Earths In Our Solar System Which Are Called Planets, and Earths In The Starry Heaven Their Inhabitants, And The Spirits And Angels There
by Emanuel Swedenborg
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The issues of this volume in a demy 8vo edition by the Swedenborg Society have been:—

First Edition 1860 Second Edition 1875 Third Edition 1894 Reprinted 1909 " 1931 " 1940 " 1962

For other editions, see "A Bibliography of the Works of Emanuel Swedenborg" (JAMES HYDE).

Printed in Great Britain by Morrison & Gibb Ltd., London and Edinburgh

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THE MOON, 111, 112











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1. Inasmuch as, by the Divine mercy of the Lord, the interiors which are of my spirit have been opened in me, and it has thereby been given me to speak with spirits and angels, not only with those who are near our Earth, but also with those who are near other earths; and since I had an ardent desire to know whether there were other earths, and to know their character and the character of their inhabitants; it has been granted me by the Lord to speak and have intercourse with spirits and angels who are from other earths, with some for a day, with some for a week, with some for months; and to be instructed by them respecting the earths from and near which they were, and concerning the life, customs, and worship of their inhabitants, besides various other things there that are worthy of note. And since it has been given me to become acquainted with these matters in this way, it is permitted me to describe them from the things which I have heard and seen. It is necessary that it be known that all spirits and angels are from the human race[a], and that they are near their own earths[b], and are acquainted with what is upon them; and that a man may be instructed by them, if his interiors are so far opened as to enable him to speak and be in company with them: for man in his essence is a spirit[c], and is in company with spirits as to his interiors[d]; wherefore he whose interiors are opened by the Lord, is able to speak with them, as man with man[e]. It has now been granted me to enjoy this privilege daily for twelve years.

[Footnote: From the ARCANA COELESTIA: in which work these and subsequent articles, which are inserted below the line, are explained and shown.]

[Footnote a: There are no spirits and angels who are not from the human race, no. 1880.]

[Footnote b: The spirits of every earth are near their own earth, because they are of its inhabitants, and of a similar genius; and they are meant to be of service to them, no. 9968.]

[Footnote c: The soul, which lives after death, is the spirit of man, which in a man is the man himself, and also appears in the other life in a perfect human form, nos. 322, 1880, 1881, 3633, 4622, 4735, 6054, 6605, 6626, 7021, 10594.]

[Footnote d: Man, even during his abode in the world, is, as to his interiors, consequently as to his spirit or soul, in the midst of spirits and angels who are of such a character as he himself is, nos. 2379, 3645, 4067, 4073, 4077.]

[Footnote e: Man is capable of speaking with spirits and angels, and the ancients on our Earth frequently spoke with them, nos. 67, 68, 69, 784, 1634, 1636, 7802. But at the present day it is dangerous for man to speak with them, unless he be in a true faith, and be led by the Lord, nos. 784, 9438, 10751.]

2. That there are many earths, and men upon them, and spirits and angels from them, is very well known in the other life; for in that life, every one who from a love of the truth and consequent use desires it, is allowed to speak with the spirits of other earths, so as to be convinced that there is a plurality of worlds, and informed that the human race is not from one earth only, but from numberless earths; and so as to be informed, besides, of what genius and life they are, and of what character their Divine worship is.

3. I have sometimes spoken on this subject with the spirits of our Earth, and it was said that a man of sound understanding may conclude, from many things which he knows, that there are more earths than one, and that there are human beings upon them. For it is an inference of reason, that such huge bodies as the planets are, some of which exceed this Earth in magnitude, are not empty bodies, created only to be carried and to rotate around the sun, and to shine with their scanty light (lumen) for the benefit of one earth only; but that they must needs have a nobler use than this. He who believes, as every one ought to believe, that the Divine created the universe for no other end than the existence of the human race, and of a heaven from it (for the human race is the seminary of heaven), cannot but believe that wherever there is an earth, there are human beings. That the planets, which are visible to our eyes, being within the boundaries of this solar system, are earths, may be clearly seen from the following considerations. They are bodies of earthy matter, because they reflect the sun's light (lumen), and, when seen through the telescope, appear, not as stars shining from their flame, but as earths (terrae) variegated with dark spots. Like our Earth, they are carried round the sun and advance progressively through the path of the zodiac, which motion causes years, and seasons of the year, which are spring, summer, autumn, and winter. They likewise rotate upon their own axis, just as our Earth does, and this rotation causes days, and times of the day, that is, morning, mid-day, evening, and night. And moreover, some of them also have moons, which are called satellites, which perform their revolutions around their globes in stated times, as the moon does around ours. The planet Saturn, because it is so very far distant from the sun, has also a great luminous ring, which supplies that earth with much, although reflected, light. How is it possible for any one who is acquainted with these facts, and thinks from reason, to assert that such bodies are uninhabited?

4. I have, moreover, spoken with spirits [to the effect] that men may be led to believe that there are more earths in the universe than one, by considering the immensity of the starry heaven with its innumerable stars, each of which, in its own place, that is, in its own system, is a sun, and like our sun, but differs in magnitude. Any one who rightly weighs these facts must conclude that so immense a whole cannot but be the means to an end which is the final end of creation, and that this end is a heavenly kingdom, in which the Divine may dwell with angels and men. For the visible universe, that is, the heaven resplendent with such an innumerable multitude of stars, which are so many suns, is merely a means for the existence of earths, and of human beings upon them, from whom a heavenly kingdom [may be formed]. From these considerations a rational man cannot but think that a means so immense to an end so great was not provided for a human race, and a heaven from them, from one earth only. What would this be to the Divine, who is infinite, and to whom thousands, yea, myriads, of earths, all filled with inhabitants, would be but a little thing and almost nothing!

5. Besides, the angelic heaven is so immense that it corresponds to each single part in man, myriads [of angels corresponding] to each member, and organ, and viscus, and to each affection of them; and it has been given me to know that this heaven, as to all its correspondences, cannot possibly exist except from the inhabitants of very many earths[f].

[Footnote f: Heaven corresponds to the Lord, and man, as to all things in general and particular, corresponds to heaven; and hence heaven, before the Lord, is a Man in a large effigy, and may be called the Grand or Greatest Man, nos. 2996, 2998, 3624-3649, 3741-3746, 4625. Concerning the correspondence of man, and of all things pertaining to him, with the Grand Man, which is heaven, in general, from experience, nos. 3021, 3624-3649, 3741-3751, 3883-3896, 4039-4055, 4218-4218-4228, 4318-4331, 4403-4421, 4523-4533, 4622-4633, 4652-4660, 4791-4805, 4931-4953, 5050-5061, 5171-5189, 5377-5396, 5552-5573, 5711-5727, 10030.]

6. There are spirits whose sole study is the acquisition of knowledges finding in them their only delight. These spirits are therefore permitted to wander about, and even to pass beyond this solar system into others, and procure knowledges. They have stated that there are earths in immense numbers, inhabited by human beings, not only in this solar system, but in the starry heaven beyond it. These spirits are from the planet Mercury.

7. With regard, in general, to the Divine worship of the inhabitants of other earths: all there, who are not idolaters, acknowledge the Lord to be the One only God; for they adore the Divine, not as an invisible Divine, but as visible, for this reason, besides others, that when the Divine appears to them it is in the Human Form, as He formerly did to Abraham and others on this Earth [g]; and all who adore the Divine under the Human Form are accepted by the Lord [h]. They also say that no one can worship God rightly, and still less be conjoined with Him, unless he comprehends Him by some idea, and that God cannot be comprehended except in the Human Form; and that if He be not thus comprehended, the interior sight, which is that of the thought, concerning God, is dissipated, as is the sight of the eye, when looking into the universe with nothing to limit the view; and that then the thought cannot but fall into nature, and worship it instead of God.

[Footnote g: The inhabitants of all the earths adore the Divine Being under the Human Form, consequently the Lord, nos. 8541-8547, 10159, 10736, 10737, 10738. And they rejoice when they hear that God actually became Man, no. 9361. It is impossible to think of God except in the Human Form, nos. 8705, 9359, 9972. Man is able to worship and love that of which he has some idea, but not that of which he has no idea, nos. 4733, 5110, 5663, 7211, 9167, 10067.]

[Footnote h: The Lord receives all who are in good, and who adore the Divine under the Human Form, nos. 9359, 7178.]

8. When they were told that the Lord assumed the Human on our Earth, they pondered for awhile, and then said that it was done for the salvation of the human race.


9. That the entire heaven resembles one man, who is therefore called the Grand or Greatest Man (Maximus Homo), and that all things in general and particular in man, both his exteriors and interiors, correspond to that man or to heaven, is an arcanum as yet unknown in the world; but that it is so has been shown in many passages[i]. But to constitute that Grand Man, those who come from our Earth into heaven are insufficient, being comparatively few; they must come from many other earths: and it is provided by the Lord that as soon as there is in any part a deficiency in the quality or quantity of the correspondence, those who may supply it shall be immediately summoned from another earth, in order that the proportion may be preserved, and heaven by this means maintain its consistence.

[Footnote i: See note f.]

10. It has also been disclosed to me from heaven, what the spirits from the planet Mercury have relation to in the Grand Man, namely, that they have relation to the memory, but to the memory of things abstracted from earthly and merely material things. As, however, it has been given me to speak with them, and this for many weeks, and to learn of what character they are, and to examine how the inhabitants of that earth are circumstanced, I wish to adduce the experiences themselves.

11. Some spirits came to me, and it was stated from heaven that they were from the earth nearest to the sun, which on our Earth is called the planet Mercury. Immediately on their coming they sifted out of my memory the things that I knew. This, spirits can do most skilfully, for when they come to a man they see in his memory all the particulars it contains[j]. While passing in review the various things, and, among others, the cities and places where I had been, I observed that they had no wish to know the temples, palaces, houses, and streets, but only the things I knew to have been done in them, also the things that related to the government there, and to the genius and manners of the inhabitants, and other similar things; for such matters are closely associated with the places in a man's memory, so that when the places are called to mind, these matters also suggest themselves. I was surprised to find them of such a character, and therefore inquired why they disregarded the magnificent objects of the places, and only inquired into the facts and transactions connected with them. They said that they had no delight in regarding material, corporeal, and terrestrial things, but only things that are real. Hence it was proved that the spirits of that earth, in the Grand Man, have relation to the memory of things abstracted from material and terrestrial things.

[Footnote j: Spirits enter into all things of man's memory, and do not [insinuate anything] from their own [memory] into the man's, nos. 2488, 5863, 6192, 6193, 6198, 6199, 6214. The angels enter into the affections and ends, from which and for the sake of which a man thinks, wills, and acts in such or such a manner in preference to every other, nos. 1317, 1645, 5844.]

12. I was told that the life of the inhabitants of that earth is such, namely, that they do not concern themselves about terrestrial and corporeal things, but only about the statutes, laws, and governments of the nations there; and also about the things of heaven, which are innumerable. I was further informed, that many of the men (homines) of that earth converse with spirits, and that thence they have knowledges respecting spiritual things and the states of life after death, and that thence also they have a contempt for corporeal and terrestrial things; for those who know for a certainty, and believe, that there is a life after death, are concerned about heavenly things, as being eternal and blessed, but not about worldly things, except so far as the necessities of life require. Such being the character of its inhabitants, such also is that of the spirits who are from it[k].

[Footnote k: The spirits who are with man are in possession of all things of his memory, nos. 5853, 5857, 5859, 5860.]

13. How eagerly they search for and imbibe the knowledges of such things as pertain to the memory raised above the sensual things of the body, was made manifest to me from the circumstance that when they looked into the things which I knew respecting heavenly subjects, they ran over them all, and kept on stating the nature of each. For when spirits come to a man, they enter into the whole of his memory, and call forth from it what suits themselves; nay, what I have often observed, they read its contents as from a book[k]. These spirits did this more skilfully and quickly, because they did not linger over such matters as are heavy and sluggish, and confine and consequently impede the internal sight, as is the nature of all terrestrial and corporeal things, when regarded as ends, that is, when alone loved; but they devoted their attention to things themselves; for those matters to which terrestrial things do not cling, carry the mind (animus) upwards, and so introduce it into a wide field [of view], whereas merely material things drag the mind (animus) downwards, and thus limit and imprison it. Their eagerness to acquire knowledges and enrich the memory was further evident from the following circumstances: Once, when I was writing something concerning things to come, and they were at a distance, so that they could not look into those things from my memory; because I was unwilling to read them in their presence, they were very indignant, and, contrary to their usual demeanour, they were disposed to inveigh against me, saying that I was the worst of men, and other like things; and, to show their resentment, they caused a kind of contraction, attended with pain, on the right side of my head as far as the ear; but such treatment did me no harm. As, however, they had done evil, they removed themselves to a still greater distance, yet kept stopping, being desirous of knowing what I had written. Such is their eager desire for knowledges.

14. The spirits of Mercury, more than other spirits, possess the knowledges of things, both of those which are within this solar system, and those which are beyond it in the starry heaven; and whatever things they have once acquired they retain, and recollect them as often as similar ones occur. From this also it may manifestly appear that spirits have memory, and that it is much more perfect than that of men; and further, that spirits retain what they hear, see, and apperceive, and especially such matters as they are delighted with, as these spirits are with the knowledges of things; for things that are matters of delight and love flow in as it were spontaneously, and remain; other things do not enter, but only touch the surface and pass by.

15. When the spirits of Mercury come to other societies, they try to discover from them what they know, and when they have ascertained this, they depart. There is also such a communication among spirits, and especially among angels, that when they are in a society, if they are accepted and loved, they communicate or share all they know.[l]

[Footnote l: In the heavens there is a communication of all goods, inasmuch as heavenly love communicates all its possessions to others; and hence the angels derive wisdom and happiness, nos. 549, 550, 1390, 1391, 1399, 10130, 10723.]

16. The spirits of Mercury, on account of their knowledges, are more conceited than others; wherefore they were told that, although they know innumerable things, there is yet an infinity of things which they do not know; and that even were the knowledges with them to increase to eternity, they would still be unable to attain to so much as an acquaintance with the generals of all things. They were told that they were conceited and elated of disposition, and that this character is unbecoming; but they replied, that it is not conceit, but only a glorying on account of the capacity of their memory. Thus they have the art of excusing their faults.

17. They are averse to verbal speech, because it is material; wherefore, when I conversed with them without intermediate spirits, I could only do so by a kind of active thought. Their memory, because it is a memory of things, not of purely material images, brings nearer to the thought its proper objects; for the thought, which is above the imagination, requires for its objects things abstracted from those of matter. But notwithstanding that this is the case, the spirits of Mercury excel but little in the faculty of judgment. They take no delight in the things which pertain to judgment and to conclusions from knowledges; for their delight is in the bare knowledges.

18. It was suggested to them, whether they did not wish to make any use of their knowledges; for it is not enough to be delighted with knowledges, because knowledges have respect to uses, and uses ought to be their ends; that from knowledges alone no use results to themselves, but to others with whom they are willing to share or communicate them; and that it is not at all meet for a man who wants to become wise to stand still in knowledges alone, inasmuch as these are only instrumental causes, meant to be serviceable for the investigation of matters which ought to belong to the life. But they replied that they were delighted with knowledges, and that to them knowledges were uses.

19. Some of them, also, wish to appear, not as men, like the spirits of other earths, but as crystalline globes. Their wanting to appear so, although they do not, arises from the circumstance that the knowledges of immaterial things are in the other life represented by crystals.

20. The spirits of Mercury differ entirely from those of our Earth, for the spirits of our Earth concern themselves not so much about [immaterial] things as about worldly, corporeal, and terrestrial things, which are material. For this reason the spirits of Mercury cannot be together with the spirits of our Earth, and therefore wherever they meet them they flee away, for the spiritual spheres that are exhaled from both are almost contrary. The spirits of Mercury have a common saying, that they do not want to look at the sheath, but at things stripped of their sheath, thus at interior things.

21. There appeared a flame of considerable brightness, which blazed cheerfully, and this for about an hour. That flame signified the advent of some spirits of Mercury who, for penetration, thought, and speech, were prompter than those who preceded them. When they were come, they instantly ran over the things that were in my memory, but, owing to their promptness, I was unable to apperceive what they observed. Immediately afterwards, I heard them say that the matter was thus and thus. With regard to the things which I had seen in the heavens and in the world of spirits, they said that they knew them before. I perceived that a multitude of spirits who were consociated with them, was behind, a little to the left, in the plane of the occiput.

22. At another time I saw a multitude of such spirits, but at some little distance from me, in front a little to the right, and they spoke with me from thence, but through intermediate spirits; for their speech is as quick as thought, which does not fall into human speech, except by means of other spirits; and what surprised me, they spoke in a body, and yet as promptly and rapidly as possible. Their speech, being of many together, was apperceived as undulatory, and, what was remarkable, it glided towards my left eye, although they were to the right. The reason was, that the left eye corresponds to the knowledges of things abstracted from material things, thus to such as belong to intelligence, while the right eye corresponds to such as belong to wisdom[m]. With the same promptness with which they spoke, they perceived the things that they heard, and formed their judgment upon them, saying of one thing that it was so, and of another that it was not so, their judgment being as it were instantaneous.

[Footnote m: The eye corresponds to the understanding, because the understanding is the internal sight, and the sight of things immaterial, nos. 2701, 4410, 4526, 9051, 10569. The sight of the left eye corresponds to truths, consequently to intelligence; and the sight of the right eye corresponds to the goods of truth, consequently to wisdom, no. 4410.]

23. There was a spirit from another earth, who was well qualified to converse with them, being a prompt and rapid speaker, but who affected elegance in his discourse. They instantly formed their judgment concerning whatever he spoke, saying of one thing that it was too elegantly, of another that it was too learnedly expressed; so that the only thing they attended to was, whether they heard from him anything which was not known to them before, rejecting thereby such things as obscured the subject, which are chiefly affectations of elegance in expression and of erudition; for these hide the things themselves and in their place substitute expressions, which are the material forms of things; on these the speaker keeps his mind (animus) fixed, and wants to draw attention to his expressions rather than their meaning, by which the ears of his auditors are more affected than their minds (mens).

24. The spirits of the earth Mercury do not tarry in one place, or among assemblies of the spirits of one system, but wander through the universe. The reason is that they have reference to the memory of things, which requires to be continually enriched; therefore it is granted them to wander about, and everywhere acquire knowledges. If, while travelling in this manner, they meet with spirits who love material, that is, corporeal and terrestrial things, they shun them, and betake themselves to where they do not hear such things. From this it may appear that their mind (animus) is elevated above sensual things, and thus that they are in interior light (lumen). This it was also given me actually to perceive when they were near me and were speaking with me. I observed then that I was withdrawn from sensual things to such a degree, that the light (lumen) of my eyes began to grow dull and dim.

25. The spirits of that earth go about by companies and phalanxes, and when assembled together they form as it were a globe. They are joined together in this manner by the Lord in order that they may act as a one, and that the knowledges of each may be communicated to all, and the knowledges of all to each, as is the case in heaven[l]. That they wander through the universe in quest of the knowledges of things, was made manifest to me also from this fact, that once, when they appeared very remote from me, they spoke with me from thence, and said that they were then gathered together, and were going beyond the sphere of this system into the starry heaven, where they knew there were such as had no concern about terrestrial and corporeal things, but about things elevated above them, with whom they desired to be. It was stated that they themselves do not know whither they are going, but that under the Divine auspices they are conveyed to where they may be instructed concerning such things as they had previously been unacquainted with, and which are in agreement with the knowledges they already possess. It was also stated that they do not know how they meet with the companions with whom they are conjoined, and that this also is effected under the Divine auspices.

26. As they journey through the universe in this manner, and are thus enabled to know more than others about the systems and earths beyond the sphere of our solar system, I have spoken with them on this subject also. They said that in the universe there are very many earths, with human beings upon them; and that they wonder at its being supposed by some, whom they called men of little judgment, that the heaven of the Omnipotent God consists only of the spirits and angels who come from one earth, when these are so few that, relatively to the Omnipotence of God, they are scarcely anything, and this would be the case even if there were myriads of systems with myriads of earths. They said, moreover, that they knew of the existence of earths in the universe exceeding in number some hundreds of thousands; and yet what is this to the Divine, who is Infinite!

27. The spirits of Mercury, when they were with me while I was writing and explaining the Word as to its internal sense, and who perceived what I was writing, said that the things which I wrote were very gross, and that almost all the expressions appeared as material. But it was given to reply, that the men of our Earth nevertheless look upon the things that have been written, as subtle and elevated, and that many things they do not understand. I added, that very many on this Earth do not know that it is the internal man that acts on the external, and causes it to live, and that from the fallacies of the senses they persuade themselves that the body has a life of its own, and that in consequence the evil and unbelieving are in doubt as to a life after death. Also, that that in man which is to live after death they do not call the spirit but the soul; and that they dispute about what the soul is and where its abode is, and believe that the material body, although dispersed to all the winds, must be again conjoined to it, in order that man may live as a man; besides many other things of the same kind. When the spirits of Mercury heard these things, they asked whether such men could become angels. To this it was given to answer that those who have lived in the good of faith and charity become angels, and that then they are no longer in external and material things, but in internal and spiritual things; and that when they come into this state, they are in a light superior to that in which the spirits from Mercury are. In order that they might know that this was so, an angel who had come into heaven from our Earth, and who had been such while he lived in the world, was allowed to speak with them; which circumstance will be detailed below [at no. 37].

28. Afterwards there was sent me by the spirits of Mercury a long paper of an irregular shape, consisting of several papers stuck together, which appeared as if printed with types such as are used on this Earth. I asked whether they had such among them; but they said they had not, but that they knew that there were such printed papers on our Earth. They were not willing to say more; but I perceived that they thought that the knowledges on our Earth were on papers, and not so much within the man himself, thus derisively insinuating that the papers, so to speak, knew more than the man. But they were instructed as to the real state of the case. After some time they returned, and sent me another paper, which also appeared printed with types like unto the former one; not, however, like it, stuck together and untidy, but symmetrically shaped and neat: they said they had been further informed that on this Earth there were such papers, and books made of them.

29. From the facts that have now been stated, it clearly appears, that spirits retain in the memory the things that they see and hear in the other life, and that they are equally capable of being instructed as when they were men in the world, consequently, of being instructed in those things that are of faith, and thereby of being perfected. The more interior spirits and angels are, the more promptly and fully do they imbibe, and the more perfectly do they retain [what they hear], and as this [capacity remains] for ever, it is evident that wisdom is continually growing with them. With the spirits of Mercury, the science of things is continually growing, yet not therefore wisdom, because they love knowledges, which are means, but not uses, which are ends.

30. Furthermore, the character of the genius of the spirits who are from the planet Mercury may still further appear from the following facts. It must be known that all spirits and angels without exception were once men, for the human race is the seminary of heaven; and that spirits are altogether such as to their affections and inclinations as they had been when they lived as men in the world, for every one's life follows him[n]. This being the case, the genius of the men of every earth may be known from the genius of the spirits who are from it.

[Footnote n: Every one's life remains with him and follows him after death, nos. 4227, 7440. The externals of life are kept closed after death, and the internals of life are opened, nos. 4314, 5128, 6495. All things in general and particular of thought are then made manifest, nos. 4633, 5128.]

31. Since the spirits of Mercury in the Grand Man have relation to the memory of things abstracted from material things, therefore when any one speaks to them of terrestrial, corporeal, and merely worldly things, they are absolutely unwilling to hear; and if they are forced to hear of those things, they transmute them into others, and for the most part into contrary things, so as to avoid them.

32. In order that I might know for certain that such was their genius, it was allowed to represent to them meadows, fallow-lands, gardens, woods, and streams. To represent such things is to exhibit before another in imagination those things which, in the other life, appear to the life. But they instantly transmuted them; they darkened the meadows and fallow-lands, and by representations filled them with snakes; the streams they turned black, so that the water no longer appeared limpid. When I asked why they did so, they said they did not want to think of such things, but of realities, which are the knowledges of things abstracted from terrestrial things, especially of such as exist in the heavens.

33. I afterwards represented to them birds both large and small, such as exist on our Earth; for in the other life such things can be represented to the life. On seeing those birds represented, they at first wanted to change them, but they afterwards were delighted with them, and became quiet; the reason was, that birds signify the knowledges of things, and the perception of this fact then flowed in[o]; they therefore abstained from transmuting them, and so from turning away the ideas of their memory. Afterwards it was permitted me to represent before them a very pleasant garden full of lamps and lights; they then paused and their attention was fixed, because lamps with lights signify truths (veritates) which shine from good[p]. From this it was evident that they could be detained in the consideration of material things, provided only that the signification of those things in the spiritual sense were insinuated at the same time; for the things which belong to the spiritual sense are not abstracted from material things to the same extent, inasmuch as they are representative of these.

[Footnote o: Birds signify rational things, intellectual things, thoughts, ideas, and knowledges, nos. 40, 745, 776, 778, 866, 988, 993, 5149, 7441. And this with variety according to the genera and species of the birds, no. 3219.]

[Footnote p: Lamps with lights signify truths (veritates) which shine from good, nos. 4638, 9548, 9783.]

34. Moreover, I spoke with them about sheep and lambs, but they were not willing to hear of such things, because they were perceived by them as terrestrial things; the reason was, that they did not understand what innocence is, which lambs signify; this was apperceived from the circumstance that, on my saying that lambs, when represented in heaven, signify innocence[q], they said that they did not know what innocence was, but only knew it by name: the reason is, that they are affected with knowledges only, but not with uses, which are the ends of knowledges, consequently they are unable to know, from internal perception, what innocence is.

[Footnote q: Lambs in heaven, and in the Word, signify innocence, nos. 3994, 7840, 10132.]

35. Some of the spirits of the earth Mercury came to me, being sent by others, in order that they might hear what was going on near me. These were told by one of the spirits of our Earth, to tell their [friends] not to speak anything but what was true, and not, as they were wont, to present opposite things to their questioners; for that if any of the spirits of our Earth were to do so, he would be punished. But immediately the company from which those spirits had been sent forth, and which was at a distance, made answer, that if they must be punished on that account, they must all be punished, inasmuch as, from continual practice, they could not do otherwise. They said that when they speak with the men of their own earth, they also do likewise, not, however, with any intention to deceive, but to inspire the desire of knowing; for when they present opposite things, and conceal things in a certain manner, the desire of knowing is excited, and thus from the zeal of exploring those things, the memory is perfected. I also, on another occasion, spoke with them on the same subject, and, as I knew that they spoke with the men of their earth, I asked in what manner they instructed their inhabitants. They said that they do not instruct them fully as to how a matter is, but keep insinuating some apperception of it, in order that from this the desire of exploring and of acquiring knowledge may be nourished and grow; for if they were to answer all their questions, the desire would perish. They added, that they suggest opposites for this reason also, that the truth (veritas) may afterwards appear the better; for all truth appears from relation to its opposites.

36. It is their custom not to tell another what they know, but still they want to learn from all others what is known to them. With their own society, however, they communicate everything, insomuch that what one knows all know, and what all know each one in the society knows[l].

37. Inasmuch as the spirits of Mercury abound in knowledges, they are in a certain kind of conceit; hence they imagine that they know so much that it is almost impossible to know more. But it was told them by the spirits of our Earth, that they do not know much but little, and that the things which they do not know are comparatively infinite; and that the things which they do not know, are, relatively to those they do know, as the waters of the largest ocean to those of a very small fountain; and further, that the first step towards wisdom consists in knowing, acknowledging, and perceiving that what one knows, is, compared with what one does not know, so little as hardly to be anything. In order that they might know that it is so, it was granted that a certain angelic spirit should speak with them, and tell them generally what they knew and what they did not know, and that there were infinite things which they did not know, and that eternity would not suffice for their acquiring even a general knowledge of things. He spoke by means of angelic ideas much more readily than they did, and as he disclosed to them what they knew and what they did not know, they were struck with amazement. Afterwards I saw another angel speaking with them, who appeared at some height towards the right; he was from our Earth. He recounted very many things which they did not know; and afterwards he spoke with them by means of changes of state, which they said they did not understand. He then told them that every change of state, and also every smallest part of such change, contains infinite things. When they heard this, as they had been conceited on account of their knowledges, they began to humble themselves. Their humiliation was represented by the sinking downwards of the compact body (volumen) which they formed (for that company appeared at the time as a compact body, in front towards the left, at a distance, in the plane of the region below the navel); but the compact body appeared as it were hollowed in the middle, and raised at the sides; an alternating motion was also observed therein. They were also told what that signified, that is, what they thought in their humiliation, and that those who appeared elevated at the sides were not as yet in any humiliation; and I saw that the compact body was separated, and that those who were not in humiliation were sent back towards their earth, the rest remaining.

38. There once came some spirits of Mercury to a certain spirit from our Earth, who, during his life in the world, had been most celebrated for his learning,—he was Christian Wolf—desiring to receive information from him on various subjects. But when they perceived that what he said was not elevated above the sensual things of the natural man, because in speaking he thought of honour, and wanted, as in the world (for in the other life every one is like his former self), to connect various things into series, and from these again and continually to deduce others, and so form several chains of such, which they did not see or acknowledge to be true, and which therefore they declared to be chains which neither cohered in themselves nor with the conclusions, and called them the obscurity of authority, they ceased to question him, inquiring only what this was called and what that. And because he answered these questions also by material ideas, and not by any that were spiritual, they departed from him. For in the other life every one speaks spiritually, or by spiritual ideas, so far as in the world he had believed in God; and materially, so far as he had not believed. As an opportunity here offers, I may relate how the case is, in the other life, with the learned who acquire intelligence by their own meditation kindled by the love of knowing truths for the sake of truths, thus for the sake of uses apart from worldly considerations; and how the case is with those who acquire intelligence from others without any meditation of their own, as is the practice of those who desire to know truths merely for the purpose of acquiring a reputation for learning, and of thereby attaining honour or gain in the world, and consequently not for the sake of uses apart from worldly considerations. I may here relate a certain experience concerning men of this character. There was apperceived a certain sound penetrating from beneath near the left side as far as the left ear: I observed that there were spirits who were attempting to force their way there, but I could not ascertain of what character they were. When they had forced their way, however, they spoke with me, saying that they were logicians and metaphysicians, and that they had immersed their thoughts in such [sciences] without any other end than that of acquiring a reputation for learning, and thus of attaining to honours and wealth: they lamented that they now led a miserable life, because they had studied these sciences for no other end, and thus had not cultivated their Rational by means of them. Their speech was slow and muffled. In the meantime there were two conversing above my head, and when I asked who they were, I was told that one of them was of the highest distinction in the learned world, and it was given me to believe that he was Aristotle. Who the other was, was not stated. He was then let into the state in which he had been when he lived in the world, for every one can easily be let into the state of life which he had had in the world, since every state of his life remains with him. I was surprised to find that he applied himself to the right ear, and he spoke there, hoarsely, indeed, but still sensibly. From the purport of what he said I apperceived that he was of quite a different genius from those Schoolmen who first arose, namely, that he hatched what he wrote from his own thought, and from the same source produced his philosophical system, so that the terms which he invented, and applied to subjects of thought, were forms of expression by which he described interior things; also that he was excited to such pursuits by a delight of the affection, and by a desire of knowing the things that belonged to the thought and the understanding; and that he followed obediently whatever his spirit had dictated. This was the reason he applied himself to the right ear, differently from his followers, who are called Schoolmen, and who do not proceed from thought to terms, but from terms to thoughts, thus by a contrary way; and many of them do not even proceed to thoughts, but stick fast entirely in terms, their application of which, when they make any, being to confirm whatever they want to, and to invest falsities with an appearance of truth, according to their eagerness to persuade. Consequently for them philosophy is rather a means of becoming foolish than a means of becoming wise; and therefore they have darkness instead of light. Afterwards, I conversed with him on analytical science, saying that a little child, in half an hour, speaks more philosophically, analytically, and logically, than he could describe in a volume, because all things of human thought and consequently of human speech are analytical, and the laws thereof are from the spiritual world; and that he who wants to think artificially from terms is not unlike a dancer who wants to learn to dance from a knowledge of the motory fibres and muscles; if he were to keep his mind (animus) fixed on that knowledge whilst dancing, he would hardly be able to move a foot, and yet, without that knowledge, he sets in action all the motory fibres that are scattered throughout the whole of his body, and, in due measure, the lungs, diaphragm, sides, arms, neck, and all the other parts, to describe all which volumes would not suffice; and that the case is just like this with those who want to think from terms. He approved of these observations, and said, that if one learns to think in that way one proceeds in inverted order: adding, that if any one wants to be foolish, he has only to proceed in that way; and that one should constantly think of use, and from what is interior. He next showed me what idea he had had of the Supreme Deity. He had represented Him to himself as having a human face, and encompassed about the head with a radiant circle; but he now knew that the Lord is Himself that Man, and that the radiant circle is the Divine [proceeding] from Him, which inflows not only into heaven but also into the universe, disposing and ruling both. He added, that He who disposes and rules heaven, disposes and rules the universe also, because the one cannot be separated from the other. He also said, that he believed in only one God, whose attributes and qualities men distinguished by names as numerous as the gods they worshipped. A woman appeared to me who stretched out her hand, desiring to stroke his cheek. When I expressed my surprise at this, he said, that while he was in the world such a woman had often appeared to him, and as it were stroked his cheek, and that her hand was beautiful. The angelic spirits said that such women sometimes appeared to the ancients, and that they called them Pallases; and that the one who appeared to him was from spirits who, when they lived as men in the ancient times, were delighted with ideas and indulged in thoughts, but without philosophy; and as such spirits were with him, and were delighted with him because he thought from what is interior, they representatively exhibited such a woman to his view. Lastly, he told me what idea he had had concerning the soul or spirit of man, which he called Pneuma, namely, that it was an invisible vital [principle], like something of the ether. He said that he knew his spirit would live after death, since it was his interior essence, which cannot die, because it can think; and moreover that he could not think clearly concerning it, but only obscurely, because he had not possessed any knowledge on the subject except from himself, with a little also from the Ancients. Aristotle, it may be remarked, is among sane spirits in the other life, but many of his followers are among the foolish.

39. I once saw that some spirits of our Earth were with some spirits of Mercury, and I heard them conversing with one another; and on this occasion the spirits of our Earth asked them, among other things, in whom they believed. They replied that they believed in God. But when they inquired further concerning the God in whom they believed, they would not say, since it is their custom not to give direct answers to questions. Then the spirits from the earth Mercury, in their turn, asked the spirits from our Earth in whom they believed. They said that they believed in the Lord God. The spirits of Mercury then said they perceived that they believed in no God, and that they had contracted a habit of professing belief with the mouth when yet they do not believe. (The spirits of Mercury have an exquisite perception, in consequence of their continually exploring, by means of perception, what others know.) The spirits of our Earth were of the number of those who in the world had made profession of faith according to the doctrine of the church, but still had not lived the life of faith; and those who do not live the life of faith, in the other life have no faith, because it is not in the man[r]. On hearing this they were silent, because, by an apperception then given them, they acknowledged that the case was so.

[Footnote r: They who make profession of faith from doctrine, and do not live the life of faith, have no faith, nos. 3865, 7766, 7778, 7790, 7950, 8094. And their interiors are contrary to the truths of faith, although in the world they do not know this, nos. 7790, 7950.]

40. Certain spirits knew from heaven that a promise had once been made to the spirits of the earth Mercury, that they should see the Lord; they were, therefore, asked by the spirits about me whether they recollected that promise. They said that they did recollect it; but that they did not know whether the promise had been made in such a manner as to preclude all doubt respecting it. While they were thus talking together, the Sun of heaven appeared to them. (The Sun of heaven, which is the Lord, is seen only by those who are in the inmost or third heaven; others see the light which proceeds from it.) On seeing the Sun, they said that this was not the Lord God, because they saw no face. Meanwhile the spirits were conversing with each other, but I did not hear what they said. Suddenly, however, the Sun again appeared, and in the midst of it the Lord, encompassed with a solar circle: at this sight the spirits of Mercury humbled themselves profoundly, and bowed down. At that time also, the Lord appeared out of that Sun to certain spirits of our Earth, who, when they were men, had seen Him in the world; and they, one after another, and thus many in succession, confessed that it was the Lord Himself; and they made this confession before the whole assembly. At the same time also the Lord appeared out of the Sun to the spirits of the planet Jupiter, who declared with a clear voice, that it was He Himself whom they had seen on their earth when the God of the universe appeared to them[s].

[Footnote s: The Lord is the Sun of heaven, from which proceeds all the light there, nos. 1053, 3636, 4060. And the Lord thus appears to those who are in His celestial kingdom, where love to Him reigns, nos. 1521, 1529-1531, 1837, 4696. He appears at a middle height above the plane of the right eye, nos. 4321, 7078. Therefore in the Word the sun signifies the Lord as to the Divine Love, nos. 2495, 4060, 7083. The sun of the world does not appear to spirits and angels, but in its place as it were a dark something behind, opposite to the Sun of heaven or to the Lord, no. 9755.]

41. After the Lord had appeared, some were led towards the front parts to the right, and as they advanced, they said that they saw a light much clearer and purer than they had ever seen before, and that a greater light could not possibly be seen: and it was then the time of evening here. Those who said this were many[t].

[Footnote t: In the heavens there is great light, which exceeds, by many degrees, the noon-day light on earth, nos. 1117, 1521, 1533, 1619-1632, 4527, 5400, 8644. All light in the heavens is from the Lord as the Sun there, nos. 1053, 1521, 3195, 3341, 3636, 3643, 4415, 9548, 9684, 10809. The Divine Truth proceeding from the Divine Good of the Lord's Divine Love appears in the heavens as light and constitutes all the light there, nos. 3195, 3222, 5400, 8644, 9399, 9548, 9684. The light of heaven illuminates both the sight and the understanding of the angels, nos. 2776, 3138. Heaven being said to be in light and heat, signifies in wisdom and in love, nos. 3643, 9399, 9401.]

42. It should be known that the sun of the world does not appear at all to any spirit, nor does anything of the light from it. The light of this sun is, to spirits and angels, like thick darkness. This sun remains in the perception with spirits only from their having seen it when they were in the world, and it is exhibited to them in idea as an exceedingly dark something, and situated behind at a considerable distance, at a little height above the plane of the head. The planets which are within the system of this sun appear according to a fixed situation in respect to the sun: Mercury appears behind, a little towards the right; the planet Venus to the left, a little backwards; the planet Mars to the left in front; the planet Jupiter likewise to the left in front, but at a greater distance; the planet Saturn directly in front, at a considerable distance; the Moon to the left, at a moderate height: the satellites also appear to the left relatively to their own planets. Such is the situation of these planets in the ideas of spirits and angels. Spirits also appear near their own planet, but apart from it. With regard to the spirits of Mercury in particular, they do not appear in any particular quarter, or at any particular distance, but they appear sometimes in front, sometimes to the left, sometimes a little to the back; the reason is, that they are allowed to wander through the universe for the purpose of procuring knowledges.

43. Some spirits of Mercury once appeared to the left in a globe, and afterwards in a compact body (volumen) extending itself lengthwise. I wondered whither they were bent, whether to this or to some other earth, and I soon observed that they turned towards the right, and, rolling along, approached the earth or planet Venus towards the quarter in front. But when they reached it, they said that they would not remain there, because the inhabitants were evil; wherefore they turned round to the back part of that earth, and then said they would remain there, because the inhabitants of that part were good. While this was taking place I was sensible of a remarkable change in the brain, and of a powerful operation from it. From this it was given me to conclude that the spirits of Venus who are from that part of the planet, were in concord with the spirits of Mercury, and that they had relation to the memory of material things which is in concord with the memory of immaterial things, to which the spirits of Mercury have relation; hence a more powerful operation was felt from them when they were there.

44. I was desirous of knowing what kind of face and body the men (homines) on the earth Mercury have, and whether they are like the men (homines) on our Earth. There was then exhibited before my eyes a woman exactly resembling those who are on that earth. Her face was beautiful, but smaller than that of the women of our Earth; she was also more slender in body, but of equal height: her head was covered with some linen stuff, arranged without art but still in a becoming manner. A man (vir) also was exhibited. He, too, was more slender in body than the men (viri) of our Earth; he was clothed in a garment of dark blue fitting closely to his body, without folds or protuberances anywhere. Such, I was told, were the personal form and clothing of the men (homines) of that earth. Afterwards there were exhibited some kinds of their oxen and cows, which did not, indeed, differ much from those on our Earth, except that they were smaller, and approximated in some measure to the stag and hind species.

45. They were also questioned about the sun of the system, how it appears from their earth. They said that it appeared large, and larger there than from other earths; they said that they knew this from the ideas of other spirits respecting the sun. They said further that they enjoyed a middle temperature, neither too hot nor too cold. It was then given me to tell them, that it has been so provided for them by the Lord, in order that they might not be exposed to excessive heat from the circumstance of their earth being in greater proximity to the sun than the other earths, since heat does not arise from nearness to the sun, but from the height and density of the aerial atmosphere, as is evident from the cold on high mountains even in hot climates; also, that heat is varied according to the direct or oblique incidence of the sun's rays, as is evident from the seasons of winter and summer in every region. These are the particulars which it has been given me to know respecting the spirits and inhabitants of the earth Mercury.


46. It has been given me to have longer intercourse with the spirits and angels of the planet Jupiter than with the spirits and angels from the other planets; and I can therefore relate more particulars respecting their state of life and respecting that of the inhabitants of that planet. That those spirits were from that planet, was evident from many circumstances, and was also declared from heaven.

47. The earth or planet Jupiter itself does not indeed appear to spirits and angels: for in the spiritual world no earth is ever visible to any one, but only the spirits and angels who are from it. Those who are from the planet Jupiter appear in front to the left, at some little distance, and this constantly (see above, no. 42): there also the planet is. The spirits of every earth are near their own earth, because they are from its inhabitants (for every man after death becomes a spirit), and because they are thus of a similar genius, and can be with the inhabitants and be of service to them.

48. They related that in the region of their earth where they had lived when in the world, the multitude of human beings was as great as the earth could support; that it was fertile, and abounded in all things; that the inhabitants desired no more than sufficed for the necessities of life, and that what was not necessary they did not regard as useful; and that therefore the multitude of human beings was so great. They said that their principal care was the education of their children, and that they loved them most tenderly.

49. They further related that on their earth they are distinguished into clans, families, and households, and that all live together with their own, separate from the others, and that therefore their habitual intercourse is confined to their kindred: also that no one ever desires another's goods; nor does it ever enter the mind (animus) of any one to covet any of the goods of another, much less to obtain them by any artifice, and still less to attack and plunder them; this they consider a crime contrary to human nature, and horrible. When I wanted to tell them that on this Earth there were wars, depredations, and murders, they turned away, and refused to hear. It has been told me by the angels that the Most Ancient inhabitants of our Earth dwelt in the same manner, that is to say, distinguished into clans, families, and households, and that all in those times were content with their own goods; and that it was an entirely unknown thing for one to enrich himself with the goods of others, or to assume dominion from the love of self; and that on this account the Ancient, and especially the Most Ancient times, were more acceptable to the Lord than those which have succeeded them; and that, as their state was such, innocence then reigned, and, together with innocence, wisdom; that every one then did what was good for the sake of good, and what was just for the sake of justice; that they did not know what it was to do what was good and just with a view to their own honour, or for the sake of gain; and that in those times they spoke nothing but what was true, and this not so much from truth as from good, that is, not from the Intellectual separate [from the Voluntary], but from the Voluntary conjoined with the Intellectual. Such were the Ancient times. Angels then could therefore have habitual intercourse with men, and carry their minds, almost separated from corporeal things, into heaven, and could even lead them about there, and show them the magnificent and goodly things there, and also communicate to them their own happinesses and delights. These times were also known to ancient writers, who called them the Golden, and likewise the Saturnian times. The reason why these times were such was, as has been stated, that men then lived distinguished into clans, clans into families, and families into households, and every household dwelt by itself; and that it then never entered into any one's mind (mens) to seize upon another's inheritance, and thus acquire for himself opulence and dominion: the love of self and the love of the world were then far away; every one rejoiced in his own, and not less in another's good. But in the course of time this scene was changed and totally reversed, when the lust of exercising dominion and of possessing many things invaded the mind (animus). Then the human race, for the sake of self-defence, gathered themselves into kingdoms and empires; and because the laws of charity and conscience, which had been inscribed upon the heart, ceased to operate, it became necessary, in order to restrain deeds of violence, to enact [external] laws, of which the rewards were honours and gain, and the punishments were the deprivation thereof. When the state was thus changed, heaven itself became removed from man, and this more and more even to the present ages, when the very existence of heaven and hell is unknown, yea, is even denied by some. These statements have been made in order to show clearly by the parallel, what is the state of those who are on the earth Jupiter, and whence they have their goodness of disposition and also their wisdom, of which more will be said in the following pages.

50. By long-continued intercourse with the spirits of the earth Jupiter, it became manifest to me that they were better disposed than the spirits of many other earths. Their approach when they came to me, their stay with me, and their influx at the time, were so gentle and sweet as to be inexpressible. In the other life the quality of every spirit manifests itself by an influx, which is the communication of his affection. Goodness of disposition manifests itself by gentleness and sweetness; by gentleness, because it is afraid to hurt, and by sweetness, because it loves to do good. I could distinguish very clearly between the gentleness and sweetness of the influx proceeding from the good spirits of our Earth, and the gentleness and sweetness of the influx from the spirits of Jupiter. They said that when any slight disagreement arises among them, there appears as it were a thin dazzling white ray of light, like that of ordinary lightning or like the little swath which encompasses glittering and wandering stars; but the disagreement among them is soon adjusted. Glittering stars, which are at the same time wandering signify what is false; but glittering and fixed stars signify what is true; thus the former signify disagreement.[u]

[Footnote u: Stars in the Word signify the knowledges of good and truth, consequently truths, nos. 2495, 2849, 4697. And in the other life truths are represented by fixed stars, but falsities by wandering stars, no. 1128.]

51. I could distinguish the presence of the spirits of Jupiter, not only by the gentleness and sweetness of their approach and influx, but also by this circumstance, that their influx was for the most part into the face, which they rendered cheerful and smiling, and this continually as long as they were present. They said that they in the same way dispose the faces of the inhabitants of their earth, when they come to them, being desirous thus to inspire them with tranquillity and delightsomeness of heart. The tranquillity and delightsomeness with which they inspired me, sensibly filled my breast and heart: at the same time the longings and anxieties about the future, which cause disquiet and wretchedness, and agitate the mind with various passions, were removed. From this it could be made apparent to me what was the character of the life of the inhabitants of the earth Jupiter; for the inborn disposition of the inhabitants is known from the spirits, since every one carries his own life with him from the world, and lives it when he becomes a spirit. It was observed that they had a state of still more interior blessedness or happiness. This was observed by its being perceived that their interiors were not closed, but open to heaven; for the more open to heaven the interiors are, the more capable are they of receiving Divine good, and with it blessedness and interior happiness. It is quite otherwise with those who do not live in the order of heaven; with them the interiors are closed, and the exteriors are open to the world.

52. It was also shown me what kind of faces the inhabitants of the earth Jupiter have; not that I saw the inhabitants themselves but spirits with faces similar to those they had when they dwelt on their earth. But before this was shown me, one of their angels appeared behind a bright white cloud, and gave permission. Two faces were then shown. They were like the faces of the men of our Earth, fair and beautiful; sincerity and modesty shone forth from them. When the spirits of Jupiter were with me, the faces of the men of our Earth appeared smaller than usual: this was owing to the circumstance that there inflowed from those spirits the idea they had that their own faces were larger. For when they live as men on their earth they believe that after their decease their faces will be larger, and round in form; and this idea, being impressed upon them, remains; and when they become spirits, they appear to themselves to have larger faces. The reason why they believe that their faces will be larger is that they say the face is not the body, because they see, hear, speak, and manifest their thoughts by means of it, and because the mind thus shines through it; hence they have an idea of the face as the mind in form. And as they know that they will become wiser after their life in the world, they believe that the form of the mind, that is, the face, will become larger. They also believe that after their decease they shall perceive a fire which will communicate warmth to their faces. This belief arises from a knowledge possessed by the wiser amongst them that fire, in the spiritual sense, signifies love, that love is the fire of life, and that from that fire the angels have life[x]. Such of them as have lived in heavenly love also have their wish gratified, and feel their face grow warm, and then the interiors of their minds are kindled with love. For this reason the inhabitants of that earth frequently wash and clean their face, and also carefully protect it from the sun's heat. They have a covering made of the inner or outer bark of a tree, which is of a bluish colour, and with this they encircle the head, and thus protect the face. With respect to the faces of the men of our Earth, which they saw through my eyes[y], they said that they were not beautiful, and that such beauty as they had consisted in the outward skin, but not in the fibres from within. They were surprised to see that the faces of some were covered with warts and pustules, or otherwise disfigured, and said that no such faces are ever to be seen among them. Yet there were some faces that pleased them, such, namely, as were cheerful and smiling, and such as were slightly prominent about the lips.

[Footnote x: Fire in the Word signifies love in both senses, nos. 934, 4906, 5215. Sacred and heavenly fire is Divine love and every affection which is of that love, nos. 934, 6314, 6832. Infernal fire is the love of self and of the world, and every concupiscence belonging to those loves, nos. 934, 1861, 5071, 6314, 6832, 7575, 10747. Love is the fire of life, and life itself is actually derived from that fire, nos. 4906, 5071, 6832.]

[Footnote y: Spirits and angels do not see the things that are in this solar world but they saw through my eyes, no. 1881.]

53. The reason they were pleased with the faces that were prominent about the lips was, that their speech is effected mostly by means of the face, especially by the part about the lips, and also because they never counterfeit, that is, never speak otherwise than they think, so that they do not constrain their face, but give it free play. It is otherwise with those who from childhood have learned to counterfeit: with these the face is, in consequence, constrained from within, lest anything of the thought should shine forth from it; nor has it free play from without, but is kept in readiness to relax or constrain itself, as cunning may dictate. The truth (veritas) of this may appear from an examination of the fibres of the lips and surrounding parts, for the series of the fibres there are manifold, complicated, and interwoven, having been created, not only for mastication and verbal speech, but also for expressing the ideas of the mind (animus).

54. It was also shown me how the thoughts are expressed by means of the face. The affections which belong to the love are manifested by means of the countenance and its changes, and the thoughts therein by variations as to the forms of the interiors there: it is impossible to describe them further. The inhabitants of the earth Jupiter have also verbal speech, but not so loud as with us. The one speech aids the other, and life is insinuated into the verbal speech by the speech of the face. I have been informed by the angels that the very first speech in every earth was speech by the face, and from two origins there, the lips and the eyes. The reason this kind of speech was the first is, that the face was formed to effigy forth whatever a man thinks and wills; in consequence of which the face is also called the effigy and index of the mind (animus). Another reason is, that in the Most Ancient or primeval times sincerity prevailed, and no one cherished or wanted to cherish a thought which he was not willing should shine forth out of his face. In this way, also, the affections of the mind (animus), and the thoughts from them, could be exhibited to the life and in fulness; thus also they even appeared to the eye as very many things together in a form. This speech was therefore as superior to the speech of words as sight is to hearing, that is, as the sight of a landscape surpasses hearing about it and forming an idea of it from the verbal description. They added, that such speech was in agreement with the speech of the angels, with whom men in those times also had communication; also, that when the face speaks, that is, the mind through the face, angelic speech is with the man in its ultimate natural form, which is not the case when the mouth speaks by words. Every one can also comprehend that verbal speech could not have been used by the Most Ancient people, since the words of a language are not imparted immediately, but have to be invented and applied to objects; which it requires a course of time to effect[z]. So long as sincerity and rectitude prevailed among men, such speech continued; but as soon as the mind began to think one thing and speak another, which was the case when man began to love himself and not the neighbour, verbal speech began to increase, the face being either silent or deceitful. Hence the internal form of the face was changed, became contracted, and hardened, and began to become almost devoid of life; while the external form, inflamed by the fire of the love of self, appeared before the eyes of men as if alive; for this absence of life, which is underneath, does not appear before the eyes of men, but it appears before the eyes of the angels, since the angels see interior things. Such are the faces of those who think one thing and speak another; for simulation, hypocrisy, cunning, and deceit, which constitute modern prudence, produce such effects. But the case is different in the other life: there, no one is allowed to speak one way and think another. There, also, the variance is clearly perceived in each single expression, and when it is perceived, the spirit in whom there is such variance is expelled from society, and punished. He is afterwards by various methods brought to speak as he thinks, and to think as he wills, until his mind is one, and not divided. If he is good, he is brought to will good, and to think and speak the truth from good; and if he is evil, he is brought to will evil, and to think and speak falsity from evil. Until this is effected, a good spirit is not raised into heaven, nor an evil one cast into hell: and the object of this is, that in hell there may be nothing but evil and the falsity of evil, and in heaven nothing but good and the truth of good.

[Footnote z: The Most Ancient people on this Earth spoke by the face and lips by means of internal respiration, nos. 607, 1118, 7361. The inhabitants of some other earths have a similar speech, nos. 4799, 7359, 8248, 10587. Concerning the perfection and excellence of that speech, nos. 7360, 10587, 10708.]

55. The spirits who were from that earth informed me about various other particulars relating to its inhabitants, as, about their gait, their food, and their dwellings. With respect to their gait, they do not walk erect like the inhabitants of this and of many other earths, nor do they creep like animals, but as they advance they assist themselves with their hands, and alternately half raise themselves on their feet, and at every third step they face about sideways and behind them, and at the same time also bend the body a little, which is done quickly; for among them it is [considered] unbecoming to be looked at by others except in the face. While walking in this manner they always keep the face raised as we do, so that they may look at the heaven as well as at the earth. They do not hold it down so as to look at the earth; this they call accursed. The basest among them do so; but if they do not get accustomed to raise the face, they are expelled from their society. When, however, they sit, they appear, like the men of our Earth, erect as to the upper part of the body, but they sit with the feet crossed. They are extremely cautious, not only when they walk, but also when they sit, not to be seen behind, but in the face. They also gladly desire that their face should be seen, because their mind appears from it, for they never show a face at variance with the mind, nor have they the power to do so. Those who are present, therefore, see clearly what is their disposition towards them—which indeed they do not conceal—especially whether their apparent friendliness is sincere or forced. These facts were made known to me by their spirits, and confirmed by their angels. For the above reason also, their spirits are seen, not like others, to walk erect; but almost like swimmers, to assist their progress with their hands, and by turns to look around.

56. Those who live in their hot climates go naked, except for a covering about the loins; nor are they ashamed of their nakedness for their minds are chaste, and they love their own consorts only, and abhor adulteries. They were greatly surprised that the spirits of our Earth, on hearing of their manner of walking and of their being naked, should deride and think lasciviously, without in the least attending to their heavenly life, but only to such details. They said that this was a sign that they cared more for bodily and earthly things than for heavenly things, and that indecent thoughts occupied their minds. They were told that nakedness is no occasion either of shame or scandal to those who live in chastity, and in a state of innocence, but that it is to those who live in lasciviousness and immodesty.

57. When the inhabitants of that earth lie in bed, they turn their faces forwards or into the chamber, but not backwards or towards the wall. This was told me by their spirits, who said that the cause was that they believe that they thus turn their face to the Lord, but that if they turn it backwards they turn it away from Him. The like has sometimes happened to myself when in bed, but I had not previously been aware of its origin.

58. They take pleasure in prolonging their repasts, not so much from delight in feeding as from delight in conversing then. When they sit at table, they do not sit on chairs or benches, nor on raised seats of turf, nor on the grass, but on the leaves of a particular tree. They were not willing to say of what tree the leaves were; but when I guessed at several, they at last assented when I named the fig tree. They informed me besides, that they do not prepare their food to please the palate, but chiefly for the sake of use; they added that to them the food which is wholesome is savoury. A conversation took place on this subject among the spirits, and it was urged that it would be well for man to observe this rule, for thus he would ensure having a sound mind in a sound body. It is otherwise with those with whom the taste rules: the body hence becomes diseased, at least it becomes inwardly feeble, consequently so does the mind; for the mind comports itself according to the interior state of the recipient parts of the body, as sight and hearing do according to the state of the eye and ear; hence the folly of placing all the delight of life in luxury and pleasure; from this too comes dulness in such things as belong to thought and judgment, and acuteness in such as belong to the body and the world. By this man acquires the likeness of a brute animal, with which indeed such persons not inappropriately compare themselves.

59. Their dwellings were also shown me. They are lowly dwellings constructed of wood; but within they are lined with bark or cork of a pale blue colour, and the walls and ceiling are spotted as with stars, to represent the heaven; for they are fond of picturing the visible heaven with its constellations in the interiors of their houses, the reason being that they believe the constellations to be the abodes of the angels. They have tents also, which are rounded off above and extended in length, spotted likewise within with stars on a blue ground. They retire into these in the day-time, to prevent their faces suffering from the heat of the sun. They bestow much care on the fashioning of these tents of theirs, and on keeping them clean. In them they also take their repasts.

60. The horses of our Earth, when seen by the spirits of Jupiter, appeared to me smaller than usual, although they were pretty robust and tall; which appearance arose from the idea those spirits had concerning the horses on that earth. They informed me that among them there are also horses like ours, though much larger, but that they are wild or in the woods, and that when they come in sight they strike terror into them, although they are quite harmless; they added that their fear of them is innate or natural. This gave me occasion to think of the cause of that fear. For in the spiritual sense, a horse signifies the Intellectual formed from scientifics[aa]; and as they are afraid of cultivating the Intellectual by worldly sciences, from this comes an influx of fear. That they do not care for scientifics, which are of human erudition, will be seen in the following pages.

[Footnote aa: The horse signifies the Intellectual, nos. 2760-2762, 3217, 5321, 6125, 6400, 6534, 7024, 8146, 8148. And the "White Horse" in the Apocalypse denotes the understanding of the Word, no. 2760.]

61. The spirits of that earth are not inclined to associate with the spirits of our Earth, because they differ in disposition and manners. They say that the spirits of our Earth are cunning, and are quick and clever in the contrivance of evils, and that they know and think little about what is good. Moreover, the spirits of the earth Jupiter are much wiser than the spirits of our Earth; they also say of ours that they talk much and think little, and that therefore they cannot interiorly perceive many things, and that they cannot even perceive what good is. They conclude from this that the men of our Earth are external men. It was also once permitted the evil spirits of our Earth to act by their wicked arts, and to infest the spirits of Jupiter who were with me. The latter endured them for a very long time, but at length confessed that they could do so no longer, and that they believed that there could not be worse spirits, since they so perverted their imagination, and also their thought, that they seemed to themselves as it were bound, and incapable of being extricated from this bondage, and set at liberty, except by Divine aid. While I read from the Word some passages on the subject of our Saviour's Passion, some European spirits uttered dreadful scandals, with the intention of seducing the spirits of Jupiter. Inquiry being made as to who they were, and what their profession in the world had been, it was ascertained that some of them had been preachers, and many of them were of those who call themselves Members of the Society of the Lord, or Jesuits. I remarked that these, during their life in the world, by their preachings on the subject of the Lord's Passion, had been able to move the common people to tears. I also added the cause, that in the world they had thought one way and spoken another, thus that they had entertained one sentiment in their hearts and professed another with their lips; but that now they are not allowed to speak thus deceitfully, for, on becoming spirits, they are compelled to speak exactly as they think. The spirits of Jupiter were exceedingly astonished that there could be such a variance between the interiors and exteriors belonging to a man, that is to say, that it should be possible to speak one way and think quite another way, which would be impossible for them. They were surprised to hear that many who are from our Earth even become angels, and that they are of quite a different heart. They had supposed that all on our Earth were like those [evil ones who were then present], but they were told that many are not of this character, and that there are also some who think from good, and not, like these, from evil, and that those who think from good become angels. In order that they might know that this was the case, there came from the heaven of angels from our Earth choirs, one after another, who glorified the Lord together with one voice, and with harmony[bb]. These choirs affected the spirits of Jupiter who were with me, with such intense delight, that they seemed to themselves as it were caught up into heaven. This glorification by the choirs lasted about one hour. The delights which they experienced from this were communicated to me, and I was enabled to feel them sensibly. They said they would relate this occurrence to those of them who were elsewhere.

[Footnote bb: It is called a choir when many spirits speak at once and unanimously, concerning which see nos. 2595, 2596, 3350. In their speech there is harmony, concerning which see nos. 1648, 1649. By means of choirs in the other life an inauguration into unanimity is effected, no. 5182.]

62. The inhabitants of the earth Jupiter place wisdom in thinking well and justly on all things that occur in life. This wisdom they imbibe from their parents from childhood, and it is successively transmitted to posterity, and goes on increasing from the love they have for it as existing with their parents. Of the sciences, such as exist on our Earth, they know nothing whatever, nor have they any desire to know. They call them shades, and compare them to clouds which come between [the earth and] the sun. They were led into this idea concerning the sciences by the conduct of some who had come from our Earth, who boasted in their presence that they were wise by reason of the sciences. The spirits from our Earth, who thus boasted, were such as placed wisdom in such things as are matters of the memory only, as in languages, especially the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, in the noteworthy publications of the learned world, in criticism, in bare experimental facts, and in terms, especially philosophical ones, and other similar things, not using them as means for becoming wise, but making wisdom to consist in those very things. Such persons, in consequence of not having cultivated their rational faculty by the sciences as means, in the other life have little perception, for they see only in terms and from terms, and, for those who see in this way, those things are as little formless masses, and as clouds before the intellectual sight (see above, no. 38); and those who have been conceited of their learning from this source perceive still less. But those who have used the sciences as means of invalidating and annihilating the things that belong to the church and to faith, have entirely destroyed their Intellectual, and see in the dark like owls, seeing falsity for truth and evil for good. The spirits of Jupiter, from intercourse with such persons, concluded that the sciences occasion shade and blindness; it was told them, however, that on this Earth the sciences are means of opening the intellectual sight, which is in the light of heaven; but because of the dominion of such things as belong to merely natural and sensual life, the sciences, to those [who are such], are means of becoming insane, that is to say, of confirming themselves in favour of Nature against the Divine, and in favour of the world against heaven. The sciences, they were further informed, are in themselves spiritual riches, and those who possess them are like those who possess worldly riches, which likewise are means of performing uses to oneself, one's neighbour, and one's country, and are also means of doing evil to them. They are, moreover, like dress, which serves for use and adornment and also for gratifying pride, as with those who would be held in honour for that alone. The spirits of the earth Jupiter understood this perfectly; but they were surprised that, being men, they should stand still in the means, and prefer to wisdom itself such things as only lead to it; and that they did not see, that to immerse the mind in these, and not raise it above them, is to becloud and blind it.

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