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Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology
by John. B. Smith
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EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN ENTOMOLOGY

PREPARED BY JOHN B. SMITH, Sc.D. Professor of Entomology in Rutgers College, &c.

PUBLISHED BY THE BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY BROOKLYN, N. Y. 1906

PRESS OF THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY LANCASTER, PA.

{Scanner's note: This book is about a century old at the time of scanning. I found it in the discard pile of a local university library. I find the book to be of exceptional historical interest in the insights it gives into the development of early modern entomological science. It also is of practical value as a source for terms that are obscure to modern users because they are no longer current.

I have edited the text as well as I could and I think it is by now very usable, but do treat any really suspicious looking passages with reserve. I have avoided the use of non-alphabetic symbols as far as I could, for example Greek letters and male, female and hermaphroditic symbols, but if you encounter difficulties you might find the problem there. Also, the colour table at the end is not really much good for anything beyond general impressions; not only are the paper and ink old, but between my scanner and your screen or printer, there is room for too much misinterpretation of precise colour, for anyone to take it seriously.

In any case, enjoy. The book is a valuable product of serious workers in an age of exploration.}



FOREWORD.

When, some time since, in consequence of continuing demands, the Brooklyn Entomological Society resolved to publish a new edition of its Explanation of Terms used in Entomology, and entrusted the writer and two associates with the task of preparing the same, it was believed that a little revision of definitions, the dropping of a few obsolete terms and the addition of a few lately proposed, would be all that was necessary. It was to be a light task to fill idle time in summer, report to be made in fall. Two years have passed since that time; the associates have dropped by the way; the manuscript contains five times the number of terms in the original "Explanation." and if it is published now, it is not because I believe it to be complete; but because I do not believe it can be made complete except as the result of criticism and voluntary addition by specialists throughout the country.

It is twenty-six years since the original list was published and nothing can better illustrate the advances made than a comparison between the old and the new Glossary. No one realizes better than I the fact that as students have increased in each order, each has followed an independent line of research, absolutely without regard to the work done elsewhere. In consequence, we have several terms for the same thing in many cases and, in an equal number, several meanings to the same term. As no one man can now-a-days cover the entire field of Entomology, it goes without saying that I was compelled to rely partly upon books and partly upon the good nature of correspondents to make the work even approximately complete.

The first notable contribution came from Professor Justus W. Folsom, of Urbana, Illinois, who sent me over 2000 cards of terms collected by himself and his assistants, and these added materially at the beginning of the work. A number of correspondents were good enough to send in lists of terms in Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera and Neuroptera, and to refer me to literature where explanations of other special terms could be found.

After the cards were so far advanced as to warrant a preliminary manuscript, Dr. Philip P. Calvert of the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. Nathan Banks of Washington, D.C., and Mr. C. W. Johnson of the Boston Society of Natural History went carefully over the entire work and by their criticisms and additions contributed materially to such merit as it possesses. To these gentlemen and to the many others not specifically mentioned I give thanks for their assistance, and if there have not been more co-workers it has been only because of the time element that seems to demand the best that is ready, rather than a delay to secure perfection.

It would be interesting to go at length into the history of the correspondence to determine what sort of terms should or should not be included and to bring out the hopeless divergencies existing; but all that is important here is to state briefly what has been included and what omitted.

Common English terms even if descriptive, when used in their ordinary dictionary sense, have not been included as a rule; but this is subject to many exceptions. Latin terms and derivatives, even if used in their usual sense have been generally included; but compounds made up of adequately defined descriptive terms are generally omitted. Adverbial or adjective forms have been omitted whenever it has been considered safe, and so have terms prefixed by sub-, supra- and the like, indicating degree or position. In doubtful cases the terms have been included and defined. All terms of venation are, so far as possible, reduced to the Comstock system which is the only one that has been satisfactorily worked out for all orders, and a series of figures is added to explain this system so far as seems necessary. It has not been considered feasible to determine the proper use of terms applied differently in different orders or families; that is scarcely within the scope of a work of this kind.

Terms used in embryological and histological study have been included only so far as seemed necessary to an understanding of the general works, and no attempt has been made to cover the terms applied to musculature and other details of microscopic structure: this has seemed rather to be outside of the scope of the present essay.

All color terms are reduced so far as possible to terms of the Windsor and Newton system of water colors which are standard in the English-speaking world, and the color plate shows solid blocks of those colors that seem necessary to explain all modifications except metallics, blacks and whites. {Scanner's note: color plate may be excluded, partly because it is in poor condition.}

The figures illustrating body structures and other details have been drawn under my supervision by Mr. John A. Grossbeck, and are meant to be guides merely - else the glossary would exceed its scope.

In the admission that the work is incomplete, no apology is intended for its publication; it is merely a statement of fact to encourage constructive rather than destructive criticism. It is hoped that those who note errors or omissions will communicate them to the writer so that when another edition is needed, as it will be before many years are past, a standard work may be possible.



JOHN B. SMITH, Sc.D.

New Brunswick, N.J. April 1906



EXPLANATORY.

Definitions of general application are as a rule given first, where more than one is necessary; next those of limited use, and finally the specific meaning in each order in which there is any notable difference.

Where a word has more than one ending, the difference is given after a hyphen which represents the stem word: e.g. ametabola -ous; the latter in place of ametabolous, which indicates the possession of the characters peculiar to the ametabola. Where there is an English and a Latin ending, the former is usually given with the word and the other is added: e.g. aequilate -us, instead of aequilatus, there being no difference in the application. Usually the singular form of the word is first given, and the plural ending is added; e.g.

antenna -ae,

cenchrus -ri,

desideratum -ata;

but occasionally, when the plural is more commonly used, e.g. epimera -eron, this is reversed and the singular ending is added: when the two are different in form, e.g. foot and feet, the words are given separately, and so when there is a difference in the application, as in

uncus and unci.

In the definition of color terms the words in brackets [ ] refer to the equivalent color as named on the plate, or the combination needed to produce it.

The names in parentheses ( ) are those of the writers whose definitions are used, or who have used the term in the sense defined. In the terms of venation, these parentheses occur most frequently.

Most of the signs and abbreviations are those in common use

:= equal to, or the same as;

q.v. which see;

pl. plural;

abb. abbreviated.

The abbreviated names are: Comst. for Comstock; Coq. for Coquillett; Meig. for Meigen; Nort. for Norton: O. S. for Osten-Sacken: and Will. for Williston.

A

A: prefix, is privative; wanting or without.

Ab: off; away from.

Abbreviated: cut short; not of usual length.

Abdomen: the third or posterior division of the insect body: consists normally of nine or ten apparent segments, but actual number is a mooted question: bears no functional legs in the adult stage.

Abdominal: belonging or pertaining to the abdomen.

Abdominal feet: see pro-legs.

Abdominal groove: the concave lobe of the inner margin of secondaries enveloping the abdomen beneath, in some butterflies.

Abdominal pouch: in female Parnassiids, a sac-like ventral cavity, formed by material secreted during copulation.

Abductor: applied to muscles that open out or extend an appendage or draw it away from the body: see adductor.

Abductor mandibulae: the muscle that opens the mandibles.

Aberrant: unusual; out of the ordinary course.

Aberration: a form that departs in some striking way from the normal type; either single or occurring rarely, at irregular intervals.

Abiogenesis: spontaneous generation.

Abnormal: outside the usual range or course; not normal.

Aborted: a structure developed so as to be unfit for its normal function obsolete or atrophied.

Abraded: scraped or rubbed.

Abrupt: suddenly or without gradation.

Abscissus: cut off squarely, with a straight margin.

Absconditus: hidden, concealed; retracted into another.

Acalyptrata: those muscid flies in which alulae are absent or rudimentary.

Acanthus: a spine, spur or prickle.

Acaudal -ate: without a tail.

Accessory: added, or in addition to.

Accessory carinae: in Orthoptera the lateral carinae of the face.

Accessory cell: a cell not commonly present in the group; in some orders of definite location as, e.g. in Lepidoptera, usually a small cell at the end of the subcosta, giving rise directly or indirectly to veins 7 to 10:= 1st radius 2 (Comst.); = areole.

Accessory glands: any glands opening into the ducts of the reproductive system.

Accessory sac: a glandular structure of the female reproductive system containing a sticky secretion.

Accessory subcostal vein: the vein given off from the subcosta and branching toward the apex of the wing in Perlidae.

Aceous or aceus: suffix; similar to, or of the nature of.

Acephalous: without a head.

Acerata: arthropods without true antennae Arachnids and Limulus

Acetabular caps: Hemiptera; the coxal cavity.

Acetabuliform: like a shallow saucer with more or less incurved sides.

Acetabulum: the cavity into which an appendage is articulated; specifically the coxal cavity, - q.v.; also applied to a cup-like cavity in the sucking mouth of maggots.

Achreioptera: ordinal term proposed for the coleopterous family Platypsyllidae.

Achromatic: free from color; tissue that does not stain readily.

Acicular: needle-shaped; with a long, slender point.

Aciculate: a surface that appears as if scratched with a needle.

Acidotheca: the pupal sheath of the ovipositor.

Acini: granulations, like those on a blackberry: the terminal secreting tubes of glands.

Acinose -ous: a surface set with acini.

Acone: applied to compound eyes in which the individual ocelli have no crystalline cone or lens; see eucone. {Scanner's note: this is no longer a valid usage for the word "ocelli". Currently the term is. See "ocellus" and "ommatidium".}

Acoustic nerve: connects the auditory pits or other organs of hearing with special ganglia.

Acridophagus: preying and feeding on grasshoppers.

Acrostichal bristles: Diptera; two rows of bristles on the middle of the dorsum; specifically, minute peculiar bristles on the dorso-central region of Dolichopodidae.

Aculeata: Hymenoptera; the stingers, including bees and wasps.

Aculeate: prickly; armed with short, sharp spines; specifically, in Hymenoptera furnished with a sting which is a modified ovipositor and connected with a poison sac.

Aculeus -ei: a prickle; a small sharp point; specifically, an ovipositor, especially when sting-like, as in Hymenoptera; in male Tipulidae a slender, horny, often curved and pointed piece, projected when the forceps is open.

Acuminate: tapering to a long point.

Acupunctate: a surface with fine punctures as if made with a needle.

Acutangulate: forming, or meeting in an acute angle.

Acute: pointed: terminating in or forming less than a right angle.

Acutilingual: with a sharp pointed tongue or mouth structure, as in some bees.

Acutilingues: bees with a short pointed tongue: see obtusilingues.

Addorsal: close to but not quite on the middle of the dorsum.

Addorsal line: in caterpillars, is longitudinal, a little to one side of the dorsal and between it and the subdorsal line.

Adductor: applied to muscles that draw an appendage to the body or bring parts into apposition: see abductor.

Adductor mandibulae: the muscle that draws in or closes the mandible.

Adeloceratous: with concealed antennae: see cryptocerata.

Adephagous: belonging to the Adephaga: pentamerous, predatory, terrestrial beetles with filiform antennae and predatory habits: see hydradephagous.

Adherent: attached or clinging to.

Adipose: fat or fatty: see fat-body.

Adiscota: insects that develop into adults without forming imaginal discs; see discota.

Adminicula: supports or props: the spinous processes on the abdomen of boring and burrowing pupae.

Adnate: adjoining; adhering or growing together: closely connected.

Adpressed: laid or pressed to; contiguous.

Adsperse -us: with markings of closely crowded small spots.

Adsternal: situated next or close to the sternum.

Adult: the stage when an insect is sexually mature and ready to reproduce normally.

Aduncate -cus, -catus: a part gradually bent through its whole extent.

Adventitious: occurring accidentally, out of the ordinary course, without apparent reason.

Adventral line: in caterpillars, extends along the under side between the middle and the base of legs.

Adventral tubercle: on the abdominal segments of caterpillars on the inner base of the leg, and correspondingly on the apodal segments; constant: is number VIII of the abdominal series (Dyar).

Aeneous -eus: shining bronze or brassy.

Aenescent: becoming or appearing bronzed or brassy.

Aequale: equal.

Aequilate-us: of equal breadth throughout.

Aerial: living in the air; applied to flying insects.

Aeriductus: a spiracle: the tracheal, gill-like structures of aquatic larvae: more specifically the tail-like extensions of rat-tailed maggots and some aquatic Hemiptera.

Aeroscepsin: an indefinite sense of perception supposed to be located in the antenna.

Aeroscepsy: The faculty of observing atmospheric changes: supposed to be located in the antenna.

Aerostats: a pair of large air sacs at base of abdomen in Diptera.

Aeruginose -us: the color of verdigris [blue green].

Aestival: occurring in summer.

Aestivation: applied to summer dormancy.

Afferent: carrying inwardly or toward the centre.

Affinis: related to: similar in structure or development.

Afternose: a triangular piece below antennae and above clypeus: see postclypeus.

Agamic -ous: reproducing without union with a male.

Agamogenesis: reproduction without fertilization by a male: see parthenogenesis; gamogenesis.

Agglomerate: heaped or massed together.

Agglutinate: stuck or glued together; welded into one mass.

Aggregated: crowded together as closely as possible.

Agnathous: without jaws; specifically applied to those Neuropteroid series in which the mouth structures are obsolescent.

Aileron: the scale covering the base of primaries in some insects; see tegulae in Diptera = alula and squama, q.v.

Air-sacs or vesicles: pouch-like expansions of tracheal tubes in heavy insects, capable of inflation and supposed to lessen specific gravity.

Air-tube: a respiratory siphon.

Ala -ae: a wing or wings.

Alar appendage: see alulet.

Alar frenum: a small ligament crossing the supra-alar groove toward the root of the wing: Hymenoptera.

Alary: relating to the wings: applied also to the wing muscles of heart.

Alate -us: winged; with lobes similar to wings in appearance though not necessarily in function.

Albi, albus: white.

Albicans: formed or made of white.

Albidus: white with dusky tinge.

Albinic: of the character of an albino.

Albinism: that condition in which there is an absence of color or a whitening in a form usually colored.

Albino: a colorless individual of a species that is normally colored.

Albumen: the white of egg or the substances in the tissues which have the same characteristics.

Albumin: the characteristic substance forming the white of egg.

Albuminoid: like or of the character of albumen.

Alimentary canal: the digestive tract as a whole; begins at the mouth and extends through the body to the anus.

Alitrunk: that part of the thorax to which the wings are attached: in many Hymenoptera, includes the 1st abdominal segment.

Alizarine: a transparent, orange red [alizar crimson].

Alleghanian faunal area: is that part of the transition zone comprising the greater part of New England, s. e. Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, eastern N. Dakota, n. e. S. Dakota, and the Alleghanies from Pennsylvania to Georgia.

Alligate -us: fastened or suspended by a thread; like the chrysalis of Papilio, etc.

Alliogenesis: when the development includes an alternation of generations (q.v.), as in Cynipids.

Alluring glands: glandular structures diffusing an odor supposed to be attractive to the opposite sex.

Allux: next to the last joint of tarsus; in Rhynchophora.

Alpine zone: = arctic zone, q.v.

Alternation of generations: where a species that occurs in both sexes periodically produces only parthenogenetic females; the latter, in turn, producing the sexed form; occurs in Cynipidae and some Homoptera: see heterogeny.

Altus: above: applied to a part raised above the usual level.

Alulae: Diptera; a pair of membranous scales above the halteres, behind the root of the wing, one above or before the other; the anterior attached to the wing and moving with it, the posterior fastened to the thorax and stationary; see calyptra; squama; squamula; lobulus; axillary lobe; aileron; scale; tegulae: Coleoptera; a membranous appendage of the elytra which prevents dislocation.

Alulet: Diptera: the lobe at basal posterior part of wing; = alar appendage; posterior lobe: and has been used as = alula.

Alutaceous: rather pale leather brown [burnt sienna]: covered with minute cracks, like the human skin.

Alveolate: furnished with cells: deeply pitted.

Alveolus: a cell, like that of a honeycomb.

Amber: a transparent, clear, pale yellowish brown; of the color of amber [a mixture of pale cadmium yellow and a little burnt umber].

Ambient vein: Diptera; the costal vein when it extends beyond the apex and practically margins the wing.

Ambrosia: bee-bread: the food cultures of certain Scolytid beetles.

Ambulatoria: that series of Orthoptera in which the legs are fitted for walking only; Phasmids.

Ambulatorial: fitted for walking or making progress on the surface.

Ambulatorial setae: specialized hairs or bristles, situated on the ventral segments of the abdomen of some Coleoptera.

Ambulatory: moves by walking; formed for walking.

Ametabola -ous: insects without obvious metamorphoses, in which the larvae usually resemble the adult and the pupae are active.

Ametabolion: an insect that has no distinct metamorphoses.

Amethystine -us: bright blue with a reddish admixture; clear like an amethyst [between mauve and lilac].

Amnion: the inner of the two membranes enveloping the embryo.

Amnion cavity: a tube-like insinking from the ventral plate of the embryo, extending cephalad.

Amnion fold: the extensions of the amnion which close the mouth of the amnion cavity in the embryo.

Amnios: the first cast skin of the larva when a moult occurs almost immediately after emergence from the egg.

Amoebiform: having the appearance or properties of an amoeba.

Amoeboid: applied to movements similar to those of an amoeba.

Amphibiotica: those pseudoneuropterous insects whose larvae are aquatic but whose imagos are aerial; stone-flies; May-flies; dragonflies.

Amphimixis: the mingling of the germ plasm of two individuals.

Amphiodont: applied to those forms of male Lucanids bearing mandibles of medium size, between teleodont and priodont; =mesodont.

Amphipneustic: applied to larvae which have the spiracles confined to the anterior and terminal segments.

Ample: broad; large; sufficient in size.

Amplected: when the head is received into a concavity of the prothorax; e.g. Hister.

Ampliate -us: moderately dilated.

Amplificatus: dilated; enlarged.

Ampulla: Orthoptera; an extensile sac between head and prothorax used by the young in escaping from ooetheca, and later, in molting: Heteroptera; a blister-like enlargement at the middle of the anterior margin of the pro-thorax.

Ampulla-like: flask-shaped; applied to a vascular sac at base of antennae which aids in the blood circulation of head and its appendages.

Amygdaliform: almond-shaped.

Anabolic: the constructive change from food material to animal tissue: see katabolic.

Anal: pertaining or attached to the last segment of the abdomen; the point or angle of any wing or other appendage that is near to or at any time reaches the tip of the abdomen.

Anal angle: on the secondaries is that angle nearest the end of the abdomen when the wings are expanded: the angle between the inner and outer margin of any wing; = hind angle of primaries.

Anal appendages: generally; applied to the external genital parts.

Anal area: Orthoptera and Neuroptera; the hinder or anal portion of a wing within the anal vein = axillary area.

Anal cells: the spaces between the anal veins (Comst.): in Diptera, anal cell (Will.), the space nearest the body, inclosed by the 5th and 6th veins sometimes called the third basal cell (Coq.) = 1st anal (Comst.).

Anal field: Orthoptera; that area on the tegmina corresponding to the anal area of the secondaries.

Anal filaments: see caudal setae.

Anal fork: applied to the cerci of Coleopterous larvae.

Anal foot: applied to the tip of the body in larval Chironomids, which is modified to serve as a hold-fast.

Anal furrow: in wings, lies between the cubitus and 1st anal vein.

Anal glands: appendages of the alimentary canal, opening into it near the posterior extremity, secreting either a lubricant, a silk-gum, or some other specialized material.

Anal horns: in Collembola, are small processes borne on the last abdominal segment.

Anal lobes: in Lecaniinae, a pair of small, triangular, hinged processes forming a valve which covers the anal orifice.

Anal loop: Odonata; the loop formed by the angulations of 1st anal vein.

Analogous: similar in function; but differing in origin and structure: e.g. the wings of birds and insects: see homologous.

Anal operculum: the dorsal arch of the 10th abdominal segment; in caterpillars = supra-anal plate, q.v.

Anal organs: Collembola; the two modified hairs arising from a tubercle ventro-cephalad of the anus and usually curving caudo-dorsad.

Anal orifice: see anus.

Anal papilla: Collembola; see anal tubercle.

Anal plate: in caterpillars, the shield-like covering of the dorsum of the last segment: in the embryonic larva the 11th tergite.

Anal ring: a chitinous ring encircling the anus in many Coccidae.

Anal scale: one of the lateral processes of the ovipositor in Cynipidae, lying outside and below the lateral scale.

Anal siphon: the anal breathing tube of Culicid larvae.

Anal style: a slender process on or within the terminal segment of the abdomen in Homoptera.

Anal tubercle: Collembola; the tubercle bearing the anal organs: = anal papilla.

Anal tubercles: a pair of prominent, rounded or conical processes, situate one on each side of the anus in certain Coccids.

Anal valves: see podical plates.

Anal veins: those longitudinal unbranched veins extending from base to outer margin below the cubitus; the first anal, also termed vena dividens, q.v., is the 6th of the series starting from the base, and it may be followed by several others which are numbered in order to the inner margin.

Anastomosing: inosculating or running into each other.

Anastomosis: a running together; usually applied to wing veins, often to markings; sometimes used like stigma, q.v.; also in Neuroptera, a series of cross-veinlets nearly in one row; a connecting series of veinlets.

Anceps: two-edged; similar to ensiform, q.v.

Ancestral: primitive; inherited from an earlier form or ancestor.

Anchor process: = breastbone, q.v.

Anchylosed: grown together at a joint.

Ancipital: with two opposite edges or angles.

Androconia: specialized, usually small scales of peculiar form, found localized on some male butterflies.

Androgynous: uniting the characters of both sexes.

Aneurose: a wing without veins except near costa.

Angle: of tegmina, "is the longitudinal ridge formed along the interno-median by the sudden flexure from the horizontal to the vertical portion when closed."

Angular area: Hym.; the posterior of the three areas on the metanotum between the lateral and pleural carinae; = 3rd pleural area.

Angulate: forming an angle; when two margins meet in an angle.

Angulose: having angles.

Angulus: forming an angle: = angulate.

Angustatus: narrowed; narrowly drawn out.

Anisoptera: that division of the Odonata in which the hind wings are wider, especially at base, than the front wings.

Annectent: applied to connecting or intermediate forms.

Annelet or annellus: Hym.; small ring-joints between scape and funicle.

Annulate: ringed or marked with colored bands.

Annulet: a small or narrow ring or annulus.

Annuliform: in the form of rings or segments.

Annulus: a ring encircling a joint, segment, spot or mark; sometimes applied to the inner ring encircling the mouth opening.

Annulus antennalis: the ring sclerite of the head into which the basal segment of the antennae is inserted; = antennal sclerite.

Anomalous: unusual; departing widely from the usual type.

Anoplura: wingless species without metamorphosis, habits epizooetic, thoracic segments similarly developed: a composite aggregation which includes both the biting and sucking lice.

Ante: before; used as a prefix.

Ante-alar sinus: Odonata; a grooved area extending transversely immediately in front of the base of each front wing.

Ante-apical: just before the apex.

Ante-clypeus: Odonata; the lower of the two divisions of the clypeus; the inferior half of the clypeus whenever there is any apparent line of demarcation: = clypeus-anterior; infra-clypeus; rhinarium; second clypeus.

Ante-coxal piece: Coleoptera; that portion of the metasternum lying in front of the posterior coxae, often passing between them and meeting the abdomen of mandible, is the lateral sclerite of the clypeus; - one on each side.

Ante-cubital: see ante-nodal, cross veins and spaces.

Ante-furca: an internal forked process from the prosternum, to which muscles are attached.

Ante-humeral: relating to the space just before origin of wings.

Ante-humeral stripe: Odonata; a discolored stripe, approximately parallel to, but to the inner side of the humeral suture, q.v.

Antemedial line: = t. a. line, q.v.

Antemedian: Diptera; applied to leg-bristles situated before the middle.

Antenna -ae: two jointed, sensory organs, borne, one on each side of the head, commonly termed horns or feelers.

Antenna-cleaner: a fringed excavation on the interior base of the 1st segment of the anterior tarsi of Hymenoptera which, when covered by the movable process from the end of the tibia, forms an opening through which the antennae may be drawn: similar structures are on the fore tibiae of Carabid beetles: tarsal claws are also used by various insects to clean antennae.

Antennal appendage: in Mallophaga, a projecting process of the 1st or 3rd segment in the male.

Antennal formula: in Coccidae; made by enumerating the antennal joints in the order of their length, beginning with the longest and bracketing together those of the same length.

Antennal fossa -w: grooves or cavities in which antennae are located or concealed: = a. grooves: antennary fossa.

Antennal fovea: Diptera; a groove or grooves in the middle of the face as though for the lodgment of the antennae; bounded on the sides by the facial ridges.

Antennal foveolae: Orthoptera; the pits between frontal costa and lateral carinae, in which the antennae are inserted.

Antennal grooves: see antennal fossa.

Antennal lobes: of brain, see deuto-cerebrum.

Antennal organs: in Collembola are sensory structures on the distal segment.

Antennal process: Diptera; the frontal protuberance upon which the antennae are inserted.

Antennal sclerite: see annulus antennalis.

Antennal segment: the second or deutocerebral segment of head.

Antennary fossa: see antennal fossa.

Antennary furrow: in Mallophaga, grooves on the under side of the head in which the antennae lie.

Antenniferous: bearing antennae.

Antenniform: made up like, or having the appearance of antennae.

Antennule: a small antennae or feeler-like process.

Antenodal cells: Odonata; in Agrionidae the cells included between the short sector (M 4 Comst.) and the upper sector of the triangle (Cu 1, Comst.), and between the quadrilateral (or quadrangle) and the vein descending from the nodus.

Antenodal cross veins: Odonata; extend between costa and sub-costa, and between sub-costa and media, from the base to the nodus, forming the ante-nodal or ante-cubital cells: = ante-cubital.

Antenodal costal spaces: Odonata; the cells between costa and subcosta, from the base to the nodus: = ante-cubitals.

Anteocular: the region just before the eye; specifically applied in Collembola to a peculiar structure of undefined function situated in front of the eyes: = prostemmatic.

Antepectus: the lower surface of the prothorax.

Antepenultimate: the last but two.

Anterior: in front; before; in Dip., that face of the leg which is visible from the front when the leg is laterally extended and bristles on that face are anterior.

Anterior branch of third vein, in Diptera (Will.), = radius 4 (Comst.).

Anterior field: Orthoptera; of tegmina, see costal field.

Anterior intercalary vein: Diptera; = media 2 (Comst.); of Loew = discoidal vein.

Anterior lamina: Odonata; the anterior sternal border of abdominal segment 2, modified to form the front margin of the genital pocket.

Anterior lobe: Orthoptera; see lobes.

Anterior squama: = antisquama; q.v.

Anterior stigmatal tubercle: on thoracic and abdominal segment of caterpillars; varies from substigmatal to stigmatal anterior; sometimes united to IV: it is V of the abdominal series, IV of the thorax (Dyar).

Anterior trapezoidal tubercle: on thoracic and abdominal segment of caterpillars addorsal, anterior, always present, rarely united with II: it is I of the abdominal series, la of the thorax (Dyar).

Antero: to the front; anteriorly.

Antero-dorsal: Diptera; applied to leg bristles at the meeting of anterior and dorsal face.

Antero-ventral: Diptera; applied to leg bristles at the meeting of anterior and ventral face.

Anthobian: feeding on flowers; applied to certain lamellicorn Coleoptera in which the labium extends beyond the mentum.

Anthophila: Hymenoptera; species in which the basal joint of the hind tarsus is dilated and pubescent; the bees.

Anthracine -us: coal black; black with a bluish tinge.

Anti: over against; opposite; contrary: (prefix).

Anticus: frontal; belonging to or directed toward the front.

Antigeny: opposition or antagonism of the sexes; embracing all forms of secondary sexual diversity.

Antipodal costal spaces: Odonata; the cells between costa and subcosta, from the base to the modus; = antecubitals.

Antisquama: Diptera; the upper of the two which moves with the wings; = antitegula; see also squama.

Antitegula: see antisquama.

Antlia: the spiral tongue or haustellum of Lepidoptera.

Antliata: insects with a sucking mouth; originally applied to Lepidoptera and Diptera, later and more specifically to Diptera.

Antrorse -sum: directed toward the front.

Anus: the end of the digestive tract, through which the food remnants are passed: the posterior part of the individual: specifically, in Coccidae, a more or less circular opening on the dorsal surface of the pygidium, varying in location as regards the circumgenital gland orifices: = anal orifice.

Aorta: the anterior, narrow part of the heart, opening into the head.

Apex: that part of any joint or segment opposite the base by which it is attached; that point of a wing furthest removed from base or at the end of the costal area.

Aphaniptera: indistinctly winged; see Siphonaptera.

Aphideine: see aphidilutein.

Aphidilutein: a yellowish fluid found in plant lice, changed to a rich violet by alkaline reagents.

Apical: at, near or pertaining to the apex; usually of a wing.

Apical area: see petiolar area.

Apical areas: apical cells in some Homoptera.

Apical cell: a cell near or at the apex of a wing; in Hymenoptera (Norton) = medial (Comst.); outer apical cell = 2d medial 2 (Comst.); inner apical cell = medial 3 (Comst.).

Apical cells or cellules: Trichoptera; the series of cells along the outer margin of wing from pterostigma to arculus.

Apically: toward or directed toward the apex.

Apical sector: one of the longitudinal veins in the apical part of wing of Neuroptera.

Apical transverse carina: Hymenoptera; crosses the metanotum behind middle and separates the median from the posterior cells or areas.

Apiculis: an erect, fleshy short point.

Apiculate: covered with fleshy, short points.

Apivorous: devouring bees.

Apneustic: without an open tracheal system; respiration is through the skin or through tracheal gills.

Apocrita: = petiolate, q.v.

Apodal: with single, simple tubercles instead of feet, in larvae; without feet = apodous.

Apode: one that has no feet.

Apodema: a conspicuous transverse band crossing the thorax in front of the scutellum in male Coccidae.

Apodeme: an inwardly directed process to which a muscle is attached.

Apodous: without feet; see apodal.

Apolar: without differentiated poles; without apparent radiating processes applied to cells.

Apophysis: the lower of the two joints of trochanter in ditrocha trochanterellus; the dorso-lateral metathoracic spines in Hymenoptera; also used as synonymous with ento-thorax.

Apophystegal plates: Orthoptera; flattened blade or plate-like sclerites covering the gonapophyses.

Apotypes: = hypotypes; q.v.

Appendage -es: any part, piece or organ attached by a joint to the body or to any other main structure.

Appendice -es: any attached body or small process; an appendix.

Appendicial: supplementary: relating to appendices.

Appendicle: a small appendix: in some bees, a small sclerite at tip of labrum.

Appendiculate: bearing appendages; said of antennae where the joints have articulated appendages; of tarsal claws that have membranous processes at base.

Appendiculate cell: Hymenoptera; is on costa just beyond 2d radius 1 and 2.

Appendigerous: bearing appendages.

Appendix: a supplementary or additional piece or part, added to or attached to another: in Heteroptera; = cuneus, q.v.

Appress -ed: to press against; closely applied to.

Approximate: near to; applies to antennae inserted close together.

Aptera: those that have no wings: an ordinal term formerly employed for fleas, lice and other wingless forms now distributed in other orders: later used for the simplest or lowest insects, including the Thysanura and Collembola.

Apterodicera: wingless, with two antennae.

Apterous: without wings.

Apterygogenea: those insects that are wingless in all stages and presumed to be descended from ancestors which never were winged: see pterygogenea.

Apterygota: = apterygogenea; see pterygote.

Aquamarine -us: sea green: pale green with predominant blue and a little gray [nile green].

Aquatic: living wholly in water.

Aquatilia: cryptocerous Hemiptera of truly aquatic habit.

Arachnoideous: resembling or similar to a cobweb.

Araneiform: spider-like in appearance.

Arboreal: living in, on, or among trees.

Arborescent: branching like the twigs of a tree.

Archaic: ancient; no longer dominant; of the olden time.

Archiptera: those Neuroptera with incomplete metamorphosis = Pseudo-neuroptera.

Arctic Zone: is that part of the boreal region above the limit of tree growth in the U. S. is restricted to the area above timber line on the summits of high mountains: = alpine.

Arcuate: curved like a bow: = arcuate.

Arcuato-emarginate: with a bow-like or curved excision.

Arculus: Odonata; a small cross vein between radius and cubitus near the base, leaving an elongate triangle between them: Trichoptera; a point, often hyaline, on the forewing where the cubitus (or post cubitus) runs into the margin: in Homoptera; a cross-veinlet nearly reaching posterior margin at same point as in Trichoptera: in other orders applied to a cross-vein in similar position, apparently giving rise to the median.

Arcus: a bow; part of a circle; but less than one half.

Area mediastinal, scapularis and ulnaris: the areas in front of the mediastinal, the scapular, and the ulnar veins in Orthoptera.

Areae or Areolae: wing cells or spaces between veins.

Arenicolous: applied to species frequenting sandy areas.

Arenose: a surface that is sandy or gritty.

Areola: a small cell on the wings of certain Hemiptera: see also areae Hymenoptera; the central of three median areas on the metanotum: = 2d median area; upper median area.

Areolate: with small defined areas, like a network.

Areole: Lepidoptera; see accessory cell, cell and cellule.

Areolet: one of the small spaces between veins of net-veined insects.

Argentate: shining, silvery white.

Argenteous: silvery.

Argillaceous: of the texture, appearance or color of clay.

Arid: Applied to regions in which the normal rainfall is insufficient to produce ordinary farm crops without irrigation, and in which desert conditions prevail: see humid.

Arid transition area: comprises the western part of the Dakotas, northern Montana east of the Rockies, southern Assiniboia, small areas in southern Manitoba and Alberta, the higher parts of the Great Basin and the plateau region generally, the eastern base of Cascade Sierras and local areas in Oregon and California.

Arista: a specialized bristle or process on antennae of certain Diptera.

Aristate: Diptera; that type of antennae that bears an arista: = athericerous.

Aristiform: of the form or appearance of an arista.

Armature: applied to the spinous or chitinous processes on the legs, body or wings; or the corneous parts of genitalic structures.

Armatus: set with spines, claws or other chitinous processes.

Armillate: with a ring or annulus of raised or different tissue.

Arolium -ia: cushion-like pads on the tarsi of many insects: one of the lobes of the pulvillus; in Orthoptera, used only for the terminal pad between the claws: see empodium; pulvillus; palmula; plantula; onychium, paronychium, pseudonychium.

Arquate: see arcuate.

Arrhenotokous: capable of producing male offspring only, as in worker bees and some saw-flies.

Arrhenotoky: parthenogenetic reproduction when the progeny are all males: see thelyotoky and deuterotoky.

Arthrium: Coleoptera; the minute, concealed tarsal joint in pseudotetramera and trimera.

Arthroderm: the outer skin or covering of articulates.

Arthrodial: an articulation that permits motion in any direction.

Arthromere: a body segment or ring: = somite.

Arthropleure: the side piece of an arthromere.

Arthropods: all those articulates having jointed legs.

Article: a joint or segment.

Articular pan: the cup or dish-like depression forming the socket into which an articulation is fitted.

Articulate: that branch of the animal kingdom whose members are made up of rings, segments or articulations.

Articulate: divided into joints or segments.

Articulated apex: see clasp filament.

Articulation: the point or place where two parts or segments are joined: also applied to an individual joint or segment.

Articulatory epideme: the partly chitinized membrane by which the wings are attached to the thorax.

Artus: the organs of locomotion generally.

Asexual: applied where the reproductive organs are incompletely developed and eggs or young are produced by cell-budding: = parthenogenetic.

Ash-gray: a mixture of black and white, with a faint orange tinge: like ashes of anthracite coal.

Aspect: indicates the direction to which a surface faces or in which it is viewed; it may be dorsal, ventral, caudal, cephalic or lateral.

Asperities: surface roughenings or dot-like elevations.

Aspersus: rugged, with distinct elevated dots.

Assembling: gathering together; applied when a virgin female is exposed to attract such males as may be near, either to secure a pairing or merely to obtain specimens; also called sembling.

Assurgent: down-curved at base, then upcurved to an erect position.

Asymmetrical: not alike on the two sides; not symmetrical.

Asymmetry: a state of unlikeness in lateral development; absence of symmetry in form or in the development of members.

Ater: deep black; not shining.

Aterimus: the deepest black.

Athericerous: see aristate.

Atom -us: a minute dot or point.

Atomarius: with minute dots or points.

Atrachelia: Coleoptera in which there is no visible constriction between head and prothorax: Rhynchophora and some Heteromera.

Atrium: a chamber just within the spiracle and before the occluding structure to the trachea.

Atrocoeruleus: very deep, blackish, sky-blue.

Atrophied: wasted away; unfit for use.

Atropurpureus: dark purplish, nearly black [an admixture of mauve and black].

Atrous: jet black.

Atrovelutinus: velvety black.

Atrovirens: dark green, approaching blackish [prussian green].

Attenuated: drawn out; slender; tapering.

Attingent: touching.

Atus: suffix; denotes possession of a quality or structure.

Atypic -ical: off type; not of the usual form.

Auchenorhynchus: with the beak issuing from the inferior portion of head, as in Homoptera.

Auditory: relating to the sense of hearing.

Auditory organs: Orthoptera; specialized structures covered by a tense membrane, on the anterior tibia or base of abdomen; any structure that functions as an ear.

Aurantiacus: orange colored; a mixture of yellow and red [chrome orange].

Aurate: with ears or ear-like expansions: also = auratus.

Auratus: golden yellow [pale cadmium yellow].

Aurelia: = chrysalis or pupa; specifically of butterflies.

Aurelian: a lepidopterist.

Aureolate: with a diffused colored ring.

Aureole: a ring of color which is usually diffuse outwardly.

Aureous -eus: gold-colored.

Aurichalceous: brassy yellow.

Auricle -cula: an appendage resembling a little ear; in Odonata the tumescent area at the sides of the second abdominal segment: in Andrenidae, a short membranous process placed laterally on the ligula.

Auricular: applied to the space or cavity surrounding the dorsal vessel.

Auriculate: with an ear-like appendage or, in antennae, with the basal joint distended into a concave, plate-like ear which envelops the rest of the structures.

Auriculo-ventricular: the outer valves of the heart between the auricular space and the chamber.

Auriculo-ventricular openings: are the lateral openings into the heart by means of which the blood is admitted into it.

Auritus: with two ear-like spots or appendages.

Auroral spot: applied to the bright orange colored spot at the apical area of Anthocharis.

Auroreous -eus: red, like the aurora borealis [crimson lake].

Austral: is that faunal region which covers the whole of the United States and Mexico except the boreal mountains and tropical lowlands: divided into transition, upper, lower and gulf strip: see boreal and tropical.

Austroriparian faunal area: that part of lower austral zone covering the greater part of the South Atlantic and Gulf States. Begins near mouth of Chesapeake Bay, covers half or more of Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, all of Mississippi and Louisiana, east Texas, nearly all of Indian Territory, more than half of Arkansas and parts of Oklahoma, s. e. Kansas, so. Missouri, so. Illinois, s. w. corner of Indiana and bottom lands of Kentucky and Tennessee.

Autotype: any specimen identified by the describer as an illustration of his species and compared with the type or co-type.

Auxiliary: additional, or supplementing.

Auxiliary vein: in Diptera (Will.), = subcosta (Comst.).

Axillae: two small, subtriangular sclerites at the lateral basal angles of the meso-scutellum in Proctytripidae.

Axillary: placed in the crotch or angle of origin of two bodies; arising from the angle of ramification.

Axillary area: see anal area.

Axillary calli: see calli axillary.

Axillary cell: in Diptera (Will.), = 2d anal (Comst.).

Axillary excision: = a. incision, q.v.

Axillary incision: Diptera; an incision on inner margin of wing, near base, which separates the alula from the main part.

Axillary lobe: the sclerite covering the base of the wing in Diptera; see also alula and posterior lobe.

Axillary vein: one or two longitudinal veins toward the inner margin from the anal vein (Ephemeridae); a group of several (10-20) radiate veins that occupy the anal field in Orthoptera.

Axis: a small process at base of elytron, upon which it turns.

Azure -eus: clear sky-blue [cobalt blue].

Azygos: unpaired; a structure without a fellow; sometimes applied to an unpaired oviduct specifically the enlarged portion of the vagina at the junction of the oviducts and thus = uterus.



B

Baccate -us: berry-like: applied to bladder-like ovaries from the surface of which the short ovarian tubes arise.

Back: the dorsum or upper surface.

Baculiform: rod or staff-like.

Badius: liver-brown; clearer and lighter than castaneus [dragon's blood].

Baenomere: a leg-bearing (thoracic) segment.

Baenopoda: the thoracic legs.

Baenosome: the thorax.

Balancers: see halteres.

Bald: without hair or other surface vestiture: see bare.

Band: a transverse marking broader than a line.

Bar: a short, straight band of equal width.

Barb: a spine armed with teeth pointing backward.

Barbate: furnished with barbs; hair with spines or spurs directed backward.

Barbated: bearded; in antennae with tufts or fascicles of hair or short bristles on each side of each joint; = brush-like: on the abdomen, with flat tufts at the sides or tip.

Barbule: a small barb, beard or filiform appendage.

Bare: without clothing of any kind: see bald.

Basad: in the direction of or toward the base.

Basal: at or pertaining to the base or point of attachment to or nearest the main body.

Basal area: in wings: that space nearest the point where they are attached to the body: on the metanotum of Hymenoptera, the anterior of the three median cells or areas = 1st median area.

Basal cell: Diptera; st (Will.), = radial 2 (Comst.); 2d (Will.), = media (Comst.); Trichoptera; one, two or three cells enclosed by the branches that form-the post-costal or anal vein: Odonata; an elongate cell between radius and cubitus, just before the arculus.

Basalis: the principal mandibular sclerite, when sclerites are distinguishable, to which all other parts are jointed; corresponds to the stipes in the maxilla.

Basal line: in many Lepidoptera; a transverse line extending half way across the primaries very close to base.

Basal lobe: of culicid genitalia, see claspette.

Basal post-costal vein: in Agrioninae, one of the cubito-anal cross-veins.

Basal segment of clasp: see side piece.

Basal space: that area on the primaries of certain Lepidoptera, between the base and t. a. line (q.v.).

Basal streak: in Noctuid moths, extends from base, through the submedian interspace to the t. a. line.

Basal transverse carina: on the metanotum of Hymenoptera, crosses before middle and separates the anterior from the median areas.

Base: that part of any appendage that is nearest the body: on the thorax that portion nearest the abdomen; on the abdomen that portion nearest the thorax.

Basement membrane: that thin layer of tissue upon which the epithelium rests.

Basilar: of or pertaining to the base.

Basilar cross-vein: Odonata; crosses the basilar space.

Basilar membrane: a thin membrane separating the cones and rods from the optic tract.

Basilar space: Odonata; that area at base of wings, between media and cubitus.

Basi-proboscis: basal third of the flexed proboscis of muscid flies.

Batesian mimicry: see mimicry.

Bathmis: see pterostigma.

Bave: the fluid silk as it is spun by caterpillars.

Beak: any notable prolongation of the front of the head: the snout in Rhynchophora: specifically, the jointed structure covering the lancets in the hemipterous mouth.

Bearded: fringed with hair: see barbated.

Belly: venter; under side of abdomen.

Belonoid: needle-like.

Bi: prefix, means two.

Bi-alar: two-winged; applied to Diptera.

Biarcuate: twice curved.

Biareolate: with two cells or areoles: see bilocular.

Bicaudate: having two tails or anal processes.

Bicolored: with two colors that contrast to some extent.

Bicornute: with two horns or cephalic processes.

Bicuspidate: ending in two points or cusps.

Bidactylate: with two fingers or finger-like processes.

Bidentate: two-toothed.

Biemarginate: twice emarginate; with two excisions.

Bifarious: pointing in opposite directions.

Bifasciate: with two bands or fascia.

Bifid: divided into two parts; split; applied in Coleoptera to tarsal claws which are divided so that the claws lie side by side: see biparted.

Biflabellate: antennae with fan-like process on two sides.

Bifurcate: divided, not over half its length, into two dull points; forked.

Bifurcation: a forking or division into two: the point at which a forking occurs.

Biguttate: with two drop-like spots.

Bijugum: in two pairs.

Bilamellar: divided into two lamina or plates.

Bilateral -eriter: with two equal or symmetrical sides.

Biliary vessels: see malpighian tubules.

Bilineate -us: with two lines.

Bilobate -ed: divided into two lobes.

Binocular: having two cells or compartments: see biareolate.

Bimaculate: with two spots or maculae.

Binate: in pairs: consisting of a single pair.

Binotate: with two rounded spots.

Binus: paired: doubled.

Biogenesis: the production of life from antecedent life.

Biomorphotica: those neuropterous insects in which the pupa is active.

Bionomics: the habits, breeding and adaptations of living forms.

Biophore: an ultimate constituent of germ plasm or hereditary substance.

Bioplasm: formative living matter.

Biparted: profoundly divided into two parts: see bifid.

Bipectinate: antennae having comb-like teeth or processes on Beach side of each joint.

Bipupillate: an ocellate spot with two pupils, of the same or different in color.

Biradiate: consisting of, or with two rays or spokes.

Biramose -ous: having two branches or doubled appendages.

Biseriately: arranged in double rows or series.

Biserrate: doubly saw-toothed; with a saw tooth on each side of each antennal joint.

Bisetose -ous: with two bristle-like or setaceous appendages.

Bisinuate: a margin or line with two sinuations or incisions.

Bituberculate: with two distinct tubercles.

Biuncinnate: with two hooks.

Bivalve -ed: applied to mouth parts consisting of two parts or valves united to form a tube.

Bivittate: with two longitudinal stripes or vittae.

Blade: of maxilla, see lacinia.

Blastem: a nucleated protoplasmic layer preceding the blastoderm.

Blastoderm: the germinal membrane from which the organs of the embryo are formed.

Blastodermic cells: are those forming the blastoderm.

Blastogenic: relating to or inherent in the germ or blast.

Blastophore: the primitive mouth of the embryo.

Blind: without eyes: applied also to an ocellate spot without a pupil.

Bloom: a fine violet dusting similar to that on plums. {Scanner's note: See Pruinous.}

Blotch: a large irregular spot or mark: large whitish membrane between abdomen and thorax in certain saw-flies.

Blunt: not sharp; obtuse at the edge or tip.

Body: the trunk: usually applied to the thorax only; rarely to the abdomen alone; sometimes to thorax and abdomen combined.

Bombifrons: front of head with a blister-like protuberance.

Bombous: blister-like; spherically enlarged or dilated.

Bombycinous: a very pale yellow like fresh spun silk.

Boreal: from or belonging to the north: is that faunal region that extends from the polar sea southward to near the northern boundary of the United States and farther south occupies a narrow strip along the Pacific Coast and the higher parts of the Sierra-Cascade, Rocky and Alleghany Mountain ranges; divided into Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian: see austral and tropical.

Borer: applied to an insect or larva that burrows or makes channels in woody or other vegetable tissue.

Botryoidal: clustered like a bunch of grapes.

Bouclier: the pronotum, q.v.

Bouton: a button; the terminal lappet-like process at the tip of the ligula in bees: = spoon.

Brachelytra: with abbreviated wing covers or elytra.

Brachia: the arms: has been applied to raptorial fore-legs.

Brachial: relating to an arm; arm-like.

Brachial cells: Hymenoptera; 1st (Nort.), = costal and sub-costal (Comst.) 2d (Nort.), = medial (Comst.); 3d (Nort.), = cubital (Comst.); 4th (Nort.), = 2d anal (Comst.).

Brachial veins: of primaries in Hymenoptera, originate at base, run parallel to inner edge toward anal angle; often connected with the cubital cellules by means of recurrent venules.

Brachium: the fore tibia.

Brachycerous: Diptera; with short, 3-jointed antennae.

Brachypterous: with short or abbreviated wings.

Brachyostomata: brachycerous Diptera with short proboscis.

Brain: that ganglion of the nervous system which lies in the head above the oesophagus; formed of the first three primitive ganglia: see supra-oesophageal.

Branchiae: air tubes or gill-like processes of aquatic larva;.

Branchial: relating to the gills or branchiae.

Branchiate: supplied with gills or bronchia.

Brassy: yellow, with the lustre of metallic brass.

Breast: the under surface of thorax or sternum.

Breast-bone: in Cecidomyid larvae; a horny, more or less elongate process of the under side behind the mouth opening, supposed to represent the labium = anchor process.

Breathing pores: see spiracle.

Brevis: short.

Brides: Homoptera; two pieces on the face, one each side of clypeus and lower part of front.

Bridge: Odonata; a secondary longitudinal vein connecting the radial sector (Comst.) with Mi + 2, apparently forming a continuous part of the radial sector; it is the proximal portion of the subnodal sector of de Selys and Hagen.

Bridge cross veins: Odonata; those cross veins, one or more in number, extending between M1 + 2 and the bridge (in de Selys between principal and subnodal sectors) proximal to the oblique vein.

Brin: the fluid silk thread from each salivary gland.

Bristle: a stiff hair, usually short and blunt.

Broken: interrupted in continuity; as a line or band.

Bronze: the color of old brass.

Brood: all the specimens that hatch at about one time, from eggs laid by one series of parents and which normally mature at about the same time.

Brunneus: a pure reddish dark brown [indian red].

Brush-like: antennae with the joints laterally produced and tufted with short hair or bristles: see barbated.

Buccal: relating to the mouth cavity; rarely to the cheeks.

Buccal appendages: the mouth parts excluding the labrum: see trophi. Buccal cavity: the mouth: = oral cavity.

Buccal fissure: the mouth slit or opening: the opening on each side of the mentum.

Buccate: blown up, distended; especially the cheeks.

Bucculae: little cheeks or distended areas.

Budding: applied to that form of agamic reproduction found in plant lice.

Bulla: a blister or blister-like structure: the shield-like sclerite that closes the opening to the trachea in lamellicorn larvae: in Ephemerida a part of the costal area of the fore wing toward the tip, which is slightly swollen forward and furnished with more cross veins than elsewhere; practically the stigma, q.v.

Bullate: blistered.

Bullule: a small blister.

Bursa: a pouch or sac: a wing pouch in male caddice flies and in connection with a stalked hair pencil.

Bursa copulatrix: the copulatory pouch of the female in some orders; a modification of the vagina.



C

Caducous-us: deciduous; easily detached or shed.

Caecal tubes or pouches: sac, or blind tube-like structures surrounding the chylific ventricle at its junction with the crop, and secreting a digestive ferment.

Caecum: a blind sac or tube-like structure serving as one of the caecal tubes or pouches: see coecum.

Caelate: a surface with plane elevations of varying forms.

Caeruleus -eous: light sky-blue [between lavender and cobalt blue] = coeruleus.

Caerulescent: with a tinge of sky-blue.

Caesius -eous: a pale dull blue-gray [blue-gray].

Caespiticolous: frequenting or living in grassy pastures or lawns.

Calathiform: shaped like a deep bowl.

Calcar -ium; pl. ia: a movable spur or spine-like process: specifically the spines at the apex of a tibia.

Calcarate -us: with a movable spur or spine-like process.

Caliciform: shaped like a cup or calyx.

Calipers: the anal forceps in Dermaptera.

Calli axillary: Odonata; thickenings at the bases of the wings; distinguished as anterior at the base of the costa, and posterior at the base of radius + medius and cubitus: = axillary calli.

Callosity: a thick swollen lump, harder than its surroundings: = callous: also a rather flattened elevation not necessarily harder than the surrounding tissue.

Callous: see callosity.

Callus: a small callosity.

Caltrops spines: the branched and otherwise specialized irritating spines in Limacodid larvae.

Calva: a skull-cap: = epicranium, q.v.

Calx: the distal end of the tibia; the curving basal portion of the first tarsal joint.

Calyculate: applied to antennae, whose cup-shaped joints are so arranged as to fit one into the other.

Calypter: Diptera; the alula or squama when it covers the haltere.

Calyptra: a hood or cap; see alula.

Calyptrate: those flies that have aluke or membranous scales above the halteres.

Calyx: the cap or crown of the mushroom bodies of the procerebrum: see also egg-calyx.

Campanulate: bell-shaped: more or less ventricose at the base and a little recurved at the margin.

Campestral: applied to species inhabiting open fields.

Campodeiform: applied to larval forms which, in their early stages at Least, resemble Campodea: = leptitorm.

Canadian zone: is that part of the boreal region comprising the southern part of the great transcontinental coniferous forests of Canada, the northern parts of Maine, New Hampshire and Michigan, and a strip along the Pacific Coast reaching south to Cape Mendocino and the greater part of the high mountains of the United States and Mexico. In the east covers Green. Adirondack and Catskill Mountains and the higher mountains of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. In the Rockies extends continuously from British Columbia to western Wyoming and in the Cascades from British Columbia to southern Oregon with a narrow interruption along the Columbia River.

Canaliculate: channelled; longitudinally grooved, with a deeper concave line in the middle.

Cancellate: cross-barred: latticed: with longitudinal lines decussate by transverse lines.

Canescent: hoary, with more white than gray.

Canine teeth: applied to the sharp and conical teeth of mandibles in predatory species: = dentes caninae.

Cantharidin: the substance that gives the meloid beetles their blistering power composition, C10H12O4 (von Furth).

Canthus: the chitinous process more or less completely dividing the eyes of some insects into an upper and lower half.

Canus: see canescent.

Capillaceous: capilla or hair-like.

Capillaris: a very slender, hair-like tube.

Capillary: long and slender like a hair: antennae in which the joints are long, slender and loosely articulated.

Capillate -us: clothed with long slender hair; = coryphatus.

Capillii: hairs of the head that form a cap as in certain Trichoptera and Tineid Lepidoptera.

Capillitium: the hood-like collar in some Noctuid moths, e.g. Cucullia: see cucullus.

Capitate: with a head: that type of clavate antenna in which the club is abruptly enlarged at tip and forms a spherical mass.

Capitulum: a small head: the enlarged tip of an antenna: the little knob at tip of halteres in Diptera: the labella or lapping tip of the mouth of certain flies.

Capricorn beetle: a Cerambycid or long horned beetle.

Caprification: is that method or process through which the Smyrna figs are fertilized by Blastophaga throughthe medium of wild, inedible or "caprifigs."

Capsular: in the form of a capsule or little cup-like container.

Caput: the head with all its appendages.

Capylus: a hump on the Tupper side of the segments of many larva.

Carabidoid: applied to the second stage of a meloid larva, when it resembles that of a Carabid.

Carbonarius: coal black.

Cardia: the gizzard; q.v.: also applied to the heart.

Cardiac: belonging or relating to the heart.

Cardiac valvule: see oesophageal valve.

Cardinal cell: Odonata; see triangle.

Cardioblasts: a string or row of cells in the embryo giving rise to the heart or dorsal vessel.

Cardio-coelom: that part of the coelom that forms the pericardium.

Cardio-coelomic: applied to the venous openings from the heart to the body cavity.

Cardo, pl. Cardines: the hinge or basal sclerite of the maxilla by means of which it is jointed to the head.

Carina -ae: an elevated ridge or keel, not necessarily high or acute. Carinate: a surface having carinae.

Carinula -ae: a little carina or keel-like ridge; specifically, the longitudinal elevation on the middle of snout in Rhynchophora.

Carinulate: a surface with small and rather numerous carinae.

Cariose -ous: corroded; appearing as if worm-eaten.

Carminate -ed: mixed or tinged with carmine.

Carneous -eus: flesh-colored [salmon with a little carmine].

Carnivorous: a feeder upon flesh food.

Cariose -us: of a soft, fleshy substance.

Carolinian faunal area: that area of the upper austral zone comprising the larger part of the Middle States (except the mountains), s. e. So. Dakota, east. Nebraska, Kansas and part of Oklahoma; nearly all of Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Maryland and Delaware; more than half of West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and New Jersey and large areas in Alabama, Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Michigan and South Ontario: extends along Atlantic Coast from near mouth of Chesapeake Bay to Southern Connecticut and sends narrow arms up the valleys of the Hudson and Connecticut. A narrow arm follows the east shore of Lake Michigan to Grand Traverse Bay.

Carpus: the pterostigma of Odonata: the extremity of the radius and cubitus of the primaries: that point in the wings at which they are tratsversely folded.

Cartilaginous: of the consistency of cartilage or gristle.

Caruncle: a soft, naked, fleshy excrescence or protuberance.

Caryophylleous: nut or clove brown [Indian red].

Castaneous: chestnut brown; bright red-brown [dragon's blood with a slight admixture of vermilion].

Castes: the various forms or kinds of matured individuals among social insects as workers, soldiers, queens, etc.

Cataphracted: invested with a hard callous skin, or with scales closely united. Catch: in Collembola, = tenaculum, q.v.

Catenate: with longitudinal connected elevations like links in a chain.

Catenulate: like catenate; but the links are smaller.

Caterpillar: the term applied to the larvae of Lepidoptera.

Catervatum: by heaps.

Caudal: the tail: any process resembling a tail: the pointed end of the abdomen in plant lice: any extension of the anal segment or appendage terminating the abdomen.

Caudad: toward the posterior end of the body, along the median line.

Caudal: pertaining to the posterior or anal extremity.

Caudal setae: long, thread-like processes at the end of the abdomen in many europterous and some other insects; = anal filaments.

Caudate: with tail-like extensions or processes.

Caudo-cephalic: in a line from the head to the tail.

Caudo-dorsad: directed upward and toward the tail.

Caudula -ae: a little tail.

Caul: the fatty mass of larvae from which the organs of the future adult were supposed to develop: = epiploon.

Cauliculus: the larger of the two stalks supporting the calyx of the mushroom body.

Caulis: the funicle of antenna: the corneous basal part of jaws.

Cavate: hollowed out; cave-like.

Cavernicolous: cave-inhabiting.

Cavernous: divided into small spaces or little caverns.

Cavity -as: a hollow space or opening.

Cecidium: a gall.

Cell: any space between or bounded by veins: in the Comstock system the cells derive their names from the vein forming the Tupper margin: e.g. all just below the radius are radial cells; and they are numbered from the base outward, as radial 1, 2, etc.: the living unit; protoplasm differentiated into cytoplasm and nucleus, from which units all but the lowest plants and animals are developed by division and consequent increase into a multicellular condition: a compartment or division of a nest or honey-comb.

Cellule: a portion of a wing included between veins; usually applied to a small area completely inclosed, rarely to interspaces where no closed area is formed.

Cenchrus -rib: minute, often white marks, or membranous spaces on the metanotum of some Hymenoptera.

Cenogonous: producing young at one time oviparously, at another viviparously as in plant-lice.

Centimeter: abb. Cm.: = .01 meter = .394 inch; 2.54 Cm. = one inch.

Centrad: toward the centre or interior.

Central foveola: see median foveola.

Centrolecithal: applied to eggs in which the food yolk is central.

Centrosome: a spherical body that appears outside the nucleus of a cell.

Cephalad: toward the head, along the central line of the body.

Cephalic: belonging or attached to the head; directed toward the head.

Cephalic bristles: Diptera; specialized bristles occurring on the head.

Cephalic foramen: the posterior or occipital foramen of head through which the dorsal vessel, oesophagus, salivary ducts and ventral nerve cords pass from head to prothorax.

Cephalization: concentration toward the head.

Cephalomere: one of the head segments of an arthropod.

Cephalophragm: a v-shaped partition which divides the head of some Orthoptera, into an anterior and posterior chamber.

Cephalon: the head.

Cephalosome: the head as one of the three regions.

Cephalotheca: the head covering in the pupal stage.

Cephalotheca: the united head and thorax of arachnids and crustacea {Scanner's comment: nowadays this term is used little if at all. It does not seem ever to have been popular. Instead the terms cephalothorax or prosoma are widely used.} : that portion of an obtect pupa covering head and thorax: the anterior segments of larva that have no obviously separated head.

Cerago: bee-bread.

Ceratheca or Ceratotheca: that portion of the pupal shell that envelops the antenna.

Cerci: two lateral anal appendages; usually short, jointed, antenna-like, developed from the eleventh abdominal segment of the embryo; sometimes unjointed and specialized into forceps or other processes.

Cercopoda: jointed foot-like appendages of the last abdominal segment; also applied like cerci.

Cercus: see cerci.

Cerebellum: has been applied to the sub-esophageal ganglion.

Cerebrum: the supra-oesophageal ganglion.

Cernuous: bent: with the apex bent downward.

Cervical: relating or belonging to the neck.

Cervical foramen: in coleopterous larvae - occipital foramen.

Cervical sclerites: small ebitinous plates on the membrane between head and thorax: see jugular sclerites.

Cervical shield: the ebitinous plate on the prothorax of caterpillars just behind the head: = prothorax shield.

Cerviculate: with a long neck or neck-like portion.

Ceryinus: reddish, deer-gray [pale cadmium yellow and Indian red].

Cervix: the upper part of the neck; = crag: in Diptera; that part of the occiput lying over the junction of the head, i.e. between the vertex and neck.

Cespitose: matted together.

Chaetophorous: applied to bristle-bearing flies.

Chaetotaxy: the science dealing with the arrangement and nomenclature of the bristles on the body of insects.

Chagrined: see shagreened.

Chalastrogastra: the saw-flies: a group of Hymenoptera.

Chalceous: brassy in color or appearance.

Chalybeate: steely in appearance.

Chalybeous: metallic steel blue.

Channelled: a surface, with deep grooves or channels.

Chaperon: =clypeus or clypeus anterior.

Chaplet: a little crown; a circle of hooks or other small processes terminating a member or appendage.

Character: a quality of form, color or structure.

Cheek: see gena.

Chela: the terminal portion of a limb bearing a lateral movable claw like that of a crab; specifically applied to the feet in some Parasitica in which the opposable claw forms a clasping structure.

Chelate: bearing a cheat or claw; applied when claws are capable of being drawn down or back upon the last tarsal joint.

Chiasma: an X-like crossing of nerve fibers.

Chirotype: a specimen upon which a manuscript name is based.

Chitin: the material forming the hard parts of the insect body; it is a secretion (or a metamorphosis?) of the epidermis, differing from horn by its insolubility in boiling liquor potassae: = elytra, entomolin.

Chitinogenous: applied to that layer of epidermal cells which secretes the chitin.

Chitinization: the process of depositing or filling with chitin.

Chitinized: filled in with or hardened by chitin.

Chitinous: composed of chitine {Scanner's comment: sic} or like it in texture: as a color term is amber yellow.

Chlorophane: an oily, greenish yellow pigment found in insects.

Chlorophyll: the green coloring matter of plants; one of the substances found in the blood of insects.

Chordotonal: responsive to vibrations; applied to the ear-like structures in Orthoptera.

Chorion: the shell or covering membrane of an insect egg.

Chromatin: the minute granules that make up the chromoplasm of a cell nucleus.

Chromosome: one of the segments into which the chromoplasmic filaments of a cell nucleus breaks up just before indirect division.

Chrysalis or -id: applied specifically to the intermedial stage between larva and adult in butterflies: see pupa.

Chrysargyrus: silvery gilt.

Chyle: the food-mass after it has passed through the guard and is mixed with the secretions of the salivary glands and caecal structures, ready to be assimilated.

Chylific ventricle: the true stomach in which the chyle is prepared and digestion begins.

Cibarian: referring to the mouth parts.

Cicatricose: a surface having scars with elevated margins like those of small-pox.

Cicatrix: a scar: an elevated, rigid spot.

Cilia: fringes; series of moderate or thin hair arranged in tufts or single lines; thin scattered hair on a surface or margin.

Ciliate: fringed: set with even, parallel hairs or soft bristles.

Cilium, pl. Cilia: q.v.

Cimicine: an oily fluid of disagreeable odor secreted by certain Heteroptera and used as a means of defense.

Cimier: the head crest in Pierid chrysalids.

Cinetus: with a colored band:= cingulatus.

Cinereous: ash-colored; gray tinged with blackish [ultra ash gray].

Cinerescent: ashen in color or appearance.

Cingula -um: a colored band or bands.

Circulate -us: having a cingulum or collar: see also cinetus.

Cinnabarine: [vermilion red].

Cinnamomeous: cinnamon brown [burnt sienna].

Cinema: see Thysanura, of which this forms a group including the bristle-tails, and for which it has been used as an equivalent.

Circinal: spirally rolled like a watch-spring or a butterfly tongue.

Circiter: about, or round-about.

Circular: round like a circle.

Circumgenital glands: small circular glands with an excretory orifice at tip, disposed in groups about the genital orifice in Diaspinae.

Circumoesophageal commissures: those cords or nerve fibres connecting the suboesophageal ganglion with the main trunk of nervous system.

Circumsepted: with a vein all around the wing.

Citrate: antennae with very long, curled lateral branches which may or may not be ciliated; see plumose.

Cirrose -us: with somewhat dense curled hair.

Cirrus: a curled lock of hair placed on a thin stalk.

Citrine -us: lemon yellow [chrome yellow].

Cladocerous: with branched horns or antennae.

Clasper: a chitinized process, free or attached to the inner sides of harpes, valves or other lateral pieces, serving to hold the female parts during copulation: = the harpers of some authors.

Claspette: in genitalia of male culicids, the inner basal lobe of side piece; q.v.

Clasp-filament: in male genitalia of culicids the articulated appendage or terminal segment of side-piece or clasp; sometimes bears an articulated point or apex and then = articulated apex.

Class: a division of the animal kingdom lower than a sub-kingdom and higher than an order: e.g. the "Class Insecta."

Classification: is the systematic arrangement of insects (or other animals or plants) in series showing their relation or agreement in structure, life habits or other characters forming the basis of the "classification."

Clathrate: latticed or lattice-like in appearance.

Claustrum: the structure uniting the wings in flight, whether by hooks, by a thickening of the margin, or by a jugum.

Clava: a club; the enlarged apical joints of a clubbed antenna: = clavola.

Claval suture: Hemiptera; at the base of hemelytra, separating the clavus.

Clavate: clubbed: thickening gradually toward the tip.

Clavate hairs: in Collembola, = tenent hairs.

Clavicornia: that series of beetles having the antennae more or less distinctly enlarged or clubbed at tip.

Clavicular lobe: Homoptera; that portion of hind wing behind anal veins.

Claviform: club-like in form; specifically, in Noctuid moths an elongate spot or mark extending from the t. a. line through the submedian interspace, toward and sometimes to the t.p. line.

Clavola: see clava.

Clavus: the club of an antenna lava and clavola: in Heteroptera, the oblong sclerite at the base of the inferior margin of the hemelytra: the knob at the end of the stigmal or radial veins in certain Hymenoptera.

Claws: the claw or hook-like structures at the end of the foot or tarsus.

Cleavage: see segmentation of egg.

Cleft: split: partly divided, longitudinally: in Coleopteran applied to claws so divided that the parts lie one above the other.

Clintheriform: shaped like a plate.

Cloaca: see rectum.

Clubbed: see clavate.

Clypeal suture: marks the division between clypeus and epicranium.

Clypeate: shield-like in form.

Clypeate constriction: applied when a surface is drawn in from the sides so as to produce a shield or saddle-like form.

Clypeo-frontal suture: = clypeal suture.

Clypeus: that portion of the head before or below the front, to which the labrum is attached anteriorly; in Diptera often visible below the margin of the mouth in front, as a more or less visor-shaped piece:= epistoma.

Clypeus-anterior: see ante-clypeus.

Clypeus posterior: see post-clypeus.

Coactus: condensed; of a short stout form.

Coadapted: formed so as to work together to one end; as the mandible and maxilla in Chrysopids, etc.

Coadunate: joined together at base; two or more joined together; said of elytra when permanently united at the suture.

Coagulate: to congeal; to change from a fluid to a jelly.

Coagulum: a clotted mass, as of blood.

Coalescent: united or grown together.

Coarctate: contracted: compacted: applied to that form of pupa in which all the members of the future adult are concealed by a thickened, usually cylindric case or covering, which is often the hardened skin of the larva: beginning with a narrow base, then dilated and thickened.

Cocardes: retractile vesicular bodies on each side of the thorax in certain Malachidae.

Coccineous: cochineal red; dark red [carmine].

Cochleiformis: formed like a snail shell.

Cochleate: spirally twisted like a screw or a univalve shell.

Cocoon: a covering, composed partly or wholly of silk or other viscid fibre, spun or constructed by many larvae as a protection to the pupa.

Cocoon-breaker: structures or processes of the pupa, often on the head, by means of which it works its way out of the cocoon.

Coecal: ending blindly, or in a closed tube or pouch.

Coecum: a blind sac or tube: applied to a series of appendages opening into the alimentary canal at the junction of the gizzard and chylific ventricle: see caecum; the two are used interchangeably.

Coeloblast: the endoderm in the narrower sense.

Coelom: the body cavity.

Coelomic cavity: the space between the viscera and the body wall.

Coelom-sac: the cavity containing the viscera: in embryology one of a pair of closed sacs, arising in the mesoderm of each segment of the embryo and giving rise to more or less of the coelom of the adult.

Coenogonous: oviparous at one season of the year, ovoviviparous at another, as in Aphididae.

Coeruleus -eous: sky-blue: see caeruleus.

Coincident: when two wing veins run together or lie, one in continuation of the other so as to appear like one.

Coleoptera: sheath-winged: an order with the primaries coriaceous, used as a cover only, meeting in a straight line dorsally; mouth mandibulate; pro-thorax free; transformation complete: the beetles: the term has also been applied to the two elytra together.

Collar: in general any structure between the head and thorax: specifically, in Hymenoptera, the neck; in Diptera, may mean the neck, the sclerites attached to the thorax, the thorax itself, or its processes (ante furca): in Coleoptera, is the narrowed thorax; in Lepidoptera, applied to the sclerites attached to the thorax and which shield the neck.

Collembola: an ordinal term applied to species which are apterous; have no metamorphoses; have variably developed abdominal saltatorial appendages and a peculiar ventral tube at base: the spring-tails.

Colleterial gland: see Colleterium.

Colleterium: a glandular structure accessory to the oviduct, secreting the viscid material used in cementing the eggs together.

Collophore: the sucker-like organ extended from the underside of the abdomen in Collembola.

Collum: the neck or collar: the slender connection between head and thorax in Hymenoptera and Diptera; in Coleoptera, the posterior, narrow part of the head or even the thorax: loosely used.

Colon: the large intestine; that usually enlarged portion of the alimentary canal before the rectum.

Columella: a little rod, pillar or central axis.

Columnar: cylindric, but tapering toward one end.

Comate -us: only the upper part of head, or vertex, covered with hair. Commensal: one who eats at another's table: applied to species that feed on the surplus supply of another, without destroying the owner of the supply.

Commensalism: applied to this manner of living and eating together.

Comminute: to grind up fine: to reduce to minute particles.

Commissure: the nerves connecting two ganglia: the point of meeting or union of two bodies: a bridge connecting two bodies or structures; e.g. tracheal tubes.

Common: of frequent occurrence: occurring on two adjacent parts: a band or fascia is common when it crosses both primaries and secondaries.

Communal: applied to life or dwelling in colonies like ants and bees.

Comose: ending in a tuft or brush.

Complanate: compressed: flattened above and below: = deplanate.

Complemental: applied to sexed forms in the Termitidae, capable of reproduction, but which do not reach the winged stage; the females are less fertile than the forms that become winged and several may be used in one nest to replace a lost queen or mature female.

Complicant: when one elytron extends over the other and partially covers it.

Complicate: longitudinally laid in folds: intricate as opposed to simple.

Component: one part of a combined whole.

Compound: made up of many similar or dissimilar parts.

Compressed: flattened laterally.

Concatenate: linked together in a chain-like series.

Concave: hollowed out; the interior of a sphere as opposed to the outer or convex surface: concave veins are those that occupy the bottoms of troughs or grooves on the upper surface of a wing; see convex veins.

Concavo-convex: hollowed out or concave on one surface, rounded or convex on the other; like a small segment of a hollow sphere.

Concentrated: gathered together at one point; intensified or strengthened by evaporation.

Conchate: applied to the shell-like inflation of the auricle in the cephalic tibia of Orthoptera.

Concinne: neat; fine.

Concolorous: of the same general color.

Concretion: a massing together of parts or particles.

Concurrent: applied to a vein which arises separately, runs into another and does-not again separate.

Conduplicate: doubled or folded together.

Condyle: a process which articulates the base of the mandible to the head: in general any process by means of which an appendage is articulated into a pan or cavity.

Confertim: closely clustered or crowded.

Conflect: crowded; clustered; opposed to sparse.

Confluent: running together; as of two macula when united in one outline.

Confused: a marking with indefinite outlines: a running together as of lines and spots without definite pattern.

Congener: a species belonging to the same genus.

Congeneric: applied to a species agreeing in all characters of generic value with others compared with it.

Congested: heaped together; crowded: distended.

Conglobate: gathered together in a ball or sphere.

Conglobate gland: a glandular appendage of male sexual organs in Orthoptera, opening upon one of the external structures.

Conglomerate: congregated; massed together.

Conic -al: cylindrical, with a flat base, tapering to a point.

Conico-acuminate: in the form of a long, pointed cone.

Coniferous: a surface which bears cone-like processes.

Conjugate: to bring together in pairs: consisting of a single pair. Conjugation: the union of pairs; usually applied to the merging of the male and female elements.

Conjunctiva: the membrane uniting the abdominal sclerites.

Conjunctivus: a mandibular sclerite between the molar and basalis.

Conjunctura: the articulation of a wing to the thorax.

Connate: united at base, or along the whole length.

Connexivum: the prominent abdominal margin of Het., at junction of dorsal and ventral plates: also used like pulmonarium, q.v.

Connivent: converging: approaching together: wings so folded in repose that they unite perfectly at their corresponding margins.

Consperse: irregularly dotted or sprinkled.

Conspicuous: striking: easily seen at a glance.

Conspurcatus: confusedly sprinkled with discolored or dark spots.

Constituent: a part or element of a whole.

Constricted: drawn in: narrowed medially and dilated toward the extremities.

Contiguous: so near together as to touch.

Contorted: twisted: obliquely incumbent upon each other.

Contour: the outline or periphery.

Contract -ed: to draw or drawn together: to reduce, or reduced in size by contraction.

Contractile: that which may be drawn together or contracted or which has the power of contracting.

Contrasting: appearing in sharp relief or contrast; as one color or marking against another.

Converging: approaching each other toward the tip.

Convergence: the approaching or drawing together at tips.

Convex: the outer curved surface of a segment of a sphere; opposed to concave: convex veins are those which occupy the summits of ridges on the upper surface of - wing; see concave veins.

Convolute: rolled or twisted spirally: also applied to wings when they are wrapped around the body.

Coprophagus: feeding on excrement or on decaying vegetable matter of an excrementitious character.

Copula, Copulation: the act of sexual union.

Copulate: to unite in sexual intercourse.

Copulation chamber: a chamber or cell excavated by certain Scolytid beetles in their burrows, in which copulation takes place: = rammel-kammer.

Coralline: a pale pinkish red [salmon].

Corbel: an ovate area at the distal end of the tibia in Coleoptera, surrounded by a fringe of minute bristles; when the articular cavity is on the side, above the tip, the corbel is closed; when the cavity is at the extreme tip, the corbel is open.

Corbicula -um: a concave, smooth space, edged by a fringe of hairs arising from the margins of the posterior tibiae in bees, forming the pollen basket its function is to hold the collected pollen in place.

Corbiculate: having corbicula.

Cordate: heart-shaped; triangular, with the corners of the base rounded: not necessarily emarginate at the middle of base.

Cordiform: = cordate.

Coriaceo-reticulate: with impressed reticulations giving a leather-like appearance.

Coriaceous: leather-like: thick, tough and somewhat rigid.

Coriarious: leather-like in sculpture or texture.

Corium: the elongate middle section of the hemelytra which extends from base to membrane below the embolium.

Cornea: the outer surface of the compound eye as a whole, and of each individual facet.

Corneal lenses: are the individual lens-like structures of which the cornea of the compound eye is composed.

Corneous: of a horny or chitinous substance; resembling horn in texture.

Cornicles: the honey tubes in plant-lice: = corniculus.

Corniculi: the little horny tips or pieces of the ovipositor in Orthoptera; see valves.

Corniculus -i: = cornicles; honey-tubes; q.v.

Corniform: like the horn of an ox: a long, mucronate or pointed process.

Cornute -us: having horns or horn-like processes.

Corona: a crown or crown-like processes.

Coronate: with a crown-like tip or termination.

Coronet: a small crown or corona.

Coronula: a circle or semicircle of spines at the apex of the tibia.

Corpus: the body as a whole.

Corpus adiposum: the mass of fat tissue often found in larvae.

Corpuscle: a small cell; usually applied to blood cells.

Correlate: to bring together into relation or correspondence.

Correlated: derived from the same ancestral form: said of two or more features or qualities which bear a direct or an inverse relation to each other, but without implying a relation of cause and effect.

Correlative: of a correlated nature; see correlated.

Corrode: to eat away gradually, as by rust or decay.

Corrodentia: an ordinal term meaning gnawers: net-veined or wingless: mandibulate, mouth formed for gnawing; transformation incomplete; thorax incompletely agglutinated: = Psocoptera: includes Termitidae, Psocidae and Mallophaga. {Scanner's comment: These four groups are now placed in totally separate orders, and not families as these names imply}

Corrugated: wrinkled; with alternate ridges and channels.

Corselet: the thorax in Coleoptera.

Cortical: relating to the cortex or outer skin.

Corticinus: bark-like in sculpture, texture or color [vandyke brown].

Corvinus: crow-black; deep, shining black with a greenish lustre.

Coryphatus: = capillatus.

Corysterium: an abdominal glandular structure in certain females, secreting a glutinous covering for the eggs.

Cosmopolitan: species that occur throughout most of the world.

Cosmotropical: species that occur throughout the tropics.

Costa: any elevated ridge that is rounded at its crest: the thickened anterior margin of any wing, but usually the primaries: in Comstock, the vein extending along the anterior margin of the wing from base to the point of junction with subcosta.

Costal area: the area behind costal vein; see also, costal field.

Costal cell: the area inclosed between the costal and sub-costal veins: in the plural, Comstock, are all the cells anteriorly margined by the costa; in Hymenoptera (Norton), includes the 1st, 2d and sub-costal; of Packard, the 3d costal = 2d radial 1, and radial 2: in Diptera (Will.), it is the 2d costal.

Costal field: Orthoptera; that region of the tegmina adjacent to the anterior margin or costa: = anterior field.

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