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Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Part 1, Slice 1 - "Austria, Lower" to "Bacon"
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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they are listed at the end of the text. Volume and page numbers have been incorporated into the text of each page as: v.03 p.0001.

ā signifies "a with macron"; ḥ "h with dot below"; ć "c acute"; and so forth.

THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME III

AUSTRIA LOWER to BISECTRIX

[E-Text Edition of Volume III - Part 1 of 2, Slice 1 of 3 - AUSTRIA LOWER to BACON]

* * * * *

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME III. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS,[1] WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. C. P. - ANNA C. PAUES, PH.D. Lecturer in Germanic Philology at Newnham College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Newnham College. Author of A Fourteenth Century Biblical Version; &c.

- Bible, English.

A. C. S. - ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE. See biographical article: SWINBURNE, ALGERNON C.

- Beaumont and Fletcher.

A. F. P. - ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HIST.SOC. Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-1901. Lothian prizeman (Oxford), 1892; Arnold prizeman, 1898. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.

- Balnaves; Barnes, Robert; Bilney.

A. Go.* - REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A. Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.

- Beza.

A. G. G. - SIR ALFRED GEORGE GREENHILL, M.A., F.R.S. Formerly Professor of Mathematics in the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of Differential and Integral Calculus with Applications; Hydrostatics; Notes on Dynamics; &c.

- Ballistics.

A. Hl. - ARTHUR HASSALL, M.A. Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Author of A Handbook of European History; The Balance of Power; &c. Editor of the 3rd edition of T. H. Dyer's History of Modern Europe.

- Austria-Hungary: History (in part).

A. H. N. - ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, LL.D., D.D. Professor of Church History, Baylor University, Texas. Professor at McMaster University, Toronto, 1881-1901. Author of The Baptist Churches in the United States; Manual of Church History; A Century of Baptist Achievement.

- Baptists: American.

A. H.-S. - SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E. General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.

- Azerbāijān; Bakhtiari; Bander Abbāsi; Barfurush.

A. H. S. - REV. ARCHIBALD HENRY SAYCE, D.LITT., LL.D. See the biographical article: SAYCE, A. H.

- Babylon; Babylonia and Assyria; Belshazzar; Berossus.

A. J. L. - ANDREW JACKSON LAMOUREUX. Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News (Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901.

- Bahia: State; Bahia: City.

A. L. - ANDREW LANG. See the biographical article: LANG, ANDREW.

- Ballads.

A. N. - ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S. See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED.

- Birds of Paradise.

A. P. H. - ALFRED PETER HILLIER, M.D., M.P. President, South African Medical Congress, 1893. Author of South African Studies; &c. Served in Kaffir War, 1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910.

- Basutoland: History (in part); Bechuanaland (in part).

A. Sp. - ARCHIBALD SHARP. Consulting Engineer and Chartered Patent Agent.

- Bicycle.

A. St H. G. - Alfred St Hill Gibbons. Major, East Yorkshire Regiment. Explorer in South Central Africa. Author of Africa from South to North through Marotseland.

- Barotse, Barotseland.

A. W.* - ARTHUR WILLEY, F.R.S., D.SC. Director of Colombo Museum, Ceylon.

- Balanoglossus.

A. W. H.* - ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND. Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900.

- Austria-Hungary: History (in part); Bavaria: History (in part).

A. W. Po. - ALFRED WILLIAM POLLARD, M.A. Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King's College, London. Hon. Secretary Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books; and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of the Library. Chief Editor of the "Globe" Chaucer.

- Bibliography and Bibliology.

B. K. - PRINCE BOJIDAR KARAGEORGEVITCH (d. 1908). Artist, art critic, designer and goldsmith. Contributor to the Paris Figaro, the Magazine of Art, &c. Author of Enchanted India. Translator of the works of Tolstoi and Jokai, &c.

- Bashkirtseff.

C. - THE EARL OF CREWE, K.G., F.S.A. See the biographical article: CREWE, 1ST EARL OF.

- Banville.

C. A. C. - CHARLES ARTHUR CONANT. Member of Commission on International Exchange of U.S., 1903. Treasurer, Morton Trust Co., New York, 1902-1906. Author of History of Modern Banks of Issue; The Principles of Money and Banking; &c.

- Banks and Banking: American.

C. B.* - CHARLES BEMONT, D. ES L., LITT.D. (Oxon.). See the biographical article: BEMONT, C.

- Baluze; Bearn.

C. F. A. - CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON. Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.

- Austrian Succession War: Military.

C. F. B. - CHARLES FRANCIS BASTABLE, M.A., LL.D. Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University of Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of International Trade; &c.

- Bimetallism.

C. H. T. - CUTHBERT HAMILTON TURNER, M.A. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford; Fellow of the British Academy. Speaker's Lecturer in Biblical Studies in the University of Oxford, 1906-1909. First Editor of the Journal of Theological Studies, 1899-1902. Author of "Chronology of the New Testament," and "Greek Patristic Commentaries on the Pauline Epistles" in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, &c.

- Bible: New Testament Chronology.

C. H. W. J. - REV. CLAUDE HERMANN WALTER JOHNS, M.A., LITT.D. Master of St Catharine's College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Assyriology, Queens' College, Cambridge, and King's College, London. Author of Assyrian Deeds and Documents of the 7th Century B.C.; The Oldest Code of Laws; Babylonian and Assyrian Laws; Contracts and Letters; &c.

- Babylonian Law.

C. J. L. - SIR CHARLES JAMES LYALL, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D. (Edin.). Secretary, Judicial and Public Department, India Office. Fellow of King's College, London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, 1889-1894. Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895-1898. Author of Translations of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c.

- Bihārī Lāl.

C. Mi. - CHEDOMILLE MIJATOVICH. Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900, and 1902-1903.

- Belgrade.

C. Pl. - REV. CHARLES PLUMMER, M.A. Fellow and Chaplain of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1901. Author of Life and Times of Alfred the Great; &c.

- Bede.

C. R. B. - CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.LITT., F.R.G.S., F.R.HIST.S. Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian prizeman (Oxford), 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.

- Beatus; Behaim.

C. W. W. - SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907). Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Commission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of Lord Clive; &c.

- Beirut (in part)

D. B. Ma. - DUNCAN BLACK MACDONALD, D.D. Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A.

- Bairam

D. C. B. - DEMETRIUS CHARLES BOULGER. Author of England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; Life of Gordon; India in the 19th Century; History of Belgium; Belgian Life in Town and Country; &c.

- Belgium: Geography and Statistics.

D. F. T. - DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY. Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis—comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.

- Bach, J. S.; Beethoven.

D. G. H. - DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A. Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.

- Baalbek; Barca; Beirut (in part); Bengazi.

D. H. - DAVID HANNAY. Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 1217-1688; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.

- Austrian Succession War: Naval; Aviles; Bainbridge, William; Barbary Pirates.

D. Mn. - REV. DUGALD MACFADYEN, M.A. Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London Missionary Society.

- Berry, Charles Albert.

D. S. M.* - DAVID SAMUEL MARGOLIOUTH, M.A., D.LITT. Laudian Professor of Arabic, Oxford; Fellow of New College. Author of Arabic Papyri of the Bodleian Library; Mohammed and the Rise of Islam; Cairo, Jerusalem and Damascus.

- Axum.

D. S.-S. - DAVID SETH-SMITH, F.Z.S. Curator of Birds to the Zoological Society of London. Formerly President of the Avicultural Society. Author of Parrakeets, a Practical Handbook to those Species kept in Captivity.

- Aviary.

E. B. - EDWARD BRECK, PH.D. Formerly Foreign Correspondent of the New York Herald and the New York Times. Author of Wilderness Pets.

- Base-Ball.

E. Br. - ERNEST BARKER, M.A. Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar (Oxford), 1895.

- Baldwin I. to IV. of Jerusalem.

E. Cl. - EDWARD CLODD. Vice-President of the Folk-Lore Society. Author of Story of Primitive Man; Primer of Evolution; Tom Tit Tot; Animism; Pioneers of Evolution.

- Baer.

E. C. B. - RIGHT REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., D.LITT. (Dubl.). Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath.

- Basilian Monks; Benedict of Nursia; Benedictines; St Bernardin of Siena.

E. F. S. - EDWARD FAIRBROTHER STRANGE. Assistant-Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects; Joint-editor of Bell's "Cathedral" Series.

- Beardsley, Aubrey Vincent.

E. G. - EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D. See the biographical article: GOSSE, EDMUND.

- Baggesen; Ballade; Barnfield; Beaumont, Sir John; Belgium: Literature; Biography.

E. G. B. - EDWARD GRANVILLE BROWNE, M.A., M.R.C.S., M.R.A.S. Sir Thomas Adams's Professor of Arabic and Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of A Traveller's Narrative, written to Illustrate the Episode of the Bab; The New History of Mirza Ali Muhammed the Bab; Literary History of Persia; &c.

- Babiism.

E. H. M. - ELLIS HOVELL MINNS, M.A. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian, and formerly Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. University Lecturer in Palaeography.

- Bastarnae.

Ed. M. - EDUARD MEYER, D.LITT. (Oxon.), LL.D., PH.D. Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Geschichte des alten Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme; &c.

- Bactria; Bagoas; Bahran; Balash; Behistun.

E. Ma. - EDWARD MANSON. Barrister-at-Law. Joint-editor of Journal of Comparative Legislation, Author of Short View of the Law of Bankruptcy; &c.

- Bankruptcy: Comparative Law

E. M. T. - SIR EDWARD MAUNDE THOMPSON, G.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., LITT.D. Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1888-1909. Fellow of the British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France and of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Editor of the Chronicon Angliae, &c. Joint-editor of Publications of the Palaeographical Society.

- Autographs.

E. N. S. - E. N. STOCKLEY. Captain, Royal Engineers. Instructor in Construction at the School of Military Engineering, Chatham. For some time in charge of the Barracks Design Branch of the War Office.

- Barracks.

E. Pr. - EDGAR PRESTAGE. Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society.

- Azurara; Barros.

E. Tn. - REV. ETHELRED LEONARD TAUNTON (d. 1907). Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England.

- Baronius.

E. V. - REV. EDMUND VENABLES, M.A., D.D. (1819-1895). Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England.

- Basilica (in part).

F. C. B. - FRANCIS CRAWFORD BURKITT, M.A., D.D. Norrisian Professor of Divinity, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Part-editor of The Four Gospels in Syriac transcribed from the Sinaitic Palimpsest. Author of The Gospel History and its Transmission; Early Eastern Christianity; &c.

- Bible: New Testament, Higher Criticism.

F. C. C. - FREDERICK CORNWALLIS CONYBEARE, M.A., D.TH. (Giessen). Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.

- Baptism.

F. G. - FREDERICK GREENWOOD. See the biographical article: GREENWOOD, FREDERICK.

- Beaconsfield, Earl of.

F. G. M. B. - FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A. Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge.

- Bernicia.

F. Ll. G. - FRANCIS LLEWELYN GRIFFITH, M.A., PH.D., F.S.A. Reader in Egyptology, Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute.

- Bes.

F. L. L. - LADY LUGARD. See the biographical article: LUGARD, SIR F. J. D.

- Bauchi.

F. P. - FRANK PODMORE, M.A. (d. 1910). Pembroke College, Oxford. Author of Studies in Psychical Research; Modern Spiritualism; &c.

- Automatic Writing.

F. R. C. - FRANK R. CANA. Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.

- Basutoland (in part); Bahr-el-Ghazal (in part); Bechuanaland (in part).

F. R. M. - FRANCIS RICHARD MAUNSELL, C.M.G. Lieut.-Col., Royal Artillery. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond, Van (Kurdistan), 1897-1898. Military Attache, British Embassy, Constantinople, 1901-1905. Author of Central Kurdistan; &c.

- Baiburt; Bashkala.

F. W. R.* - FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889.

- Aventurine; Beryl.

G. A. B. - GEORGE A. BOULENGER, F.R.S., D.SC., PH.D. In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.

- Axolotl; Batrachia.

G. A. Gr. - GEORGE ABRAHAM GRIERSON, C.I.E., PH.D. D.LITT. (Dublin). Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages of India; &c.

- Bengali; Bihari.

G. B. B. - GERARD BALDWIN BROWN, M.A. Professor of Fine Arts, University of Edinburgh. Formerly Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. Author of From Schola to Cathedral; The Fine Arts; &c.

- Basilica (in part).

G. B. G.* - GEORGE BUCHANAN GRAY, M.A., D.D., D.LITT. (Oxon.) Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, Mansfield College, Oxford. Examiner in Hebrew, University of Wales. Author of The Divine Discipline of Israel; &c.

- Bible: Old Testament, Textual Criticism, and Higher Criticism

G. E. - REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., F.R.HIST.S. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. Hon. Member Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Association of Literature.

- Belgium: History.

G. F. Z. - G. F. ZIMMER, A.M.INST.C.E. Author of Mechanical Handling of Material.

- Biscuit.

G. G. S. - GEORGE GREGORY SMITH, M.A. Professor of English Literature, Queen's University, Belfast. Author of The Days of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; &c.

- Barbour, John.

G. H. C. - GEORGE HERBERT CARPENTER, B.SC. Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. President of the Association of Economic Biologists. Member of the Royal Irish Academy. Author of Insects: their Structure and Life; &c.

- Bee.

G. Sa. - GEORGE EDWARD BATEMAN SAINTSBURY, LL.D., D.LITT. See the biographical article: SAINTSBURY, G. E. B.

- Balzac, H. de.

G. W. T. - REV. GRIFFITHES WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D. Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.

- Avempace; Averroes; Avicenna; Baidāwī; Balādhurī; Behā ud-Dīn; Behā ud-Din Zuhair; Bīrūnī.

H. Br. - HENRY BRADLEY, M.A., PH.D. Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c.

- Beowulf.

H. Ch. - HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A. Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the 10th edition.

- Balfour, A. J.

H. C. R. - SIR HENRY CRESWICKE RAWLINSON, BART., K.C.B. See the biographical article: RAWLINSON, SIR H. C.

- Bagdad: City.

H. Fr. - HENRI FRANTZ. Art Critic, Gazette des Beaux Arts (Paris).

- Barye; Bastien-Lepage; Baudry, P. J. A.

H. F. G. - HANS FRIEDRICH GADOW, F.R.S., PH.D. Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of "Amphibia and Reptiles" in the Cambridge Natural History.

- Bird.

H. H. H.* - HERBERT HENSLEY HENSON, M.A., D.D. Canon of Westminster Abbey and Rector of St Margaret's, Westminster. Proctor in Convocation since 1902. Formerly Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Select Preacher (Oxford), 1895-1896; (Cambridge), 1901. Author of Apostolic Christianity; Moral Discipline in the Christian Church; The National Church; Christ and the Nation; &c.

- Bible, English: Revised Version.

H. H. J. - SIR HARRY HAMILTON JOHNSTON, D.SC., G.C.M.G., K.C.B. See the biographical article: JOHNSTON, SIR H. H.

- Bantu Languages.

H. M. R. - HUGH MUNRO ROSS. Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineering Supplement. Author of British Railways.

- Bell: House Bell.

H. M. W. - H. MARSHALL WARD, M.A., F.R.S., D.SC. (d. 1905). Formerly Professor of Botany, Cambridge. President of the British Mycological Society. Author of Timber and some of its Diseases; The Oak; Sach's Lectures the Physiology of Plants; Grasses; Disease in Plants; &c.

- Bacteriology (in part); Berkeley, Miles Joseph.

H. N. D. - HENRY NEWTON DICKSON, M.A., D.SC., F.R.G.S. Professor of Geography, University College, Reading. Author of Elementary Meteorology; Papers on Oceanography; &c.

- Baltic Sea.

H. W. C. D. - Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls', Oxford, 1895-1902. Author of Charlemagne; England under the Normans and Angevins, 1066-1272.

- Becket; Benedictus Abbas.

H. W. S. - H. WICKHAM STEED. Correspondent of The Times at Rome (1897-1902) and Vienna.

- Austria-Hungary: History (in part); Bertani.

I. A. - ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A. Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; &c.

- Bahya.

J. An. - JOSEPH ANDERSON, LL.D. Keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh, and Assistant Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Honorary Professor of Antiquities to the Royal Scottish Academy. Author of Scotland in Early Christian and Pagan Times.

- Barrow.

J. A. H. - JOHN ALLEN HOWE, B.SC. Curator and Librarian at the Museum of Practical Geology, London.

- Avonian; Bajocian; Barton Beds; Bathonian Series; Bed: Geology.

J. B. B. - JOHN BAGNELL BURY, LL.D., LITT.D. See the biographical article: BURY, J. B.

- Baldwin I. and II.: of Romania; Basil I. and II.: Emperors; Belisarius.

J. D. B. - JAMES DAVID BOURCHIER, M.A., F.R.G.S. King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.

- Balkan Peninsula.

J. F.-K. - JAMES FITZMAURICE-KELLY, LITT.D., F.R.HIST.S. Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Council of the Hispanic Society of America. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature.

- Ayala y Herrera; Bello.

J. F. St. - JOHN FREDERICK STENNING, M.A. Dean and Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Aramaic. Lecturer in Divinity and Hebrew at Wadham College.

- Bible: Old Testament: Texts and Versions.

J. H. R. - JOHN HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree; &c.

- Baron; Baronet; Battle Abbey Roll; Bayeux Tapestry; Beauchamp.

J. Hl. R. - JOHN HOLLAND ROSE, M.A., LITT.D. Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.

- Barras; Beauharnais, Eugene de.

J. M. M. - JOHN MALCOLM MITCHELL. Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint editor of Grote's History of Greece.

- Bacon, Francis (in part); Berkeley, George (in part).

J. P.-B. - JAMES GEORGE JOSEPH PENDEREL-BRODHURST. Editor of the Guardian (London).

- Bed: Furniture; Berain.

J. G. Sc. - SIR JAMES GEORGE SCOTT, K.C.I.E. Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma, a Handbook; The Upper Burma Gazetteer, &c.

- Bhamo.

J. P. E. - JEAN PAUL HIPPOLYTE EMMANUEL ADHEMAR ESMEIN. Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours elementaire d'histoire du droit francais; &c.

- Bailiff: Bailli; Basoche.

J. P. Pe. - REV. JOHN PUNNETT PETERS, PH.D., D.D. Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew, University of Pennsylvania. In charge of Expedition of University of Pennsylvania conducting excavations at Nippur, 1888-1895. Author of Scriptures, Hebrew and Christian; Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates; &c.

- Bagdad: Vilayet; Bagdad: City; Basra.

J. R. P. - SIR JOHN RAHERE PAGET, BART., K.C. Bencher of the Inner Temple. Formerly Gilbart Lecturer on Banking. Author of The Law of Banking; &c.

- Banks and Banking: English Law.

J. Sm.* - JOHN SMITH, C.B. Formerly Inspector-General in Companies' Liquidation, 1890-1904, and Inspector-General in Bankruptcy.

- Bankruptcy.

J. S. F. - JOHN SMITH FLETT, D.SC., F.G.S. Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.

- Basalt; Batholite.

J. T. Be. - JOHN T. BEALBY. Joint author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet, &c.

- Baikal; Bessarabia (in part)

J. Vn. - JULIEN VINSON. Formerly Professor of Hindustani and Tamil at the Ecole des Langues Orientales, Paris. Author of Le Basque et les langues mexicaines; &c.

- Basques (in part).

J. V. B. - JAMES VERNON BARTLET, M.A., D.D. (St Andrews). Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic Age; &c.

- Barnabas.

J. W. He. - JAMES WYCLIFFE HEADLAM, M.A. Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire; &c.

- Austria-Hungary: History; Bamberger; Bebel; Benedetti; Beust.

K. L. - REV. KIRSOPP LAKE, M.A. Lincoln College, Oxford. Professor of Early Christian Literature and New Testament Exegesis in the University of Leiden. Author of The Text of the New Testament; The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; &c.

- Bible: New Testament: Texts and Versions and Textual Criticism.

K. S. - KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.

- Bagpipe; Banjo; Barbiton; Barrel-organ; Bass Clarinet; Basset Horn; Bassoon; Batyphone.

L. A. - LYMAN ABBOTT, D.D. See the biographical article: ABBOTT, L.

- Beecher, Henry Ward.

L. P.* - LOUIS MARIE OLIVIER DUCHESNE. See the biographical article: DUCHESNE, L. M. O.

- Benedict (I.-X.)

L. J. S. - LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A., F.G.S. Assistant, Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.

- Autunite; Axinite; Azurite; Barytes; Bauxite; Biotite.

L. V.* - LUIGI VILLARI. Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in East of Europe. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c.

- Azeglio; Bandiera, A. and E.; Bassi, Ugo; Bentivoglio, Giovanni.

L. W. K. - LEONARD WILLIAM KING, M.A., F.S.A. Assistant to the Keeper of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum. Lecturer in Assyrian at King's College, London. Conducted Excavations at Kuyunjik (Nineveh) for British Museum. Author of Assyrian Chrestomathy; Annals of the Kings of Assyria; Studies in Eastern History; Babylonian Magic and Sorcery; &c.

- Babylonia and Assyria: Chronology.

M. A. C. - MAURICE A. CANNEY, M.A. Assistant Lecturer in Semitic Languages in the University of Manchester. Formerly Exhibitioner of St John's College, Oxford. Pusey and Ellerton Hebrew Scholar (Oxford), 1892; Kennicott Hebrew Scholar, 1895; Houghton Syriac Prize, 1896.

- Baur.

M. Br. - MARGARET BRYANT.

- Beaumont and Fletcher: Appendix.

M. D. Ch. - SIR MACKENZIE DALZELL CHALMERS, K.C.B., C.S.I., M.A. Trinity College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Home Department. Author of Digest of the Law of Bills of Exchange; &c.

- Bill of Exchange.

M. G. - MOSES GASTER, PH.D. (Leipzig). Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. Author of A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben-Sira; The Hebrew Version of the Secretum Secretorum of Aristotle.

- Bassarab.

M. H. C. - MONTAGUE HUGHES CRACKANTHORPE, K.C., D.C.L. Honorary Fellow, St John's College, Oxford. Bencher of Lincoln's Inn. President of the Eugenics Education Society. Formerly Member of the General Council of the Bar and of the Council of Legal Education, and Standing Counsel to the University of Oxford.

- Bering Sea Arbitration.

M. Ja. - MORRIS JASTROW, PH.D. Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c.

- Babylonia and Assyria: Proper Names; Babylonian and Assyrian Religion; Bel; Belit.

M. P.* - LEON JACQUES MAXIME PRINET. Auxiliary of the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences), Author of L'Industrie du sel en Franche-Comte.

- Avaray; Bar-le-Duc; Batarnay; Bauffremont; Beauharnais; Beaujeu; Beauvillier; Bellegarde: Family.

N. B. W. - N. B. WAGLE. Formerly Lecturer on Sanskrit at the Robert Money Institution, Bombay. Vice-President of the London Indian Society. Author of Industrial Development of India; &c.

- Bhau Daji.

N. H. M. - REV. NEWTON HERBERT MARSHALL., M.A., PH.D. (Halle). Minister of Heath Street Baptist Church, Hampstead, London. Author of Gegenwartige Richtungen der Religionsphilosophie in England; Theology and Truth.

- Baptists.

N. M. - NORMAN MCLEAN, M.A. Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of Christ's College, Cambridge. University Lecturer in Aramaic. Examiner for the Oriental Languages Tripos and the Theological Tripos at Cambridge.

- Bardaisān; Bar-Hebraeus; Bar-Salībī.

N. V. - JOSEPH MARIE NOEL VALOIS. Member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Honorary Archivist at the Archives Nationales. Formerly President of the Societe de l'Histoire de France and of the Societe de l'Ecole de Chartes.

- Basel, Council of; Benedict XIII. (anti-pope).

N. W. T. - NORTHCOTE WHITBRIDGE THOMAS, M.A. Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and Marriage in Australia; &c.

- Automatism.

O. Ba. - OSWALD BARRON, F.S.A. Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905.

- Beard; Berkeley (Family); Bill (Weapon).

O. Br. - OSCAR BRILIANT.

- Austria-Hungary: Statistics.

O. Hr. - OTTO HENKER, PH.D. On the Staff of the Carl Zeiss Factory, Jena, Germany.

- Binocular Instrument.

P. A. - PAUL DANIEL ALPHANDERY. Professor of the History of Dogma, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne, Paris. Author of Les Idees morales chez les heterodoxes latines au debut du XIII^e siecle.

- Auto-da-Fe.

P. A. A. - PHILIP A. ASHWORTH, M.A., DOC.JURIS. New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist's History of the English Constitution.

- Bavaria: Statistics; Berlin.

P. A. K. - PRINCE PETER ALEXEIVITCH KROPOTKIN. See the biographical article: KROPOTKIN, P. A.

- Baikal; Baku; Bessarabia (in part).

P. C. M. - PETER CHALMERS MITCHELL, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.SC., LL.D. Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903. Author of Outlines of Biology; &c.

- Biogenesis; Biology.

P. C. Y. - PHILIP CHESNEY YORKE, M.A. Magdalen College, Oxford.

- Balfour, Sir James.

P. Gi. - PETER GILES, M.A., LITT.D., LL.D. Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. University Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c.

- B.

P. S. - PHILIP SCHIDROWITZ, PH.D., F.C.S. Member of Council, Institute of Brewing; Member of Committee of Society of Chemical Industry. Author of numerous articles on the Chemistry and Technology of Brewing, Distilling, &c.

- Beer.

R. A.* - ROBERT ANCHEL. Archivist of the Departement de l'Eure.

- Billaud-Varenne.

R. Ad. - ROBERT ADAMSON, M.A., LL.D. See the biographical article: ADAMSON, ROBERT.

- Bacon, Francis; Bacon, Roger; Beneke; Berkeley, Bishop.

R. A. S. M. - ROBERT ALEXANDER STEWART MACALISTER, M.A., F.S.A. St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Joint author of Excavations in Palestine, 1898-1900.

- Bashan; Bethlehem.

R. C. J. - SIR RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE JEBB, LL.D., D.C.L., LITT.D. See the biographical article: JEBB, SIR RICHARD C.

- Bacchylides.

R. Gn. - SIR ROBERT GIFFEN, F.R.S. See the biographical article: GIFFEN, SIR R.

- Bagehot; Balance Of Trade.

R. H. C. - REV. ROBERT HENRY CHARLES, M.A., D.D., LITT.D. (Oxon.). Grinfield Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Senior Moderator of Trinity College, Dublin. Author and Editor of Book of Enoch; Book of Jubilees; Apocalypse of Baruch; Assumption of Moses; Ascension of Isaiah; Testaments of XII. Patriarchs; &c.

- Baruch.

R. H. I. P. - SIR ROBERT HARRY INGLIS PALGRAVE, F.R.S. Director of Barclay & Co., Ltd., Bankers. Editor of the Economist, 1871-1883. Author of Notes on Banking in Great Britain and Ireland, Sweden, Denmark and Hamburg; &c. Editor of Dictionary of Political Economy.

- Banks and Banking: General.

R. J. M. - RONALD JOHN MCNEILL, M.A. Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James's Gazette (London).

- Beresford, John.

R. L.* - RICHARD LYDEKKER, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; &c.

- Avahi; Aye-Aye; Babirusa; Baboon; Beaver.

R. L. S. - ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON. See the biographical article: STEVENSON, R. L. B.

- Beranger.

R. M.* - ROBERT MUIR, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. (Edin.). Professor of Pathology, University of Glasgow. Professor of Pathology at St Andrews, 1898-1899. Author of Manual of Bacteriology; &c.

- Bacteriology: Pathological Aspects.

R. N. B. - ROBERT NISBET BAIN (d. 1909). Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, 1613-1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; Charles XII. and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire; Gustavus III. and his Contemporaries; The Pupils of Peter the Great; &c.

- Bakocz; Balassa; Banffy; Bar, Confederation of; Baross; Basil; Bathory; Batthyany; Bela III. and IV; Bern; Beothy; Bernstorff; Bestuzhev-Ryumin; Bethlen; Bezborodko; Biren.

S. A. C. - STANLEY ARTHUR COOK, M.A. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; &c.

- Baal; Benjamin.

S. C. - SIDNEY COLVIN, M.A., LITT.D. See the biographical article: COLVIN, SIDNEY.

- Baldovinetti; Bellini.

S. R. D. - SAMUEL ROLLES DRIVER, D.D., LITT.D. See the biographical article: DRIVER, S. R.

- Bible: Old Testament: Canon and Chronology.

T. A. J. - THOMAS ATHOL JOYCE, M.A. Assistant in Department of Ethnography, British Museum. Hon. Sec., Royal Anthropological Institute.

- Bechuana.

T. As. - THOMAS ASHBY, M.A., D.LITT. (Oxon.), F.S.A. Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow (Oxford). Corresponding Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of the Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna; &c.

- Auximum; Avella; Avellino; Avernus; Baiae; Bari; Barletta; Bassano; Belluno; Benevento; Bergamo; Bertinoro.

T. A. I. - THOMAS ALLAN INGRAM, M.A., LL.D. Trinity College, Dublin.

- Bailiff; Bill (law); Bill of Sale.

T. Ba. - SIR THOMAS BARCLAY, M.P. Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.

- Belligerency.

T. E. H. - THOMAS ERSKINE HOLLAND, K.C., D.C.L., LL.D. Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Formerly Professor of International Law in the University of Oxford. Bencher of Lincoln's Inn. Author of Studies in International Law; The Elements of Jurisprudence; Alberici Gentilis de jure belli; The Laws of War on Land; Neutral Duties in a Maritime War; &c.

- Bentham, Jeremy.

T. G. C. - THOMAS G. CARVER, M.A., K.C. (d. 1906). Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Cambridge. 8th Wrangler, 1871. Author of On the Law Relating to the Carriage of Goods by Sea.

- Average.

T. H. D. - REV. THOMAS HERBERT DARLOW, M.A. Literary Superintendent of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Sometime Scholar of Clare College, Cambridge. Author of Historical Catalogue of Printed Editions of Holy Scriptures (vol. i. with H. G. Moule); &c.

- Bible Societies.

T. H. H. - THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY, F.R.S. See the biographical article: HUXLEY, THOMAS H.

- Biology (in part).

T. H. H.* - SIR THOMAS HUNGERFORD HOLDICH K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.SC., F.R.G.S. Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. (London), 1887. H. M. Commissioner for the Persa-Beluch Boundary, 1896. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Gates of India; &c.

- Badakshan; Bahrein Islands; Bajour; Balkh; Baluchistan; Bamian; Bela; Bhutan.

T. L. P. - REV. THOMAS LESLIE PAPILLON, M.A. Hon. Canon of St Albans. Formerly Fellow, Dean and Tutor of New College, Oxford. Fellow of Merton College. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c.

- Bell.

T. O. - THOMAS OKEY. Examiner in Basket Work for the City of London Guilds and Institute.

- Basket.

T. W. R. D. - T. W. RHYS DAVIDS, M.A., LL.D., PH.D. Professor of Comparative Religion in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Pali and Buddhist Literature, University College, London. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; &c.

- Bharahat.

V. H. B. - VERNON HERBERT BLACKMAN, M.A., D.SC. Professor of Botany in the University of Leeds. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge.

- Bacteriology: Botany

W. A. B. C. - REV. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BREVOORT COOLIDGE, M.A., F.R.G.S., PH.D. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's College Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1889.

- Baden: Switzerland; Barcelonnette; Basel; Basses-Alpes; Beaulieu; Bellinzona; Bern; Bienne.

W. A. G. - WALTER ARMSTRONG GRAHAM. His Siamese Majesty's Resident Commissioner for the Siamese Malay State of Kelantan. Commander, Order of the White Elephant. Member of the Burma Civil Service, 1889-1903. Author of The French Roman Catholic Mission in Siam; Kelantan, a Handbook; &c.

- Bangkok.

W. A. P. - WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS, M.A. Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; The War of Greek Independence; &c.

- Austria-Hungary: History (in part); Babeuf; Balance of Power; Baron; Bates; Bavaria: History; Beguines; Berlin: Congress and Treaty of; Bernard, St.; Biretta.

W. Bo. - WILHELM BOUSSET, D.TH. Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Gottingen. Author of Das Wesen der Religion; The Antichrist Legend; &c.

- Basilides.

W. B. Ca. - W. BROUGHTON CARR. Formerly Editor of the British Bee Journal and the Bee-Keepers' Record.

- Bee: Bee-keeping.

W. C. P. - WILLIAM CHARLES POPPLEWELL, M.SC., A.M.I.C.E. Lecturer in Engineering in Manchester School of Technology (University of Manchester). Author of Compressed Air; Heat Engines; &c.

- Bellows and Blowing Machines.

W. E. D. - WILLIAM ERNEST DALBY, M.A., M.INST.C.E., M.I.M.E. Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at the City and Guilds of London Institute Central Technical College, South Kensington. Associate Member of the Institute of Naval Architects. Author of The Balancing of Engines; Valves and Valve Gear Mechanisms; &c.

- Bearings.

W. E. G. - SIR WILLIAM EDMUND GARSTIN, G.C.M.G. Governing Director, Suez Canal Co. Formerly Inspector-General of Irrigation, Egypt. Adviser to the Ministry of Public Works in Egypt, 1904-1908.

- Bahr-el-Ghazal (in part).

W. H. Be. - WILLIAM HENRY BENNETT, M.A., D.D., D.LITT. (Cantab.). Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; &c.

- Balaam; Beelzebub.

W. H. Ha. - WILLIAM HENRY HADOW, M.A., MUS.DOC. Principal, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Worcester College, Oxford. Member of Council, Royal College of Music. Editor Oxford History of Music. Author of Studies in Modern Music; &c.

- Bach, K. P. E.

W. J. H.* - WILLIAM JAMES HUGHAN. Past Senior Grand Deacon of Freemasons of England, 1874. Hon. Senior Warden of Grand Lodges of Egypt, Quebec and Iona, &c.

- Banker-Marks.

W. L. D. - WILLIAM LESLIE DAVIDSON, LL.D. Professor of Logic and Metaphysics, Aberdeen University. Author of The Logic of Definition; Christian Ethics; &c. Editor of Alexander Bain's Autobiography.

- Bain, Alexander.

W. M. S. - WILLIAM MILLIGAN SLOANE, PH.D., LL.D. Professor of History, Columbia University, New York. Secretary to George Bancroft while American Ambassador in Berlin, 1872-1875. Author of Life of Napoleon Bonaparte.

- Bancroft, George.

W. P. C. - WILLIAM PRIDEAUX COURTNEY. See the article: COURTNEY, L. H., BARON.

- Bath, William Pulteney, Marquess of.

W. P. J. - WILLIAM PRICE JAMES. University College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. High Bailiff of County Courts, Cardiff. Author of Romantic Professions; &c.

- Barrie, J. M.

W. P. R. - HON. WILLIAM PEMBER REEVES. Director of London School of Economics. Agent-General and High Commissioner for New Zealand, 1896-1909. Minister of Education, Labour and Justice, New Zealand, 1891-1896. Author of The Long White Cloud, a History of New Zealand; &c.

- Ballance, John.

W. R. L. - W. R. LETHABY, F.S.A. Principal of the Central School of Arts and Crafts under the London County Council. Author of Architecture, Mysticism and Myth; &c.

- Baptistery.

W. Sa. - WILLIAM SANDAY, D.D., LL.D., LITT.D. Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity, arid Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. Chaplain in Ordinary to His Majesty the King. Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Inspiration (Bampton Lecture, 1893); Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans; &c.

- Bible: New Testament: Canon.

W. T. Ca. - WILLIAM THOMAS CALMAN, D.SC., F.Z.S. Assistant in charge of Crustacea, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Author of "Crustacea" in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.

- Barnacle.

W. T. T.-D. - SIR WILLIAM TURNER THISELTON-DYER, F.R.S., K.C.M.G., C.I.E., D.SC. LL.D., PH.D., F.L.S. Hon. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1885-1905. Botanical Adviser to Secretary of State for Colonies, 1902-1906. Joint-author of Flora of Middlesex. Editor of Flora Capenses and Flora of Tropical Africa.

- Bentham, George.

W. W. - WILLIAM WALLACE, M.A. See the biographical article: WALLACE, WILLIAM (1844-1897).

- Averroes; Avicenna.

W. We. - REV. WENTWORTH WEBSTER (d. 1906). Author of Basque Legends; &c.

- Basque Provinces; Basques.

W. Wr. - WILLISTON WALKER, PH.D., D.D. Professor of Church History, Yale University. Author of History of the Congregational Churches in the United States; The Reformation; John Calvin; &c.

- Bacon, Leonard.

W. R. S. - W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D. See the biographical article: SMITH, WILLIAM ROBERTSON.

- Baal.

W. W. R.* - WILLIAM WALKER ROCKWELL, LIC.THEOL. Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of Die Doppeleke des Landgrafen Philipp von Hessen.

- Benedict XI., XII., XIII., XIV.

* * * * *

PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES

Azo Compounds. Azoimide. Azores. Baader, F. X. Baber. Baby-Farming. Bachelor. Backgammon. Baden: Grand Duchy. Badger. Badminton. Bagatelle. Bahamas. Balaklava. Bale, John. Baliol. Ballet. Ballot. Balneotherapeutics. Bamboo. Ban. Banana. Bank-notes. Barbados. Barbarossa. Barbed Wire. Barcelona. Barclay, Alexander. Barere de Vieuzac. Barium. Barlaam and Josaphat. Barley. Barnes, William. Barometer. Barrister. Barrow, Isaac. Bastiat, F. Bastille. Baths. Battery. Baudelaire. Bautzen. Baxter, Richard. Bayard, P. T. Bazaine. Bean. Bear. Bear-Baiting and Bull-Baiting. Beaton. Beaufort: Family. Beaufort, Henry. Beaumarchais. Beaumont: Family. Becher. Beddoes, Thomas Lovell. Bedford, Earls and Dukes of. Bedfordshire. Bedouins. Beecher, Lyman. Behar. Beheading. Bejart. Belfast: Ireland. Belfort: Town. Bell, Sir Charles. Belladonna. Bellarmine. Bellary. Belle-Isle, C. L. A. F., Duc de. Benares. Benedek. Benediction. Benefice. Benevolence. Bengal. Bengel. Benin. Benjamin (Judah Philip). Benson (Archbishop of Canterbury). Bentley, Richard. Benton. Benzaldehyde. Benzene. Benzoic Acid. Berar. Berbers. Berengarius. Beresford, Lord Charles. Beresford, Viscount. Bergen. Beri-Beri. Berkshire. Berlioz. Bermondsey. Bermudas. Bernhardt, Sarah. Bernouilli. Berthelot. Berwick (Duke of). Berwickshire. Berwick-upon-Tweed. Beryllium. Besancon. Bessemer, Sir Henry. Bet and Betting. Betrothal. Beyle. Bezique. Bhagalpur. Bible Christians. Bichromates and Chromates. Bidder. Bigamy. Bijapur. Bikanir. Bilaspur. Bilbao. Billiards. Binomial. Birch. Birkenhead. Birmingham. Birney, James G. Biron, Armand de Gontaut. Birth. Biscay (Vizcaya).

[1] A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

* * * * *

[v.03 p.0001]

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME III

* * * * *

AUSTRIA, LOWER (Ger. Niederoesterreich or Oesterreich unter der Enns, "Austria below the river Enns"), an archduchy and crownland of Austria, bounded E. by Hungary, N. by Bohemia and Moravia, W. by Bohemia and Upper Austria, and S. by Styria. It has an area of 7654 sq. m. and is divided into two parts by the Danube, which enters at its most westerly point, and leaves it at its eastern extremity, near Pressburg. North of this line is the low hilly country, known as the Waldviertel, which lies at the foot and forms the continuation of the Bohemian and Moravian plateau. Towards the W. it attains in the Weinsberger Wald, of which the highest point is the Peilstein, an altitude of 3478 ft., and descends towards the valley of the Danube through the Gfoehler Wald (2368 ft.) and the Manhartsgebirge (1758 ft.). Its most south-easterly offshoots are formed by the Bisamberg (1180 ft.), near Vienna, just opposite the Kahlenberg. The southern division of the province is, in the main, mountainous and hilly, and is occupied by the Lower Austrian Alps and their offshoots. The principal groups are: the Voralpe (5802 ft.), the Duerrenstein (6156 ft.), the Oetscher (6205 ft.), the Raxalpe (6589 ft.) and the Schneeberg (6806 ft.), which is the highest summit in the whole province. To the E. of the famous ridge of Semmering are the groups of the Wechsel (5700 ft.) and the Leithagebirge (1674 ft.). The offshoots of the Alpine group are formed by the Wiener Wald, which attains an altitude of 2929 ft. in the Schoepfl and ends N.W. of Vienna in the Kahlenberg (1404 ft.) and Leopoldsberg (1380 ft.).

Lower Austria belongs to the watershed of the Danube, which with the exception of the Lainsitz, which is a tributary of the Moldau, receives all the other rivers of the province. Its principal affluents on the right are: the Enns, Ybbs, Erlauf, Pielach, Traisen, Wien, Schwechat, Fischa and Leitha; on the left the Isper, Krems, Kamp, Goellersau and the March. Besides the Danube, only the Enns and the March are navigable rivers. Amongst the small Alpine lakes, the Erlaufsee and the Lunzer See are worth mentioning. Of its mineral springs, the best known are the sulphur springs of Baden, the iodine springs of Deutsch-Altenburg, the iron springs of Pyrawarth, and the thermal springs of Voeslau. In general the climate, which varies with the configuration of the surface, is moderate and healthy, although subject to rapid changes of temperature. Although 43.4% of the total area is arable land, the soil is only of moderate fertility and does not satisfy the wants of this thickly-populated province. Woods occupy 34.2%, gardens and meadows 13.1% and pastures 3.2%. Vineyards occupy 2% of the total area and produce a good wine, specially those on the sunny slopes of the Wiener Wald. Cattle-rearing is not well developed, but game and fish are plentiful. Mining is only of slight importance, small quantities of coal and iron-ore being extracted in the Alpine foothill region; graphite is found near Muehldorf. From an industrial point of view, Lower Austria stands, together with Bohemia and Moravia, in the front rank amongst the Austrian provinces. The centre of its great industrial activity is the capital, Vienna (q.v.); but in the region of the Wiener Wald up to the Semmering, owing to its many waters, which can be transformed into motive power, many factories are spread. The principal industries are, the metallurgic and textile industries in all their branches, milling, brewing and chemicals; paper, leather and silk; cloth, objets de luxe and millinery; physical and musical instruments; sugar, tobacco factories and foodstuffs. The very extensive commerce of the province has also its centre in Vienna. The population of Lower Austria in 1900 was 3,100,493, which corresponds to 405 inhabitants per sq. m. It is, therefore, the most densely populated province of Austria. According to the language in common use, 95% of the population [v.03 p.0002] was German, 4.66% was Czech, and the remainder was composed of Poles, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Croatians and Italians. According to religion 92.47% of the inhabitants were Roman Catholics; 5.07% were Jews; 2.11% were Protestants and the remainder belonged to the Greek church. In the matter of education, Lower Austria is one of the most advanced provinces of Austria, and 99.8% of the children of school-going age attended school regularly in 1900. The local diet is composed of 78 members, of which the archbishop of Vienna, the bishop of St Poelten and the rector of the Vienna University are members ex officio. Lower Austria sends 64 members, to the Imperial Reichsrat at Vienna. For administrative purposes, the province is divided into 22 districts and three towns with autonomous municipalities: Vienna (1,662,269), the capital (since 1905 including Floridsdorf, 36,599), Wiener-Neustadt (28,438) and Waidhofen on the Ybbs (4447). Other principal towns are: Baden (12,447), Bruck on the Leitha (5134), Schwechat (8241), Korneuburg (8298), Stokerau (10,213), Krems (12,657), Moedling (15,304), Reichenau (7457), Neunkirchen (10,831), St Poelten (14,510) and Klosterneuburg (11,595).

The original archduchy, which included Upper Austria, is the nucleus of the Austrian empire, and the oldest possession of the house of Habsburg in its present dominions.

See F. Umlauft, Das Erzherzogtum Oesterreich unter der Enns, vol. i. of the collection Die Lander Oesterreich-Ungarns in Wort und Bild (Vienna, 1881-1889, 15 vols.); Die oesterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild, vol. 4. (Vienna. 1886-1902, 24 vols.); M. Vansca, Gesch. Nieder- u. Ober-Oesterreichs (in Heeren's Staatengesch., Gotha, 1905).

AUSTRIA, UPPER (Ger. Oberoesterreich or Oesterreich ob der Enns, "Austria above the river Enns"), an archduchy and crown-land of Austria, bounded N. by Bohemia, W. by Bavaria, S. by Salzburg and Styria, and E. by Lower Austria. It has an area of 4631 sq. m. Upper Austria is divided by the Danube into two unequal parts. Its smaller northern part is a prolongation of the southern angle of the Bohemian forest and contains as culminating points the Ploecklstein (4510 ft.) and the Sternstein (3690 ft.). The southern part belongs to the region of the Eastern Alps, containing the Salzkammergut and Upper Austrian Alps, which are found principally in the district of Salzkammergut (q.v.). To the north of these mountains, stretching towards the Danube, is the Alpine foothill region, composed partly of terraces and partly of swelling undulations, of which the most important is the Hausruckwald. This is a wooded chain of mountains, with many branches, rich in brown coal and culminating in the Goeblberg (2950 ft.). Upper Austria belongs to the watershed of the Danube, which flows through it from west to east, and receives here on the right the Inn with the Salzach, the Traun, the Enns with the Steyr and on its left the Great and Little Muehl rivers. The Schwarzenberg canal between the Great Muehl and the Moldau establishes a direct navigable route between the Danube and the Elbe. The climate of Upper Austria, which varies according to the altitude, is on the whole moderate; it is somewhat severe in the north, but is mild in Salzkammergut. The population of the duchy in 1900 was 809,918, which is equivalent to 174.8 inhabitants per sq. m. It has the greatest density of population of any of the Alpine provinces. The inhabitants are almost exclusively of German stock and Roman Catholics. For administrative purposes, Upper Austria is divided into two autonomous municipalities, Linz (58,778) the capital, and Steyr (17,592) and 12 districts. Other principal towns are Wels (12,187), Ischl (9646) and Gmunden (7126). The local diet, of which the bishop of Linz is a member ex officio, is composed of 50 members and the duchy sends 22 members to the Reichsrat at Vienna. The soil in the valleys and on the lower slopes of the hills is fertile, indeed 35.08% of the whole area is arable. Agriculture is well developed and relatively large quantities of the principal cereals are produced. Upper Austria has the largest proportion of meadows in all Austria, 18.54%, while 2.49% is lowland and Alpine pasturage. Of the remainder, woods occupy 34.02%, gardens 1.99% and 4.93% is unproductive. Cattle-breeding is also in a very advanced stage and together with the timber-trade forms a considerable resource of the province. The principal mineral wealth of Upper Austria is salt, of which it extracts nearly 50% of the total Austrian production. Other important products are lignite, gypsum and a variety of valuable stones and clays. There are about thirty mineral springs, the best known being the salt baths of Ischl and the iodine waters at Hall. The principal industries are the iron and metal manufactures, chiefly centred at Steyr. Next in importance are the machine, linen, cotton and paper manufactures, the milling, brewing and distilling industries and shipbuilding. The principal articles of export are salt, stone, timber, live-stock, woollen and iron wares and paper.

See Edlbacher, Landeskunde von Oberoesterreich (Linz, 2nd ed., 1883); Vansca, op. cit. in the preceding article.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, or the AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY (Ger. Oesterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie or Oesterreichisch-ungarisches Reich), the official name of a country situated in central Europe, bounded E. by Russia and Rumania, S. by Rumania, Servia, Turkey and Montenegro, W. by the Adriatic Sea, Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and the German Empire, and N. by the German Empire and Russia. It occupies about the sixteenth part of the total area of Europe, with an area (1905) of 239,977 sq. m. The monarchy consists of two independent states: the kingdoms and lands represented in the council of the empire (Reichsrat), unofficially called Austria (q.v.) or Cisleithania; and the "lands of St Stephen's Crown," unofficially called Hungary (q.v.) or Transleithania. It received its actual name by the diploma of the emperor Francis Joseph I. of the 14th of November 1868, replacing the name of the Austrian Empire under which the dominions under his sceptre were formerly known. The Austro-Hungarian monarchy is very often called unofficially the Dual Monarchy. It had in 1901 a population of 45,405,267 inhabitants, comprising therefore within its borders, about one-eighth of the total population of Europe. By the Berlin Treaty of 1878 the principalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina with an area of 19,702 sq. m., and a population (1895) of 1,591,036 inhabitants, owning Turkey as suzerain, were placed under the administration of Austria-Hungary, and their annexation in 1908 was recognized by the Powers in 1909, so that they became part of the dominions of the monarchy.

Government.—The present constitution of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy (see AUSTRIA) is based on the Pragmatic Sanction of the emperor Charles VI., first promulgated on the 19th of April 1713, whereby the succession to the throne is settled in the dynasty of Habsburg-Lorraine, descending by right of primogeniture and lineal succession to male heirs, and, in case of their extinction, to the female line, and whereby the indissolubility and indivisibility of the monarchy are determined; is based, further, on the diploma of the emperor Francis Joseph I. of the 20th of October 1860, whereby the constitutional form of government is introduced; and, lastly, on the so-called Ausgleich or "Compromise," concluded on the 8th of February 1867, whereby the relations between Austria and Hungary were regulated.

The two separate states—Austria and Hungary—are completely independent of each other, and each has its own parliament and its own government. The unity of the monarchy is expressed in the common head of the state, who bears the title Emperor of Austria and Apostolic King of Hungary, and in the common administration of a series of affairs, which affect both halves of the Dual Monarchy. These are: (1) foreign affairs, including diplomatic and consular representation abroad; (2) the army, including the navy, but excluding the annual voting of recruits, and the special army of each state; (3) finance in so far as it concerns joint expenditure.

For the administration of these common affairs there are three joint ministries: the ministry of foreign affairs and of the imperial and royal house, the ministry of war, and the ministry of finance. It must be noted that the authority of the joint ministers is restricted to common affairs, and that they are not allowed to direct or exercise any influence on affairs of government affecting separately one of the halves of the monarchy. [v.03 p.0003] The minister of foreign affairs conducts the international relations of the Dual Monarchy, and can conclude international treaties. But commercial treaties, and such state treaties as impose burdens on the state, or parts of the state, or involve a change of territory, require the parliamentary assent of both states. The minister of war is the head for the administration of all military affairs, except those of the Austrian Landwehr and of the Hungarian Honveds, which are committed to the ministries for national defence of the two respective states. But the supreme command of the army is vested in the monarch, who has the power to take all measures regarding the whole army. It follows, therefore, that the total armed power of the Dual Monarchy forms a whole under the supreme command of the sovereign. The minister of finance has charge of the finances of common affairs, prepares the joint budget, and administers the joint state debt. (Till 1909 the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were also administered by the joint minister of finance, excepting matters exclusively dependent on the minister of war.) For the control of the common finances, there is appointed a joint supreme court of accounts, which audits the accounts of the joint ministries.

Budget.—Side by side with the budget of each state of the Dual Monarchy, there is a common budget, which comprises the expenditure necessary for the common affairs, namely for the conduct of foreign affairs, for the army, and for the ministry of finance. The revenues of the joint budget consist of the revenues of the joint ministries, the net proceeds of the customs, and the quota, or the proportional contributions of the two states. This quota is fixed for a period of years, and generally coincides with the duration of the customs and commercial treaty. Until 1897 Austria contributed 70%, and Hungary 30% of the joint expenditure, remaining after-deduction of the common revenue. It was then decided that from 1897 to July 1907 the quota should be 66-46/49 for Austria, and 33-2/49 for Hungary. In 1907 Hungary's contribution was raised to 36.4%. Of the total charges 2% is first of all debited to Hungary on account of the incorporation with this state of the former military frontier.

The Budget estimates for the common administration were as follows in 1905:—

Revenue— Ministry of Foreign Affairs L21,167 Ministry of War 305,907 Ministry of Finance 4,870 Board of Control 18 The Customs 4,780,000 Proportional contributions 15,650,448 —————- Total L20,762,410 ===========

Expenditure— Ministry of Foreign Affairs L485,480 Ministry of War:— Army 12,679,160 Navy 2,306,100 Ministry of Finance 177,000 Board of Control 13,250 Extraordinary Military Expenditure 4,785,500 Extraordinary Military Expenditure in Bosnia 315,920 —————- Total L20,762,410 ===========

The following table gives in thousands sterling the joint budget for the years 1875-1905:—

Expenditure.

1875. 1885. 1895. 1900. 1905. Ministry of Foreign Affairs 396 368.7 333 433.4 493.8 Ministry of War 9005.4 10,085 12,539 13,887.5 18,087.7 (Army and Navy) Ministry of Finance 154.2 167.2 170.4 175 177.1 Supreme Court of Accounts 10.5 10.6 10.7 12.5 13.3 Total 9566.1 10,631.5 13,053.1 14,508.4 20,430.3

Revenue.

For the above Departments 432 258.2 260.7 260.3 331.9 Customs 997.4 402.2 4476 5202.3 4799.7 Proportional Contributions 8136.7 9971.1 8316.4 9045.8 15,650.4 Total 9566.1 10,631.5 13,053.1 14,508.4 20,430.3

Debt.—Besides the debts of each state of the Dual Monarchy, there is a general debt, which is borne jointly by Austria and Hungary. The following table gives in millions sterling the amount of the general debt for the years 1875-1905:—

1875. 1885. 1895. 1900. 1905. 232.41 231.02 229.67 226.81 224.31

Delegations.—The constitutional right of voting money applicable to the common affairs and of its political control is exercised by the Delegations, which consist each of sixty members, chosen for one year, one-third of them by the Austrian Herrenhaus (Upper House) and the Hungarian Table of Magnates (Upper House), and two-thirds of them by the Austrian and the Hungarian Houses of Representatives. The delegations are annually summoned by the monarch alternately to Vienna and to Budapest. Each delegation has its separate sittings, both alike public. Their decisions are reciprocally communicated in writing, and, in case of non-agreement, their deliberations are renewed. Should three such interchanges be made without agreement, a common plenary sitting is held of an equal number of both delegations; and these collectively, without discussion, decide the question by common vote. The common decisions of both houses require for their validity the sanction of the monarch. Each delegation has the right to formulate resolutions independently, and to call to account and arraign the common ministers. In the exercise of their office the members of both delegations are irresponsible, enjoying constitutional immunity.

Army.—The military system of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy is similar in both states, and rests since 1868 upon the principle of the universal and personal obligation of the citizen to bear arms. Its military force is composed of the common army (K. und K.); the special armies, namely the Austrian (K.K.) Landwehr, and the Hungarian Honveds, which are separate national institutions, and the Landsturm or levy-in-mass. As stated above, the common army stands under the administration of the joint minister of war, while the special armies are under the administration of the respective ministries of national defence. The yearly contingent of recruits for the army is fixed by the military bills voted by the Austrian and Hungarian parliaments, and is generally determined on the basis of the population, according to the last census returns. It amounted in 1905 to 103,100 men, of which Austria furnished 59,211 men, and Hungary 43,889. Besides 10,000 men are annually allotted to the Austrian Landwehr, and 12,500 to the Hungarian Honveds. The term of service is 2 years (3 years in the cavalry) with the colours, 7 or 8 in the reserve and 2 in the Landwehr; in the case of men not drafted to the active army the same total period of service is spent in various special reserves.

For the military and administrative service of the army the Dual Monarchy is divided into 16 military territorial districts (15 of which correspond to the 15 army corps) and 108 supplementary districts (105 for the army, and 3 for the navy). In 1902, since which year no material change was made in the formal organization of the army, there were 5 cavalry divisions and 31 infantry divisions, formed in 15 army corps, which are located as follows:—I. Cracow, II. Vienna, III. Graz, IV. Budapest, V. Pressburg, VI. Kaschau, VII. Temesvar, VIII. Prague, IX. Josefstadt, X. Przemysl, XI. Lemberg, XII. Herrmannstadt, XIII. Agram, XIV. Innsbruck, XV. Serajewo. In addition there is the military district of Zara. The usual strength of the corps is, 2 infantry divisions (4 brigades, 8 or 9 regiments, 32 or 36 battalions), 1 cavalry brigade (18 squadrons), and 1 artillery brigade (16-18 batteries or 128-144 field-guns), besides technical and departmental units and in some cases fortress artillery regiments. The infantry is organized into line regiments, Jaeger and Tirolese regiments, the cavalry into dragoons, lancers, Uhlans and hussars, the artillery into regiments. The Austrian Landwehr (which retains the old designation K.K., formerly [v.03 p.0004] applied to the Austrian regular army) is organized in 8 divisions of varying strength, the "Royal Hungarian" Landwehr or Honveds in 7 divisions, both Austrian and Hungarian Landwehr having in addition cavalry (Uhlans and hussars) and artillery. It is probable that a Landwehr or Honveds division will, in war, form part of each army corps except in the case of the Vienna corps, which has 3 divisions in peace. The remaining men of military age (up to 42) as usual form the Landsturm. It is to be noted that this Landsturm comprises many men who would elsewhere be classed as Landwehr.

The strength of the Austro-Hungarian army on a peace footing was as follows in 1905:—

- - - - Officers. Men. Horses. Guns. - - - - Infantry Common Army 10,801 187,604 1,152 .. Austrian Landwehr 1,883 23,905 174 .. Hungarian Honveds 2,258 21,149 262 .. Cavalry Common Army 1,890 45,486 40,740 .. Austrian Landwehr 170 1,861 1,282 .. Hungarian Honveds 390 4,170 3,510 .. Field Artillery 1,630 27,612 14,520 1,048 Fortress Artillery 408 7,722 131 .. Technical troops 588 9,935 19 .. (Pioneers, and Railway and Telegraph Regiment) Transport Service 461 4,312 3,097 .. Sanitary Service 85 3,062 .. .. - Total 20,564 336,818 64,887 1,048 Belonging to the Common Army 15,863 285,733 59,659 1,048 Austrian Landwehr 2,053 25,766 1,456 .. Hungarian Honveds 2,648 25,319 3,772 .. - - - -

The troops stationed in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1905 (376 officers and 6372 men) are included in the total for the common army.

The peace strength of the active army in combatants is thus about 350,000 officers and men, inclusive of the two Landwehrs and of the Austrian "K.K." guards, the Hungarian crown guards, the gendarmerie, &c. The numbers of the Landsturm and the war strength of the whole armed forces are not published. It is estimated that the first line army in war would consist of 460,000 infantry, 49,000 cavalry, 78,000 artillery, 21,000 engineers, &c., beside train and non-combatant soldiers. The Landwehr and Honved would yield 219,000 infantry and 18,000 cavalry, and other reserves 223,000 men. These figures give an approximate total strength of 1,147,000, not inclusive of Landsturm.

Fortifications.—The principal fortifications in Austria-Hungary are: Cracow and Przemysl in Galicia; Komarom, the centre of the inland fortifications, Petervarad, O-Arad and Temesvar in Hungary; Serajewo, Mostar and Bilek in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Alpine frontiers, especially those in Tirol, have numerous fortifications, whose centre is formed by Trent and Franzensfeste; while all the military roads leading into Carinthia have been provided with strong defensive works, as at Malborgeth, Predil Pass, &c. The two capitals, Vienna and Budapest, are not fortified. On the Adriatic coast, the naval harbour of Pola is strongly fortified with sea and land defences; then come Trieste, and several places in Dalmatia, notably Zara and Cattaro.

Navy.—The Austro-Hungarian navy is mainly a coast defence force, and includes also a flotilla of monitors for the Danube. It is administered by the naval department of the ministry of war. It consisted in 1905 of 9 modern battleships, 3 armoured cruisers, 5 cruisers, 4 torpedo gunboats, 20 destroyers and 26 torpedo boats. There was in hand at the same time a naval programme to build 12 armourclads, 5 second-class cruisers, 6 third-class cruisers, and a number of torpedo boats. The headquarters of the fleet are at Pola, which is the principal naval arsenal and harbour of Austria; while another great naval station is Trieste.

Trade.—On the basis of the customs and commercial agreement between Austria and Hungary, concluded in 1867 and renewable every ten years, the following affairs, in addition to the common affairs of the monarchy, are in both states treated according to the same principles:—Commercial affairs, including customs legislation; legislation on the duties closely connected with industrial production—on beer, brandy, sugar and mineral oils; determination of legal tender and coinage, as also of the principles regulating the Austro-Hungarian Bank; ordinances in respect of such railways as affect the interests of both states. In conformity with the customs and commercial compact between the two states, renewed in 1899, the monarchy constitutes one identical customs and commercial territory, inclusive of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the principality of Liechtenstein.

The foreign trade of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy is shown in the following table:—

- - Year. Imports. Exports. - - 1900 L70,666,000 L80,916,000 1901 68,833,000 78,841,000 1902 71,666,000 79,708,000 1903 78,200,000 88,600,000 1904 85,200,000 86,200,000 1905 89,430,000 93,500,000 - -

The following tables give the foreign trade of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy as regards raw material and manufactured goods:—

Imports. + -+ Value in Millions Sterling. + + + + + + + Articles. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. + + + + + + + Raw material (including articles of food; raw material for agriculture 41.5 40.5 41.8 45.9 51.9 and industry; and mining and smelting products. Semi-manufactured goods 9.6 9.6 10.3 10.6 10.8 Manufactured Goods 19.5 18.7 19.5 21.6 22.5 + + + + + + +

Exports. + -+ Value in Millions Sterling. + + + + + + + Articles. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. + + + + + + + Raw material (as above) 34.1 34.1 35.9 39 35.3 Semi-manufactured goods 12.6 11.1 11.1 12.4 12.6 Manufactured goods. 34.2 33.3 32.8 37.2 38.3 + + + + + + +

The most important place of derivation and of destination for the Austro-Hungarian trade is the German empire with about 40% of the imports, and about 60% of the exports. Next in importance comes Great Britain, afterwards India, Italy, the United States of America, Russia, France, Switzerland, Rumania, the Balkan states and South America in about the order named. The principal articles of import are cotton and cotton goods, wool and woollen goods, silk and silk goods, coffee, tobacco and metals. The principal articles of export are wood, sugar, cattle, glass and glassware, iron and ironware, eggs, cereals, millinery, fancy goods, earthenware and pottery, and leather goods.

The Austro-Hungarian Bank.—Common to the two states of the monarchy is the "Austro-Hungarian Bank," which possesses a legal exclusive right to the issue of bank-notes. It was founded in 1816, and had the title of the Austrian National Bank until 1878, when it received its actual name. In virtue of the new bank statute of the year 1899 the bank is a joint-stock company, with a stock of L8,780,000. The bank's notes of issue must be covered to the extent of two-fifths by legal specie (gold and current silver) in reserve; the rest of the paper circulation, according to bank usage. The state, under certain conditions, takes a portion of the clear profits of the bank. The management of the bank and the supervision exercised over it by the state are established on a footing of equality, both states having each the same influence. The accounts of the bank at the end of 1900 were as follows: capital, L8,750,000; reserve fund, L428,250; note circulation, L62,251,000; cash, L50,754,000. In 1907 the reserve fund was L548,041; note circulation, L84,501,000; cash, L60,036,625. The charter of the bank, which expired in 1897, was renewed until the end of 1910. In the Hungarian ministerial crisis of 1909 the question of the renewal of the charter played a conspicuous part, the more extreme members of the Independence party demanding the establishment of separate banks for Austria and Hungary with, at most, common superintendence (see History, below).

(O. BR.)

HISTORY

I. The Whole Monarchy.



[Sidenote: The title "Emperor of Austria."]

The empire of Austria, as the official designation of the territories ruled by the Habsburg monarchy, dates back only to 1804, when Francis II., the last of the Holy Roman emperors, proclaimed himself emperor of Austria as Francis I. His motive in doing so was to guard against the great house of Habsburg being relegated to a position inferior to the parvenus Bonapartes, in the event of the final collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, or of the possible election of Napoleon as his own successor on the throne of Charlemagne. The title emperor of Austria, then, replaced that of "Imperator Romanorum semper Augustus" when the Holy Empire came to an end in 1806. From the first, however, it was no more than a title, which represented but ill the actual relation of the Habsburg sovereigns to their several states. [v.03 p.0005] Magyars and Slavs never willingly recognized a style which ignored their national rights and implied the superiority of the German elements of the monarchy; to the Germans it was a poor substitute for a title which had represented the political unity of the German race under the Holy Empire. For long after the Vienna Congress of 1814-1815 the "Kaiser" as such exercised a powerful influence over the imaginations of the German people outside the Habsburg dominions; but this was because the title was still surrounded with its ancient halo and the essential change was not at once recognized. The outcome of the long struggle with Prussia, which in 1866 finally broke the spell, and the proclamation of the German empire in 1871 left the title of emperor of Austria stripped of everything but a purely territorial significance. It had, moreover, by the compact with Hungary of 1867, ceased even fully to represent the relation of the emperor to all his dominions; and the title which had been devised to cover the whole of the Habsburg monarchy sank into the official style of the sovereign of but a half; while even within the Austrian empire proper it is resented by those peoples which, like the Bohemians, wish to obtain the same recognition of their national independence as was conceded to Hungary. In placing the account of the origin and development of the Habsburg monarchy under this heading, it is merely for the sake of convenience.

[Sidenote: Origin of the name Austria.]

The first nucleus round which the present dominions of the house of Austria gradually accumulated was the mark which lay along the south bank of the Danube, east of the river Enns, founded about A.D. 800 as a defence for the Frankish kingdom against the Slavs. Although its total length from east to west was only about 60 m., it was associated in the popular mind with a large and almost unbroken tract of land in the east of Europe. This fact, together with the position of the mark with regard to Germany in general and to Bavaria in particular, accounts for the name Oesterreich (Austria), i.e. east empire or realm, a word first used in a charter of 996, where the phrase in regione vulgari nomine Ostarrichi occurs. The development of this small mark into the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was a slow and gradual process, and falls into two main divisions, which almost coincide with the periods during which the dynasties of Babenberg and Habsburg have respectively ruled the land. The energies of the house of Babenberg were chiefly spent in enlarging the area and strengthening the position of the mark itself, and when this was done the house of Habsburg set itself with remarkable perseverance and marvellous success to extend its rule over neighbouring territories. The many vicissitudes which have attended this development have not, however, altered the European position of Austria, which has remained the same for over a thousand years. Standing sentinel over the valley of the middle Danube, and barring the advance of the Slavs on Germany, Austria, whether mark, duchy or empire, has always been the meeting-place of the Teuton and the Slav. It is this fact which gives it a unique interest and importance in the history of Europe, and which unites the ideas of the Germans to-day with those of Charlemagne and Otto the Great.

[Sidenote: Early inhabitants.]

The southern part of the country now called Austria was inhabited before the opening of the Christian era by the Taurisci, a Celtic tribe, who were subsequently called the Norici, and who were conquered by the Romans about 14 B.C. Their land was afterwards included in the provinces of Pannonia and Noricum, and under Roman rule, Vindobona, the modern Vienna, became a place of some importance. The part of the country north of the Danube was peopled by the Marcomanni and the Quadi, and both of these tribes were frequently at war with the Romans, especially during the reign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, who died at Vindobona in A.D. 180 when campaigning against them. Christianity and civilization obtained entrance into the land, but the increasing weakness of the Roman empire opened the country to the inroads of the barbarians, and during the period of the great migrations it was ravaged in quick succession by a number of these tribes, prominent among whom were the Huns. The lands on both banks of the river shared the same fate, due probably to the fact to which Gibbon has drawn attention, that at this period the Danube was frequently frozen over. About 590 the district was settled by the Slovenes, or Corutanes, a Slavonic people, who formed part of the kingdom of Samo, and were afterwards included in the extensive kingdom of the Avars. The Franks claimed some authority over this people, and probably some of the princes of the Slovenes had recognized this claim, but it could not be regarded as serious while the Avars were in possession of the land. In 791 Charlemagne, after he had established his authority over the Bajuvarii or Bavarians, crossed the river Enns, and moved against the Avars. This attack was followed by campaigns on the part of his lieutenants, and in 805 the Avars were finally subdued, and their land incorporated with the Frankish empire. [Sidenote: Establishment of the East Mark.] This step brought the later Austria definitely under the rule of the Franks, and during the struggle Charlemagne erected a mark, called the East Mark, to defend the eastern border of his empire. A series of margraves ruled this small district from 799 to 907, but as the Frankish empire grew weaker, the mark suffered more and more from the ravages of its eastern neighbours. During the 9th century the Frankish supremacy vanished, and the mark was overrun by the Moravians, and then by the Magyars, or Hungarians, who destroyed the few remaining traces of Frankish influence.

[Sidenote: The house of Babenberg.]

A new era dawned after Otto the Great was elected German king in 936, and it is Otto rather than Charlemagne who must be regarded as the real founder of Austria. In August 955 he gained a great victory over the Magyars on the Lechfeld, freed Bavaria from their presence, and refounded the East Mark for the defence of his kingdom. In 976 his son, the emperor Otto II., entrusted the government of this mark, soon to be known as Austria, to Leopold, a member of the family of Babenberg (q.v.), and its administration was conducted with vigour and success. Leopold and his descendants ruled Austria until the extinction of the family in 1246, and by their skill and foresight raised the mark to an important place among the German states. Their first care was to push its eastern frontier down the Danube valley, by colonizing the lands on either side of the river, and the success of this work may be seen in the removal of their capital from Poechlarn to Melk, then to Tulln, and finally about 1140 to Vienna. The country as far as the Leitha was subsequently incorporated with Austria, and in the other direction the district between the Enns and the Inn was added to the mark in 1156, an important date in Austrian history. [Sidenote: Duchy of Austria created, 1156.] Anxious to restore peace to Germany in this year, the new king, Frederick I., raised Austria to the rank of a duchy, and conferred upon it exceptional privileges. The investiture was bestowed not only upon Duke Henry but upon his second wife, Theodora; in case of a failure of male heirs the duchy was to descend to females; and if the duke had no children he could nominate his successor. Controlling all the jurisdiction of the land, the duke's only duties towards the Empire were to appear at any diet held in Bavaria, and to send a contingent to the imperial army for any campaigns in the countries bordering upon Austria. In 1186 Duke Leopold I. made a treaty with Ottakar IV., duke of Styria, an arrangement which brought Styria and upper Austria to the Babenbergs in 1192, and in 1229 Duke Leopold II. purchased some lands from the bishop of Freising, and took the title of lord of Carniola. When the house of Babenberg became extinct in 1246, Austria, stretching from Passau almost to Pressburg, had the frontiers which it retains to-day, and this increase of territory had been accompanied by a corresponding increase in wealth and general prosperity. The chief reason for this prosperity was the growth of trade along the Danube, which stimulated the foundation, or the growth, of towns, and brought considerable riches to the ruler. Under the later Babenbergs Vienna was regarded as one of the most important of German cities, and it was computed that the duke was as rich as the archbishop of Cologne, or the margrave of Brandenburg, and was surpassed in this respect by only one German prince, the [v.03 p.0006] king of Bohemia. The interests of the Austrian margraves and dukes were not confined to the acquisition of wealth either in land or chattels. Vienna became a centre of culture and learning, and many religious houses were founded and endowed. [Sidenote: Duke Leopold II.] The acme of the early prosperity of Austria was reached under Duke Leopold II., surnamed the Glorious, who reigned from 1194 to 1230. He gave a code of municipal law to Vienna, and rights to other towns, welcomed the Minnesingers to his brilliant court, and left to his subjects an enduring memory of valour and wisdom. Leopold and his predecessors were enabled, owing to the special position of Austria, to act practically as independent rulers. Cherishing the privilege of 1156, they made treaties with foreign kings, and arranged marriages with the great families of Europe. With full control of jurisdiction and of commerce, no great bishopric nor imperial city impeded the course of their authority, and the emperor interfered only to settle boundary disputes.

[Sidenote: Duke Frederick II., the Quarrelsome.]

The main lines of Austrian policy under the Babenbergs were warfare with the Hungarians and other eastern neighbours, and a general attitude of loyalty towards the emperors. The story of the Hungarian wars is a monotonous record of forays, of assistance given at times to the Babenbergs by the forces of the Empire, and ending in the gradual eastward advance of Austria. The traditional loyalty to the emperors, which was cemented by several marriages between the imperial house and the Babenbergs, was, however, departed from by the margrave Leopold II., and by Duke Frederick II. During the investiture struggle Leopold deserted the emperor Henry IV., who deprived him of Austria and conferred it upon Vratislav II., duke of the Bohemians. Unable to maintain his position, Vratislav was soon driven out, and in 1083 Leopold again obtained possession of the mark, and was soon reconciled with Henry. Very similar was the result of the conflict between the emperor Frederick II. and Duke Frederick II. Ignoring the the privilege of 1156, the emperor claimed certain rights in Austria, and summoned the duke to his Italian diets. Frederick, who was called the Quarrelsome, had irritated both his neighbours and his subjects, and complaints of his exactions and confiscations reached the ears of the emperor. After the duke had three times refused to appear before the princes, Frederick placed him under the ban, declared the duchies of Austria and Styria to be vacant, and, aided by the king of Bohemia, the duke of Bavaria and other princes, invaded the country in 1236. [Sidenote: End of the House of Babenberg.] He met with very slight opposition, declared the duchies to be immediately dependent upon the Empire, made Vienna an imperial city, and imposed other changes upon the constitution of Austria. After his departure, however, the duke returned, and in 1239 was in possession of his former power, while the changes made by the emperor were ignored. Continuing his career of violence and oppression, Duke Frederick was killed in battle by the Hungarians in June 1246, when the family of Babenberg became extinct.

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