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Egyptian Literature

Comprising

Egyptian Tales,

Hymns, Litanies, Invocations,

The Book Of The Dead,

And

Cuneiform Writings

Edited And With A Special Introduction By

Epiphanius Wilson, A.M.

New York And London

The Co-Operative Publication Society

Copyright, 1901

The Colonial Press



CONTENTS

Special Introduction. The Book Of The Dead A Hymn To The Setting Sun Hymn And Litany To Osiris Litany Hymn To Ra Hymn To The Setting Sun Hymn To The Setting Sun The Chapter Of The Chaplet Of Victory The Chapter Of The Victory Over Enemies. The Chapter Of Giving A Mouth To The Overseer The Chapter Of Giving A Mouth To Osiris Ani Opening The Mouth Of Osiris The Chapter Of Bringing Charms To Osiris The Chapter Of Memory The Chapter Of Giving A Heart To Osiris The Chapter Of Preserving The Heart The Chapter Of Preserving The Heart The Chapter Of Preserving The Heart The Chapter Of Preserving The Heart The Heart Of Carnelian Preserving The Heart Preserving The Heart Preserving The Heart Rubric Beating Back The Crocodile Beating Back The Crocodile Repulsing Serpents Against Snakes Against Serpents Driving Away Apshait Driving Back The Merti Living By Air Living By Air Driving Back Rerek Repulsing The Eater Of The Ass Abolishing The Slaughterings Abolishing The Slaughterings Air And Water Dominion Over Elements Dominion Over Elements Dominion Over Elements Preservation Of The Soul Of Drinking Water Of Drinking Water Preservation From Scalding On Coming Forth By Day Chapter Of Knowledge Of Gaining Mastery Over Enemies Victory Over Enemies Coming Forth By Day Opening The Underworld Coming Forth By Day Coming Forth By Day Coming Forth By Day Coming Forth By Day Coming Forth By Day Of Lifting Up The Feet Of Journeying To Annu Of Transformation Of Performing Transformations Of Transformation Into A Hawk Of Transformation Into A Governor Of Transformation Into A God Transformation Into A Lotus Transformation Into A Lotus Transformation Into Ptah Transformation Into A Bennu Bird Transformation Into A Heron Of The Living Soul Of The Swallow The Serpent Sata Of The Crocodile Soul And Body Of Evil Recollections Of Rescue Of Opening The Tomb Of Not Sailing To The East Of The Ink-Pot And Palette Of Being Nigh Unto Thoth Of Being Nigh Unto Thoth Of Bringing A Boat Along In Heaven Of Bringing The Makhent Boat Of Entering The Boat Of Ra Of Protecting The Boat Of Ra Of Going Into The Boat Of Ra Of Knowing The Souls Of The East Of Sekhet-Hetepet Of Knowing The Souls Of Pe Of Knowing The Souls Of Nekhen Of Knowing The Souls Of Khemennu Of Coming Forth From Heaven Of Knowing The Souls Of Khemennu Of Receiving Paths Of Coming Forth From Re-Stau Of Coming Forth From Re-Stau Of Going About In The Underworld Of Entering Into The Great House Of Entering The Presence The Introduction To Maati The Introduction To Maati The Negative Confession Address To The Gods Of The Underworld Of The Hour Apes Of The Praise Of The Gods Adoration Of The Gods Of The Qerti Hymn Of Praise To Osiris Of Making Perfect The Khu Of Living Nigh Unto Ra Of Bringing Men Back To Earth Of Making Perfect The Khu Of Making Perfect The Khu For The New Moon Of Travelling In The Boat Of Ra Of Making Perfect The Khu Sailing In The Great Boat Of The Four Flames Egyptian Tales The Taking Of Joppa The Doomed Prince Anpu And Bata Setna And The Magic Book Tales Of The Magicians The Peasant And The Workman The Shipwrecked Sailor The Adventures Of Sanehat The Tell Amarna Tablets The Hittite Invasion Of Damascus The Amorite Treachery The War In Phoenicia Northern Palestine Southern Palestine Royal Letters Cuneiform Inscriptions And Hieratic Papyri The Great Tablet Of Rameses II At Abu-Simbel Hymn To Osiris Travels Of An Egyptian In The Fourteenth Century B.C. Dirge Of Menephtah Hymn To The Nile The Solemn Festal Dirge Of The Egyptians Hymns To Amen Hymn To Pharaoh The Song Of The Harper Hymn To Amen-Ra Hymn To Ra-Harmachis The Lamentations Of Isis And Nephthys The Litany Of Ra The Book Of Respirations The Epic Of Penta-Our Footnotes



SPECIAL INTRODUCTION.

The wonders of Egyptian archaeology are the latest and most precious harvest of scholars and explorers. From Belzoni to Flinders Petrie there has been a succession of discoveries in the valley of the Nile with which it is hard for ordinary students to keep pace. Our knowledge of Egyptian life to-day is far clearer and more complete than Bentley's or Porson's acquaintance with the antiquities of Greece and Rome, and we have far more complete access to the treasures of Egyptian literature than Dante or Thomas Aquinas had to the remains of Attic poets and mystics. We know exactly how an Egyptian of the twelfth dynasty dressed; what was the position of women in Egypt; and what uniform was worn by the Egyptian soldiers who took part in the campaign against Khitasis. We can see Rameses II riding in his war-chariot; we know the very names of the horses by whose side his tame lion is running and thirsting for the blood of his master's foes. We know all about the domestic animals, the funeral customs, the trades, the gods, the agriculture of the Nile valley thirty centuries ago. We see the whole many-sided civilization portrayed in the brightest colors in the poetry, the books of ritual, the hieratic inscriptions, the tablets, papyri, and hieroglyphics which day by day come to light in exhaustless abundance from the mounds and ruins of that fertile plain that stretches from Thebes to the Mareotic lake.

For instance, we can learn exact particulars about the mode in which Rameses II made war, from the poem of Penta-Our, a Theban writer of the fourteenth century B.C. It is only by a figure of speech that this poem can be called an epic; it is rather a historical narrative couched in terms of poetic exaggeration with the object of flattering the royal vanity of Pharaoh.

The campaign in which Rameses then engaged was directed against Kadesh, a city built on an island in the Orontes. It is, according to Penta-Our, inhabited by a people known as Khita, whose spies are brought into the tent of Rameses and questioned as to the whereabouts of the King of Kadesh. The spies are forced by blows to answer, and they tell the Egyptian monarch that the King of the Khita "is powerful with many soldiers, and with chariot soldiers, and with their harness, as many as the sand of the seashore, and they are ready to fight behind Kadesh."

The King is very angry; for he had been deceived by false news to the effect that his enemy had fled in terror to Khilibu. "The fault is great," he cries, "that the governors of the land and the vassal princes of Pharaoh have committed, in neglecting to watch the movements of the Khita." He sends to bring back the legions he had sent away, and meanwhile the approach of the enemy is announced. The camp of Rameses is surprised by the Asiatics; many foot-soldiers are killed before they can seize their weapons, but a faithful band rallies in front of the royal quarters. Suddenly a cry is heard; Rameses has quickly put on his armor, seized his lance, ordered his war lion to be loosed, and dashed into the fight. Pharaoh with his master of the horse, Menni, is soon hemmed in by foes. "My Lord, O generous King!" cries Menni, "Egypt's great protector in the day of battle! behold we stand alone in the midst of the enemy, for the archers and the chariots have left us. Let us return, that our lives may be saved. Save us, O my Lord, Rameses Miamun!" Then Rameses called upon Amen, his god, and under his protection charged the enemy, and "his hand devoured them in the space of an instant." Five times he rushed upon them, and five times they repulsed him. The sixth time he breaks their ranks and regains his own lines. Then the legions of Ptah, which had returned to the camp, join the battle, and the Asiatics are routed. The first care of Rameses is to refresh his brave horses, Victory-in-Thebes and Maut-is-Satisfied. Neither they nor Rameses and his lion are wounded, though all stained with blood and dust, while the head-plumes of the team are torn and tattered and their caparison broken.

This is a brief account of the main incident in this Egyptian epic, which is written with life-like detail and animation. The war concludes with a treaty, and the marriage of Rameses with the daughter of the King of Kadesh, so that henceforth "the people of Egypt were of one mind with the princes of Khita, which had not been the case since the god Ra."

The Egyptians have always been deeply impressed by the fact of human mortality, and much of their religious belief and religious ritual is taken up with the rites of burial, and detailed doctrines as to the experience of the soul after parting from the body. Their elaborate embalming of the dead springs from the desire to keep the mortal tenement prepared for the soul's return to it. In their Book of the Dead is a full series of prayers, songs, and incantations to be employed at funerals, and by the individual in his journey beyond the tomb. The funeral procession was a very noisy company; lamentations were heard through its whole length, but the burden of the hymns was always, "To the West." This was enlarged upon, "To the West, the dwelling of Osiris; O Chief, as thou goest to the West, the Gods themselves lament, as thou goest to the West."

Osiris is the judge who weighs the souls, and allots them happiness or misery, according to their deserts. "The Book of the Dead" is interesting because it teaches how clearly and dogmatically the solemn and precise Egyptian stated his views and held his convictions concerning the unknown country. Four parts of man, it was said, survive after death, namely, the soul, the spirit, the shadow, and the double. The double remains in the tomb, and only leaves it in search of food. Sometimes it feels its loneliness and avenges itself upon near relations who have forsaken it. But the soul hurries to the bar of Osiris, where Thoth weighs the heart in the scales, and the innocent are admitted into the Field of Beans, a realm of fertility, where wheat grows seven cubits high. Immortality is spent in feasting, singing, conversation, and games. But the whole of this wonderful book is well worth studying. It shows how what Addison calls "this longing after immortality" led an ancient and deeply religious people to attempt in their burial rites to rob even the grave of its terrors, and conjured up out of the shadows of the tomb a clear and distinct vision of future life, wherein man in his complete individuality survived to all eternity.

Among the most important results of recent Egyptian exploration must be reckoned the discovery of the tablets of Tell Amarna. Tell Amarna is a village in Upper Egypt, and in a pit at the foot of the mountain, at the base of which it stands, were discovered hundreds of these relics, which have since been distributed among the museums of London, Berlin, and Gizeh. The writing on these tablets is cuneiform, and the matter is of profound historic importance, illustrating, as it does, the relations between Egypt and western Asia in the fifteenth century B.C. While the existence of these tablets proves that cuneiform writing was common to Palestine and Syria as well as the Euphrates Valley, yet curiously enough the manuscripts of Tell Amarna are different from any of the same kind that have been found elsewhere, and the language resembles somewhat the Hebrew of the Old Testament.

While most of these tablets are letters and despatches from friendly powers in Syria, and from vassal princes in Palestine, others contain interesting legends. The letters are addressed to the Pharaohs known as Amenophis III and Amenophis IV, who reigned in the sixteenth and fifteenth centuries B.C.

The Egyptians employed what practically were three alphabets—the hieroglyphic, the hieratic, and the demotic. The hieroglyph is a symbol, denoting something without letters or syllables; as, pictures of a bee stand for king. The hieratic handwriting was a transition from symbols to primitive letters; the papyrus reed, cut in slices and gummed together, was used as paper for this writing, much of which is very beautifully executed in black and red inks. These papyri are constantly being discovered, but perhaps the earliest "find" of importance was that at Thebes in 1846, when a number of literary compositions were brought to light which must have been executed during the twelfth dynasty, about twenty-five centuries B.C.

The Egyptian Tales are works written in a lighter vein than the literature we have already described. They will be read with delight, and none the less so because they show that the Egyptians, who are the Chinese of the Mediterranean, possess that saving quality in literary and political life, namely, a sense of humor.

(signed) Epiphanius Wilson



THE BOOK OF THE DEAD

According to the Theban Recension

Translated by E. A. Wallis Budge, Litt.D., D.Lit., F.S.A.



A Hymn To The Setting Sun

A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA WHEN HE RISETH UPON THE HORIZON, AND WHEN HE SETTETH IN THE LAND OF LIFE. Osiris, the scribe Ani, saith:

"Homage to thee, O Ra, when thou risest [as] Tem-Heru-khuti (Tem-Harmachis). Thou art adored [by me when] thy beauties are before mine eyes, and [when thy] radiance [falleth] upon [my] body. Thou goest forth to thy setting in the Sektet boat with [fair] winds, and thy heart is glad; the heart of the Matet boat rejoiceth. Thou stridest over the heavens in peace, and all thy foes are cast down; the never-resting stars sing hymns of praise unto thee, and the stars which rest, and the stars which never fail glorify thee as thou sinkest to rest in the horizon of Manu,(1) O thou who art beautiful at morn and at eve, O thou lord who livest and art established, O my lord!

"Homage to thee, O thou who art Ra when thou risest, and Tem when thou settest [in] beauty. Thou risest and shinest on the back of thy mother [Nut], O thou who art crowned king of the gods! Nut doeth homage unto thee, and everlasting and never-changing order(2) embraceth thee at morn and at eve. Thou stridest over the heaven, being glad of heart, and the Lake of Testes is content [thereat]. The Sebau Fiend hath fallen to the ground; his arms and his hands have been hacked off, and the knife hath severed the joints of his body. Ra hath a fair wind; the Sektet boat goeth forth and sailing along it cometh into port. The gods of the south and of the north, of the west and of the east, praise thee, O thou divine substance, from whom all forms of life come into being. Thou sendest forth the word, and the earth is flooded with silence, O thou only One, who didst dwell in heaven before ever the earth and the mountains came into existence. O Runner, O Lord, O only One, thou maker of things which are, thou hast fashioned the tongue of the company of the gods, thou hast produced whatsoever cometh forth from the waters, and thou springest up from them over the flooded land of the Lake of Horus. Let me snuff the air which cometh forth from thy nostrils, and the north wind which cometh forth from thy mother [Nut]. Oh, make thou to be glorious my shining form (khu), O Osiris, make thou to be divine my soul (ba)! Thou art worshipped [in] peace (or [in] setting), O lord of the gods, thou art exalted by reason of thy wondrous works. Shine thou with thy rays of light upon my body day by day, [upon me], Osiris the scribe, the teller of the divine offerings of all the gods, the overseer of the granary of the lords of Abtu (Abydos), the royal scribe in truth who loveth thee; Ani, victorious in peace."



Hymn And Litany To Osiris

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheet 19).]

"Praise be unto thee, O Osiris, lord of eternity, Unnefer, Heru-khuti (Harmachis), whose forms are manifold, and whose attributes are majestic, Ptah-Seker-Tem in Annu (Heliopolis), the lord of the hidden place, and the creator of Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis) and of the gods [therein], the guide of the underworld, whom [the gods] glorify when thou settest in Nut. Isis embraceth thee in peace, and she driveth away the fiends from the mouth of thy paths. Thou turnest thy face upon Amentet, and thou makest the earth to shine as with refined copper. Those who have lain down (i.e., the dead) rise up to see thee, they breathe the air and they look upon thy face when the Disk riseth on its horizon; their hearts are at peace inasmuch as they behold thee, O thou who art Eternity and Everlastingness!"



Litany

"Homage to thee, [O lord of] starry deities in Annu, and of heavenly beings in Kher-aba; thou god Unti, who art more glorious than the gods who are hidden in Annu; oh grant(3) thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit."

"Homage to thee, O An in Antes, (?) Heru-khuti (Harmachis), with long strides thou stridest over heaven, O Heru-khuti. Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit."

"Homage to thee, O Soul of everlastingness, thou Soul who dwellest in Tattu, Unnefer, son of Nut; thou art lord of Akert. Oh, grant thou unto me a path wherein I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit."

"Homage to thee in thy dominion over Tattu; the Ureret crown is established upon thy head; thou art the One who maketh the strength which protecteth himself, and thou dwellest in peace in Tattu. Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit."

"Homage to thee, O lord of the Acacia tree, the Seker boat is set upon its sledge; thou turnest back the Fiend, the worker of evil, and thou causest the Utchat to rest upon its seat. Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit."

"Homage to thee, O thou who art mighty in thine hour, thou great and mighty Prince, dweller in An-rut-f,(4) lord of eternity and creator of everlastingness, thou art the lord of Suten-henen (Heracleopolis Magna). Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit."

"Homage to thee, O thou who restest upon Right and Truth, thou art the lord of Abtu (Abydos), and thy limbs are joined unto Ta-tchesertet; thou art he to whom fraud and guile are hateful. Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit."

"Homage to thee, O thou who art within thy boat, thou bringest Hapi (i.e., the Nile) forth from his source; the light shineth upon thy body and thou art the dweller in Nekhen.(5) Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit."

"Homage to thee, O creator of the gods, thou King of the North and of the South, O Osiris, victorious one, ruler of the world in thy gracious seasons; thou art the lord of the celestial world.(6) Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and true; I have not spoken lies wittingly, nor have I done aught with deceit."



Hymn To Ra

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheet 20).]

A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN. Those who are in his train rejoice, and lo! Osiris Ani, victorious, saith:

"Hail, thou Disk, thou lord of rays, who risest on the horizon day by day! Shine thou with thy beams of light upon the face of Osiris Ani, who is victorious; for he singeth hymns of praise unto thee at dawn, and he maketh thee to set at eventide with words of adoration. May the soul of Osiris Ani, the triumphant one, come forth with thee into heaven, may he go forth in the Matet boat. May he come into port in the Sektet boat, and may he cleave his path among the never-resting stars in the heavens."

Osiris Ani, being in peace and in triumph, adoreth his lord, the lord of eternity, saying: "Homage to thee, O Heru-khuti (Harmachis), who art the god Khepera, the self-created; when thou risest on the horizon and sheddest thy beams of light upon the lands of the North and of the South, thou art beautiful, yea beautiful, and all the gods rejoice when they behold thee, the King of heaven. The goddess Nebt-Unnut is stablished upon thy head; and her uraei of the South and of the North are upon thy brow; she taketh up her place before thee. The god Thoth is stablished in the bows of thy boat to destroy utterly all thy foes. Those who are in the Tuat (underworld) come forth to meet thee, and they bow in homage as they come toward thee, to behold [thy] beautiful Image. And I have come before thee that I may be with thee to behold thy Disk every day. May I not be shut up in [the tomb], may I not be turned back, may the limbs of my body be made new again when I view thy beauties, even as [are those of] all thy favored ones, because I am one of those who worshipped thee [whilst I lived] upon earth. May I come in unto the land of eternity, may I come even unto the everlasting land, for behold, O my lord, this hast thou ordained for me."

And lo, Osiris Ani triumphant in peace, the triumphant one, saith: "Homage to thee, O thou who risest in thy horizon as Ra, thou reposest upon law [which changeth not nor can it be altered]. Thou passest over the sky, and every face watcheth thee and thy course, for thou hast been hidden from their gaze. Thou dost shew thyself at dawn and at eventide day by day. The Sektet boat, wherein is thy Majesty, goeth forth with might; thy beams [shine] upon [all] faces; [the number] of thy red and yellow rays cannot be known, nor can thy bright beams be told. The lands of the gods, and the eastern lands of Punt(7) must be seen, ere that which is hidden [in thee] may be measured. Alone and by thyself thou dost manifest thyself [when] thou comest into being above Nu (i.e., the sky). May Ani advance, even as thou dost advance; may he never cease [to go forward], even as thy Majesty ceaseth not [to go forward], even though it be for a moment; for with strides dost thou in one little moment pass over the spaces which would need hundreds of thousands and millions of years [for man to pass over; this] thou doest, and then dost thou sink to rest. Thou puttest an end to the hours of the night, and thou dost count them, even thou; thou endest them in thine own appointed season, and the earth becometh light. Thou settest thyself before thy handiwork in the likeness of Ra; thou risest in the horizon."

Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, declareth his praise of thee when thou shinest, and when thou risest at dawn he crieth in his joy at thy birth: "Thou art crowned with the majesty of thy beauties; thou mouldest thy limbs as thou dost advance, and thou bringest them forth without birth-pangs in the form of Ra, as thou dost rise up into the upper air. Grant thou that I may come unto the heaven which is everlasting, and unto the mountain where dwell thy favored ones. May I be joined unto those shining beings, holy and perfect, who are in the underworld; and may I come forth with them to behold thy beauties when thou shinest at eventide and goest to thy mother Nu. Thou dost place thyself in the west, and my two hands are [raised] in adoration [of thee] when thou settest as a living being. Behold, thou art the maker of eternity, and thou art adored [when] thou settest in the heavens. I have given my heart unto thee without wavering, O thou who art mightier than the gods."

Osiris Ani, triumphant, saith: "A hymn of praise to thee, O thou who risest like unto gold, and who dost flood the world with light on the day of thy birth. Thy mother giveth thee birth upon [her] hand, and thou dost give light unto the course of the Disk. O thou great Light, who shinest in the heavens, thou dost strengthen the generations of men with the Nile-flood, and thou dost cause gladness in all lands, and in all cities, and in all the temples. Thou art glorious by reason of thy splendors, and thou makest strong thy ka (i.e., Double) with hu and tchefau foods. O thou who art the mighty one of victories, thou who art the Power of [all] powers, who dost make strong thy throne against evil fiends; who art glorious in majesty in the Sektet boat, and who art exceeding mighty in the Atet boat, make thou glorious Osiris Ani with victory in the underworld; grant thou that in the netherworld he may be without evil. I pray thee to put away [his] faults behind thee: grant thou that he may be one of thy venerable servants who are with the shining ones; may he be joined unto the souls which are in Ta-tchesertet; and may he journey into the Sekhet-Aaru by a prosperous and happy decree, he the Osiris, the scribe, Ani, triumphant."

And the god saith:

"Thou shalt come forth into heaven, thou shalt pass over the sky, thou shalt be joined into the starry deities. Praises shall be offered unto thee in thy boat, thou shalt be hymned in the Atet boat, thou shalt behold Ra within his shrine, thou shalt set together with his Disk day by day, thou shalt see the Ant fish when it springeth into being in the waters of turquoise, and thou shalt see the Abtu fish in his hour. It shall come to pass that the Evil One shall fall when he layeth a snare to destroy thee, and the joints of his neck and of his back shall be hacked asunder. Ra [saileth] with a fair wind, and the Sektet boat draweth on and cometh into port. The mariners of Ra rejoice, and the heart of Nebt-ankh(8) is glad, for the enemy of her lord hath fallen to the ground. Thou shalt behold Horus on the standing-place of the pilot of the boat, and Thoth and Maat shall stand one upon each side of him. All the gods shall rejoice when they behold Ra coming in peace to make the hearts of the shining ones to live, and Osiris Ani, victorious, the scribe of the divine offerings of the lords of Thebes, shall be along with them!"



Hymn To The Setting Sun

[From the Papyrus of Mut-hetep (British Museum No, 10,010, sheet 5).]

[ANOTHER CHAPTER OF] THE MYSTERY OF THE TUAT (UNDERWORLD) AND OF PASSING THROUGH THE UNSEEN NETHERWORLD, and of seeing the Disk when he setteth in Amentet, [when] he is adored by the gods and by the Khus in the underworld, and [when] the Soul which dwelleth in Ra is made perfect. He is made mighty before Tem; he is made great before Osiris; he setteth his terror before the company of the gods who are the guides of the netherworld; he maketh long (?) his steps and he maketh his face to enter (?) [with that of] the great god. Now every Khu, for whom these words shall have been said, shall come forth by day in any form which he is pleased to take; he shall gain power among the gods of the Tuat (underworld), and they shall recognize him as one of themselves; and he shall enter in at the hidden gate with power.

The lady Mut-hetep, victorious, singeth hymns of praise to thee [saying]: "O Ra-Tem, in thy splendid progress thou risest, and thou settest as a living being in the glories of the western horizon; thou settest in thy territory which is in Manu.(9) Thy uraeus is behind thee, thy uraeus is behind thee. Homage to thee, O thou who art in peace, homage to thee, O thou who art in peace. Thou art joined unto the Eye of Tem, and it chooseth its powers of protection [to place] behind thy members. Thou goest forth through heaven, thou travellest over the earth, and thou journeyest onward. O Luminary, the northern and southern halves of heaven come to thee and they bow low in adoration, and they pay homage unto thee, day by day. The gods of Amentet rejoice in thy beauties and the unseen places sing hymns of praise unto thee. Those who dwell in the Sektet boat go round about thee, and the Souls of the East pay homage to thee, and when they meet thy Majesty they cry: 'Come, come in peace!' There is a shout of welcome to thee, O lord of heaven and governor of Amentet! Thou art acknowledged by Isis who seeth her son in thee, the lord of fear, the mighty one of terror. Thou settest as a living being in the hidden place. Thy father [Ta-]tunen raiseth thee up and he placeth both his hands behind thee; thou becomest endowed with divine attributes in [thy] members of earth; thou wakest in peace and thou settest in Manu.(10) Grant thou that I may become a being honored before Osiris, and that I may come to thee, O Ra-Tem! I have adored thee, therefore do thou for me that which I wish. Grant thou that I may be victorious in the presence of the company of the gods. Thou are beautiful, O Ra, in thy western horizon of Amentet, thou lord of Maat, thou mighty one of fear, thou whose attributes are majestic, O thou who art greatly beloved by those who dwell in the Tuat (underworld); thou shinest with thy beams upon the beings that are therein perpetually, and thou sendest forth thy light upon the path of Re-stau. Thou openest up the path of the double Lion-god, thou settest the gods upon [their] thrones, and the Khus in their abiding places. The heart of Naarerf(11) is glad [when] Ra setteth, the heart of Naarerf is glad when Ra setteth."

"Hail, O ye gods of the land of Amentet who make offerings and oblations unto Ra-Tem, ascribe ye glory [unto him when] ye meet him. Grasp ye your weapons and overthrow ye the fiend Seba on behalf of Ra, and repulse the fiend Nebt on behalf of Osiris. The gods of the land of Amentet rejoice and lay hold upon the cords of the Sektet boat, and they come in peace; the gods of the hidden place who dwell in Amentet triumph."

"Hail, Thoth, who didst make Osiris to triumph over his enemies, make thou Mut-hetep, victorious, to triumph over her enemies in the presence of the great divine sovereign chiefs who live with Osiris, the lord of life. The great god who dwelleth in his Disk cometh forth, that is, Horus the avenger of his father Unnefer-Ra. Osiris setteth, and the Khus who are in the Tuat (underworld) say: Homage to thee, O thou who comest as Tem, and who comest into being as the creator of the gods. Homage to thee, O thou who comest as the holy Soul of souls, who dwellest in the horizon. Homage to thee who art more glorious than [all] the gods and who illuminest the Tuat with thine Eye. Homage to thee who sailest in thy glory and who goest round about it in thy Disk."

The following variant of the above hymn is translated from the text in the Papyrus of Nekhtu-Amen (Naville, "Todtenbuch," Bd. II. p. 23).

ANOTHER CHAPTER OF THE MYSTERY OF THE TUAT (UNDERWORLD) AND OF TRAVERSING THE UNSEEN PLACES OF THE UNDERWORLD, of seeing the Disk when he setteth in Amentet, [when] he is adored by the gods and by the Khus of the Tuat (underworld), and [when] the divine Khu which dwelleth within Ra is made perfect. He setteth his might before Ra, he setteth his power before Tem, [he setteth his strength] before Khenti-Amentet, and he setteth his terror before the company of the gods. The Osiris of the gods goeth as leader through the Tuat (underworld), he crasheth through mountains, he bursteth through rocks, he maketh glad (?) the heart of every Khu. This composition shall be recited by the deceased when he cometh forth and when he goeth in with the gods, among whom he findeth no opposition; then shall he come forth by day in all the manifold and exceedingly numerous forms which he may be pleased to take. [The Osiris ... saith:]

"A hymn of praise to Ra at eventide [when] he setteth as a living being in Baakha.(12) The great god who dwelleth in his Disk riseth in his two eyes(13) and all the Khus of the underworld receive him in his horizon of Amentet; they shout praises unto Heru-khuti (Harmachis) in his form of Tem, and they sing hymns of joy to Ra when they have received him at the head of his beautiful path of Amentet."

He (i.e., the deceased) saith: "Praise be unto thee, O Ra, praise be unto thee, O Tem, in thy splendid progress. Thou hast risen and thou hast put on strength, and thou settest like a living being amid thy glories in the horizon of Amentet, in thy domain which is in Manu. Thy uraeus-goddess is behind thee; thy uraeus-goddess is behind thee. Hail to thee, in peace; hail to thee, in peace. Thou joinest thyself unto the Eye of Horus, and thou hidest thyself within its secret place; it destroyeth for thee all the convulsions of thy face, it maketh thee strong with life, and thou livest. It bindeth its protecting amulets behind thy members. Thou sailest forth over heaven, and thou makest the earth to be stablished; thou joinest thyself unto the upper heaven, O Luminary. The two regions of the East and West make adoration unto thee, bowing low and paying homage unto thee, and they praise thee day by day; the gods of Amentet rejoice in thy splendid beauties. The hidden places adore thee, the aged ones make offerings unto thee, and they create for thee protecting powers. The divine beings who dwell in the eastern and western horizons transport thee, and those who are in the Sektet boat convey thee round and about. The Souls of Amentet cry out unto thee and say unto thee when they meet thy majesty (Life, Health, Strength!), 'All hail, all hail!' When thou comest forth in peace there arise shouts of delight to thee, O thou lord of heaven, thou Prince of Amentet. Thy mother Isis embraceth thee, and in thee she recognizeth her son, the lord of fear, the mighty one of terror. Thou settest as a living being within the dark portal. Thy father Tatunen lifteth thee up and he stretcheth out his two hands behind thee; thou becomest a divine being in the earth. Thou wakest as thou settest, and thy habitation is in Manu. Grant thou that I may be venerated before Osiris, and come thou [to me], O Ra-Tem. Since thou hast been adored [by me] that which I wish thou shalt do for me day by day. Grant thou victory [unto me] before the great company of the gods, O Ra who art doubly beautiful in thy horizon of Amentet, thou lord of Maat who dwellest in the horizon. The fear of thee is great, thy forms are majestic, and the love of thee is great among those who dwell in the underworld."



Hymn To The Setting Sun

[From a Papyrus of the nineteenth dynasty preserved at Dublin (see Naville, "Todtenbuch," Bd. I. Bl. 19).]

A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA-HERU-KHUTI (RA-HARMACHIS) WHEN HE SETTETH IN THE WESTERN PART OF HEAVEN. He (i.e., the deceased) saith:

"Homage to thee, O Ra [who] in thy sitting art Tem-Heru-khuti (Tem-Harmachis), thou divine god, thou self-created being, thou primeval matter [from which all things were made]. When [thou] appearest in the bows of [thy] bark men shout for joy at thee, O maker of the gods! Thou didst stretch out the heavens wherein thy two eyes(14) might travel, thou didst make the earth to be a vast chamber for thy Khus, so that every man might know his fellow. The Sektet boat is glad, and the Matet boat rejoiceth; and they greet thee with exaltation as thou journeyest along. The god Nu is content, and thy mariners are satisfied; the uraeus-goddess hath overthrown thine enemies, and thou hast carried off the legs of Apep. Thou art beautiful, O Ra, each day, and thy mother Nut embraceth thee; thou settest in beauty, and thy heart is glad in the horizon of Manu, and the holy beings therein rejoice. Thou shinest there with thy beams, O thou great god, Osiris, the everlasting Prince. The lords of the zones of the Tuat in their caverns stretch out their hands in adoration before thy Ka (double), and they cry out to thee, and they all come forth in the train of thy form shining brilliantly. The hearts of the lords of the Tuat (underworld) are glad when thou sendest forth thy glorious light in Amentet; their two eyes are directed toward thee, and they press forward to see thee, and their hearts rejoice when they do see thee. Thou hearkenest unto the acclamations of those that are in the funeral chest,(15) thou doest away with their helplessness and drivest away the evils which are about them. Thou givest breath to their nostrils and they take hold of the bows of thy bark in the horizon of Manu. Thou art beautiful each day, O Ra, and may thy mother Nut embrace Osiris ...,(16) victorious."



The Chapter Of The Chaplet Of Victory

[From Lepsius "Todtenbuch," Bl. 13.]

THE CHAPTER OF THE CHAPLET OF VICTORY. Osiris Auf-ankh, victorious, born of Sheret-Amsu, victorious, saith:

"Thy father Tem hath woven for thee a beautiful chaplet of victory [to be placed] on [thy] living brow, O thou who lovest the gods, and thou shalt live forever. Osiris-khent-Amentet(17) hath made thee to triumph over thine enemies, and thy father Seb hath decreed for thee all his inheritance. Come, therefore, O Horus, son of Isis, for thou, O son of Osiris, sittest upon the throne of thy father Ra to overthrow thine enemies, for he hath ordained for thee the two lands to their utmost limits. Atem hath [also] ordained this, and the company of the gods hath confirmed the splendid power of the victory of Horus the son of Isis and the son of Osiris forever and forever. And Osiris Auf-ankh shall be victorious forever and ever. O Osiris-khent-Amentet, the whole of the northern and southern parts of the heavens, and every god and every goddess, who are in heaven and who are upon earth [will] the victory of Horus, the son of Isis and the son of Osiris, over his enemies in the presence of Osiris-khent-Amentet who will make Osiris Auf-ankh, victorious, to triumph over his enemies in the presence of Osiris-khent-Amentet, Un-nefer, the son of Nut, on the day of making him to triumph over Set and his fiends in the presence of the great sovereign chiefs who are in Annu (Heliopolis); on the night of the battle and overthrow of the Seba-fiend in the presence of the great sovereign princes who are in Abtu; on the night of making Osiris to triumph over his enemies make thou Osiris Auf-ankh, triumphant, to triumph over his enemies in the presence of the great sovereign princes, who are in the horizon of Amentet; on the day of the festival of Haker in the presence of the great sovereign princes who are in Tattu; on the night of the setting up of the Tet in Tattu in the presence of the great sovereign princes who are in the ways of the damned; on the night of the judgment of those who shall be annihilated in the presence of the great sovereign princes who are in Sekhem (Letopolis); on the night of the 'things of the altars in Sekhem' in the presence of the great sovereign princes who are in Pe and Tepu; on the night of the stablishing of the inheriting by Horus of the things of his father Osiris in the presence of the great sovereign princes who are at the great festival of the ploughing and turning up of the earth in Tattu, or (as others say), [in] Abtu; on the night of the weighing of words," or (as others say), "weighing of locks in the presence of the great sovereign princes who are in An-rut-f on its place; on the night when Horus receiveth the birth-chamber of the gods in the presence of the great sovereign princes who are in the lands of Rekhti(?); on the night when Isis lieth down to watch [and] to make lamentation for her brother in the presence of the great sovereign princes who are in Re-stau; on the night of making Osiris to triumph over all his enemies."

"Horus repeated [these] words four times, and all his enemies fell headlong and were overthrown and were cut to pieces; and Osiris Auf-ankh, triumphant, repeated [these] words four times, therefore let all his enemies fall headlong, and be overthrown and cut to pieces. Horus the son of Isis and son of Osiris celebrated in turn millions of festivals, and all his enemies fell headlong, and were overthrown and cut to pieces. Their habitation hath gone forth to the block of the East, their heads have been cut off; their necks have been destroyed; their thighs have been cut off; they have been given over to the Great Destroyer who dwelleth in the valley of the grave; and they shall never come forth from under the restraint of the god Seb."

THIS CHAPTER SHALL BE RECITED OVER THE DIVINE CHAPLET WHICH IS LAID UPON THE FACE OF THE DECEASED, AND THOU SHALT CAST INCENSE INTO THE FIRE ON BEHALF OF OSIRIS AUF-ANKH, TRIUMPHANT, BORN OF SHERET-AMSU, TRIUMPHANT; THUS SHALT THOU CAUSE HIM TO TRIUMPH OVER HIS ENEMIES, DEAD OR ALIVE, AND HE SHALL BE AMONG THE FOLLOWERS OF OSIRIS; AND A HAND SHALL BE STRETCHED OUT TO HIM WITH MEAT AND DRINK IN THE PRESENCE OF THE GOD. [THIS CHAPTER] SHALL BE SAID BY THEE TWICE AT DAWN—NOW IT IS A NEVER-FAILING CHARM—REGULARLY AND CONTINUALLY.



The Chapter Of The Victory Over Enemies.

[From the Papyrus of Nebseni (British Museum No. 9,900, sheet 12).]

"Hail, Thoth, who didst make Osiris to triumph over his enemies, snare thou the enemies of Osiris, the scribe Nebseni, the lord of piety, in the presence of the great sovereign princes of every god and of every goddess; in the presence of the great sovereign princes who are in Annu (Heliopolis) on the night of the battle and of the overthrow of the Sebau-fiend in Tattu; on the night of making to stand up the double Tet in Sekhem (Letopolis); on the night of the things of the night in Sekhem, in Pe, and in Tepu;(18) on the night of the stablishing of Horus in the heritage of the things of his father in the double land of Rekhti(?); on the night when Isis maketh lamentation at the side of her brother Osiris in Abtu (Abydos); on the night of the Haker festival of the distinguishing [between] the dead (i.e., the damned) and the Khus on the path of the dead (i.e., the damned); on the night of the judgment of those who are to be annihilated at the great [festival of] the ploughing and the turning up of the earth in Naare-rut-f(19) in Re-stau; and on the night of making Horus to triumph over his enemies. Horus is mighty, the northern and southern halves of heaven rejoice, Osiris is content thereat and his heart is glad. Hail, Thoth, make thou to triumph Osiris, the scribe Nebseni, over his enemies in the presence of the sovereign princes of every god and every goddess, and in the presence of you, ye sovereign princes who passed judgment on Osiris behind the shrine."

In the Saite Recension this chapter has no vignette, but it has the title "Another Chapter of the Chaplet of Victory," and is arranged in tabular form. The words, "Hail, Thoth, make Osiris Auf-ankh, triumphant, to triumph over his enemies even as thou didst make Osiris to triumph over his enemies," which are written in two horizontal lines, are to be repeated before each column of text. The "great sovereign princes" invoked are those of: (1) Annu (Heliopolis), (2) Tattu, (3) Sekhem (Letopolis), (4) Pe and Tep, (5) An-arut-f, (6) the double land of Rekhti, (7) Re-stau, (8) Abtu, (9) the paths of the dead, (10) the ploughing festival in Tattu, (11) Kher-aba, (12) Osiris, (13) heaven and earth, (14) every god and every goddess. The rubric reads:

IF THIS CHAPTER BE RECITED REGULARLY AND ALWAYS BY A MAN WHO HATH PURIFIED HIMSELF IN WATER OF NATRON, HE SHALL COME FORTH BY DAY AFTER HE HATH COME INTO PORT (I.E., IS DEAD), AND HE SHALL PERFORM ALL THE TRANSFORMATIONS WHICH HIS HEART SHALL DICTATE, AND HE SHALL COME FORTH FROM EVERY FIRE.



The Chapter Of Giving A Mouth To The Overseer

THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A MOUTH TO THE OVERSEER OF THE HOUSE, NU, TRIUMPHANT, IN THE UNDERWORLD. He saith:

"Homage to thee, O thou lord of brightness, thou who art at the head of the Great House, prince of the night and of thick darkness. I have come unto thee being a pure khu. Thy two hands are behind thee, and thou hast thy lot with [thy] ancestors. Oh, grant thou unto me my mouth that I may speak therewith; and guide thou to me my heart at the season when there is cloud and darkness."



The Chapter Of Giving A Mouth To Osiris Ani

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheet 6).]

THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A MOUTH TO OSIRIS ANI, THE SCRIBE AND TELLER OF THE HOLY OFFERINGS OF ALL THE GODS, TRIUMPHANT, IN THE UNDERWORLD. He saith:

"I rise out of the egg in the hidden land. May my mouth be given unto me that I may speak therewith in the presence of the great god, the lord of the Tuat (underworld). May my hand and my arm not be forced back in the presence of the sovereign princes of any god. I am Osiris, the lord of Re-stau; may I, Osiris the scribe Ani, triumphant, have a portion with him who is on the top of the steps (i.e., Osiris). According to the desire of my heart, I have come from the Pool of Fire, and I have quenched the fire."



Opening The Mouth Of Osiris

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheet 15).]

THE CHAPTER OF OPENING THE MOUTH OF OSIRIS. The scribe Ani, triumphant, saith:

"May the good Ptah open my mouth, and may the god of my city loose the swathings, even the swathings which are over my mouth. Moreover, may Thoth, being filled and furnished with charms, come and loose the bandages, even the bandages of Set which fetter my mouth; and may the god Tem hurl them at those who would fetter [me] with them, and drive them back. May my mouth be opened, may my mouth be unclosed by Shu with his iron knife wherewith he opened the mouths of the gods. I am the goddess Sekhet, and I sit upon [my] place in the great wind(?) of heaven. I am the great goddess Sah who dwelleth among the Souls of Annu (Heliopolis). Now as concerning every charm and all the words which may be spoken against me, may the gods resist them, and may each and every one of the company of the gods withstand them."



The Chapter Of Bringing Charms To Osiris

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheet 15).]

THE CHAPTER OF BRINGING CHARMS UNTO OSIRIS ANI [IN THE UNDERWORLD]. He saith:

"I am Tem-Khepera, who brought himself into being upon the thigh of his divine mother. Those who are in Nu (i.e., the sky) are made wolves, and those who are among the sovereign princes are become hyenas. Behold, I gather together the charm [from every place where] it is, and from every man with whom it is, swifter than greyhounds and quicker than light. Hail, thou who towest along the Makhent boat of Ra, the stays of thy sails and of thy rudder are taut in the wind as thou sailest up the Pool of Fire in the underworld. Behold, thou gatherest together the charm from every place where it is, and from every man with whom it is, swifter than greyhounds and quicker than light, [the charm] which created the forms of being from the ... mother, and which either createth the gods or maketh them silent, and which giveth the heat of fire unto the gods. Behold, the charm is given unto me, from wherever it is [and from him with whom it is], swifter than greyhounds and quicker than light," or (as others say) "quicker than a shadow."



The Chapter Of Memory

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No, 10,477, sheet 5).]

THE CHAPTER OF MAKING A MAN TO POSSESS MEMORY IN THE UNDERWORLD. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, the overseer of the palace, the son of the chief chancellor Amen-hetep, saith:

"May my name be given to me in the Great House, and may I remember my name in the House of Fire on the night of counting the years and of telling the number of the months. I am with the Divine One, and I sit on the eastern side of heaven. If any god whatsoever should advance unto me, let me be able to proclaim his name forthwith."



The Chapter Of Giving A Heart To Osiris

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheet 15).]

THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A HEART TO OSIRIS ANI IN THE UNDERWORLD. He saith:

"May my heart (ab)(20) be with me in the House of Hearts! May my heart (hat) be with me in the House of Hearts! May my heart be with me, and may it rest there, [or] I shall not eat of the cakes of Osiris on the eastern side of the Lake of Flowers, neither shall I have a boat wherein to go down the Nile, nor another wherein to go up, nor shall I be able to sail down the Nile with thee. May my mouth [be given] to me that I may speak therewith, and my two legs to walk therewith, and my two hands and arms to overthrow my foe. May the doors of heaven be opened unto me; may Seb, the Prince(21) of the gods, open wide his two jaws unto me; may he open my two eyes which are blindfolded; may he cause me to stretch apart my two legs which are bound together; and may Anpu (Anubis) make my thighs firm so that I may stand upon them. May the goddess Sekhet make me to rise so that I may ascend unto heaven, and may that be done which I command in the House of the foreign (double) of Ptah (i.e., Memphis). I understand with my heart. I have gained the mastery over my heart, I have gained the mastery over my two hands, I have gained the mastery over my legs, I have gained the power to do whatsoever my ka (double) pleaseth. My soul shall not be fettered to my body at the gates of the underworld; but I shall enter in peace and I shall come forth in peace."



The Chapter Of Preserving The Heart

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheets 15 and 16).]

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART (HATI) OF A MAN BE TAKEN FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD.(22) Saith Osiris Ani:

"Hail, ye who carry away hearts! [Hail,] ye who steal [hearts, and who make the heart of a man to go through its transformations according to his deeds, let not what he hath done harm him before you].(23) Homage to you, O ye lords of eternity, ye possessors of everlastingness, take ye not this heart of Osiris Ani into your grasp, this heart of Osiris, and cause ye not words of evil to spring up against it; because this is the heart of Osiris Ani, triumphant, and it belongeth unto him of many names (i.e., Thoth), the mighty one whose words are his limbs, and who sendeth forth his heart to dwell in his body. The heart of Osiris Ani is triumphant, it is made new before the gods, he hath gained power over it, he hath not been spoken to [according to] what he hath done. He hath gotten power over his own members. His heart obeyeth him, he is the lord thereof, it is in his body, and it shall never fall away therefrom. I, Osiris, the scribe Ani, victorious in peace, and triumphant in the beautiful Amenta and on the mountain of eternity, bid thee to be obedient unto me in the underworld."



The Chapter Of Preserving The Heart

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 5).]

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF THE OVERSEER OF THE PALACE, THE CHANCELLOR-IN-CHIEF, NU, TRIUMPHANT, BE CARRIED AWAY FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. He saith:

"Hail, thou Lion-god! I am the Flower Bush (Unb). That which is an abomination unto me is the divine block. Let not this my heart (hati) be carried away from me by the fighting gods in Annu. Hail, thou who dost wind bandages round Osiris and who hast seen Set! Hail, thou who returnest after smiting and destroying him before the mighty ones! This my heart (ab) [sitteth] and weepeth for itself before Osiris; it hath made supplication for me. I have given unto him and I have decreed unto him the thoughts of the heart in the House of the god Usekh-hra,(24) and I have brought to him sand (sic) at the entry to Khemennu (Hermopolis Magna). Let not this my heart (hati) be carried away from me! I make thee to dwell(?) upon this throne, O thou who joinest together hearts (hatu) [in Sekhet-hetep (with) years] of strength against all things that are an abomination unto thee, and to carry off food from among the things which belong unto thee, and are in thy grasp by reason of thy twofold strength. And this my heart (hati) is devoted to the decrees of the god Tem who leadeth me into the dens of Suti, but let not this my heart which hath done its desire before the sovereign princes who are in the underworld be given unto him. When they find the leg and the swathings they bury them."



The Chapter Of Preserving The Heart

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheet 15).]

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF A MAN BE TAKEN AWAY FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris Ani, triumphant, saith:

"Turn thou back, O messenger of every god! Is it that thou art come [to carry away] this my heart which liveth? But my heart which liveth shall not be given unto thee. [As I] advance, the gods hearken unto my offerings, and they all fall down upon their faces in their own places."



The Chapter Of Preserving The Heart

[From the Papyrus of Amen-hetep (Naville, "Todtenbuch," Bd. I. Bl. 40).]

THE CHAPTER OF NOT ALLOWING THE HEART OF AMEN-HETEP, TRIUMPHANT, TO BE CARRIED AWAY DEAD IN THE UNDERWORLD. The deceased saith:

"My heart is with me, and it shall never come to pass that it shall be carried away. I am the lord of hearts, the slayer of the heart. I live in right and truth (Maat) and I have my being therein. I am Horus, the dweller in hearts, who is within the dweller in the body. I live in my word, and my heart hath being. Let not my heart be taken away from me, let it not be wounded, and may neither wounds nor gashes be dealt upon me because it hath been taken away from me. Let me have my being in the body of [my] father Seb, [and in the body of my] mother Nut. I have not done that which is held in abomination by the gods; let me not suffer defeat there, [but let me be] triumphant."



The Heart Of Carnelian

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheet 33).]

THE CHAPTER OF A HEART OF CARNELIAN. Osiris Ani, triumphant, saith:

"I am the Bennu, the soul of Ra, and the guide of the gods in the Tuat (underworld). Their divine souls come forth upon earth to do the will of their kas; let, therefore, the soul of Osiris Ani come forth to do the will of his ka."



Preserving The Heart

[From Lepsius, "Todtenbuch," Bl. 16.]

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF A MAN BE DRIVEN AWAY FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris Auf-ankh, triumphant, born of Sheret-Amsu, triumphant, saith:

"My heart, my mother; my heart, my mother! My heart of my existence upon earth. May naught stand up to oppose me in judgment; may there be no opposition to me in the presence of the sovereign princes; may [no evil] be wrought against me in the presence of the gods; may there be no parting [of thee] from me in the presence of the great god, the lord of Amentet. Homage to thee, O thou heart of Osiris-khent-Amentet! Homage to you, O my reins! Homage to you, O ye gods who dwell in the divine clouds, and who are exalted (or holy) by reason of your sceptres! Speak ye fair words for the Osiris Auf-ankh, and make ye him to prosper before Nehebka. And behold, though I be joined unto the earth, and am in the mighty innermost part of heaven, let me remain on the earth and not die in Amentet, and let me be a khu therein forever and ever."

THIS [CHAPTER] SHALL BE RECITED OVER A BASALT SCARAB, WHICH SHALL BE SET IN A GOLD SETTING, AND IT SHALL BE PLACED INSIDE THE HEART OF THE MAN(25) FOR WHOM THE CEREMONIES OF "OPENING THE MOUTH" AND OF ANOINTING WITH UNGUENT HAVE BEEN PERFORMED. AND THERE SHALL BE RECITED BY WAY OF A MAGICAL CHARM THE WORDS: "MY HEART, MY MOTHER; MY HEART, MY MOTHER! MY HEART OF TRANSFORMATIONS."



Preserving The Heart

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 5).]

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF THE OVERSEER OF THE PALACE, THE CHANCELLOR-IN-CHIEF, NU, TRIUMPHANT, BE DRIVEN AWAY FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. He Saith:

"O my heart, my mother; O my heart, my mother! O my heart of my existence upon earth. May naught stand up to oppose me in judgment in the presence of the lords of the trial; let it not be said of me and of that which I have done, 'He hath done deeds against that which is right and true'; may naught be against me in the presence of the great god, the lord of Amentet. Homage to thee, O my heart! Homage to thee, O my heart! Homage to you, O my reins! Homage to you, O ye gods who dwell in the divine clouds, and who are exalted (or holy) by reason of your sceptres! Speak ye [for me] fair things to Ra, and make ye me to prosper before Nehebka. And behold me, even though I be joined to the earth in the mighty innermost parts thereof, let me remain upon the earth and let me not die in Amentet, but become a Khu therein."



Preserving The Heart

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheet 15).]

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF OSIRIS, THE SCRIBE OF THE HOLY OFFERINGS OF ALL THE GODS, ANI, TRIUMPHANT, BE DRIVEN FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. He saith:

"My heart, my mother; my heart, my mother! My heart whereby I came into being! May naught stand up to oppose me at [my] judgment; may there be no opposition to me in the presence of the sovereign princes (Tchatcha); may there be no parting of thee from me in the presence of him that keepeth the Balance! Thou art my ka, the dweller in my body; the god Khnemu who knitteth and strengtheneth my limbs. Mayest thou come forth into the place of happiness whither we go. May the Shenit (i.e., the divine officers of the court of Osiris), who form the conditions of the lives of men, not cause my name to stink. [Let it be satisfactory unto us, and let the listening be satisfactory unto us, and let there be joy of heart unto us at the weighing of words. Let not that which is false be uttered against me before the great god, the lord of Amentet. Verily how great shalt thou be when thou risest in triumph!]"(26)



Rubric

[From the Papyrus of Amen-hetep (see Naville, "Todtenbuch," Bd. II. p. 99).]

THESE WORDS ARE TO BE SAID OVER A SCARAB OF GREEN STONE ENCIRCLED WITH A BAND OF REFINED COPPER AND [HAVING] A RING OF SILVER, WHICH SHALL BE PLACED ON THE NECK OF THE KHU.

THIS CHAPTER WAS FOUND IN THE CITY OF KHEMENNU (HERMOPOLIS MAGNA) UNDER THE FEET OF [THE STATUE OF] THIS GOD. [IT WAS INSCRIBED] UPON A SLAB OF IRON OF THE SOUTH, IN THE WRITING OF THE GOD HIMSELF, IN THE TIME OF THE MAJESTY OF THE KING OF THE NORTH AND OF THE SOUTH, MEN-KAU-RA,(27) TRIUMPHANT, BY THE ROYAL SON HERU-TA-TA-F, WHO DISCOVERED IT WHILE HE WAS ON HIS JOURNEY TO MAKE AN INSPECTION OF THE TEMPLES AND OF THEIR ESTATES.



Beating Back The Crocodile

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 5).]

THE CHAPTER OF BEATING BACK THE CROCODILE THAT COMETH TO CARRY AWAY THE CHARM FROM NU, THE OVERSEER OF THE PALACE, THE CHANCELLOR-IN-CHIEF, TRIUMPHANT, THE SON OF THE OVERSEER OF THE PALACE, AMEN-HETEP, TRIUMPHANT, IN THE UNDERWORLD. He saith:

"Get thee back, return, get thee back, thou crocodile-fiend Sui; thou shalt not advance to me, for I live by reason of the magical words which I have by me. I do not utter that name of thine to the great god who will cause thee to come to the two divine envoys; the name of the one is Betti,(28) and the name of the other is 'Hra-k-en-Maat.'(29) Heaven hath power over its seasons, and the magical word hath power over that which is in its possession, let therefore my mouth have power over the magical word which is therein. My front teeth are like unto flint knives, and my jaw-teeth are like unto the Nome of Tutef.(30) Hail thou that sittest with thine eyeball upon these my magical words! Thou shalt not carry them away, O thou crocodile that livest by means of magical words!"

[In the Turin Papyrus (Lepsius, op. cit., Bl. 16) the following lines are added to this chapter:]

"I am the Prince in the field. I, even I, am Osiris, who hath shut in his father Seb together with his mother Nut on the day of the great slaughter. My father is Seb and my mother is Nut. I am Horus, the first-born of Ra, who is crowned. I am Anpu (Anubis) on the day of reckoning. I, even I, am Osiris the prince who goeth in and declareth the offerings which are written down. I am the guardian of the door of Osiris, even I. I have come, I have become glorious (or a Khu), I have been reckoned up, I am strong, I have come and I avenge mine own self. I have sat in the birth-chamber of Osiris, and I was born with him, and I renew my youth along with him. I have laid hold upon the Thigh which was by Osiris, and I have opened the mouth of the gods therewith, I sit upon the place where he sitteth, and I write down the number [of the things] which make strong(?) the heart, thousands of loaves of bread, thousands of vases of beer, which are upon the altars of his father Osiris, [numbers of] jackals, wolves, oxen, red fowl, geese and ducks. Horus hath done away with the sacrifices of Thoth. I fill the office of priest in the regions above, and I write down there [the things] which make strong the heart. I make offerings (or offerings are made to me) at the altars of the Prince of Tattu, and I have my being through the oblations [made to] him. I snuff the wind of the East by his head, and I lay hold upon the breezes of the West thereby.... I go round about heaven in the four quarters thereof, I stretch out my hand and grasp the breezes of the south [which] are upon its hair. Grant unto me air among the venerable beings and among those who eat bread."

IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN BY [THE DECEASED] HE SHALL COME FORTH BY DAY, HE SHALL RISE UP TO WALK UPON THE EARTH AMONG THE LIVING, AND HE SHALL NEVER FAIL AND COME TO AN END, NEVER, NEVER, NEVER.



Beating Back The Crocodile

[From Lepsius, "Todtenbuch," Bll. 16 and 17.]

THE CHAPTER OF BEATING BACK THE CROCODILE THAT COMETH TO CARRY AWAY THE MAGICAL WORDS FROM THE KHU IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris Auf-ankh, triumphant, saith:

"The Mighty One fell down upon the place where he is, or (as others say), upon his belly, but the company of the gods caught him and set him up again. [My] soul cometh and it speaketh with its father, and the Mighty One delivereth it from these eight(31) crocodiles. I know them by their names and [what] they live upon, and I am he who hath delivered his father from them."

"Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the West, thou that livest upon the stars which never rest, for that which is an abomination unto thee is in my belly, O thou that hast eaten the forehead of Osiris. I am Set."

"Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the West, for the serpent-fiend Naau is in my belly, and I will give him unto thee; let not thy flame be against me."

"Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the East, who feedest upon those who eat their own filth, for that which is an abomination unto thee is in my belly; I advance, I am Osiris."

"Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the East, the serpent-fiend Naau is in my belly, and I will give [him] unto thee; let not thy flame be against me."

"Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the South, who feedest upon filth, and waste, and dirt, for that which is an abomination unto thee is in my belly; shall not the flame be on thy hand? I am Sept."

"Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the South, for I am safe by reason of my charm; my fist is among the flowers and I will not give it unto thee."

"Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the North, who feedest upon what is offered(?) within the hours, for that which thou abominatest is in my belly; let [not] thy venom be upon my head, for I am Tem."

"Get thee back, O Crocodile that dwellest in the North, for the goddess Serqet is in my belly and I have not yet brought her forth. I am Uatch-Maati (or Merti)."

"The things which are created are in the hollow of my hand, and those which have not yet come into being are in my body. I am clothed and wholly provided with thy magical words, O Ra, the which are in heaven above me and in the earth beneath me. I have gained power, and exaltation, and a full-breathing throat in the abode of my father Ur (i.e., the Mighty One), and he hath delivered unto me the beautiful Amentet which destroyeth living men and women; but strong is its divine lord, who suffereth from weakness," or (as others say) "exhaustion twofold, therein day by day. My face is open, my heart is upon its seat, and the crown with the serpent is upon me day by day. I am Ra, who is his own protector, and nothing shall ever cast me to the ground."



Repulsing Serpents

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 6).]

THE CHAPTER OF REPULSING SERPENTS (OR WORMS). Nu, the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, saith:

"Hail, thou serpent Rerek, advance not hither. Behold Seb and Shu. Stand still now, and thou shalt eat the rat which is an abominable thing unto Ra, and thou shalt crunch the bones of the filthy cat."



Against Snakes

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 6).]

THE CHAPTER OF NOT [LETTING] OSIRIS NU, TRIUMPHANT, BE BITTEN BY SNAKES (OR WORMS) IN THE UNDERWORLD. He saith:

"O Serpent! I am the flame which shineth upon the Opener(?) of hundreds of thousands of years, and the standard of the god Tenpu," or (as others say) "the standard of young plants and flowers. Depart ye from me, for I am the divine Maftet."(32)



Against Serpents

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 6).]

THE CHAPTER OF NOT [LETTING] NU, THE CHANCELLOR-IN-CHIEF, TRIUMPHANT, BE DEVOURED BY SERPENTS IN THE UNDERWORLD. He saith:

"Hail, thou god Shu! Behold Tattu! Behold Shu! Hail Tattu! [Shu] hath the head-dress of the goddess Hathor. They nurse Osiris. Behold the twofold being who is about to eat me! Alighting from the boat I depart(?), and the serpent-fiend Seksek passeth me by. Behold sam and aaqet flowers are kept under guard(?). This being is Osiris, and he maketh entreaty for his tomb. The eyes of the divine prince are dropped, and he performeth the reparation which is to be done for thee; [he] giveth [unto thee thy] portion of right and truth according to the decision concerning the states and conditions [of men]."



Driving Away Apshait

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 8).]

THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING AWAY APSHAIT. Osiris Nu, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, saith:

"Depart from me, O thou that hast lips which gnaw, for I am Khnemu, the lord of Peshennu,(33) and [I] bring the words of the gods to Ra, and I report [my] message to the lord thereof."(34)



Driving Back The Merti

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 8).]

THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING BACK THE TWO MERTI GODDESSES. Nu, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, saith:

"Homage to you, ye two Rekht goddesses,(35) ye two Sisters, ye two Mert goddesses, I bring a message to you concerning my magical words. I shine from the Sektet boat, I am Horus the son of Osiris, and I have come to see my father Osiris."



Living By Air

[From the Papyrus of Nebseni (British Museum No. 9,900, sheet 12).]

THE CHAPTER OF LIVING BY AIR IN THE UNDERWORLD. The scribe Nebseni, the lord to whom veneration is paid, saith:

"[I am the god Tem], who cometh forth out of Nu into the watery abyss. I have received [my habitation of Amentet, and have given commands] with my words to the [Khus] whose abiding-places are hidden, to the Khus and to the double Lion-god. I have made journeys round about and I have sung hymns of joy in the boat of Khepera. I have eaten therein, I have gained power therein, and I live therein through the breezes [which are there]. I am the guide in the boat of Ra, and he openeth out for me a path; he maketh a passage for me through the gates of the god Seb. I have seized and carried away those who live in the embrace of the god Ur (i.e., Mighty One); I am the guide of those who live in their shrines, the two brother-gods Horus and Set; and I bring the noble ones with me. I enter in and I come forth, and my throat is not slit; I go into the boat of Maat, and I pass in among those who live in the Atet boat, and who are in the following of Ra, and are nigh unto him in his horizon. I live after my death day by day, and I am strong even as is the double Lion-god. I live, and I am delivered after my death, I, the scribe Nebseni, the lord of piety, who fill the earth and come forth like the lily of mother-of-emerald, of the god Hetep of the two lands."



Living By Air

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 12).]

THE CHAPTER OF LIVING BY AIR IN THE UNDERWORLD. Nu, the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, triumphant, the son of the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Amen-hetep, triumphant, saith:

"I am the double Lion-god, the first-born of Ra and Tem of Ha-khebti(?), [the gods] who dwell in their divine chambers. Those who dwell in their divine abodes have become my guides, and they make paths for me as they revolve in the watery abyss of the sky by the side of the path of the boat of Tem. I stand upon the timbers(?) of the boat of Ra, and I recite his ordinances to the beings who have knowledge, and I am the herald of his words to him whose throat stinketh. I set free my divine fathers at eventide. I close the lips of my mouth, and I eat like unto a living being. I have life in Tattu, and I live again after death like Ra day by day."



Driving Back Rerek

[From the Papyrus of Mes-em-neter (see Naville, op. cit., Bd. I. Bl. 53).]

THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING BACK THE SERPENT REREK IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris Mes-em-neter saith:

"Get thee back, depart, retreat(?) from [me], O Aaapef, withdraw, or thou shalt be drowned at the Pool of Nu, at the place where thy father hath ordered that thy slaughter shall be performed. Depart thou from the divine place of birth of Ra wherein is thy terror. I am Ra who dwelleth in his terror. Get thee back, Fiend, before the darts of his beams. Ra hath overthrown thy words, the gods have turned thy face backward, the Lynx hath torn open thy breast, the Scorpion hath cast fetters upon thee; and Maat hath sent forth thy destruction. Those who are in the ways have overthrown thee; fall down and depart, O Apep, thou Enemy of Ra! O thou that passest over the region in the eastern part of heaven with the sound of the roaring thunder-cloud, O Ra who openest the gates of the horizon straightway on thy appearance, [Apep] hath sunk helpless under [thy] gashings. I have performed thy will, O Ra, I have performed thy will; I have done that which is fair, I have done that which is fair, I have labored for the peace of Ra. [I] have made to advance thy fetters, O Ra, and Apep hath fallen through thy drawing them tight. The gods of the south and of the north, of the west and of the east have fastened chains upon him, and they have fettered him with fetters; the god Rekes hath overthrown him and the god Hertit hath put him in chains. Ra setteth, Ra setteth; Ra is strong at [his] setting. Apep hath fallen, Apep, the enemy of Ra, departeth. Greater is the punishment [which hath been inflicted on] thee than the sting(?) which is in the Scorpion goddess, and mightily hath she, whose course is everlasting, worked it upon thee and with deadly effect. Thou shalt never enjoy the delights of love, thou shalt never fulfil thy desire, O Apep, thou Enemy of Ra! He maketh thee to go back, O thou who art hateful to Ra; he looketh upon thee, get thee back! [He] pierceth [thy] head, [he] cutteth through thy face, [he] divideth [thy] head at the two sides of the ways, and it is crushed in his land; thy bones are smashed in pieces, thy members are hacked off thee, and the god [A]ker hath condemned thee, O Apep, thou enemy of Ra! Thy mariners are those who keep the reckoning for thee, [O Ra, as thou] advancest, and thou restest there wherein are the offerings made to thee [As thou] advancest, [as thou] advancest toward the House the advance which thou hast made toward the House is a prosperous advance; let not any baleful obstacle proceed from thy mouth against me when thou workest on my behalf. I am Set who let loose the storm-clouds and the thunder in the horizon of heaven even as [doth] the god Netcheb-ab-f."

" 'Hail,' saith the god Tem, 'make strong your faces, O soldiers of Ra, for I have driven back the god Nentcha in the presence of the divine sovereign princes.' 'Hail,' saith the god Seb, 'make ye firm those who are upon their seats which are in the boat of Khepera, take ye your ways, [grasping] your weapons of war in your hands.' 'Hail,' saith Hathor, 'take ye your armor.' 'Hail,' saith Nut, 'come and repulse the god Tcha who pursueth him that dwelleth in his shrine and who setteth out on his way alone, namely, Neb-er-tcher, who cannot be repulsed.' 'Hail,' say those gods who dwell in their companies and who go round about the Turquoise Pool, 'come, O mighty One, we praise and we will deliver the Mighty One [who dwelleth in] the divine Shrine, from whom proceeds the company of the gods, let commemorations be made for him, let praise be given to him, let words [of praise] be recited before him by you and by me.' 'Hail,' saith Nut to thy Sweet One. 'Hail,' say those who dwell among the gods, 'he cometh forth, he findeth [his] way, he maketh captives among the gods, he hath taken possession of the goddess Nut, and Seb standeth up.' Hail, thou terrible one, the company of the gods is on the march. Hathor quaketh with terror, and Ra hath triumphed over Apep."



Repulsing The Eater Of The Ass

[From the Papyrus of Ra (see Naville, op. cit., Bd. I. Bl. 54) and from the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 8).]

THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING BACK THE EATER OF THE ASS. Osiris Ra, triumphant, saith:

I. "Get thee back, Hai, thou impure one, thou abomination of Osiris! Thoth hath cut off thy head, and I have performed upon thee all the things which the company of the gods ordered concerning thee in the matter of the work of thy slaughter. Get thee back, thou abomination of Osiris, from the Neshmet boat ... which advanceth with a fair wind. Ye are holy, O all ye gods, and [ye] have cast down headlong the enemies of Osiris; the gods of Ta-ur shout for joy. Get thee back, O thou Eater of the Ass, thou abomination of the god Haas who dwelleth in the underworld. I know thee, I know thee, I know thee, I know thee. Who art thou? I am..."

II. "On thy face [O fiend], and devour me not, for I am pure, and I am with the time which cometh of itself. Thou shalt not come to me, O thou that comest(36) without being invoked, and whose [time of coming] is unknown. I am the lord of thy mouth, get thee back, thou and thy desires(?). Hail, Haas, with his stone [knife] Horus hath cut asunder thy members, and thou art destroyed within thy company, and thy bend (or dwelling-place) is destroyed for thee by the company of thy gods who dwell in the cities of Pe and Tep. He that slayeth [thee] there is in the form of the Eye of Horus, and I have driven thee away as thou wast advancing, and I have vanquished thee by the winds of my mouth. O thou Eater of those who commit sins, who dost plunder and spoil, I have [committed] no sin; therefore, let my palette and the writings with hostile charges [against me upon them] be given unto me. I have done no wrong in the presence of the sovereign princes, therefore shoot not thy [venom] at me. I give, do thou take according to what I order; snatch me not away, and eat me not, for I am the lord of life, the Prince (Life, Health, Strength!) of the horizon."



Abolishing The Slaughterings

[From the Papyrus of Nebseni, sheet 25.]

THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING AWAY THE SLAUGHTERINGS WHICH ARE PERFORMED IN THE UNDERWORLD. Nebseni, the scribe and designer in the Temples of Upper and Lower Egypt, he to whom fair veneration is paid, the son of the scribe and artist Thena, triumphant, saith:

"Hail, Tem, I have become glorious (or a Khu) in the presence of the double Lion-god, the great god, therefore open thou unto me the gate of the god Seb. I smell the earth (i.e., I bow down so that my nose toucheth the ground) of the great god who dwelleth in the underworld, and I advance into the presence of the company of the gods who dwell with the beings who are in the underworld. Hail, thou guardian of the divine door of the city of Beta, thou [god] Neti(?) who dwellest in Amentet, I eat food, and I have life through the air, and the god Atch-ur leadeth me with [him] to the mighty boat of Khepera. I hold converse with the divine mariners at eventide, I enter in, I go forth, and I see the being who is there; I lift him up, and I say that which I have to say unto him, whose throat stinketh [for lack of air]. I have life, and I am delivered, having lain down in death. Hail, thou that bringest offerings and oblations, bring forward thy mouth and make to draw nigh the writings (or lists) of offerings and oblations. Set thou Right and Truth firmly upon their throne, make thou the writings to draw nigh, and set thou up the goddesses in the presence of Osiris, the mighty god, the Prince of everlastingness, who counteth his years, who hearkeneth unto those who are in the islands (or pools), who raiseth his right shoulder, who judgeth the divine princes, and who sendeth [Osiris] into the presence of the great sovereign princes who live in the underworld."



Abolishing The Slaughterings

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 6).]

THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING BACK THE SLAUGHTERINGS WHICH ARE PERFORMED IN SUTEN-HENEN. Osiris Nu, triumphant, saith:

"O thou land of the sceptre! (literally, wood) O thou white crown of the divine form! O thou resting-place of the boat! I am the Child, I am the Child, I am the Child, I am the Child. Hail, Abu-ur, thou sayest day by day: 'The slaughter-block is made ready as thou knowest, and thou hast come to decay.' I am Ra, the stablisher of those who praise [him]. I am the knot of the god within the Aser tree, the doubly beautiful one, who is more splendid than yesterday (say four times). I am Ra, the stablisher of those who praise [him]. I am the knot of the god within the Aser tree, and my going forth is the going forth [of Ra] on this day."

"My hair is the hair of Nu. My face is the face of the Disk. My eyes are the eyes of Hathor. My ears are the ears of Ap-uat. My nose is the nose of Khenti-khas. My lips are the lips of Anpu. My teeth are the teeth of Serqet. My neck is the neck of the divine goddess Isis. My hands are the hands of Ba-neb-Tattu. My forearms are the forearms of Neith, the Lady of Sais. My backbone is the backbone of Suti. My phallus is the phallus of Osiris. My reins are the reins of the Lords of Kher-aba. My chest is the chest of the Mighty one of Terror. My belly and back are the belly and back of Sekhet. My buttocks are the buttocks of the Eye of Horus. My hips and legs are the hips and legs of Nut. My feet are the feet of Ptah. [My fingers] and my leg-bones are the [fingers and] leg-bones of the Living Gods. There is no member of my body which is not the member of some god. The god Thoth shieldeth my body altogether, and I am Ra day by day. I shall not be dragged back by my arms, and none shall lay violent hold upon my hands. And shall do me hurt neither men, nor gods, nor the sainted dead, nor those who have perished, nor any one of those of ancient times, nor any mortal, nor any human being. I am he who cometh forth, advancing, whose name is unknown. I am Yesterday, and Seer of millions of years is my name. I pass along, I pass along the paths of the divine celestial judges. I am the lord of eternity, and I decree and I judge like the god Khepera. I am the lord of the Ureret crown. I am he who dwelleth in the Utchat [and in the Egg, in the Utchat and in the Egg, and it is given unto me to live [with] them. I am he that dwelleth in the Utchat when it closeth, and I exist by the strength thereof. I come forth and I shine; I enter in and I come to life. I am in the Utchat],(37) my seat is upon my throne, and I sit in the abode of splendor(?) before it. I am Horus and (I) traverse millions of years. I have given the decree [for the stablishing of] my throne and I am the ruler thereof; and in very truth, my mouth keepeth an even balance both in speech and in silence. In very truth, my forms are inverted. I am Un-nefer, from one season even unto another, and what I have is within me; [I am] the only One, who proceedeth from an only One who goeth round about in his course. I am he who dwelleth in the Utchat, no evil thing of any form or kind shall spring up against me, and no baleful object, and no harmful thing, and no disastrous thing shall happen unto me. I open the door in heaven, I govern my throne, and I open up [the way] for the births [which take place] on this day. I am (?) the child who marcheth along the road of Yesterday. [I am] To-day for untold nations and peoples. I am he who protecteth you for millions of years, and whether ye be denizens of the heavens, or of the earth, or of the south, or of the north, or of the east, or of the west, the fear of me is in your bodies. I am he whose being has been moulded in his eye, and I shall not die again. My moment is in your bodies, but my forms are in my place of habitation. I am he who cannot be known, but the Red Ones have their faces directed toward me. I am the unveiled one. The season wherein [the god] created the heavens for me and enlarged the bounds of the earth and made great the progeny thereof cannot be found out; but they fail and are not united [again]. My name setteth itself apart from all things [and from] the great evil [which is in] the mouths [of men] by reason of the speech which I address unto you. I am he who riseth and shineth, the wall which cometh out of a wall, an only One who proceedeth from an only One. There is never a day that passeth without the things which appertain unto him being therein; passing, passing, passing, passing. Verily I say unto thee, I am the Sprout which cometh forth from Nu, and my Mother is Nut. Hail, O my Creator, I am he who hath no power to walk, the great Knot who is within yesterday. The might of my strength is within my hand. I myself am not known, but I am he who knoweth thee. I cannot be held with the hand, but I am he who can hold thee in his hand. Hail, O Egg! Hail, O Egg! I am Horus who lives for millions of years, whose flame shineth upon you and bringeth your hearts to me. I have the command of my throne and I advance at this season, I have opened a path, and I have delivered myself from all evil things. I am the dog-headed ape of gold three palms and two fingers [high], which hath neither arms nor legs and dwelleth in Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis), and I go forth as goeth forth the dog-headed ape that dwelleth in Het-ka-Ptah."



Air And Water

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 12).]

THE CHAPTER OF SNUFFING THE AIR AND OF HAVING THE MASTERY OVER THE WATER IN THE UNDERWORLD. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith:

"Hail, Hap-ur, god of heaven, in thy name of 'Divider of heaven,' grant thou unto me that I may have dominion over the water, even as the goddess Sekhet had power over Osiris on the night of the storms and floods. Grant thou that I may have power over the divine princes who have their habitations in the place of the god of the inundation, even as they have power over their own holy god of whose name they are ignorant; and may they let me have power even as [he hath let them have power]."

"My nostrils are opened in Tattu," or (as others say), "My mouth and my nostrils are opened in Tatau, and I have my place of peace in Annu, which is my house; it was built for me by the goddess Sesheta, and the god Khnemu set it up for me upon its walls. If to this heaven it cometh by the north, I sit at the south; if to this heaven it cometh by the south, I sit at the north; if to this heaven it cometh by the west, I sit at the east; and if to this heaven it cometh by the east, I sit at the west. I draw the hair of my nostrils, and I make my way into every place in which I wish to sit."

In the Papyrus of Nefer-uben-f (see Naville, op. cit., Bd. I. Bl. 70) this chapter ends quite differently, and reads:

"I am strong in my mouth and in my nostrils, for behold Tem has stablished them; behold, O ye gods and Khus. Rest thou, then, O Tem. Behold the staff which blossometh, and which cometh forth when a man crieth out in your names. Behold, I am Tem, the tree (?) of the gods in [their] visible forms. Let me not be turned back.... I am the Am-khent, Nefer-uben-f, triumphant. Let neither my flesh nor my members be gashed with knives, let me not be wounded by knives by you. I have come, I have been judged, I have come forth therein, [I] have power with my father, the Old man, Nu. He hath granted that I may live, he hath given strength unto me, and he hath provided me with the inheritance of my father therein."



Dominion Over Elements

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheet 16).]

THE CHAPTER OF BREATHING THE AIR AND OF HAVING DOMINION OVER THE WATER IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris Ani saith:

"Open to me." Who art thou? Whither goest thou? What is thy name? "I am one of you." Who are those with thee? "The two serpent goddesses Merti. Separate thou from him, head from head, when [thou] goest into the divine Mesqen chamber. He letteth me set out for the temple of the gods who have found their faces. 'Assembler of Souls' is the name of my boat; 'Making the hair to stand on end' is the name of the oars; 'Goad' is the name of the hold; 'Making straight for the middle' is the name of the rudder; likewise [the boat] is a type of my being borne onward in the pool. Let there be given unto me vessels of milk, together with cakes, and loaves of bread, and cups of drink, and flesh in the Temple of Anpu."

IF HE (I.E., THE DECEASED) KNOWETH THIS CHAPTER, HE SHALL GO INTO, AFTER COMING FORTH FROM, THE UNDERWORLD OF THE [BEAUTIFUL AMENTET].



Dominion Over Elements

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheet 16).]

THE CHAPTER OF SNUFFING THE AIR, AND OF HAVING DOMINION OVER THE WATERS IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris Ani saith:

"Hail, thou sycamore tree of the goddess Nut! Grant thou to me of [the water and of] the air which dwell in thee. I embrace the throne which is in Unnu (Hermopolis), and I watch and guard the egg of Nekek-ur (i.e., the Great Cackler). It groweth, I grow; it liveth, I live; it snuffeth the air, I snuff the air, I the Osiris Ani, in triumph."



Dominion Over Elements

[From Lepsius, "Todtenbuch," Bl. 23.]

ANOTHER CHAPTER. Osiris Auf-ankh, triumphant, saith:

"Let the gates of heaven be opened for me by the god [Thoth] and by Hapi, and let me pass through the doors of Ta-qebh(38) into the great heaven," or (as others say), "at the time," [or (as others say)], "with the strength(?) of Ra. Grant ye, [O Thoth and Hapi,] that I may have power over the water, even as Set had power over his enemies on the day when there were storms and rain upon the earth. Let me have power over the divine beings who have mighty arms in their shoulders, even as the god who is apparelled in splendor and whose name is unknown had power over them; and may I have power over the beings whose arms are mighty."



Preservation Of The Soul

[From the Papyrus of Ani (British Museum No. 10,470, sheet 15).]

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE SOUL OF A MAN BE TAKEN FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris, the Scribe Ani, saith:

"I, even I, am he who came forth from the water-flood which I make to overflow, and which becometh mighty as the river [Nile]."



Of Drinking Water

[From the Papyrus of Nebseni (British Museum No. 9,900, sheet 4).]

THE CHAPTER OF DRINKING WATER IN THE UNDERWORLD. The scribe Nebseni ... saith:

"May be opened [to me] the mighty flood by Osiris, and may the abyss of water be opened [to me] by Tehuti-Hapi, the lord of the horizon, in my name of 'Opener.' May there be granted [to me] mastery over the water-courses as over the members of Set. I go forth into heaven. I am the Lion-god Ra. I am the Bull. [I] have eaten the Thigh, and I have divided the carcass. I have gone round about among the islands (or lakes) of Sekhet-Aaru. Indefinite time, without beginning and without end, hath been given to me; I inherit eternity, and everlastingness hath been bestowed upon me."

The last three chapters, with a single vignette, are grouped in one in the Papyrus of Nefer-uben-f (see Naville, op. cit., Bd. I. Bl. 72); but the order of them as there given is 61, 60, 62. In the Turin Papyrus (Lepsius, op. cit., Bl. 23) the vignette of each is the same, i.e., the deceased holding a sail in his left hand.



Of Drinking Water

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 7).]

THE CHAPTER OF DRINKING WATER AND OF NOT BEING BURNT BY FIRE [IN THE UNDERWORLD]. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith:

"Hail, Bull of Amentet! I am brought unto thee, I am the oar of Ra wherewith he ferried over the divine aged ones; let me neither be burnt up nor destroyed by fire. I am Bet, the first-born son of Osiris, who doth meet every god within his Eye in Annu. I am the divine Heir, the exalted one(?), the Mighty One, the Resting One. I have made my name to germinate, I have delivered [it], and thou shalt live through me day by day."



Preservation From Scalding

[From the Papyrus of Nu (British Museum No. 10,477, sheet 12).]

THE CHAPTER OF NOT BEING SCALDED WITH WATER. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith:

"I am the oar made ready for rowing, wherewith Ra transported the boat containing the divine ancestors, and lifted up the moist emanations of Osiris from the Lake of Fire, and he was not burned. I lie down like a divine Khu, [and like] Khnemu who dwelleth among lions. Come, break away the restraints from him that passeth by the side of this path, and let me come forth by it."

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