 1895, Chautauqua Press, $1.00). A popular introduction to anthropology.

Tylor, (Sir) E. B. Anthropology (N. Y., 1881, Appleton, $2.00). Incorporates the results of the author's extensive studies and still remains the best introduction to the entire field.


Baikie, James. The Story of the Pharaohs (N. Y., 1908, Macmillan, $2.00). A popular work; well illustrated.

* Ball, C. J. Light from the East (London, 1899, Eyre and Spottiswoode, 15s.). An account of Oriental archaeology, with special reference to the Old Testament.

Banks, E. G. The Bible and the Spade (N. Y., 1913, Association Press, $1.00). A popular presentation of Oriental archaeology.

* Breasted, J. H. A History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest (2d ed., N. Y., 1909, Scribner, $5.00). The standard work on Egyptian history.

Clay, A. T. Light on the East from Babel (4th ed., Philadelphia, 1915, Sunday School Times Co., $2.00).

* Erman, Asolf. Life in Ancient Egypt (N. Y., 1894, Macmillan, $6.00).

* Handcock, P. S. P. Mesopotamian Archaeology (N. Y. 1912, Putnam, $3.50).

Hogarth, D. G. The Ancient East (N. Y., 1915, Holt, 50 cents). "Home University Library."

* Jastrow, Morris, Jr. The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria (Philadelphia, 1915, Lippincott, $6.00). A finely illustrated work by a great scholar.

Macalister, R. A. S. A History of Civilization in Palestine (N. Y., 1912, Putnam, 35 cents). "Cambridge Manuals."

Maspero, (Sir) Gaston. Life in Ancient Egypt and Assyria (N.Y., 1892, Appleton, $1.50). Fascinating and authoritative.

Ragozin, Zenaide A. Earliest Peoples (N. Y., 1899, Harison, 60 cents). A well-written, fully-illustrated account of prehistoric man and the beginnings of history in Babylonia.

——— Early Egypt (N. Y., 1900, Harison, 60 cents).


Abbott, Evelyn. Pericles and the Golden Age of Athens (N. Y., 1891, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

Baikie, James. The Sea-Kings of Crete (2d ed., N. Y., 1912, Macmillan, $1.75). A clear and vivid summary of Cretan archaeology.

Bluemner, Hugo. The Home Life of the Ancient Greeks, translated by Alice Zimmern (3d ed., N. Y., 1910, Funk and Wagnalls Co., $2.00).

Bulley, Margaret H. Ancient and Medieval Art (N. Y., 1914, Macmillan, $1.75). An elementary treatment, particularly designed for schools.

Church, A. J., and Gilman, Arthur. The Story of Carthage (N. Y., 1886, Putnam, $1.50). "Story of the Nations"

Davis, W. S. The Influence of Wealth in Imperial Rome (N. Y., 1910, Macmillan, $2.00). An interesting treatment of an important theme.

——— A Day in Old Athens (Boston, 1914, Allyn and Bacon, $1.00).

——— An Outline History of the Roman Empire (N. Y., 1909, Macmillan, 65 cents). Covers the period 44 B.C.-378 A.D.

* Dennie, John. Rome of To-day and Yesterday; the Pagan City (5th ed., N. Y., 1909, Putnam, $3.50).

Fowler, W. W. Rome (N. Y., 1912, Holt, 50 cents).

——— The City-State of the Greeks and Romans (N. Y., 1893, Macmillan, $1.00). The only constitutional history of the classical peoples intelligible to elementary students.

——— Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero (N. Y., 1909, Macmillan, 50 cents). In every way admirable.

——— Julius Caesar and the Foundation of the Roman Imperial System (2d ed., N. Y., 1897, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

* Gardner, E. A. Ancient Athens (N. Y., 1902, Macmillan, $3.50).

Gayley, C. M. The Classic Myths in English Literature and in Art (2d ed., Boston, 1911, Ginn, $1.60). Of special importance for the illustrations.

Goodyear, W. H. Roman and Medieval Art (2d ed., N. Y., 1897, Macmillan, $1.00).

Grant, A. J. Greece in the Age of Pericles (N. Y., 1893, Scribner, $1.25).

Gulick, C. B. The Life of the Ancient Greeks (N. Y., 1902, Appleton, $1.40).

* Hall, H. R. Aegean Archeology (N. Y., 1915, Putnam, $3.75). A well- written and well-illustrated volume.

Hawes, C. H., and Hawes, HARRIET B. Crete, the Forerunner of Greece (N. Y., 1909, Harper, 75 cents).

How, W. W. Hannibal and the Great War between Rome and Carthage (London, 1899, Seeley, 2s.).

Jones, H. S. The Roman Empire, B.C. 29-A.D. 476 (N. Y., 1908, Putnam, $1.50). "Story of the Nations."

* Lanciani, Rudolfo. The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome (Boston, 1898, Houghton Mifflin Co., $4.00).

Mahaffy, J. P. Old Greek Life (N. Y., 1876, American Book Co., 35 cents).

——— What have the Greeks done for Modern Civilization? (N. Y., 1909, Putnam, $1.50).

Mahaffy, J. P., and Gilman, Arthur. The Story of Alexander's Empire (N. Y., 1887, Putnam, $1.50). The only concise narrative of the Hellenistic period.

* Mau, August. Pompeii: its Life and Art, translated by F. W. Kelsey (N. Y., 1899, Macmillan, $2.50).

Morris, W. O'C. Hannibal and the Crisis of the Struggle between Carthage and Rome (N. Y., 1897, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

Oman, Charles. Seven Roman Statesmen of the Later Republic (N. Y., 1902, Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.60). A biographical presentation of Roman history.

Pellison, Maurice. Roman Life in Pliny's Time, translated by Maud Wilkinson (Philadelphia, 1897, Jacobs, $1.00).

Pickard-Cambridge, A. W. Demosthenes and the Last Days of Greek Freedom (N. Y., 1914, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

Powers, H. H. The Message of Greek Art (N. Y., 1913, Macmillan, 50 cents).

Preston, Harriet W., and Dodge, Louise. The Private Life of the Romans (N. Y., 1893, Sanborn, $1.05).

Robinson, C. E. The Days of Alcibiades (N. Y., 1916, Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.50), A picture of Greek life and culture in the Age of Pericles.

* Seymour, T. D. Life in the Homeric Age (N. Y., 1907, Macmillan, $4.00).

* Stobart, J. C. The Glory that was Greece: a Survey of Hellenic Culture and Civilization (Philadelphia, 1911, Lippincott, $7.50).

——— The Grandeur that was Rome: a Survey of Roman Culture and Civilization (Philadelphia, 1912, Lippincott, $7.50).

Strachan-Davidson, J. S. Cicero and the Fall of the Roman Republic (N. Y., 1894, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

Tarbell, F. B. A History of Greek Art (2d ed., N. Y., 1905, Macmillan, $1.00).

Tozer, H. F. Classical Geography (N. Y., 1883, American Book Co., 35 cents). A standard manual.

Tucker, T. G. Life in Ancient Athens (N. Y., 1906, Macmillan, $1.25). The most attractive treatment of the subject.

——— Life in the Roman World of Nero and St. Paul (N. Y., 1910, Macmillan, $2.50).

* Walters, H. B. The Art of the Greeks (N. Y., 1900, Macmillan, $6.00).

* ——— The Art of the Romans (N. Y., 1911, Macmillan, $5.00).

* Weller, C. H. Athens and its Monuments (N. Y., 1913, Macmillan, $4.00).

Wheeler, B.I. Alexander the Great and the Merging of East and West into Universal History (N. Y., 1900, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

Wilkins, A. S. Roman Antiquities (N. Y., 1884, American Book Co., 35 cents).


Adams, G. B. The Growth of the French Nation (N. Y., 1896, Macmillan, $1.25). The best short history of France.

Archer, T. A., and Kingsford, C. L. The Crusades (N. Y., 1894, Putnam, $1.50).

Baring-Gould, Sabine. Curious Myths of the Middle Ages (N. Y., 1869, Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.25).

Bateson, Mary. Medieval England (N. Y., 1903, Putnam, $1.50). Deals with social and economic life. "Story of the Nations."

Cheyney, E. P. An Introduction to the Industrial and Social History of England (N. Y., 1901, Macmillan, $1.40). The best brief work on the subject.

Church, R. W. The Beginning of the Middle Ages (N. Y., 1877, Scribner, $1.00).

Cutts, E. L. Scenes and Characters of the Middle Ages (London, 1872, De La More Press, 7s. 6d.). An almost indispensable book; illustrated.

Davis, H. W. C. Medieval Europe (N. Y., 1911, Holt, 50 cents).

——— Charlemagne, the Hero of Two Nations (N. Y., 1899, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

Emerton, Ephraim. An Introduction to the Study of the Middle Ages (Boston, 1888, Ginn, $1.10). The most satisfactory short account, and of special value to beginners.

Foord, Edward. The Byzantine Empire (N. Y., 1911, Macmillan, $2.00). The most convenient short treatment; lavishly illustrated.

* Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, edited by J. B. Bury (N. Y., 1914, Macmillan, 7 vols., $25.00). The best edition, illustrated and provided with maps, of this standard work.

* Green, J. R. Short History of the English People, edited by Mrs. J. R. Green and Miss Kate Norgate (N. Y., 1893-1895, Harper, 4 vols., $20.00). A beautifully illustrated edition of this standard work.

Guerber, H. A. Legends of the Middle Ages (N. Y., 1896, American Book Co., $1.50).

Haskins, C. H. The Normans in European History (Boston, 1915, Houghton Mifflin Co., $2.00).

Hodgkin, Thomas. The Dynasty of Theodosius (N. Y., 1899, Oxford University Press, American Branch, $1.50). Popular lectures summarizing the author's extensive studies.

Jessopp, Augustus. The Coming of the Friars, and Other Historic Essays (N. Y., 1888, Putnam, $1.25). A book of great interest.

* Lacroix, Paul. Science and Literature in the Middle Ages and at the Period of the Renaissance (London, 1880, Bickers and Son, out of print).

Lawrence, W. W. Medieval Story (N. Y., 1911, Columbia University Press, $i.50). Discusses the great literary productions of the Middle Ages.

Mawer, Allen. The Vikings (N. Y, 1913, Putnam, 35 cents).

Munro, D. C., and Sellery, G. C Medieval Civilization (2d ed., N. Y., 1907, Century Co., $2.00). Translated selections from standard works by French and German scholars.

Rait, R. S. Life in the Medieval University (N. Y., 1912, Putnam, 35 cents). "Cambridge Manuals."

Synge, M. B. A Short History of Social Life in England (N. Y., 1906, Barnes, $1.50).

Tappan, Eva M. When Knights were Bold (Boston, 1912, Houghton Mifflin Co., $2.00). An economic and social study of the Feudal Age; charmingly written.

Tickner, F. W. A Social and Industrial History of England (N. Y., 1915, Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.00). Very simply written and well illustrated.

* Wright, Thomas. The Homes of Other Days (London, 1871, Truebner, out of print). Valuable for both text and illustrations.


Cheyney, E. P. European Background of American History, 1300-1600 (N. Y., 1904, Harper, $2.00).

Creighton, Mandell. The Age of Elizabeth (13th ed., N. Y., 1897, Scribner, $ 1.00). "Epochs of Modern History."

Fiske, John. The Discovery and Colonization of North America (Boston, 1905, Ginn, 90 cents).

Gardiner, S. R. The Thirty Years' War (N. Y., 1874, Scribner, $1.00).

Goodyear, W. H. Renaissance and Modern Art (N. Y., 1894, Macmillan, $1.00).

Hudson, W. H. The Story of the Renaissance (N. Y., 1912, Cassell, $1.50). A well-written volume.

Hulme, E. M. The Renaissance, the Protestant Revolution, and the Catholic Reformation in Continental Europe (rev. ed., N. Y., 1915, Century Co., $2.50). The best work on the subject by an American scholar.

* Joyce, T. A. Mexican Archaeology (N. Y., 1914, Putnam, $4.00).

——— South American Archaeology (N. Y., 1912, Putnam, $3.50).

Kerr, P. H., and Kerr, A. C. The Growth of the British Empire (N. Y., 1911, Longmans, Green, and Co., 50 cents).

Oldham, J. B. The Renaissance (N. Y., 1912, Dutton, 35 cents).

Seebohm, Frederic. The Era of the Protestant Revolution (N. Y., 1875, Scribner, $1.00). "Epochs of Modern History."





History is the narrative of what civilized man has done. It deals with those social groups called states and nations. Just as biography describes the life of individuals, so history relates the rise, progress, and decline of human societies.


History cannot go back of written records. These alone will preserve a full and accurate account of man's achievements. Manuscripts and books form one class of written records. The old Babylonians used tablets of soft clay, on which signs were impressed with a metal instrument. The tablets were then baked hard in an oven. The Egyptians made a kind of paper out of the papyrus, a plant native to the Nile valley. The Greeks and Romans at first used papyrus, but later they employed the more lasting parchment prepared from sheepskin. Paper seems to have been a Chinese invention. It was introduced into Europe by the Arabs during the twelfth century of our era.


A second class of written records consists of inscriptions. These are usually cut in stone, but sometimes we find them painted over the surface of a wall, stamped on coins, or impressed upon metal tablets. The historian also makes use of remains, such as statues, ornaments, weapons, tools, and utensils. Monuments of various sorts, including palaces, tombs, fortresses, bridges, temples, and churches, form a very important class of remains.


History, based on written records, begins in different countries at varying dates. A few manuscripts and inscriptions found in Egypt date back three or four thousand years before Christ. The annals of Babylonia are scarcely less ancient. Trustworthy records in China and India do not extend beyond 1000 B.C. For the Greeks and Romans the commencement of the historic period must be placed about 750 B.C. The inhabitants of northern Europe did not come into the light of history until about the opening of the Christian era.



In studying the historic period our chief concern is with those peoples whose ideas or whose deeds have aided human progress and the spread of civilization. Six-sevenths of the earth's inhabitants now belong to civilized countries, and these countries include the best and largest regions of the globe. At the beginning of historic times, however, civilization was confined within a narrow area—the river valleys of western Asia and Egypt. The uncounted centuries before the dawn of history make up the prehistoric period, when savagery and barbarism prevailed throughout the world. Our knowledge of it is derived from the examination of the objects found in caves, refuse mounds, graves, and other sites. Various European countries, including England, France, Denmark, Switzerland, and Italy, are particularly rich in prehistoric remains.


The prehistoric period is commonly divided, according to the character of the materials used for tools and weapons, into the Age of Stone and the Age of Metals. The one is the age of savagery; the other is the age of barbarism or semicivilization.


Man's earliest implements were those that lay ready to his hand. A branch from a tree served as a spear; a thick stick in his strong arms became a powerful club. Later, perhaps, came the use of a hard stone such as flint, which could be chipped into the forms of arrowheads, axes, and spear tips. The first stone implements were so rude in shape that it is difficult to believe them of human workmanship. They may have been made several hundred thousand years ago. After countless centuries of slow advance, savages learned to fasten wooden handles to their stone tools and weapons and also to use such materials as jade and granite, which could be ground and polished into a variety of forms. Stone implements continued to be made during the greater part of the prehistoric period. Every region of the world has had a Stone Age. [1] Its length is reckoned, not by centuries, but by milleniums.


The Age of Metals, compared with its predecessor, covers a brief expanse of time. The use of metals came in not much before the dawn of history. The earliest civilized peoples, the Babylonians and Egyptians, when we first become acquainted with them, appear to be passing from the use of stone implements to those of metal.


Copper was the first metal in common use. The credit for the invention of copper tools seems to belong to the Egyptians. At a very early date they were working the copper mines on the peninsula of Sinai. The Babylonians probably obtained their copper from the same region. Another source of this metal was the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean. The Greek name of the island means "copper."


But copper tools were soft and would not keep an edge. Some ancient smith, more ingenious than his fellows, discovered that the addition of a small part of tin to the copper produced a new metal—bronze—harder than the old, yet capable of being molded into a variety of forms. At least as early as 3000 B.C. we find bronze taking the place of copper in both Egypt and Babylonia. Somewhat later bronze was introduced into the island of Crete, then along the eastern coast of Greece, and afterwards into other European countries.


The introduction of iron occurred in comparatively recent times. At first it was a scarce, and therefore a very precious, metal. The Egyptians seem to have made little use of iron before 1500 B.C. They called it "the metal of heaven," as if they obtained it from meteorites. In the Greek Homeric poems, composed about 900 B.C. or later, we find iron considered so valuable that a lump of it is one of the chief prizes at athletic games. In the first five books of the Bible iron is mentioned only thirteen times, though copper and bronze are referred to forty-four times. Iron is more difficult to work than either copper or bronze, but it is vastly superior to those metals in hardness and durability. Hence it gradually displaced them throughout the greater part of the Old World. [2]


During the prehistoric period early man came to be widely scattered throughout the world. Here and there, slowly, and with utmost difficulty, he began to take the first steps toward civilization. The tools and weapons which he left behind him afford some evidence of his advance. We may now single out some of his other great achievements and follow their development to the dawn of history.



Prehistoric man lived at first chiefly on wild berries, nuts, roots, and herbs. As his implements improved and his skill increased, he became hunter, trapper, and fisher. A tribe of hunters, however, requires an extensive territory and a constant supply of game. When the wild animals are all killed or seriously reduced in number, privation and hardship result. It was a forward step, therefore, when man began to tame animals as well as to kill them.


The dog was man's first conquest over the animal kingdom. As early as the Age of Metals various breeds appear, such as deerhounds, sheep dogs, and mastiffs. The dog soon showed how useful he could be. He tracked game, guarded the camp, and later, in the pastoral stage, protected flocks and herds against their enemies.


The cow also was domesticated at a remote period. No other animal has been more useful to mankind. The cow's flesh and milk supply food: the skin provides clothing; the sinews, bones, and horns yield materials for implements. The ox was early trained to bear the yoke and draw the plow, as we may learn from ancient Egyptian paintings. [3] Cattle have also been commonly used as a kind of money. The early Greeks, whose wealth consisted chiefly of their herds, priced a slave at twenty oxen, a suit of armor at one hundred oxen, and so on. The early Romans reckoned values in cattle (one ox being equivalent to ten sheep). Our English word "pecuniary" goes back to the Latin pecus, or "herd" of cattle.


The domestication of the horse came much later than that of the cow. In the early Stone Age the horse ran wild over western Europe and formed an important source of food for primitive men. This prehistoric horse, as some ancient drawings show, [4] was a small animal with a shaggy mane and tail. It resembled the wild pony still found on the steppes of Mongolia. The domesticated horse does not appear in Egypt and western Asia much before 1500 B.C. For a long time after the horse was tamed, the more manageable ox continued to be used as the beast of burden. The horse was kept for chariots of war, as among the Egyptians, or ridden bareback in races, as by the early Greeks.


At the close of prehistoric times in the Old World nearly all the domestic animals of to-day were known. Besides those just mentioned, the goat, sheep, ass, and hog had become man's useful servants. [5]


The domestication of animals made possible an advance from the hunting and fishing stage to the pastoral stage. Herds of cattle and sheep would now furnish more certain and abundant supplies of food than the chase could ever yield. We find in some parts of the world, as on the great Asiatic plains, the herdsman succeeding the hunter and fisher. But even in this stage much land for grazing is required. With the exhaustion of the pasturage the sheep or cattle must be driven to new fields. Hence pastoral peoples, as well as hunting and fishing folk, remained nomads without fixed homes. Before permanent settlements were possible, another onward step became necessary. This was the domestication of plants.


The domestication of plants marked almost as wonderful an advance as the domestication of animals. When wild seedgrasses and plants had been transformed into the great cereals—wheat, oats, barley, and rice—people could raise them for food, and so could pass from the life of wandering hunters or shepherds to the life of settled farmers. There is evidence that during the Stone Age some of the inhabitants of Europe were familiar with various cultivated plants, but agriculture on a large scale seems to have begun in the fertile regions of Egypt and western Asia. [6] Here first arose populous communities with leisure to develop the arts of life. Here, as has been already seen, [7] we must look for the beginnings of history.



Though history is always based on written records, the first steps toward writing are prehistoric. We start with the pictures or rough drawings which have been found among the remains of the early Stone Age. [8] Primitive man, however, could not rest satisfied with portraying objects.

He wanted to record thoughts and actions, and so his pictures tended to become symbols of ideas. The figure of an arrow might be made to represent, not a real object, but the idea of an "enemy." A "fight" could then be shown simply by drawing two arrows directed against each other. Many uncivilized tribes still employ picture writing of this sort. The American Indians developed it in most elaborate fashion. On rolls of birch bark or the skins of animals they wrote messages, hunting stories, and songs, and even preserved tribal annals extending over a century.


A new stage in the development of writing was reached when the picture represented, not an actual object or an idea, but a sound of the human voice. This difficult but all-important step appears to have been taken through the use of the rebus, that is, writing words by pictures of objects which stand for sounds. Such rebuses are found in prehistoric Egyptian writing; for example, the Egyptian words for "sun" and "goose" were so nearly alike that the royal title, "Son of the Sun," could be suggested by grouping the pictures of the sun and a goose. Rebus making is still a common game among children, but to primitive men it must have been a serious occupation.


In the simplest form of sound writing each separate picture or symbol stands for the sound of an entire word. This method was employed by the Chinese, who have never given it up. A more developed form of sound writing occurs when signs are used for the sounds, not of entire words, but of separate syllables. Since the number of different syllables which the voice can utter is limited, it now becomes possible to write all the words of a language with a few hundred signs. The Japanese, who borrowed some of the Chinese symbols, used them to denote syllables, instead of entire words. The Babylonians possessed, in their cuneiform [9] characters, signs for about five hundred syllables. The prehistoric inhabitants of Crete appear to have been acquainted with a somewhat similar system. [10]


The final step in the development of writing is taken when the separate sounds of the voice are analyzed and each is represented by a single sign or letter. With alphabets of a few score letters every word in a language may easily be written.


The Egyptians early developed such an alphabet. Unfortunately they never gave up their older methods of writing and learned to rely upon alphabetic signs alone. Egyptian hieroglyphics [11] are a curious jumble of object- pictures, symbols of ideas, and signs for entire words, separate syllables, and letters. The writing is a museum of all the steps in the development from the picture to the letter.


As early, apparently, as the tenth century B.C. we find the Phoenicians of western Asia in possession of an alphabet. It consisted of twenty-two letters, each representing a consonant. The Phoenicians do not seem to have invented their alphabetic signs. It is generally believed that they borrowed them from the Egyptians, but recent discoveries in Crete perhaps point to that island as the source of the Phoenician alphabet.


If they did not originate the alphabet now in use, the Phoenicians did most to spread a knowledge of it in other lands. They were bold sailors and traders who bought and sold throughout the Mediterranean. Wherever they went, they took their alphabet. From the Phoenicians the Greeks learned their letters. Then the Greeks taught them to the Romans, from whom other European peoples borrowed them. [12]



We have already seen that prehistoric men in their struggle for existence had gathered an extensive fund of information. They could make useful and artistic implements of stone. They could work many metals into a variety of tools and weapons. They were practical botanists, able to distinguish different plants and to cultivate them for food. They were close students of animal life and expert hunters and fishers. They knew how to produce fire and preserve it, how to cook, how to fashion pottery and baskets, how to spin and weave, how to build boats and houses. After writing came into general use, all this knowledge served as the foundation of science.


We can still distinguish some of the first steps in scientific knowledge. Thus, counting began with calculations on one's fingers, a method still familiar to children. Finger counting explains the origin of the decimal system. The simplest, and probably the earliest, measures of length are those based on various parts of the body. Some of our Indian tribes, for instance, employed the double arm's length, the single arm's length, the hand width, and the finger width. Old English standards, such as the span, the ell, and the hand, go back to this very obvious method of measuring on the body.


It is interesting to trace the beginnings of time reckoning and of that most important institution, the calendar. Most primitive tribes reckon time by the lunar month, the interval between two new moons (about twenty- nine days, twelve hours). Twelve lunar months give us the lunar year of about three hundred and fifty-four days. In order to adapt such a year to the different seasons, the practice arose of inserting a thirteenth month from time to time. Such awkward calendars were used in antiquity by the Babylonians, Jews, and Greeks; in modern times by the Arabs and Chinese. The Egyptians were the only people in the Old World to frame a solar year. From the Egyptians it has come down, through the Romans, to us. [13]


The study of prehistoric art takes us back to the early Stone Age. The men of that age in western Europe lived among animals such as the mammoth, cave bear, and woolly-haired rhinoceros, which have since disappeared, and among many others, such as the lion and hippopotamus, which now exist only in warmer climates. Armed with clubs, flint axes, and horn daggers, primitive hunters killed these fierce beasts and on fragments of their bones, or on cavern walls, drew pictures of them. Some of these earliest works of art are remarkably lifelike.


A still later period of the Stone Age witnessed the beginnings of architecture. Men had begun to raise huge dolmens which are found in various parts of the Old World from England to India. They also erected enormous stone pillars, known as menhirs. Carved in the semblance of a human face and figure, the menhir became a statue, perhaps the first ever made.

As we approach historic times, we note a steady improvement in the various forms of art. Recent discoveries in Egypt, Greece, Italy, and other lands indicate that their early inhabitants were able architects, often building on a colossal scale.


Their paintings and sculptures prepared the way for the work of later artists. Our survey of the origins of art shows us that in this field, as elsewhere, we must start with the things accomplished by prehistoric men.



At the dawn of history the various regions of the world were already in the possession of many different peoples. Such physical characteristics as the shape of the skull, the features, stature, or complexion may serve to distinguish one people from another. Other grounds for distinction are found in language, customs beliefs, and general intelligence.


If we take complexion or color as the basis of classification, it is possible to distinguish a few large racial groups. Each of these groups occupies, roughly speaking, its separate area of the globe. The most familiar classification is that which recognizes the Black or Negro race dwelling in Africa, the Yellow or Mongolian race whose home is in central and eastern Asia, and the White or Caucasian race of western Asia and Europe. Sometimes two additional divisions are made by including, as the Red race, the American Indians, and as the Brown race, the natives of the Pacific islands.


These separate racial groups have made very unequal progress in culture. The peoples belonging to the Black, Red, and Brown races are still either savages or barbarians, as were the men of prehistoric times. The Chinese and Japanese are the only representatives of the Yellow race that have been able to form civilized states. In the present, as in the past, it is chiefly the members of the White race who are developing civilization and making history.


Because of differences in language, scholars have divided the White or Caucasian race into two main groups, called Indo-Europeans and Semites. [14] This classification is often helpful, but the student should remember that Indo-European and Semitic peoples are not always to be sharply distinguished because they have different types of language. There is no very clear distinction in physical characteristics between the two groups. A clear skin, an oval face, wavy or curly hair, and regular features separate them from both the Negro and the Mongolian.


The Indo-Europeans in antiquity included the Hindus of India, the Medes and Persians dwelling on the plateau of Iran, the Greeks and Italians, and most of the inhabitants of central and western Europe. All these peoples spoke related languages which are believed to be offshoots from one common tongue. Likeness in language does not imply that all Indo-Europeans were closely related in blood. Men often adopt a foreign tongue and pass it on to their children.


The various Semitic nations dwelling in western Asia and Arabia were more closely connected with one another. They spoke much the same type of language, and in physical traits and habits of life they appear to have been akin. The Semites in antiquity included the Babylonians and Assyrians, the Hebrews, Phoenicians, and Arabs.


At the opening of the historic period still other parts of the World were the homes of various peoples who cannot be classed with certainty as either Indo-Europeans or Semites. Among these were the Egyptians and some of the inhabitants of Asia Minor. We must remember that, during the long prehistoric ages, repeated conquests and migrations mingled the blood of many different communities. History, in fact, deals with no unmixed peoples.


1. On an outline map indicate the areas occupied in antiquity by Semites and Indo-Europeans.

2. Find definitions for the following terms: society, nation, state, government, institution, culture, and civilization.

3. Explain the abbreviations B.C. and A.D. In what century was the year 1917 B.C.? the year 1917 A.D.?

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