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THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

ELEVENTH EDITION



FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 1768-1771. SECOND " " ten " 1777-1784. THIRD " " eighteen " 1788-1797. FOURTH " " twenty " 1801-1810. FIFTH " " twenty " 1815-1817. SIXTH " " twenty " 1823-1824. SEVENTH " " twenty-one " 1830-1842. EIGHTH " " twenty-two " 1853-1860. NINTH " " twenty-five " 1875-1889. TENTH " ninth edition and eleven supplementary volumes, 1902-1903. ELEVENTH " published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910-1911.



COPYRIGHT in all countries subscribing to the Bern Convention

by THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS of the UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

All rights reserved



THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME VII

CONSTANTINE PAVLOVICH to DEMIDOV

New York Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 342 Madison Avenue

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910, by The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company.



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME VII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS,[1] WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. B. F. Y. ALEXANDER BELL FILSON YOUNG. Formerly Editor of the Outlook. Author of Christopher Columbus; Master-singers; The Complete Motorist; Wagner Stories; &c.

Dance (in part).

A. Bo.* AUGUSTE BOUDINHON, D.D., D.C.L. Professor of Canon Law in the Catholic University of Paris. Honorary Canon of Paris. Editor of the Canoniste contemporain.

Curia Romana; Decretals.

A. Ca. ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S. See the biographical article: CAYLEY, ARTHUR.

Curve (in part).

A. E. B. REV. ANDREW EWBANK BURN, M.A., D.D. Vicar of Halifax and Prebendary of Lichfield. Author of An Introduction to the Creeds and the Te Deum; Niceta of Remesiana; &c.

Creeds.

A. E. J. ARTHUR ERNEST JOLLIFFE, M.A. Fellow of, and Tutor and Mathematical Lecturer at, Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Senior Mathematical Scholar, 1892.

Continued Fractions.

A. F. P. ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HIST.SOC. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the University of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-1901. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.

Coverdale; Cox, Richard; Craig, John; Cranmer; Cromwell, Thomas; Crowley.

A. G. MAJOR ARTHUR GEORGE FREDERICK GRIFFITHS (d. 1908). H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate; Secrets of the Prison House; &c.

Crime; Criminology.

A. Go.* REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A. Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.

Coornhert.

A. H. J. G. ABEL HENDY JONES GREENIDGE, M.A., D.LITT. (Oxon.) (d. 1905). Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Hertford College, Oxford, and of St John's College, Oxford. Author of Infamia in Roman Law; Handbook of Greek Constitutional History; Roman Public Life; History of Rome. Joint-author of Sources of Roman History, 133-70 B.C.

Consul: Roman.

A. H. P. REV. ARNOLD HILL PAYNE, M.A. Chaplain, Oxford Diocesan Mission to the Deaf and Dumb. Late Normal Fellow, National Deaf Mute College, Washington, U.S.A. Author of The Mental Development of the Orally and Manually taught Deaf; The Pure Oral Method of necessity a Comparative Failure; &c.

Deaf and Dumb.

A. J. B. ALFRED JOSHUA BUTLER, M.A., D.LITT. Fellow and Bursar of Brasenose College, Oxford. Fellow of Eton College. Author of The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt; The Arab Conquest of Egypt; &c.

Copts: The Coptic Church.

A. J. B.* ARTHUR JOHN BUTLER, M.A. (1844-1910). Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Professor of Italian Language and Literature, University College, London. Author of a prose translation of Dante's Divine Comedy; Dante and his Times; &c.

Dante.

A. J. E. ARTHUR JOHN EVANS, M.A., D.LITT., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. Keeper of Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1884-1908. Hon. Keeper since 1908. Made archaeological discoveries in Crete, 1893; excavated the Palace of Knossos. Author of Through Bosnia on Foot; Cretan Pictographs and Prae-Phoenician Script; and other works on archaeology.

Crete: Archaeology and Ancient History.

A. L. ANDREW LANG. See the biographical article: LANG, ANDREW.

Crystal-Gazing.

A. Mw. ALLEN MAWER, M.A. Professor of English Language and Literature, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Formerly Lecturer in English at the University of Sheffield.

Danelagh.

A. M. C. AGNES MARY CLERKE. See the biographical article: CLERKE, A. M.

Copernicus; Delambre; Delisle, J. N.

A. M. Cl. AGNES MURIEL CLAY (MRS. WILDE). Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources of Roman History, 133-70 B.C.

Curia; Decemviri; Decurio.

A. N. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S. See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED.

Coot; Cormorant; Crane; Crossbill; Crow; Cuckoo; Curlew.

A. N.* REV. ALEXANDER NAIRNE, M.A. Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis in King's College, London. Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of St Albans. Fellow of King's College, London. Formerly Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. Crosse Scholar, 1886. Author of The Bible Doctrine of Atonement; &c.

Creatianism and Traducianism.

A. N. M. A. N. MONKHOUSE. Member of Editorial Staff of Manchester Guardian.

Cotton (in part).

A. van M. ALEXANDER VAN MILLINGEN, M.A., D.D. Professor of History, Robert College, Constantinople. Author of Byzantine Constantinople; Constantinople; &c.

Constantinople.

A. W. H.* ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND. Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900.

Curia Regis.

A. Wi. ANEURIN WILLIAMS, M A., M.P. Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple. Chairman of Executive, International Cooperative Alliance. M.P. for Plymouth, 1910. Author of Twenty-eight Years of Co-partnership at Guise; &c.

Co-operation.

A. W. R. ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A, L.L.B. Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England.

Corporal Punishment; Covenant.

A. W. W. ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD, LITT.D., LL.D. See the biographical article: WARD, A. W.

Cumberland, Richard: Dramatist.

C. E.* CHARLES EVERITT, A.M., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.

Constellation.

C. E. N. CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, LL.D. See the biographical article: NORTON, CHARLES E.

Curtis, George William.

C. F. A. CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON. Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.

Crimean War; Cromwell, Oliver (in part)

C. F. B. CHARLES FRANCIS BASTABLE, M.A., LL.D. Regius Professor of Law and Professor of Political Economy in the University of Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of International Trade; &c.

Decimal Coinage.

C. K. WILLIAM CHARLES MARK KENT. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Edited the London Sun for twenty-five years; the Weekly Register, 1874-1881. Author of The Humour and Pathos of Charles Dickens; &c.

Dalling, Lord.

C. K. S. CLEMENT KING SHORTER. Editor of the Sphere. Author of Sixty Years of Victorian Literature; Immortal Memories; The Brontes: Life and Letters; &c.

Cowper, William; Crabbe, George.

C. L. H. CALDWELL LIPSETT. Formerly Editor of the Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, India. Author of Lord Curzon in India.

Coolie.

C. Pf. CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D. ES L. Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Etude sur le regne de Robert le Pieux; Le Duche merovingien d'Alsace et la legende de Sainte-Odile.

Dagobert.

C. R. B. CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.LITT., F.R.G.S., F.R.HIST.S. Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.

Conti, Nicolo de'; Cook, Captain; Dampier; Daniel of Kiev; Davis, John.

D. C. T. DAVID CROAL THOMSON. Formerly Editor of the Art Journal. Author of The Brothers Maris; The Barbizon School of Painters; Life of "Phiz"; Life of Bewick; &c.

Corot; Daubigny.

D. F. T. DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY. Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analyses, comprising Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations; and analyses of many other classical works.

Contrapuntal Forms; Counterpoint.

D. G. H. DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A. Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.

Cyrenaica; Cyrene.

D. H. DAVID HANNAY. Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 1217-1688; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.

Convoy (in part); Copenhagen, Battle of; Cordoba, Gonzalo Fernandez de; Dahlgren, John Adolf.

D. Mn. REV. DUGALD MACFADYEN, M.A. Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London Missionary Society.

Cruden, Alexander.

E. Br. ERNEST BARKER, M.A. Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.

Crusades.

E. B. El. EDWIN BAILEY ELLIOTT, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. Waynflete Professor of Pure Mathematics and Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford. President of London Mathematical Society, 1896-1898. Author of Algebra of Quantics; &c.

Curve (in part).

E. B. P. EDWARD BAGNALL POULTON, M.A., D.SC., F.R.S., LL.D. Hope Professor of Zoology in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. Author of The Colours of Animals; Essays on Evolution; Darwin and the Original Species; &c.

Darwin.

E. C. Q. EDMUND CROSBY QUIGGIN, M.A. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge; Lecturer in Modern Languages, and Monro Lecturer in Celtic.

Cuchulinn.

E. F. S. EDWARD FAIRBROTHER STRANGE. Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects. Joint-editor of Bell's "Cathedral" Series.

Della Quercia.

E. G. EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D. See the biographical article: GOSSE, EDMUND.

Conte; Couplet; Cowley; Crashaw; Criticism; Daniel, Samuel; Davenant, Sir William; Dekker, Edward Douwes.

E. Gr. ERNEST ARTHUR GARDNER, M.A. See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY.

Corfu (in part); Corinth: Isthmus of; Cos (in part); Crisa; Daphne; Delos; Delphi.

E. Ma. EDWARD MANSON. Barrister-at-Law. Joint-editor of Journal of Comparative Legislation. Author of Debentures and Debenture Stock; &c.

Debentures and Debenture Stock.

Ed. M. EDUARD MEYER, D.LITT. (Oxon.), LL.D., PH.D. Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Forschungen zur alten Geschichte; Geschichte des alten Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstaemme; &c.

Ctesiphon; Cyaxares; Cyrus; Darius; Deioces; Demetrius of Bactria.

E. M. W. REV. EDWARD MEWBURN WALKER, M.A. Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen's College, Oxford.

Constitution of Athens.

E. Pr. EDGAR PRESTAGE. Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society, &c.

Corte-Real, Jeronymo; Cruz e Silva.

E. R. B. EDWYN ROBERT BEVAN, M.A. Formerly Scholar of New College, Oxford. Author of House of Seleucus; Jerusalem under the High Priests.

Demetrius of Macedonia.

E. Tn. REV. ETHELRED LEONARD TAUNTON (d. 1907). Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England.

Cullen, Paul; Curci.

E. V. REV. EDMUND VENABLES, M.A., D.D. (1819-1895). Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England.

Crypt.

F. E. W. REV. FREDERICK EDWARD WARREN, M.A., B.D., F.S.A. Rector of Bardwell, Bury St Edmunds. Fellow of St John's College, Oxford, 1865-1882. Author of The Old Catholic Ritual done into English and compared with the Corresponding Offices in the Roman and Old German Manuals; The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church; &c.

Dedication.

F. G. M. B. FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A. Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge.

Deira.

F. Lu. FRIEDRICH LUCKWALDT, PH.D. Professor of History at the Royal Technical High School, Danzig. Author of Oesterreich und die Anfaenge des Befreiungskriege von 1813; &c.

Dahlmann.

F. Ll. G. FRANCIS LLEWELLYN GRIFFITH, M.A., PH.D., F.S.A. Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute.

Copts (in part).

F. Po. SIR FREDERICK POLLOCK, BART., LL.D., D.C.L. See the biographical article: POLLOCK: Family.

Contract.

F. S. P. FRANCIS SAMUEL PHILBRICK, A.M., B.SC. Formerly Scholar and Resident Fellow of Harvard University. Member of American Historical Association.

Cuba.

F. T. M. SIR FRANK THOMAS MARZIALS, K.C.B. Formerly Accountant-General of the Army. Editor of "Great Writers" Series.

Daudet.

F. W. Ha. FREDERICK WILLIAM HASLUCK, M.A. Assistant Director, British School of Archaeology, Athens. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Browne's Medallist, 1901.

Cyzicus.

F. W. R.* FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. Curator and Librarian at the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889.

Corundum; Cryolite; Demantoid.

G. A. B. GEORGE A. BOULENGER, F.R.S. In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.

Cyprinodonts.

G. C. B. GILBERT CHARLES BOURNE, M.A., D.SC., F.R.S. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford. Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. Author of An Introduction to the Study of Comparative Anatomy of Animals; &c.

Coral-reefs.

G. C. C. G. C. CHUBB.

Cytology.

G. C. W. GEORGE CHARLES WILLIAMSON, LITT. D. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.

Cooper, Alexander; Cooper, Samuel; Cosway, Richard.

G. F. Z. G. F. ZIMMER, A.M.INST.C.E., F.Z.S. Author of Mechanical Handling of Material.

Conveyors.

G. H. Fo. GEORGE HERBERT FOWLER, F.Z.S., F.L.S., PH.D. Formerly Berkeley Fellow of Owens College, Manchester, and Assistant Professor of Zoology at University College, London.

Ctenophora.

G. J. T. GEORGE JAMES TURNER. Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forest for the Selden Society.

County.

G. P. R. GERALD PHILIP ROBINSON. President of the Society of Mezzotint Engravers. Mezzotint Engraver to Queen Victoria and to King Edward VII.

Cousins, Samuel.

G. Sa. GEORGE SAINTSBURY, L.L.D., LITT.D. See the biographical article: SAINTSBURY, G. E. B.

Corneille, Pierre; Corneille, Thomas.

G. Sn. GRANT SHOWERMAN, A.M., PH.D. Professor of Latin at the University of Wisconsin. Member of the Archaeological Institute of America. Member of American Philological Association. Author of With the Professor; The Great Mother of the Gods; &c.

Corybantes; Criobolium; Curetes; Cybele.

G. W. T. REV. GRIFFITHES WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D. Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.

Damiri.

H. Br. HENRY BRADLEY, M.A., PH.D. Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c.

Cynewulf.

H. B. W. HORACE BOLINGBROKE WOODWARD, F.R.S., F.G.S. Late Assistant Director, Geological Survey of England and Wales. Wollaston Medallist, Geological Society. Author of The History of the Geological Society of London; &c.

Dechen.

H. F. G. HANS FRIEDRICH GADOW, M.A., F.R.S., PH.D. Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of Amphibia and Reptiles (Cambridge Natural History).

Crocodile.

H. Fr. HENRI FRANTZ. Art Critic, Gazette des Beaux Arts, Paris.

Courbet.

H. M. W. H. MARSHALL WARD, M.A., F.R.S., D.SC. (d. 1905). Formerly Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge. President of the British Mycological Society. Author of Timber and some of its Diseases; The Oak; Disease in Plants; &c.

De Bary.

H. St. HENRY STURT, M.A. Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; and Personal Idealism.

Crusius; Cudworth, R.

H. S. J. HENRY STUART JONES, M.A. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Author of The Roman Empire; &c.

Costume: Aegean, Greek, Etruscan and Roman.

H. Th. SIR HENRY THOMPSON, BART. See the biographical article: THOMPSON, SIR HENRY.

Cremation.

H. Tr. SIR HENRY TROTTER, K.C.M.G., C.B. Lieutenant-Colonel, Royal Engineers. H.B.M. Consul-General for Roumania, 1894-1906, and British Delegate on the European Commission of the Danube. Victoria Medallist, Royal Geographical Society, 1878.

Danube.

H. W. C. D. HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A. Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, 1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.

Coutances, Walter of.

I. A. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A. Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages.

Crescas; Delmedigo.

J. An. JOSEPH ANDERSON, LL.D. Keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh. Assistant Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and Rhind Lecturer, 1879-1882 and 1892. Editor of Drummond's Ancient Scottish Weapons; &c.

Crannog.

J. A. C. SIR JOSEPH ARCHER CROWE, K.C.M.G. See the biographical article: CROWE, SIR J. A.

Cranach; Cuyp.

J. A. H. JOHN ALLEN HOWE, B.SC. Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London.

Corallian; Cornbrash; Culm.

J. C. S.-H. JOHN CASTLEMAN SWINBURNE-HANHAM, J.P. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Hon. Secretary of Cremation Society of England.

Cremation: Statistics.

J. D. B. JAMES DAVID BOURCHIER, M.A., F.R.G.S. King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.

Crete: Geography and Statistics; and Modern History.

J. D. Pr. JOHN DYNELEY PRINCE, PH.D. Professor of Semitic Languages at Columbia University, New York. Daniel (in part).



J. E. B. JOHN EGLINTON BAILEY. Author of John Dee and the Steganographia of Trithemius; Life of Thomas Fuller.

Cryptography.

J. Go.* JOSEPH GREGO. Art Critic. Author of A History of Parliamentary Elections; A History of Dancing; Thomas Rowlandson; James Gillray; &c.

Cruikshank.

J. G. K. JOHN GRAHAM KERR, M.A., F.R.S. Regius Professor of Zoology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Demonstrator in Animal Morphology in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, 1898-1904. Walsingham Medallist, 1898. Neill Prizeman, Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1904.

Cyclostomata.

J. H. F. JOHN HENRY FREESE, M.A. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge.

Demeter.

J. H. M. JOHN HENRY MIDDLETON, M.A., F.S.A., LITT.D., D.C.L. (1846-1896). Formerly Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, and Art Director of the South Kensington Museum. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Medieval Times.

Della Robbia (in part).

J. H. R. JOHN HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree; &c.

Court Baron.

J. Hl. R. JOHN HOLLAND ROSE, M.A., LITT.D. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.

Daru, Count; Decaen.

J. H. Rs. REV. JAMES HARDY ROPES, D.D. Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation, and Dexter Lecturer on Bible Literature, Harvard University. Author of The Apostolic Age in the Light of Modern Criticism; &c.

Corinthians: Epistles to the.

J. L. M. JOHN LINTON MYRES, M.A., F.S.A. Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek, and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of Liverpool; and Lecturer on Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford.

Cyprus (in part).

J. Mo. VISCOUNT MORLEY OF BLACKBURN. See the biographical article: MORLEY, VISCOUNT.

Danton.

J. McF. JOHN MACFARLANE. Formerly Librarian of the Imperial Library, Calcutta. Author of Library Administration; &c.

Damien, Father.

J. M. M. JOHN MALCOLM MITCHELL. Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece.

Delian League.

J. P. Pe. REV. JOHN PUNNETT PETERS, PH.D., D.D. Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Babylonia, 1888-1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates.

Deir.

J. S. F. JOHN SMITH FLETT, D.SC., F.G.S. Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.

Crystallite; Dacite.

J. T. Be. JOHN T. BEALBY. Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.

Crimea (in part); Daghestan (in part).

J. T. C. JOSEPH THOMAS CUNNINGHAM, M.A., F.Z.S. Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association.

Cuttle-fish.

J. V. JOHN VEITCH, LL.D. See the biographical article: VEITCH, JOHN.

Cousin, V. (in part).

K. G. J. KINGSLEY GARLAND JAYNE. Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors.

Croatia-Slavonia; Dalmatia.

K. S. KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra; &c.

Contrafagotto; Cor Anglais; Cornet (in part); Cromorne (in part); Crowd; Cymbals.

L. COUNT LUeTZOW, LITT.D. (Oxon.), D.PH. (Prague), F.R.G.S. Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Member of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, &c. Author of Bohemia, a Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (Ilchester Lecture, Oxford, 1904); The Life and Times of John Hus; &c.

Czech.

L. D.* LOUIS DUCHESNE. See the biographical article: DUCHESNE, L.M.O.

Damasus.

L. J. S. LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A. Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.

Copper-glance; Copper Pyrites; Covellite; Crocoite; Crystallography; Cuprite; Cyanite; Datolite.

L. V.* LUIGI VILLARI. Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Philadelphia, 1907; and Boston, U.S.A., 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; Fire and Sword in the Caucasus; &c.

Contarini; Cornaro; Correnti; Corsini; Dandolo; Della Gherardesca.

M. A. C. MAURICE A. CANNEY, M.A. Assistant Lecturer in Semitic Languages in the University of Manchester. Formerly Exhibitioner of St John's College, Oxford. Pusey and Ellerton Hebrew Scholar, Oxford, 1892; Kennicott Hebrew Scholar, 1895; Houghton Syriac Prize, 1896.

Daub, Karl.

M. Ha. MARCUS HARTOG, M.A., D.SC., F.L.S. Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. Author of "Protozoa" in Cambridge Natural History, and papers for various scientific journals.

Cystoflagellata.

M. N. T. MARCUS NIEBUHR TOD, M.A. Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.

Demaratus.

M. O. B. C. MAXIMILIAN OTTO BISMARCK CASPARI, M.A. Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905-1908.

Corfu (in part); Corinth (in part); Cos (in part).

N. D. M. NEWTON DENNISON MERENESS, A.M., PH.D. Author of Maryland as a Proprietary Province.

Davis, Jefferson (in part).

N. W. T. NORTHCOTE WHITBRIDGE THOMAS, M.A. Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and Marriage in Australia; &c.

Death-warning.

O. Ba. OSWALD BARRON, F.S.A. Editor of the Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the Honourable Society of the Baronetage.

Costume: Medieval and Modern European; Courtenay: Family.

O. J. R. H. OSBERT JOHN RADCLIFFE HOWARTH, M.A. Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. Assistant Secretary of the British Association.

Copenhagen.

P. A. K. PRINCE PETER ALEXEIVITCH KROPOTKIN. See the biographical article: KROPOTKIN, P. A.

Cossacks; Crimea (in part); Daghestan (in part).

P. C. Y. PHILIP CHESNEY YORKE, M.A. Magdalen College, Oxford.

Cottington, F. C., Baron; Coventry, Sir William; Craven, Earl of; Cromwell, Oliver (in part); Cromwell, Richard.

P. G. PERCY GARDNER, LITT.D., D.C.L., F.S.A. See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.

Daedalus; Demetrius (Sculptor).

P. Gl. PETER GILES, M.A., LL.D., LITT.D. Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Late Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c.

D.

P. G. K. PAUL G. KONODY. Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist. Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c.

David, Gerard.

R. A.* ROBERT ANCHEL. Archivist to the Departement de l'Eure.

Convention, The National; Cordeliers, Club of the.

R. A. S. M. ROBERT ALEXANDER STEWART MACALISTER, M.A., F.S.A. St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.

Damascus; Dead Sea; Decapolis.

R. B. McK. RONALD BRUNLEES MCKERROW. Trinity College, Cambridge.

Dekker, Thomas (in part).

R. B. R. RUFUS BYAM RICHARDSON, PH.D., B.D. Formerly Director of American School of Classical Studies, Athens. Member of American Geological Society, British Society of Promotion of Hellenic Studies, Greek Archaeological Society, &c. Author of History of Greek Sculpture; Vacation Days in Greece; Greece through the Stereoscope; &c.

Corinth (in part).

R. H. C. REV. ROBERT HENRY CHARLES, M.A., D.D., D.LITT. Grinfield Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Professor of Biblical Greek, Trinity College, Dublin. Author of Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; Book of Jubilees; &c.

Daniel (in part).

R. H. L. ROBIN HUMPHREY LEGGE. Principal Musical Critic for Daily Telegraph. Author of Annals of the Norwich Festivals; &c.

Debussy.

R. J. M. RONALD JOHN MCNEILL, M.A. Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James's Gazette, London.

Conway, Henry Seymour; Cowper, William C., 1st Earl; Cromwell, Oliver (in part).

R. L.* RICHARD LYDEKKER, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of all Lands, &c.

Coyote; Creodonta; Deer.

R. N. B. ROBERT NISBET BAIN (d. 1909). Formerly Assistant Librarian, British Museum. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, 1613 to 1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.

Corvinus; Czartoryski; Damjanich; Deak; De Geer; De la Gardie; Demetrius Donskoi; Demetrius, Pseudo.

R. P. S. R. PHENE SPIERS, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.

Decorated Period.

R. So. ROBERT SOMERS (1822-1891). Editor of North British Daily Mail, 1849-1859. Author of Letters from the Highlands; The Southern States since the War.

Corn Laws (in part).

R. S. C. ROBERT SEYMOUR CONWAY, M.A., D.LITT. (Cantab.). Professor of Latin in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin of University College, Cardiff, and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

Cumae (in part).

R. W. R. ROBERT WILLIAM ROGERS, D.D., LITT.D., LL.D., PH.D. Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, New Jersey. Author of Inscriptions of Sennacherib; History of Babylonia and Assyria; The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria; &c.

Cuneiform.

S. A. C. STANLEY ARTHUR COOK, M.A. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.

Costume: Ancient, Oriental; Cush; Dan; David (in part); Deborah; Decalogue (in part).

S. E. B. HON. SIMEON EBEN BALDWIN, M.A., LL.D. Professor of Constitutional and Private International Law in Yale University. Director of the Bureau of Comparative Law of the American Bar Association. Formerly Chief Justice of Connecticut. Author of Modern Political Institutions; American Railroad Law; &c.

Conveyancing (United States).

S. J. C. SYDNEY JOHN CHAPMAN, M.A. Professor of Political Economy and Dean of the Faculty of Commerce in the University of Manchester. Author of The Lancashire Cotton Industry; The Cotton Industry and Trade; &c.

Cotton: Marketing and Supply; Cotton Manufacture.

S. Wa. SAMUEL WADSWORTH, M.A. Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple and of Lincoln's Inn. Joint-editor of the 17th edition of Davidson's Concise Precedents in Conveyancing.

Conveyancing (in part).

T. As. THOMAS ASHBY, M.A., D.LITT. (Oxon.). Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute.

Corfinium; Cori; Cortona; Cosa; Cosenza; Cremona; Crotona; Cumae (in part); Cures.

T. A. I. THOMAS ALLAN INGRAM, M.A., LL.D. Trinity College, Dublin.

Convocation (in part); Corn Laws (in part); Coroner; Cruelty; Day.

T. A. J. THOMAS ATHOL JOYCE, M.A. Assistant in Department of Ethnography, British Museum. Hon. Sec., Royal Anthropological Institute.

Costume (in part).

T. Ba. SIR THOMAS BARCLAY, M.P. Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.

Contraband; Convoy (in part); Declaration of Paris.

T. F. C. THEODORE FREYLINGHUYSEN COLLIER, PH.D. Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A.

Constantinople, Councils of.

T. K. C. THOMAS KELLY CHEYNE, D.D. See the biographical article: CHEYNE, T. K.

Cosmogony; Deluge, The.

T. M. F. THOMAS MACALL FALLOW, M.A., F.S.A. Editor of the Antiquary, 1895-1899. Author of Memorials of Old Yorkshire; The Cathedral Churches of Ireland.

Coronation; Cross and Crucifixion; Crown and Coronet.

T. Se. THOMAS SECCOMBE. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of Dictionary of National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c.

Constantine Pavlovich.

T. T. SIR TRAVERS TWISS, K.C., D.C.L., F.R.S. See the biographical article: TWISS, SIR TRAVERS.

Consulate of the Sea; Convocation (in part).

T. W. F. THOMAS WILLIAM FOX, M.SC.TECH. Professor of Textiles, Manchester University. Author of Mechanism of Weaving.

Cotton-spinning Machinery.

V. M. VICTOR CHARLES MAHILLON. Principal of the Conservatoire Royal de Musique at Brussels. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour.

Cornet (in part); Cromorne (in part).

W. A. B. C. REV. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BREVOORT COOLIDGE, M.A., F.R.G.S., PH.D. (Bern.). Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphine; The Range of the Toedi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1889; &c.

Crousaz, Jean Pierre de; Dauphine; Davos.

W. A. P. WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS, M.A. Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.

Cope; Crete (in part); Costume: National, Class and Official; Dalmatic.

W. B.* WILLIAM BURTON, M.A., F.C.S. Chairman, Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. Author of English Stoneware and Earthenware; &c.

Della Robbia (in part).

W. B. Sc. WILLIAM BELL SCOTT. See the biographical article: SCOTT, WILLIAM BELL.

Cox, David; Delaroche.

W. C. S. WILLIAM CHARLES SMITH, K.C., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. (Edin.). Formerly Sheriff of Ross, Cromarty and Sutherland. Editor of Judicial Review, 1889-1900.

Dance (in part).

W. C. T. W. CAVE THOMAS. Author of Symmetrical Education; Mural or Monumental Decoration; Revised Theory of Light.

Cornelius, Peter von.

W. E. Co. RT. REV. WILLIAM EDWARD COLLINS, D.D. Bishop of Gibraltar. Formerly Professor of Ecclesiastical History, King's College, London. Lecturer at Selwyn and St John's Colleges, Cambridge. Author of The Study of Ecclesiastical History; Beginnings of English Christianity; &c.

Cyprus: Church of.

W. E. H. WILLIAM ERNEST HENLEY. See the biographical article: HENLEY, W. E.

Cooper, James Fenimore.

W. Fr. WILLIAM FREAM. LL.D. (d. 1907). Formerly Lecturer on Agricultural Entomology, University of Edinburgh, and Agricultural Correspondent of The Times.

Dairy and Dairy-farming.

W. F. C. WILLIAM FEILDEN CRAIES, M.A. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (23rd edition).

Contempt of Court; Conversion; Costs; Criminal Law; Damages.

W. G. F. WILLIAM GEORGE FREEMAN, B.SC. (London), A.R.C.S. Joint-author of Nature Teaching; The World's Commercial Products. Joint-editor of Science Progress in the Twentieth Century.

Cotton (in part).

W. L. H. D. WYNFRID LAWRENCE HENRY DUCKWORTH, M.A., M.D., D.SC. Lecturer in Physical Anthropology, and Senior Demonstrator of Human Anatomy in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Jesus College. Author of Morphology and Anthropology; &c.

Craniometry.

W. L.-W. SIR WILLIAM LEE-WARNER, M.A., K.C.S.I. Member of Council of India. Formerly Secretary in the Political and Secret Department of the India Office. Author of Life of the Marquis of Dalhousie; Memoirs of Field-Marshal Sir Henry Wylie Norman; &c.

Dalhousie, 1st Marquis.

W. M. WILLIAM MINTO, M.A. See the biographical article: MINTO, WILLIAM.

Dekker, Thomas (in part).

W. M. R. WILLIAM MICHAEL ROSSETTI. See the biographical article: ROSSETTI, DANTE G.

Correggio; Crivelli, Carlo.

W. P.* WALTER PITT, M.INST.C.E., M.I.M.E. Member of the Committee of International Maritime Conference, London, &c.

Cranes.

W. R. E. H. WILLIAM RICHARD EATON HODGKINSON, PH.D., F.R.S. Professor of Chemistry and Physics, Ordnance College, Woolwich. Formerly Professor of Chemistry and Physics, R.M.A., Woolwich. Part-author of Valentin-Hodgkinson's Practical Chemistry; &c.

Cordite.

W. R. S. WILLIAM ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D. See the biographical article: SMITH, W. R.

David (in part); Decalogue (in part).

W. T. Ca. WILLIAM THOMAS CALMAN, D.SC., F.Z.S. Assistant in charge of Crustacea, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Author of "Crustacea" in A Treatise on Zoology, edited by Sir E. Ray Lankester.

Crab; Crayfish; Crustacea.

W. Wr. WILLISTON WALKER, PH.D., D.D. Professor of Church History, Yale University. Author of History of the Congregational Churches in the United States; The Reformation; John Calvin; &c.

Cotton, John.

W. W. H.* HON. WILLIAM WIRT HENRY, M.A. (d. 1900). Formerly President of the American Historical Association and of the Virginia Historical Society. Author and Editor of the Life, Correspondence and Speeches of Patrick Henry.

Davis, Jefferson (in part).

W. W. R.* WILLIAM WALKER ROCKWELL. LIC. THEOL. Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.

Council.

FOOTNOTE:

[1] A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES

Constitution and Cricket. Constitutional Law. Crocus. Consul. Croquet. Cookery. Cruciferae. Coorg. Culdees. Copper. Cumberland. Coprolites. Curling. Copyhold. Currant. Copyright. Cursor Mundi. Coral. Cutlery. Cork. Cycling. Cornell University. Cycloid. Cornwall. Cynics. Corporation. Cyrenaics. Corrupt Practices. Dacia. Corsica. Dahomey. Corvee. Damask. Costa Rica. Darfur. Count. Deacon. Court. Dean. Couvade. Death. Covenanters. Debt. Crawford, Earls of. Deccan. Crecy. Deism. Cretaceous System. Delaware. Cribbage. Delirium.

THE END

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