FOODS THAT WILL WIN THE WAR
HOW TO COOK THEM
BY C. HOUSTON GOUDISS
FOOD EXPERT AND PUBLISHER OF THE FORECAST MAGAZINE
ALBERTA M. GOUDISS
DIRECTOR OF THE SCHOOL OF MODERN COOKERY
The authors can be reached by addressing the
WORLD SYNDICATE COMPANY
Copyright 1918 by THE FORECAST PUBLISHING CO.
All rights reserved, including the translation into foreign languages, including the Scandinavian.
Food will win the war, and the nation whose food resources are best conserved will be the victor. This is the truth that our government is trying to drive home to every man, woman and child in America. We have always been happy in the fact that ours was the richest nation in the world, possessing unlimited supplies of food, fuel, energy and ability; but rich as these resources are they will not meet the present food shortage unless every family and every individual enthusiastically co-operates in the national saving campaign as outlined by the United States Food Administration.
The regulations prescribed for this saving campaign are simple and easy of application. Our government does not ask us to give up three square meals a day—nor even one. All it asks is that we substitute as far as possible corn and other cereals for wheat, reduce a little our meat consumption and save sugar and fats by careful utilization of these products.
There are few housekeepers who are not eager to help in this saving campaign, and there are few indeed who do not feel the need of conserving family resources. But just how is sometimes a difficult task.
This book is planned to solve the housekeeper's problem. It shows how to substitute cereals and other grains for wheat, how to cut down the meat bill by the use of meat extension and meat substitute dishes which supply equivalent nutrition at much less cost; it shows the use of syrup and other products that save sugar, and it explains how to utilize all kinds of fats. It contains 47 recipes for the making of war breads; 64 recipes on low-cost meat dishes and meat substitutes; 54 recipes for sugarless desserts; menus for meatless and wheatless days, methods of purchasing—in all some two hundred ways of meeting present food conditions at minimum cost and without the sacrifice of nutrition.
Not only have its authors planned to help the woman in the home, conserve the family income, but to encourage those saving habits which must be acquired by this nation if we are to secure a permanent peace that will insure the world against another onslaught by the Prussian military powers.
A little bit of saving in food means a tremendous aggregate total, when 100,000,000 people are doing the saving. One wheatless meal a day would not mean hardship; there are always corn and other products to be used. Yet one wheatless meal a day in every family would mean a saving of 90,000,000 bushels of wheat, which totals 5,400,000,000 lbs. Two meatless days a week would mean a saving of 2,200,000 lbs. of meat per annum. One teaspoonful of sugar per person saved each day would insure a supply ample to take care of our soldiers and our Allies. These quantities mean but a small individual sacrifice, but when multiplied by our vast population they will immeasurably aid and encourage the men who are giving their lives to the noble cause of humanity on which our nation has embarked.
PAGE FOREWORD 4
SAVE WHEAT: Reasons Why Our Government Asks Us to Save Wheat, with Practical Recipes for the Use of Other Grains 11 A General rule for proportions in bread-making 15 Use of Corn 18 Use of Oats 20 Use of Rye 22 Use of Barley 23 Use of Potatoes 24 Use of Mixed Grains 25 Pancakes and Waffles 27
SAVE MEAT: Reasons Why Our Government Has Asked Us to Save Meat, with Practical Recipes for Meat Conservation 29 Selection of Meat 33, 36, 37, 38 Methods of Cooking 34, 35 Charts 36, 37 Comparative Composition of Meat and Meat Substitutes 38 Economy of Meat and Meat Substitutes 39 Meat Economy Dishes 41 Fish as a Meat Substitute 44 Fish Recipes 46 Cheese as a Meat Substitute 49 Meat Substitute Dishes 53
SAVE SUGAR: Reasons Why Our Government Asks Us to Save Sugar, with Practical Recipes for Sugarless Desserts, Cakes, Candies and Preserves 57 Sugarless Desserts 61 Sugarless Preserves 71
SAVE FAT: Reasons Why Our Government Asks Us to Save Fat, with Practical Recipes for Fat Conservation 73 To Render Fats 78 Various Uses for Leftover Fats 82
SAVE FOOD: Reasons Why Our Government Asks Us Not to Waste Food, with Practical Recipes for the Use of Leftovers 83 A Simple Way to Plan a Balanced Ration 84 Table Showing Number of Calories per Day Required by Various Classes 91 Sauces Make Leftovers Attractive 93 Use of Gelatine in Combining Leftovers 97 Salads Provide an Easy Method of Using Leftovers 99 Use of Stale Bread, Cake and Leftover Cereals 102 Soups Utilize Leftovers 106 All-in-one-dish Meals—Needing only fruit or simple dessert, bread and butter to complete a well-balanced menu 109 Wheatless Day Menus 113 Meatless Day Menus 115 Meat Substitute Dinners 116 Vegetable Dinners 118 Save and Serve—Bread; Meat; Sugar; Fat; Milk; Vegetables 120, 121 Blank Pages for Recording Favorite Family Recipes 122
The Recipes in this book have been examined and approved by the United States Food Administration
Illustrations furnished by courtesy of the United States Food Administration
All the recipes in this book have been prepared and used in The School of Modern Cookery conducted by The Forecast Magazine and have been endorsed by the U.S. Food Administration. They have been worked out under the direction of Grace E. Frysinger, graduate in Domestic Science of Drexel Institute, of Philadelphia, and the University of Chicago. Miss Frysinger, who has had nine years' experience as a teacher of Domestic Science, has earnestly used her skill to make these recipes practical for home use, and at the same time accurate and scientific.
The above illustration shows a class at the School of Modern Cookery. These classes are entirely free, the instruction being given in the interest of household economics. The foods cooked during the demonstration are sampled by the students and in this way it is possible to get in close touch with the needs of the homemakers and the tastes of the average family.
FOODS THAT WILL WIN THE WAR
REASONS WHY OUR GOVERNMENT ASKS US TO SAVE WHEAT, WITH PRACTICAL RECIPES FOR THE USE OF OTHER GRAINS
A slice of bread seems an unimportant thing. Yet one good-sized slice of bread weighs an ounce. It contains almost three-fourths of an ounce of flour.
If every one of the country's 20,000,000 homes wastes on the average only one such slice of bread a day, the country is throwing away daily over 14,000,000 ounces of flour—over 875,000 pounds, or enough flour for over a million one-pound loaves a day. For a full year at this rate there would be a waste of over 319,000,000 pounds of flour—1,500,000 barrels—enough flour to make 365,000,000 loaves.
As it takes four and one-half bushels of wheat to make a barrel of ordinary flour, this waste would represent the flour from over 7,000,000 bushels of wheat. Fourteen and nine-tenths bushels of wheat on the average are raised per acre. It would take the product of some 470,000 acres just to provide a single slice of bread to be wasted daily in every home.
But some one says, "a full slice of bread is not wasted in every home." Very well, make it a daily slice for every four or every ten or every thirty homes—make it a weekly or monthly slice in every home—or make the wasted slice thinner. The waste of flour involved is still appalling. These are figures compiled by government experts, and they should give pause to every housekeeper who permits a slice of bread to be wasted in her home.
Another source of waste of which few of us take account is home-made bread. Sixty per cent. of the bread used in America is made in the home. When one stops to consider how much home-made bread is poorly made, and represents a large waste of flour, yeast and fuel, this housewifely energy is not so commendable. The bread flour used in the home is also in the main wheat flour, and all waste of wheat at the present time increases the shortage of this most necessary food.
Fuel, too, is a serious national problem, and all coal used in either range, gas, or electric oven for the baking of poor bread is an actual national loss. There must be no waste in poor baking or from poor care after the bread is made, or from the waste of a crust or crumb.
Waste in your kitchen means starvation in some other kitchen across the sea. Our Allies are asking for 450,000,000 bushels of wheat, and we are told that even then theirs will be a privation loaf. Crop shortage and unusual demand has left Canada and the United States, which are the largest sources of wheat, with but 300,000,000 bushels available for export. The deficit must be met by reducing consumption on this side the Atlantic. This can be done by eliminating waste and by making use of cereals and flours other than wheat in bread-making.
The wide use of wheat flour for bread-making has been due to custom. In Europe rye and oats form the staple breads of many countries, and in some sections of the South corn-bread is the staff of life. We have only to modify a little our bread-eating habits in order to meet the present need. Other cereals can well be used to eke out the wheat, but they require slightly different handling.
In making yeast breads, the essential ingredient is gluten, which is extended by carbon dioxide gas formed by yeast growth. With the exception of rye, grains other than wheat do not contain sufficient gluten for yeast bread, and it is necessary to use a wheat in varying proportions in order to supply the deficient gluten. Even the baker's rye loaf is usually made of one-half rye and one-half wheat. This is the safest proportion for home use in order to secure a good texture.
When oatmeal is used, it is necessary to scald the oatmeal to prevent a raw taste. Oatmeal also makes a softer dough than wheat, and it is best to make the loaf smaller and bake it longer: about one hour instead of the forty-five minutes which we allow for wheat bread.
The addition of one-third barley flour to wheat flour makes a light colored, good flavored bread. If a larger proportion than this is used, the loaf has a decided barley flavor. If you like this flavor and increase the proportion of barley, be sure to allow the dough a little longer time to rise, as by increasing the barley you weaken the gluten content of your loaf.
Rice and cornmeal can be added to wheat breads in a 10 per cent. proportion. Laboratory tests have shown that any greater proportion than this produces a heavy, small loaf.
Potato flour or mashed potato can be used to extend the wheat, it being possible to work in almost 50 per cent. of potato, but this makes a darker and moister loaf than when wheat alone is used. In order to take care of this moisture, it is best to reserve part of the wheat for the second kneading.
Graham and entire wheat flour also effect a saving of wheat because a larger percentage of the wheat berry is used. Graham flour is the whole kernel of wheat, ground. Entire wheat flour is the flour resulting from the grinding of all but the outer layer of wheat. A larger use of these coarser flours will therefore help materially in eking out our scant wheat supply as the percentage of the wheat berry used for bread flour is but 72 per cent. Breads made from these coarser flours also aid digestion and are a valuable addition to the dietary.
In order to keep down waste by eliminating the poor batch of bread, it is necessary to understand the principles of bread-making. Fermentation is the basic principle of yeast bread, and fermentation is controlled by temperature. The yeast plant grows at a temperature from 70 to 90 degrees (Fahrenheit), and if care is taken to maintain this temperature during the process of fermentation, waste caused by sour dough or over-fermentation will be eliminated. When we control the temperature we can also reduce the time necessary for making a loaf of bread, or several loaves of bread as may be needed, into as short a period as three hours. This is what is known as the quick method. It not only saves time and labor, but, controlling the temperature, insures accurate results. The easiest way to control the temperature is to put the bowl containing the dough into another of slightly larger size containing water at a temperature of 90 degrees. The water of course should never be hot. Hot water kills the yeast plant. Cold water checks its growth. Cover the bowl and set it in the gas oven or fireless cooker or on the shelf of the coal range. As the water in the large bowl cools off, remove a cupful and add a cupful of hot water. At the end of one and one-half hours the dough should have doubled in bulk. Take it out of the pan and knead until the large gas bubbles are broken (about ten minutes). Then place in greased bread pans and allow to rise for another half hour. At the end of this time it will not only fill the pan, but will project out of it. Do not allow the dough to rise too high, for then the bread will have large holes in it. A good proportion as a general rule to follow, is:
3-1/2 cupfuls of flour (this includes added cereals) 1 cupful of water or milk 1/2 tablespoon shortening 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 1 cake of compressed yeast
In this recipe sugar has been omitted because of the serious shortage, but after the war a teaspoon of sugar should be added. The shortening, although small in quantity, may also be omitted.
These materials make a loaf of about one pound, which should be baked in forty to fifty minutes at a temperature of 450 degrees (Fahrenheit). Allow a little longer time for bread containing oatmeal or other grains. Such breads require a little longer baking and a little lower temperature than wheat breads. If you do not use a thermometer in testing your oven, place a piece of paper on the center shelf, and if it browns in two minutes your oven is right. If a longer period for raising is allowed than is suggested in the above recipe, the yeast proportion should be decreased. For overnight bread use one-quarter yeast cake per loaf; for six-hour bread, use one-half yeast cake per loaf; for three-hour bread, use one yeast cake per loaf. In baking, the time allowed should depend on the size of the loaf. When baked at a temperature of 450 degrees, large loaves take from forty-five to sixty minutes, small loaves from thirty to forty minutes, rolls from ten to twenty minutes.
It is well to divide the oven time into four parts. During the first quarter, the rising continues; second quarter, browning begins; the third quarter, browning is finished; the fourth quarter, bread shrinks from the side of the pan. These are always safe tests to follow in your baking. When baked, the bread should be turned out of the pans and allow to cool on a wire rack. When cool, put the bread in a stone crock or bread box. To prevent staleness, keep the old bread away from the fresh—scald the bread crock or give your bread box a sun bath at frequent intervals.
Even with all possible care to prevent waste, yeast breads will not conserve our wheat supply so well as quick breads, because all yeast breads need a larger percentage of wheat. The home baker can better serve her country by introducing into her menus numerous quick breads that can be made from cornmeal, rye, corn and rye, hominy, and buckwheat. Griddle cakes and waffles can also be made from lentils, soy beans, potatoes, rice and peas.
Do not expect that the use of other cereals in bread-making will reduce the cost of your bread. That is not the object. Saving of wheat for war needs is the thing we are striving for, and this is as much an act of loyalty as buying Liberty Bonds. It is to meet the crucial world need of bread that we are learning to substitute, and not to spare the national purse.
Besides this saving of wheat, our Government also asks us to omit all fat from our yeast breads in order to conserve the diminishing fat supply. This may seem impossible to the woman who has never made bread without shortening, but recent experiments in bread-making laboratories have proved that bread, without shortening, is just as light and as good in texture as that made with shortening—the only difference being a slight change in flavor. These experiments have also shown that it is possible to supply shortening by the introduction of 3 per cent. to 5 per cent. of canned cocoanut or of peanut butter, and that sugar may also be omitted from bread-making recipes. In fact, the war is bringing about manifold interesting experiments which prove that edible and nutritious bread can be made of many things besides the usual white flour.
The recipes herewith appended, showing the use of combinations of cereals and wheat, have been carefully tested in The Forecast School of Modern Cookery. Good bread can be made from each recipe, and the new flavors obtained by the use of other grains make a pleasing and wholesome variety.
A family which has eaten oatmeal or entire wheat bread will never again be satisfied with a diet that includes only bread made from bleached flour. Children, especially, will be benefited by the change, as the breads made from coarser flours are not only more nutritious, but are rich in the minerals and vitamine elements that are so essential to the growth of strong teeth, bones and growing tissues.
The homemaker, too, will never regret her larger acquaintance with bread-making materials, as the greater variety of breads that she will find herself able to produce will be a source of pleasure and keen satisfaction.
To Conform to U.S. Food Administration Regulations During the War, Eliminate Fat and Sweetening in Breads—Whenever Fat Is Used, Use Drippings
THE USE OF CORN
1 cup bread flour 1 cup cornmeal 4 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons fat 1 egg 1/3 cup milk 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 1 tablespoon sugar
Mix and sift dry ingredients and cut in the fat. Beat the egg and add to it the milk. Combine the liquid with the dry ingredients. Shape as Parker House rolls and bake in a hot oven 12 to 15 minutes.
BUTTERMILK OR SOUR MILK CORNMEAL MUFFINS
2 cups cornmeal 1 egg 2 tablespoons sugar 2 tablespoons fat 2 cups sour or buttermilk 1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon soda
Dissolve soda in a little cold water. Mix ingredients adding soda last. Bake in hot oven 20 minutes.
CORNMEAL GRIDDLE CAKES
1-1/3 cups cornmeal 1-1/2 cups boiling water 3/4 cup milk 2 tablespoons fat 1 tablespoon molasses 2/3 cup flour 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 4 teaspoons baking powder
Scald meal with boiling water. Add milk, fat and molasses. Add sifted dry ingredients. Bake on hot griddle.
SOUTHERN SPOON BREAD
1 cup white cornmeal 2 cups boiling water 1/4 cup bacon fat or drippings 3 teaspoons baking powder 1 teaspoon salt 2 eggs 3 slices bread 1/2 cup cold water 1 cup milk Scald cornmeal with boiling water. Soak bread in cold water and milk. Separate yolks and whites of eggs. Beat each until light. Mix ingredients in order given, folding in whites of eggs last. Bake in buttered dish in hot oven 50 minutes.
2 cups water 1 cup milk 1 cup cornmeal 1/3 cup sweet pepper 1 tablespoon fat 2 eggs 2 teaspoons salt
Mix water and cornmeal and bring to the boiling point and cook 5 minutes. Beat eggs well and add with other materials to the mush. Beat well and bake in a well-greased pan for 25 minutes in a hot oven. Serve from the same dish with a spoon. Serve with milk or syrup.
CORNMEAL RAGGED ROBINS
1-1/2 cups cornmeal 1 cup bread flour 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 1-1/3 cups milk 2-1/2 teaspoons cream of tartar 4 tablespoons fat 1-1/4 teaspoons soda
Sift dry ingredients. Cut in the fat. Add liquid and drop by spoonfuls on greased baking sheet. Bake in hot oven 12 to 15 minutes. These may be rolled and cut same as baking powder biscuits.
4 cups milk 1/3 cup cornmeal 1/3 cup molasses 1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon ginger 1 teaspoon allspice
Cook milk and meal in a double boiler 20 minutes; add molasses, salt and ginger. Pour into greased pudding dish and bake two hours in a slow oven, or use fireless cooker. Serve with milk. This makes a good and nourishing dessert. Serves six.
2 cups cornmeal 5 cups water (boiling) 2 tablespoons fat 1 teaspoon salt 1 onion 2 cups tomatoes 2 cups cooked or raw meat cut in small pieces 1/4 cup green peppers
To the cornmeal and 1 teaspoon salt, add boiling water. Cook one-half hour. Brown onion in fat, add meat. Add salt, 1/8 teaspoon cayenne, the tomatoes and green peppers. Grease baking dish, put in layer of cornmeal mush, add seasoned meat, and cover with mush. Bake one-half hour.
EGGLESS CORN BREAD
1 cup cornmeal 1/2 cup bread flour 3 tablespoons molasses 1 cup milk 3 teaspoons baking powder 2 teaspoons salt 2 tablespoons fat
Beat thoroughly. Bake in greased muffin pans 20 minutes.
SWEET MILK CORN BREAD
2 cups cornmeal 2 cups sweet milk (whole or skim) 4 teaspoons baking powder 2 tablespoons corn syrup 2 tablespoons fat 1 teaspoon salt 1 egg
Mix dry ingredients. Add milk, well-beaten egg, and melted fat. Beat well. Bake in shallow pan for about 30 minutes.
SOUR MILK CORN BREAD
2 cups cornmeal 2 cups sour milk 1 teaspoon soda 2 tablespoons fat 2 tablespoons corn syrup or molasses 1 teaspoon salt 1 egg
Mix dry ingredients. Add milk, egg and fat. Beat well. Bake in greased pan 20 minutes.
THE USE OF OATS
COOKED OATMEAL BREAD
3 cups thick cooked oatmeal 2 tablespoons fat 1-1/2 tablespoons salt 3 tablespoons molasses 1-1/2 cakes yeast 3/4 cup lukewarm water About 5 cups flour
To oatmeal add the sugar, salt and fat. Mix the yeast cake with the lukewarm water, add it to the other materials and stir in the flour until the dough will not stick to the sides of the bowl. Knead until elastic, ten to fifteen minutes, moisten the top of the dough with a little water to prevent a hard crust forming, and set to rise in a warm place. When double its bulk, knead again for a few minutes. Shape into loaves and put into greased pans. Let rise double in bulk and bake in a moderate oven for about 50 minutes.
2 cups rolled oats 2 cups boiling water 1/3 cup molasses 1 yeast cake 3/4 cup lukewarm water 1 tablespoon salt 2 tablespoons fat (melted) About 6 cups bread flour
Scald the rolled oats with the boiling water and let stand until cool. Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm water and add to the first mixture when cool. Add the molasses, salt and melted fat. Stir in enough bread flour to knead. Turn on a floured board. Knead lightly. Return to bowl and let rise until double in bulk. Knead and shape in loaves and let rise until double again. Bake in a moderate oven 45 minutes.
OATMEAL NUT BREAD
1 cake compressed yeast 2 cups boiling water 1/2 cup lukewarm water 2 cups rolled oats 1 teaspoon salt 1/4 cup brown sugar or 2 tablespoons corn syrup 2 tablespoons fat 4 cups flour 1/2 cup chopped nuts.
Pour two cups of boiling water over oatmeal, cover and let stand until lukewarm. Dissolve yeast and sugar in one-half cup lukewarm water, add shortening and add this to the oatmeal and water. Add one cup of flour, or enough to make an ordinary sponge. Beat well. Cover and set aside in a moderately warm place to rise for one hour.
Add enough flour to make a dough—about three cups, add nuts and the salt. Knead well. Place in greased bowl, cover and let rise in a moderately warm place until double in bulk—about one and one-half hour. Mould into loaves, fill well-greased pans half full, cover and let rise again one hour. Bake forty-five minutes in a moderate oven.
1 cup cold porridge (stiff) 1 cup boiling water 1 tablespoon fat 1/2 teaspoon baking powder or 1/4 teaspoon soda 1 teaspoon corn syrup 1/2 teaspoon salt
Mix soda, boiling water and fat. Mix all. Turn on board. Mould flat—cut 1/4-inch thick and bake on griddle.
1-1/3 cups flour 2 tablespoons molasses 1/2 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons fat 3 teaspoons baking powder 1 egg beaten 1/2 cup milk 1 cup cooked oatmeal
Sift dry ingredients. Add egg and milk. Add fat and cereal. Beat well. Bake in greased tins 20 minutes.
ROLLED OATS RAGGED ROBINS
1-1/2 cups rolled oats 1 cup bread flour 1-1/3 teaspoons salt 1-1/3 cups milk 2-1/2 teaspoons cream of tartar 4 tablespoons fat 1-1/4 teaspoons soda
Sift dry ingredients. Cut in the fat. Add liquid and drop by spoonfuls on greased baking sheet. Bake in hot oven 12 to 15 minutes. These may be rolled and cut same as baking powder biscuits. (If uncooked rolled oats are used, allow to stand in the milk for 30 minutes before making recipe.)
THE USE OF RYE
RYE YEAST BREAD
1 cup milk and water, or water 1 tablespoon fat 2 tablespoons corn syrup 1 teaspoon salt 2-1/2 cups rye flour 2-1/2 cups wheat flour 1/2 cake compressed yeast 2 tablespoons water
Combine ingredients. Mix into dough and knead. Let rise until double original bulk. Knead again. When double bulk, bake about
4 cups rye flour 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 6 teaspoons baking powder 1-1/2 cups milk 2 tablespoons fat 1 cup chopped nuts
Mix dry ingredients thoroughly. Add milk, nuts and melted shortening. Knead. Shape into rolls. Put into greased pans. Let stand one-half hour. Bake in moderate oven 30 minutes.
2 cups boiling water 2 tablespoons sugar 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 1/4 cup lukewarm water 2 tablespoons fat 6 cups rye flour 1-1/2 cups whole wheat flour 1 cake yeast
To the boiling water, add the sugar, fat and salt. When lukewarm, add the yeast which has been dissolved in the lukewarm water. Add the rye and whole wheat flour. Cover and let rise until twice its bulk, shape into loaves; let rise until double and bake about 40 minutes, in a moderately hot oven.
RYE RAGGED ROBINS
1-1/2 cups rye flour 1 cup bread flour 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 1-1/3 cups milk 2-1/2 teaspoons cream of tartar 4 tablespoons fat 1-1/4 teaspoons soda
Sift dry ingredients. Cut in the fat. Add liquid and drop by spoonfuls on greased baking sheet. Bake in hot oven 12 to 15 minutes. These may be rolled and cut same as baking powder biscuits.
THE USE OF BARLEY
BARLEY YEAST BREAD
1 cup milk and water, or water 2 tablespoons corn syrup 1 tablespoon fat 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 1-1/6 cups barley flour 2-1/3 cups wheat flour 1/2 cake compressed yeast
Soften the yeast in 1/4 cup lukewarm liquid. Combine ingredients. Mix into a dough. Knead and let rise to double original bulk. Knead again. Put in pan; when again double in bulk bake 45 minutes.
1-1/4 cups whole wheat flour 1 cup barley meal 1/2 teaspoon salt 3 teaspoons baking powder 1 egg 1-1/4 cups sour milk 1/2 teaspoon soda 2 tablespoons drippings
Sift flour, barley meal, salt and baking powder. Dissolve soda in a little cold water and add to sour milk. Combine flour mixture and sour milk, add beaten egg and melted fat. Bake in muffin pans in a moderate oven 25 minutes.
BARLEY SPOON BREAD
2 tablespoons pork drippings 3 cups boiling water 1 cup barley meal 2 eggs
Heat drippings in saucepan until slightly brown, add water and when boiling, add barley meal, stirring constantly. Cook in a double boiler one-half hour, cool, and add well-beaten yolks. Fold in whites, beaten. Bake in greased dish in moderate oven one-half hour.
5 cups milk 1/2 cup barley meal 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon ginger 3/4 cup molasses
Scald the milk, pour this on the meal and cook in double boiler one-half hour; add molasses, salt and ginger. Pour into greased pudding dish and bake two hours in a slow oven. Serve either hot or cold with syrup.
1 cup whole wheat flour 1 cup barley meal 1/2 teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons baking powder 3 tablespoons fat 3/4 cup sour milk 1/3 teaspoon soda
Sift flour, barley meal, salt and baking powder together. Add fat. Dissolve soda in one tablespoon cold water and add to sour milk. Combine flour mixture and sour milk to form a soft dough. Turn out on a well-floured board, knead slightly, roll to one-half inch thickness; cut in small pieces and bake in a hot oven 15 minutes.
THE USE OF POTATO
1 cup mashed lightly packed potato 2 tablespoons fat 1 cup whole wheat flour 1 teaspoons baking powder 1 teaspoon salt About 1/2 cup milk or water in which potatoes were cooked
Add melted fat to mashed potato. Mix and sift flour, baking powder and salt and add to potato mixture, add enough of the milk to make a soft dough. Roll out 1/2 inch thick, cut with a biscuit cutter and bake in a quick oven for 15 minutes. (If bread flour is used in place of whole wheat, the biscuits are slightly lighter and flakier in texture.)
1-1/2 cups tightly packed mashed potato 2-1/2 cups wheat flour 1 tablespoon warm water 1/2 yeast cake 1/2 teaspoon salt
Make dough as usual. Let rise in warm place for 15 minutes. Mould into loaf, put in pan, let rise until double in bulk in warm place. Bake for 45 minutes in hot oven.
POTATO YEAST BREAD
1/2 cup milk and water or water 2 tablespoons corn syrup 4 tablespoons fat 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 4 cups boiled potatoes 8 cups flour 1/2 cake compressed yeast 1/4 cup warm water
Dissolve yeast in the warm water. Add other ingredients and make same as any bread.
POTATO PARKER HOUSE ROLLS
1/2 cake yeast 1 cup milk (scalded) 1 teaspoon fat 3 tablespoons corn syrup (or 1 tablespoon sugar) 3-1/2 cups flour 2 cups potato (mashed and hot) 1 teaspoon salt 1 egg
Dissolve yeast in milk (luke warm). Stir in dry ingredients. Add potato and knead until smooth. Let rise until light. Roll thin, fold over, bake until brown.
THE USE OF MIXED GRAINS
WAR BREAD OR THIRDS BREAD
1 pint milk, or milk and water 2 teaspoons salt 2 tablespoons molasses 1 yeast cake 2 tablespoons fat
Mix as ordinary bread dough. Add 2 cups cornmeal and 2 cups rye meal and enough whole wheat flour to knead. Let rise, knead, shape, let rise again in the pan and bake 45 minutes.
CORN MEAL AND RYE BREAD
2 cups lukewarm water 1 cake yeast 2 teaspoons salt 1/3 cup molasses 1-1/4 cup rye flour 1 cup corn meal 3 cups bread flour
Dissolve yeast cake in water, add remaining ingredients, and mix thoroughly. Let rise, shape, let rise again and bake.
BOSTON BROWN BREAD
1 cup rye meal 1 cup cornmeal 1 cup graham flour 2 cups sour milk 1-3/4 teaspoons soda 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 3/4 cup molasses
Beat well. Put in greased covered molds, steam 2 to 3 hours.
2 cups bread crumbs 1/3 cup flour 1 tablespoon fat, melted 1-1/2 cups milk 1 egg 2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 teaspoon salt
Cover crumbs with milk and soak 10 minutes. Beat smooth, add egg yolks, dry ingredients sifted together and fat. Fold in beaten whites of eggs. Bake in muffin tins in moderate oven for 15 minutes.
CORN, RYE AND WHOLE WHEAT FRUIT MUFFINS
1/3 cup boiling water 1 cup cornmeal 1/4 teaspoon soda 1/4 cup molasses 1 cup whole wheat flour 1 cup rye flour 3 teaspoons baking powder 1 teaspoon salt 1 cup milk 1/3 cup raisins cut in halves 1/4 cup chopped nuts 2 tablespoons fat
Scald meal with boiling water, mix soda and molasses. Mix dry ingredients, mix all thoroughly. Bake in muffin pans one-half hour.
SOY BEAN MEAL BISCUIT
1 cup soy bean meal or flour 1 cup whole wheat 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 4 teaspoons baking powder 1 tablespoon corn syrup 2 tablespoons fat 1 cup milk
Sift dry ingredients. Cut in fat. Add liquid to make soft dough. Roll one-half inch thick. Cut and bake 12 to 15 minutes in hot oven.
1 cup whole wheat flour 1 cup cornmeal 1 tablespoon fat 1/2 teaspoon soda 1 cup sour milk 1 teaspoon salt
Mix as baking powder biscuit. Drop by spoonfuls on greased baking sheet. Bake 15 minutes in hot oven.
PANCAKES AND WAFFLES
SOUR MILK PANCAKES
1 cup sour milk 1/2 cup cooked cereal or 1 cup bread crumbs 1 tablespoon melted fat 1 egg 3/4 cup whole wheat flour 1 teaspoon soda 1/8 teaspoon salt
Mix bread crumbs, flour, salt; add beaten egg, fat and cereal; mix soda with sour milk and add to other ingredients.
SPLIT PEA PANCAKES
2 cups split peas 2 egg whites 1/3 cup flour 1 cup milk 2 egg yolks 2 tablespoons pork drippings 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoonful baking powder
Soak peas over night, cook, and when tender, put through a food chopper and mix the ingredients. Bake on hot greased griddle.
BREAD GRIDDLE CAKES
2 cups sour milk 2 cups bread
Let stand until soft
Put through colander. For each one pint use:
1 egg 1 teaspoon soda 2 teaspoons sugar 1/4 teaspoon salt 3/4 cup flour 1 egg beaten
Mix well; bake at once on hot greased griddle.
2 cups oatmeal 1 tablespoon melted fat 1/8 teaspoon salt
1 egg beaten into a cupful of milk 1 cupful flour into which has been sifted 1 teaspoonful baking powder.
Beat well. Cook on a griddle. This is an excellent way to use left-over oatmeal.
2 cups of chopped potato 1/2 cup milk 1 egg 1 teaspoon salt 2 cups flour 5 teaspoons of baking powder 2 cups of hot water
Parboil potatoes in the skins for fifteen minutes. Pare and chop fine or put through food chopper. Mix potatoes, milk, eggs and salt. Sift the flour and baking powder and stir into a smooth batter. Thin with hot water as necessary. Bake on a greased griddle.
1 cup cold boiled rice 1-1/2 cups milk 2 eggs 2 cups flour 1/3 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon melted fat 4 teaspoons baking powder
Add milk to rice and stir until smooth. Add salt, egg yolks beaten; add flour sifted with baking powder and salt; add fat; add stiffly beaten whites.
RICE GRIDDLE CAKES
1/2 cup boiled rice 1/2 cup flour 3 tablespoons fat 1 pint milk 2/3 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon soda
Stir rice in milk. Let stand one-half hour. Add other ingredients, having dissolved soda in one tablespoon cold water.
1 cup cornmeal 1/2 cup flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons baking powder 1/4 cup corn syrup 1 egg 1 pint milk 1 tablespoon fat
Cook cornmeal and milk in double boiler 10 minutes. Sift dry ingredients. Add milk, cornmeal; beaten yolks; fat, beaten whites.
CORNMEAL AND RYE WAFFLES
1 cup rye flour 3/4 cup cornmeal 1 teaspoon salt 4 teaspoons baking powder 1 tablespoon melted fat 2 eggs 1-1/4 cups milk
Sift dry ingredients. Add beaten yolks added to milk. Add fat and stiffly beaten whites. If waffles are not crisp add more liquid.
REASONS WHY OUR GOVERNMENT HAS ASKED US TO SAVE MEAT WITH PRACTICAL RECIPES FOR MEAT CONSERVATION
As a nation we eat and waste 80 per cent. more meat than we require to maintain health. This statement, recently issued by the United States Food Administration, is appalling when we consider that there is a greater demand for meat in the world to-day than ever before, coupled with a greatly decreased production. The increase in the demand for meat and animal products is due to the stress of the war. Millions of men are on the fighting line doing hard physical labor, and require a larger food allowance than when they were civilians. To meet the demand for meat and to save their grains, our Allies have been compelled to kill upward of thirty-three million head of their stock animals, and they have thus stifled their animal production. This was burning the candle at both ends, and they now face increased demand handicapped by decreased production.
America must fill the breach. Not only must we meet the present increased demand, but we must be prepared as the war advances to meet an even greater demand for this most necessary food. The way out of this serious situation is first to reduce meat consumption to the amount really needed and then to learn to use other foods that will supply the food element which is found in meat. This element is called protein, and we depend upon it to build and repair body tissues.
Although most persons believe that protein can only be obtained from meat, it is found in many other foods, such as milk, skim milk, cheese, cottage cheese, poultry, eggs, fish, dried peas, beans, cow peas, lentils and nuts. For instance, pound for pound, salmon, either fresh or canned, equals round steak in protein content; cream cheese contains one-quarter more protein and three times as much fat; peanuts (hulled) one-quarter more protein and three and a half times as much fat; beans (dried) a little more protein and one-fifth as much fat; eggs (one dozen) about the same in protein and one-half more fat. It is our manifest duty to learn how to make the best use of these foods in order to save beef, pork and mutton, to be shipped across the sea. This means that the housekeeper has before her the task of training the family palate to accept new food preparations. Training the family palate is not easy, because bodies that have grown accustomed to certain food combinations find it difficult to get along without them, and rebel at a change. If these habits of diet are suddenly disturbed we may upset digestion, as well as create a feeling of dissatisfaction which is equally harmful to physical well-being. The wise housekeeper will therefore make her changes gradually.
In reducing meat in the diet of a family that has been used to having meat twice a day, it will be well to start out with meat once a day and keep up this regime for a couple of weeks. Then drop meat for a whole day, supplying in its stead a meat substitute dish that will furnish the same nutriment. After a while you can use meat substitutes at least twice a week without disturbing the family's mental or physical equilibrium. It would be well also to introduce dishes that extend the meat flavor, such as stews combined with dumplings, hominy, or rice; pot pies or short cakes with a dressing of meat and vegetables; meat loaf, souffle or croquettes in which meat is combined with bread crumbs, potato or rice.
Meat eating is largely a matter of flavor. If flavor is supplied, the reduction of meat in the diet can be made with little annoyance. Nutrition can always be supplied in the other dishes that accompany the meal, as a certain proportion of protein is found in almost every food product. The meat that we use to obtain flavor in sauces and gravies need not be large in quantity, nor expensive in cut. The poor or cheap cuts have generally more flavor than the expensive ones, the difference being entirely in texture and tenderness, freedom from gristle and inedible tissue. There are many cereals, such as rice, hominy, cornmeal, samp and many vegetable dishes, especially dried beans of all kinds, that are greatly improved by the addition of meat sauce and when prepared in this way may be served as the main dish of a meal.
Dr. Harvey W. Wiley has stated that the meat eating of the future will not be regarded as a necessity so much as it has been in the past, and that meat will be used more as a condimental substance. Europe has for years used meat for flavor rather than for nutriment. It would seem that the time has come for Americans to learn the use of meat for flavor and to utilize more skillfully the protein of other foods.
It may be difficult to convince the meat lover that he can radically reduce the proportion of meat in his diet without detriment to health. Many persons adhere to the notion that you are not nourished unless you eat meat; that meat foods are absolutely necessary to maintain the body strength. This idea is entirely without foundation, for the foods mentioned as meat substitutes earlier in this chapter can be made to feed the world, and feed it well—in fact, no nation uses so large a proportion of meat as America.
The first step, therefore, in preparing ourselves to reduce meat consumption is to recognize that only a small quantity of meat is necessary to supply sufficient protein for adult life. The growing child or the youth springing into manhood needs a larger percentage of meat than the adult, and in apportioning the family's meat ration this fact should not be overlooked.
The second step is to reduce the amount purchased, choosing cuts that contain the least waste, and by utilizing with care that which we do purchase. Fat, trimmings, and bones all have their uses and should be saved from the garbage pail.
Careful buying, of course, depends on a knowledge of cuts, a study of the percentage of waste in each cut, and the food value of the different kinds of meat. Make a study of the different cuts, as shown in the charts on pages 36, 37, and armed with this knowledge go forth to the butcher for practical buying.
Then comes the cooking, which can only be properly done when the fundamental principles of the cooking processes, such as boiling, braising, broiling, stewing, roasting and frying are understood. Each cut requires different handling to secure the maximum amount of nutriment and flavor. The waste occasioned by improper cooking is a large factor in both household and national economy.
It has been estimated that a waste of an ounce each day of edible meat or fat in the twenty million American homes amounts to 456,000,000 pounds of valuable animal food a year. At average dressed weights, this amounts to 875,000 steers, or over 3,000,000 hogs. Each housekeeper, therefore, who saves her ounce a day aids in this enormous saving, which will mean so much in the feeding of our men on the fighting line.
So the housekeeper who goes to her task of training the family palate to accept meat substitutes and meat economy dishes, who revolutionizes her methods of cooking so as to utilize even "the pig's squeak," will be doing her bit toward making the world safe for democracy.
The following charts, tables of nutritive values and suggested menus have been arranged to help her do this work. The American woman has her share in this great world struggle, and that is the intelligent conservation of food.
SELECTION OF MEAT
BEEF—Dull red as cut, brighter after exposure to air; lean, well mottled with fat; flesh, firm; fat, yellowish in color. Best beef from animal 3 to 5 years old, weighing 900 to 1,200 pounds. Do not buy wet, soft, or pink beef.
VEAL—Flesh pink. (If white, calf was bled before killed or animal too young.) The fat should be white.
MUTTON—Best from animal 3 years old. Flesh dull red, fat firm and white.
LAMB—(Spring Lamb 3 months to 6 months old; season, February to March.) Bones of lamb should be small; end of bone in leg of lamb should be serrated; flesh pink, and fat white.
PORK—The lean should be fine grained and pale pink. The skin should be smooth and clear. If flesh is soft, or fat yellowish, pork is not good.
SELECTION OF TOUGHER CUTS AND THEIR USES
Less expensive cuts of meat have more nourishment than the more expensive, and if properly cooked and seasoned, have as much tenderness. Tough cuts, as chuck or top sirloin, may be boned and rolled and then roasted by the same method as tender cuts, the only difference will be that the tougher cuts require longer cooking. Have the bones from rolled meats sent home to use for soups. Corned beef may be selected from flank, naval, plate or brisket. These cuts are more juicy than rump or round cuts.
1. For pot roast use chuck, crossrib, round, shoulder, rump or top sirloin.
2. For stew use shin, shoulder, top sirloin or neck.
3. For steaks use flank, round or chuck. If these cuts are pounded, or both pounded and rubbed with a mixture of 1 part vinegar and 2 parts oil before cooking, they will be very tender.
4. Soups—Buy shin or neck. The meat from these may be utilized by serving with horseradish or mustard sauce, or combined with equal amount of fresh meat for meat loaf, scalloped dish, etc.
1. Roasting or Baking—Oven roasting or baking is applied to roasts.
Place the roast in a hot oven, or if gas is used, put in the broiling oven to sear the outside quickly, and thus keep in the juices. Salt, pepper and flour. If an open roasting pan is used place a few tablespoonfuls of fat and 1 cup of water in the pan, which should be used to baste the roast frequently. If a covered pan is used basting is unnecessary.
Beef or mutton (5 to 8 lbs.) 10 min. to the lb. 10 min. extra Lamb (5 to 8 lbs.) 12 min. to the lb. 12 min. extra Veal (5 to 8 lbs.) 15 min. to the lb. 15 min. extra Pork (5 to 8 lbs.) 25 min. to the lb. 25 min. extra Turkey 20 min. to the lb. Chicken 30 min. to the lb. Duck 30 min. to the lb. Goose 30 min. to the lb. Game 30 min. to the lb.
2. Broiling—Cooking over or under clear fire. This method is used for chops or steaks.
Sear the meat on both sides. Then reduce the heat and turn the meat frequently. Use no fat.
Time Table—(Count time after meat is seared). 1/2 inch chops or steaks, 5 minutes 1 inch chops or steaks, 10 minutes 2 inch chops or steaks, 15 to 18 minutes
3. Pan Broiling—Cooking in pan with no fat. Time table same as for broiling chops, steaks, etc.
4. Sauteing—Cooking in pan in small amount of fat. Commonly termed "frying." Used for steaks, chops, etc. Time table same as for broiling.
1. Boiling—Cooking in boiling water—especially poultry, salt meats, etc.
2. Steaming—A method of cooking by utilizing steam from boiling water, which retains more food value than any other. Too seldom applied to meats.
3. Frying—Cooking by immersion in hot fat at temperature 400 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit. Used for croquettes, etc.
If a fat thermometer is not available, test by using small pieces of bread. Put into heated fat:
A—For croquettes made from food requiring little cooking, such as oysters, or from previously cooked mixtures, as rice, fish or meat croquettes, bread should brown in one-half minute.
B—For mixtures requiring cooking, as doughnuts, fritters, etc., bread should brown in one minute.
1. Pot Roasting—Cooking (by use of steam from small amount of water) tough cuts of meat which have been browned but not cooked thoroughly.
Season meat. Dredge with flour. Sear in hot pan until well browned. Place oil rack in pot containing water to height of one inch, but do not let water reach the meat. Keep water slowly boiling. Replenish as needed with boiling water. This method renders tough cuts tender, but requires several hours cooking.
2. Stewing—A combination of methods which draws part of flavor into gravy and retains part in pieces which are to be used as meat.
Cut meat into pieces suitable for serving. Cover one-half of meat with cold water. Let stand one hour. Bring slowly to boiling point. Dredge other half of meat with flour and brown in small amount of fat. Add to the other mixture and cook slowly 1-1/2 to 2 hours, or until tender, adding diced vegetables, thickening and seasoning as desired one-half hour before cooking is finished.
3. Fricasseeing—Cooking in a sauce until tender, meat which has been previously browned but not cooked throughout.
Brown meat in small amount of fat. Place in boiling water to cover. Cook slowly until tender. To 1 pint of water in which meat is cooked, add 1/4 cup flour, 1 teaspoon salt, 1/4 teaspoon cayenne, and 1/4 cup milk, thoroughly blended. When at boiling point, add one beaten egg, 1 tablespoon chopped parsley and 1 tablespoon cold water well mixed, Add cooked meat and serve.
Neck for stews.
Shoulder for inexpensive chops.
Sweetbread—broiled or creamed.
Breast for roast or pot roast.
Loin for roast.
Rump for stews.
Cutlet for broiling.
Neck—use for stews.
Shoulder for cheaper chops.
Breast for roast
Ribs for chops or crown roast.
Loin for roast.
Flank for stews.
Leg for cutlet and roast.
Head for cheese.
Shoulder same as ham but have it boned. Has same flavor and is much cheaper.
Loin used for chops or roast.
Ham for boiling, roasting or pan broiling.
LESS-USED EDIBLE PARTS OF ANIMAL, AND METHODS OF COOKING BEST ADAPTED TO THEIR USE
ANIMAL ORGAN SOURCE METHODS OF COOKING - Brains Sheep Broiled or scrambled Pork with egg - Veal Heart Pork Stuffed, baked or broiled Beef - Beef Kidney Lamb Stewed or sauted Veal - - Beef Fried, boiled, sauted or Liver Veal broiled Lamb - - Sweetbreads Young Veal Creamed, broiled Young Beef - - Tail Beef Soup or boiled Pork - - Tongue Beef Boiled, pickled, corned Pork - - Tripe Veal Broiled or boiled - - Fat All Animals Fried out for cooking or soap making - - Pickled or boiled or used Pigs Feet Pork with meat from head for head cheese -
COMPARATIVE COMPOSITION OF MEAT AND MEAT SUBSTITUTES
Carbo- Mineral Water Protein Fat hydrate Matter Calories Name % % % % % per lb. - - - - - - Cheese 34.2 25.2 31.7 2.4 3.8 1,950 Eggs 73.7 13.4 10.5 ... 1.0 720 Milk 87.0 3.3 4.0 5.0 0.7 310 Beef 54.8 23.5 20.4 ... 1.2 1,300 Cod 58.5 11.1 0.2 ... 0.8 209 Salmon 64.0 22.0 12.8 ... 1.4 923 Peas 85.3 3.6 0.2 9.8 1.1 252 Baked Beans 68.9 6.9 2.5 19.6 2.1 583 Lentils 15.9 25.1 1.0 56.1 1.1 1,620 Peanuts 9.2 25.8 38.6 24.4 0.2 2,490 String Beans 93.7 1.1 0.1 3.8 1.3 92 Walnuts 2.5 18.4 64.4 13.0 1.7 3,182 Almonds 4.8 21.0 54.9 17.3 2.0 2,940
THE ECONOMY OF MEAT AND MEAT SUBSTITUTES
Don't buy more than your family actually needs. Study and know what the actual needs are, and you will not make unnecessary expenditures.
Learn what the various cuts of meat are, what they can be used for, and which are best suited to the particular needs of your household.
Study the timeliness of buying certain cuts of meats. There are days when prices are lower than normal.
Always check the butcher's weights by watching him closely or by weighing the goods on scales of your own.
Always buy a definite quantity. Ask what the pound rate is, and note any fractional part of the weight. Don't ask for "ten or twenty cents' worth."
Select your meat or fish personally. There is no doubt that high retail prices are due to the tendency of many housewives to do their buying by telephone or through their servants.
Test the freshness of meat and fish. Staleness of meat and fish is shown by loose and flabby flesh. The gills of fresh fish are red and the fins stiff.
Make all the purchases possible at a public market, if you can walk to it, or if carfare will not make too large an increase in the amount you have set aside for the day's buying.
A food chopper can be made to pay for itself in a short time by the great variety of ways it furnishes of utilizing left-overs.
If possible, buy meat trimmings. They cost 20 cents a pound and can be used in many ways.
Buy the ends of bacon strips. They are just as nutritious as sliced bacon and cost 50 per cent. less.
Learn to use drippings in place of butter for cooking purposes.
Buy cracked eggs. They cost much less than whole ones and are usually just as good.
Keep a stock pot. Drop into it all left-overs. These make an excellent basis for soup stock.
Don't throw away the heads and bones of fish. Clean them and use them with vegetables for fish chowder or cream of fish soup.
Study attractive ways of serving food. Plain, cheap, dishes can be made appetizing if they look attractive on the table.
Experiment with meat substitutes. Cheese, dried vegetables and the cheaper varieties of fish can supply all the nutriment of meat at a much lower cost.
Don't do your cooking "by guess." If the various ingredients are measured accurately, the dish will taste better and cost less.
Don't buy delicatessen food if you can possibly avoid it. Delicatessen meals cost 15 per cent. more than the same meals cooked at home, and the food is not as nourishing. You pay for the cooking and the rent of the delicatessen store, as well as the proprietor's profit.
Don't pay five or ten cents more a dozen for white eggs in the belief that they are superior to brown eggs. The food value of each is the same. The difference in shell color is due to the breed of hen.
Tell the butcher to give you the trimmings of chicken, i.e., the head, feet, fat and giblets. They make delicious chicken soup. The feet contain gelatine, which gives soup consistency.
Buy a tough, and consequently less expensive, chicken and make it tender by steaming it for three hours before roasting.
Don't put meat wrapped in paper into the ice-box, as the paper tends to absorb the juices.
Try to find a way to buy at least a part of your meats and eggs direct from the farm. You will get fresher, better food, and if it is sent by parcels post it can usually be delivered to your table for much less than city prices.
MEAT ECONOMY DISHES
1 flank steak 1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon pepper 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce 1 cup breadcrumbs 1 tablespoon onion juice 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 1/2 teaspoon poultry seasoning 1 pint boiling water 1/3 cup of whole wheat flour
Reserve the water and the flour. Mix other ingredients. Spread on steak. Roll the steak and tie. Roll in the flour. Brown in two tablespoons of fat. Add the water—cover and cook until tender.
1 lb. of meat from the neck, cross ribs, shin or knuckles 1 sliced onion 3/4 cup carrots 1/2 cup turnips 1 cup potatoes 1 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon pepper 1/2 cup flour 1 quart water
Soak one-half of the meat, cut in small pieces, in the quart of water for one hour. Heat slowly to boiling point. Season the other half of the meat with salt and pepper. Roll in flour. Brown in three tablespoons of fat with the onion. Add to the soaked meat, which has been brought to the boiling point. Cook one hour or until tender. Add the vegetables, and flour mixed with half cup of cold water. Cook until vegetables are tender.
1-1/2 cups breadcrumbs 2 cups scalded milk 1-1/2 cups chopped cooked ham 2 egg yolks 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 1 teaspoon minced onion 1/2 teaspoon paprika 2 egg whites
2 tablespoons butter 3 tablespoons flour 1 cup milk 1/2 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons chopped parsley
For the souffle, cook together breadcrumbs and milk for two minutes. Remove from fire, add ham and mix well. Add egg yolks, first beating these well; also the parsley (one tablespoon), onion and paprika. Fold in, last of all, the egg whites whipped to a stiff, dry froth. Turn quickly into a well-greased baking dish and bake in moderate oven for thirty-five minutes, or until firm to the touch; meantime, make the parsley sauce, so that both can be served instantly when the souffle is done; then it will not fall and grow tough.
For the parsley sauce, melt the butter in saucepan and stir in the flour, stirring until perfectly smooth, then add the milk slowly, stirring constantly; cook until thick, stir in the parsley and salt, and serve at once in a gravy boat.
1 cup flour 1/2 cup milk 2 teaspoons baking powder 1 egg 4 tablespoons water 1/2 teaspoon salt
2 cups coarsely chopped cold cooked meat 1 tablespoon drippings 1 medium-sized potato 1 cup stock or hot water salt and pepper 1 small onion
Any cold meat may be used for this. Cut it into inch pieces. Slice the onion and potato and fry in drippings until onion is slightly browned. Add the meat and stock, or hot water, or dissolve in hot water any left-over meat gravy. Cook all together until potato is soft, but not crumbled; season with the pepper and salt. Thicken with a tablespoon of flour and turn into a pudding dish.
Make a batter by sifting together flour, baking-powder and salt; stir in the egg and milk, mixed with the water. Beat hard until free from lumps, then pour over meat and vegetables in the pudding and bake until brown.
1 pint chopped cooked mutton 1 head shredded lettuce 1 can cooked peas 1/8 teaspoon pepper 1 tablespoon fat 1-1/2 cups broth 1 teaspoon of salt
Cook 15 minutes. Serve as a border around rice.
2 cups chopped cooked mutton 1 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper 1/4 teaspoon curry powder 2 cups hominy 1 cup peas or carrots 1/2 pint of brown sauce or water
Put meat and vegetables in baking dish. Cover with rice, hominy, or samp, which has been cooked. Bake until brown.
SCALLOPED HAM AND HOMINY
2 cups hominy (cooked) 1 cup chopped cooked ham 1/3 cup fat 1/3 cup flour 1 teaspoon of salt 1/8 teaspoon mustard 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 1 egg 1 cup milk 1/2 cup water
Melt the fat. Add the dry ingredients and the liquid slowly. When at boiling point, add hominy and ham. Stir in the egg. Place in a baking-dish. Cover with buttered crumbs. Bake until brown.
1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 tablespoon sour pickle 2 teaspoons salt 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 1 teaspoon celery salt
To 1 tablespoon of gelatine, softened in 1/2 cup of cold water add 1 cup of hot tomato juice and pulp. Add seasoned meat. Chill and slice. May be served with salad dressing.
1 cup chopped cooked meat 2 cups raw potato, cut fine 1 tablespoon onion juice 2 tablespoons chopped parsley 1/8 teaspoon pepper 1/4 cup drippings 1/2 cup gravy or water
Melt fat in frying pan. Put in all the other ingredients. Cook over a slow fire for 1/2 hour. Fold and serve as omelet.
1-1/2 cups flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons shortening 2 teaspoons baking powder 2 cups chopped, cooked meat 1 teaspoon onion juice 1/2 cup gravy or soup stock Salt and pepper 3/4 cup milk and water
Mix flour, salt and baking powder. Rub in shortening, and mix to dough with milk and water. Roll out to quarter of an inch thickness, bake in layer cake tins. Put together with the chopped meat mixed with the onion and seasoning, and heated hot with the gravy or stock. If stock is used, thicken with a tablespoon of flour mixed with one of butter, or butter substitute. Serve as soon as put together. Cold cooked fish heated in cream sauce may be used for a filling instead of the meat.
Place a pig's head in 4 quarts of cold water and bring slowly to the boil. Skim carefully and season the liquid highly with salt, cayenne and a teaspoon of rubbed sage. Let the liquid simmer gently until the meat falls from the bones. Strain off the liquid, remove the bones, and chop the meat fine.
Measure the liquid and allow 1 cup of sifted cornmeal to 3 cups of liquid. Blend the cornmeal in the liquid and simmer until it is the consistency of thick porridge. Stir in the chopped meat and pour in greased baking pans to cool. One-third buckwheat may be used instead of cornmeal, and any kind of chopped meat can be blended with the pork if desired. Any type of savory herb can also be used, according to taste.
When scrapple is to be eaten, cut into one-half inch slices, dredge with flour, and brown in hot fat.
FISH AS A MEAT SUBSTITUTE
As the main course at a meal, fish may be served accompanied by vegetables or it may be prepared as a "one-meal dish" requiring only bread and butter and a simple dessert to complete a nutritious and well balanced diet. A lack of proper knowledge of selection of fish for the different methods of cooking, and the improper cooking of fish once it is acquired, are responsible to a large extent for the prejudice so frequently to be found against the use of fish.
The kinds of fish obtainable in different markets vary somewhat, but the greatest difficulty for many housekeepers seems to be, to know what fish may best be selected for baking, broiling, etc., and the tests for fish when cooked. An invariable rule for cooking fish is to apply high heat at first, until the flesh is well seared so as to retain the juices; then a lower temperature until the flesh is cooked throughout. Fish is thoroughly cooked when the flesh flakes. For broiling or pan broiling, roll fish in flour or cornmeal, preferably the latter, which has been well seasoned with salt and cayenne. This causes the outside to be crisp and also gives added flavor. Leftover bits of baked or other fish may be combined with white sauce or tomato sauce, or variations of these sauces, and served as creamed fish, or placed in a greased baking dish, crumbs placed on top and browned and served as scalloped fish. Fish canapes, fish cocktail, fish soup or chowder; baked, steamed, broiled or pan broiled fish, entrees without number, and fish salad give opportunity to use it in endless variety.
Combined with starchy foods such as rice, hominy, macaroni, spaghetti or potato, and accompanied by a green vegetable or fruit, the dish becomes a meal. Leftover bits may also be utilized for salad, either alone with cooked or mayonaise salad dressing, or combined with vegetables such as peas, carrots, cucumbers, etc. The addition of a small amount of chopped pickle to fish salad improves its flavor, or a plain or tomato gelatine foundation may be used as a basis for the salad. The appended lists of fish suitable for the various methods of cooking, and the variety in the recipes for the uses of fish, have been arranged to encourage a wider use of this excellent meat substitute, so largely eaten by European epicures, but too seldom included in American menus. During the period of the war, the larger use of fish is a patriotic measure in that it will save the beef, mutton and pork needed for our armies.
2 cups cooked meat or fish 1 cup gravy or water 1 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 1 teaspoon onion juice
2 cups rye flour 1 teaspoon of salt 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 4 teaspoons baking powder 4 tablespoons fat 1 cup gravy, water or milk
Place meat or fish and seasonings in greased dish. Make shortcake by sifting dry ingredients, cut in fat, and add liquid. Place on top of meat or fish mixture. Bake 30 minutes.
1 cup codfish, soaked over night and cooked until tender 2 cups cold boiled potatoes 1/3 cup pimento 2 cups breadcrumbs 1 cup tomato sauce
Make sauce by melting 1/4 cup of fat, adding 2 tablespoons of whole wheat flour.
1 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper 1 teaspoon onion juice, and, gradually 1 cup of tomato and juice
Place the codfish, potatoes and pimento in a baking dish. Cover with the tomato sauce, then the breadcrumbs, to which have been added 2 tablespoons of drippings. Bake brown.
CREAMED SHRIMPS AND PEAS
1 cup shrimps 1 cup peas 2 tablespoons fat 1 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 1-1/2 cups milk 2 tablespoons flour
Melt fat, add dry ingredients, and gradually the liquid. Then add fish and peas.
DRESSING FOR BAKED FISH
2 cups breadcrumbs 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper (cayenne) 1 teaspoon onion juice 1 tablespoon parsley 1 tablespoon chopped pickle 1/4 cup fat
Mix well and fill fish till it is plump with the mixture.
SHRIMP AND PEA SALAD
1 cup cooked fish 1 cup celery 2 tablespoons pickle 1 cup salad dressing 1 cup peas
1 egg 2 tablespoons flour 1 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon mustard 2 tablespoons fat 3/4 cup milk 1/4 cup vinegar 2 tablespoons corn syrup
Directions for making dressing: Mix all ingredients. Cook over hot water until consistency of custard.
1/4 lb. fat salt pork 1 onion 2 cups fish 2 teaspoons salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper Water to cover 2 cups potatoes, diced
Cook slowly, covered, for 1/2 hour. Add 1 pint of boiling milk and 1 dozen water crackers.
BAKED FINNAN HADDIE
1/2 cup each of milk and water, boiling hot 1 fish
Pour over fish. Let stand, warm, 25 minutes. Pour off. Dot with fat and bake 25 minutes. One tablespoon chopped parsley on top.
1 cup of cooked fish 1-1/2 cups mashed potato 1 tablespoon parsley 1 egg 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon cayenne 1/2 teaspoon celery seed 1 teaspoon lemon juice
Shape as croquette and bake in a moderate oven 25 minutes.
CLAMS A LA BECHAMEL
1 cup chopped clams 1-1/2 cups milk 1 bay leaf 3 tablespoons fat 3 tablespoons flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 1 teaspoon lemon juice Yolks of 2 eggs 1/2 cup breadcrumbs
Scald bay-leaf in milk. Make sauce, by melting fat with flour; add dry ingredients, and gradually add the liquid. Add egg. Add fish. Put in baking dish. Cover top with breadcrumbs. Bake 20 minutes.
1/4 cup fat 1/4 cup flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 1 cup cooked shrimps 1/2 cup cheese 1/2 cup celery stalk 1 cup milk
Melt fat, add dry ingredients, and gradually the liquid. Then add fish and cheese. Bring to boiling point and serve.
1 large can salmon 1/2 doz. soda crackers 2 cups thin white sauce Salt, pepper 1 hard-boiled egg
Alternate layers of the salmon and the crumbled crackers in a well-greased baking dish, sprinkling each layer with salt, pepper, the finely chopped hard-boiled egg, and bits of butter or butter substitute, moistening with the white sauce. Finish with a layer of the fish, sprinkling it with the cracker crumbs dotted with butter. Bake in a moderate oven for 30 minutes, or until the top is well browned.
Fish for Frying.—Brook trout, black bass, cod steaks, flounder fillet, perch, pickerel, pompano, smelts, whitefish steak, pike, weakfish, tilefish.
Fish for Boiling.—Cod, fresh herring, weakfish, tilefish, sea bass, pickerel, red snapper, salt and fresh mackerel, haddock, halibut, salmon, sheepshead.
Fish for Baking.—Black bass, bluefish, haddock, halibut, fresh mackerel, sea bass, weakfish, red snapper, fresh salmon, pickerel, shad, muskellunge.
Fish for Broiling.—Bluefish, flounder, fresh mackerel, pompano, salmon steak, black bass, smelts, sea bass steaks, whitefish steaks, trout steaks, shad roe, shad (whole).
CHEESE AS A MEAT SUBSTITUTE
CHEESE AND BREAD RELISH
2 cups of stale breadcrumbs 1 cup of American cheese, grated 2 teaspoons of salt 1/8 teaspoon of pepper 2 cups of milk 1 egg 2 tablespoons of fat
Mix well. Bake in a greased dish in moderate oven for 25 minutes.
1 cup of cheese 1 cup of milk 1/4 teaspoon of mustard 1/8 teaspoon of pepper 2 tablespoons of flour 1 teaspoon of fat 1 teaspoon of salt 1 egg
Put milk and cheese in top of double boiler over hot water. Heat until cheese is melted. Mix other ingredients. Add to cheese and milk. Cook five minutes, stirring constantly, and serve at once on toast.
MACARONI WITH CHEESE
Over 1 cup macaroni, boiled in salted water, pour this sauce:
2 tablespoons flour 2 tablespoons fat 1 cupful milk 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper 1/2 cup grated American cheese
Melt fat, add dry ingredients. Add liquid slowly. Bring to boiling point. Add cheese. Stir until melted. Pour over macaroni.
CHEESE AND CABBAGE
2 cups cooked cabbage 1/4 cup fat 1/4 cup flour 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 1-1/2 cups milk 1 cup grated cheese 1 teaspoon salt
Melt fat, add dry ingredients. Add milk gradually. When at boiling point, add cheese. Pour over cabbage in greased dish and bake 20 minutes. Buttered crumbs may be put on top before baking if desired.
NUT AND CHEESE CROQUETTES
2 cups stale breadcrumbs 1 cup milk 1 yolk of egg 1 cup chopped nuts 1/8 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 1/2 cup grated cheese
Shape and roll in dried breadcrumbs. Bake 20 minutes.
CHEESE WITH TOMATO AND CORN
1 tablespoon fat 3/4 cup cooked corn 1/2 cup tomato puree 1 teaspoon salt 2 cups grated cheese 1/4 cup pimento 1 egg 1/2 teaspoon paprika
Heat puree. Add fat, corn, salt, paprika and pimento. When hot, add cheese. When melted, add yolk. Cook till thick. Serve on toast.
CHEESE AND CELERY LOAF
1/2 loaf thinly sliced bread 1 cup cheese 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon cayenne 1/4 cup fat 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce 2 eggs 1/2 cup milk 1/2 cup cooked celery knob or celery
Mix all ingredients except milk and bread. Spread on bread. Pile in baking dish. Pour milk over the mixture. Bake in a moderate oven until firm in center. Serve hot.
FARINA AND CHEESE ENTREE
1 cup cooked farina or rice 1 cup cheese 1 cup nuts 1 cup milk 1 egg 1 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon cayenne
Mix all thoroughly. Bake in greased dish 30 minutes.
1 teaspoon onion juice 1 cup grated cheese 1 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 1 cup beans (kidney) About 1 cup breadcrumbs
Soak and cook beans. Mix all ingredients into loaf. Baste with fat and water. Bake 30 minutes. Serve with tomato sauce.
1 cup spinach 1 cup cheese 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 1/2 cup breadcrumbs 1 tablespoon fat 1/4 teaspoon salt
Mix and bake in greased dish 20 minutes.
1 cup breadcrumbs 1 cup milk 1 cup cheese 1 egg 2 tablespoons fat 1/8 teaspoon salt
Soak bread 10 minutes in milk. Add fat and cheese. When melted, add egg and seasoning. Cook in double boiler or bake 20 minutes.
1/4 cup fat 1/4 cup flour 1 teaspoon salt 1-1/2 cups tomato juice and pulp 1 cup cheese 1 cup cooked rice 1/8 teaspoon cayenne
Melt fat. Add dry ingredients. Add liquid slowly. When at boiling point, add cheese and rice. Serve hot.
1 cup cooked cornmeal mush 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup cheese 1/8 teaspoon pepper
While mush is hot place ingredients in layers in baking dish. Bake 20 minutes.
1/4 cup fat 1/2 cup flour 1 teaspoon salt 2 cups milk 1/2 cup cheese 1/4 teaspoon cayenne
Prepare same as tomato sauce. Serve with rice or spaghetti.
TOMATO CHEESE SAUCE
1 pt. milk 1/2 teaspoon soda 2/3 cup flour 2 tablespoons fat 1 pt. tomatoes 1 cup cheese
For both the sauces, melt fat, add dry ingredients and, gradually, the liquid. When at boiling point, add cheese and serve. This is an excellent sauce for fish.
CHEESE SAUCE ON TOAST
1/4 cup fat 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 pint milk 1/4 cup flour 1/4 teaspoon cayenne 1 cup cheese
Make as white sauce and add cheese. Pour over bread, sliced and toasted. Bake in moderate oven.
1/2 pint cottage cheese 1/4 cup green peppers, chopped 1/2 cup condensed milk 1/8 teaspoon of cayenne 1 tablespoon of gelatine 2 tablespoons of cold water 1 teaspoon salt
Soak the gelatine in the cold water until soft. Dissolve over hot water. Add the other ingredients. Chill. Serve as a salad or as a lunch or supper entree.
1 quart milk or part stock 1/4 cup flour 1 teaspoon salt 1/4 cup fat 1 cup cheese 1/4 tablespoon paprika
Cream fat and flour; add gradually the liquid, and season. When creamy and ready to serve, stir in the cheese, grated.
1 cup flour 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup water 3 teaspoons baking powder 1 tablespoon butter or fat 8 tablespoons grated cheese
Mix like drop baking powder biscuit. Bake 12 minutes in hot oven. This recipe makes twelve biscuits. They are excellent to serve with a vegetable salad as they are high in nutrition.
1-1/2 cups breadcrumbs 2 cups milk 3 cups chopped celery 1 cup shaved cheese
Cook celery till tender. Put layer of crumbs in greased baking dish, then celery; cover with cheese and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Repeat to fill dish. Turn in boiling hot milk with 1 cup of celery water. Bake for 30 minutes.
MEAT SUBSTITUTE DISHES
CORN AND OYSTER FRITTERS
1 cup flour 2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon pepper 1/4 cup milk 1 egg 6 oysters 2 full tablespoons Kornlet
Sift dry ingredients, add milk, egg and Kornlet. Add oysters last. Fry in deep fat, using a tablespoonful to an oyster.
2 cups cooked salmon 1 cup grated breadcrumbs 2 beaten eggs 1/2 cup milk 1/2 teaspoon paprika 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 1 teaspoonful onion juice
Mix thoroughly. Bake in greased dish 30 minutes.
Two cups lentils that have been soaked over night. Boil until soft, with 2 small onions and 1 teaspoon each of thyme, savory, marjoram, and 4 cloves. Drain. Add 1 teaspoon of salt, and put into baking dish. Dot with fat. Bake for 30 minutes.
1 cup of cooked hominy 1/2 cup nuts 1 tablespoon corn syrup 1 teaspoon of salt 1/8 teaspoon of pepper 1 egg 1 tablespoon melted fat
Mix and roll in dried breadcrumbs and bake in oven 20 minutes.
1 cup soaked and cooked dried peas, beans, lentils or lima beans 1/2 cup dried breadcrumbs 1/4 cup fat 1 egg 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon sage
Mix and shape as sausage. Roll in flour and fry in dripping.
RICE AND NUT LOAF
1 cup boiled rice or potato 1 cup peanuts 2/3 cup dried breadcrumbs 3/4 cup milk 2 teaspoons salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 2 tablespoons fat
Mix well. Bake in greased pan 30 minutes.
SOY BEAN CROQUETTES
2 cups baked or boiled soy beans 1-1/2 tablespoons molasses 2 tablespoons butter or drippings 1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon vinegar Pepper to taste 1 egg 1 scant cup breadcrumbs
When the beans are placed on to boil, put tablespoon fat and half an onion with them. After draining well, put through the foodchopper, keeping the liquid for soup stock. Mix all the ingredients, beating the egg white before adding. Form into balls or cylinders, dip in the leftover egg yolk, to which a few drops of water have been added, and then coat with stale bread or cracker crumbs. Be sure the croquettes are well covered, then fry brown. Serve with cream sauce or with scalloped or stewed tomatoes. With a green salad, this is a complete meal.
1/3 cup dried breadcrumbs 2 tablespoons corn syrup 1 egg 1 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper 2 teaspoons chopped nuts 1 teaspoon onion juice 3 tablespoons fat 3/4 cup milk 1/2 cup pulp from peas, beans or lentils, soaked and cooked until tender
Mix well. Bake in greased pan 30 minutes. Serve with tomato sauce, or white sauce, with 2 tablespoons nuts, or 2 teaspoons horseradish added.
One cup peas, beans or lentils soaked over night, then cooked until tender. Put through colander. To 2 cups of mixture, add:
2 eggs 3/4 cup dried breadcrumbs 2 teaspoons poultry seasoning 2 teaspoons celery salt 1/2 cup whole wheat flour 1-1/2 cups tomato juice and pulp 2 teaspoons onion juice 1/2 teaspoon salt 2 cups chopped peanuts
Mix thoroughly. Place in greased baking dish. Bake 30 minutes.
KIDNEY BEAN SCALLOP
Two cups kidney beans, soaked over night. Cook until tender. Drain.
To each 2 cups of beans, add:
2 tablespoons fat 1 tablespoon chopped onion 1/4 cup tomato pulp 1 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper
Mix thoroughly. Place in greased baking dish. Cover with 2 cups crumbs, to which have been added 2 tablespoons melted fat. Bake 30 minutes in moderate oven.
1 cup cooked spaghetti or macaroni 1 cup carrots 1 cup turnips 1 cup cabbage 2 cups milk 1/2 cup onions 1/4 cup fat 1/4 cup flour 1 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup chopped peanuts Pepper
Cook spaghetti until tender (about 30 minutes). Cook vegetables until tender in 1 quart water, with 1 teaspoon of salt added. Melt fat, add dry ingredients, add milk gradually and bring to boiling point each time before adding more milk. When all of milk is added, add peanuts. Put in greased baking dish one-half of spaghetti, on top place one-half of vegetables, then one-half of sauce. Repeat, and place in moderately hot oven 30 minutes.
HORSERADISH SAUCE TO SERVE WITH LEFT-OVER SOUP MEAT
3 tablespoons of horseradish 1 tablespoon vinegar 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon cayenne 1/2 cup of thick, sour cream, and 1 tablespoon corn syrup, or 4 tablespoons of condensed milk
Mix and chill.
BROWN SAUCE FOR LEFTOVER MEATS
1/3 cup drippings 1/4 cup of whole wheat flour 1/8 teaspoon pepper 1-1/2 cups meat stock or water 1 teaspoon salt
Melt the fat and brown the flour in it. Add the salt and pepper and gradually the meat stock or water. If water is used, add 1 teaspoon of kitchen bouquet. This may be used for leftover slices or small pieces of any kind of cooked meat.
FOOD WILL WIN THE WAR DON'T WASTE IT
"To provide adequate supplies for the coming year is of absolutely vital importance to the conduct of the war, and without a very conscientious elimination of waste and very strict economy in our food consumption, we cannot hope to fulfill this primary duty."
REASONS WHY OUR GOVERNMENT ASKS US TO SAVE SUGAR WITH PRACTICAL RECIPES FOR SUGARLESS DESSERTS, CAKES, CANDIES AND PRESERVES.
One ounce of sugar less per person, per day, is all our Government asks of us to meet the world sugar shortage. One ounce of sugar equals two scant level tablespoonfuls and represents a saving that every man, woman and child should be able to make. Giving up soft drinks and the frosting on our cakes, the use of sugarless desserts and confections, careful measuring and thorough stirring of that which we place in our cups of tea and coffee, and the use of syrup, molasses or honey on our pancakes and fritters will more than effect this saving.
It seems but a small sacrifice, if sacrifice it can be called, when one recognizes that cutting down sugar consumption will be most beneficial to national health. The United States is the largest consumer of sugar in the world. In 1916 Germany's consumption was 20 lbs. per person per year, Italy's 29 to 30 lbs., that of France 37, of England 40, while the United States averaged 85 lbs. This enormous consumption is due to the fact that we are a nation of candy-eaters. We spend annually $80,000,000 on confections. These are usually eaten between meals, causing digestive disturbances as well as unwarranted expense. Sweets are a food and should be eaten at the close of the meal, and if this custom is established during the war, not only will tons of sugar be available for our Allies, but the health of the nation improved.
The average daily consumption of sugar per person in this country is 5 ounces, and yet nutritional experts agree that not more than 3 ounces a day should be taken. The giving up of one ounce per day will, therefore, be of great value in reducing many prevalent American ailments. Flatulent dyspepsia, rheumatism, diabetes, and stomach acidity are only too frequently traced to an oversupply of sugar in our daily diet.
Most persons apparently think of sugar merely as a sweetening agent, forgetting entirely the fact that it is a most concentrated food. It belongs to what is called the carbohydrate group, upon which we largely depend for energy and heat. It is especially valuable to the person doing active physical work, the open-air worker, or the healthy, active, growing child, but should be used sparingly by other classes of people. Sugar is not only the most concentrated fuel food in the dietary, but it is one that is very readily utilized in the body, 98 per cent. of it being available for absorption, while within thirty minutes of the time it is taken into the system part of it is available for energy.
As a food it must be supplied, especially to the classes of people mentioned above, but as a confection it can well be curtailed. When it is difficult to obtain, housekeepers must avail themselves of changed recipes and different combinations to supply the necessary three ounces per day and to gain the much-desired sweet taste so necessary to many of our foods of neutral flavor with which sugar is usually combined.
Our grandmothers knew how to prepare many dishes without sugar. In their day lack of transportation facilities, of refining methods and various economic factors made molasses, sorghum, honey, etc., the only common methods of sweetening. But the housekeeper of to-day knows little of sweetening mediums except sugar, and sugar shortage is to her a crucial problem. There are many ways, however, of getting around sugar shortage and many methods of supplying the necessary food value and sweetening.
By the use of marmalades, jams and jellies canned during the season when the sugar supply was less limited, necessity for the use of sugar can be vastly reduced. By the addition to desserts and cereals of dried fruits, raisins, dates, prunes and figs, which contain large amounts of natural sugar, the sugar consumption can be greatly lessened. By utilizing leftover syrup from canned or preserved fruits for sweetening other fruits, and by the use of honey, molasses, maple sugar, maple syrup and corn syrup, large quantities of sugar may be saved. The substitution of sweetened condensed milk for dairy milk in tea, coffee and cocoa—in fact, in all our cooking processes where milk is required—will also immeasurably aid in sugar conservation. The substitutes mentioned are all available in large amounts. Honey is especially valuable for children, as it consists of the more simple sugars which are less irritating than cane sugar, and there is no danger of acid stomach from the amounts generally consumed.
As desserts are the chief factor in the use of quantities of sugar in our diet, the appended recipes will be of value, as they deal with varied forms of nutritious, attractive sugarless desserts. It is only by the one-ounce savings of each individual member of our great one hundred million population that the world sugar shortage may be met, and it is hoped every housekeeper will study her own time-tested recipes with the view of utilizing as far as possible other forms of sweetening. In most recipes the liquid should be slightly reduced in amount and about one-fifth more of the substitute should be used than the amount of sugar called for.
With a few tests along this line one will be surprised how readily the substitution may be made. If all sweetening agents become scarce, desserts can well be abandoned. Served at the end of a full meal, desserts are excess food except in the diet of children, where they should form a component part of the meal.
CRUMB SPICE PUDDING
1 cup dry bread crumbs 1 pint hot milk
Let stand until milk is absorbed.
1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup molasses 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon 1 egg 1/2 teaspoon mixed spices, cloves, nutmeg, allspice, mace and ginger 2/3 cup raisins, dates and prunes (steamed 5 minutes)
Mix and bake 45 minutes.
TAPIOCA FRUIT PUDDING
1/2 cup pearl tapioca or sago 3 cups water 1/4 lb. dried apricots, prunes, dates or raisins 1/8 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons fat 1/2 cup corn syrup
Soak fruit in water 1 hour. Add other ingredients. Cook directly over fire 5 minutes, then over hot water until clear, about 45 minutes.
6 slices stale bread 1/4 cup fat 2 egg yolks 1 tablespoon corn syrup 1/8 teaspoon salt 1 cup milk 1 cup marmalade or preserves
Mix eggs, corn syrup, salt and milk. Dip bread and brown in frying pan. Spread with marmalade or preserves. Pile in baking dish. Cover with any of the custard mixture which is left. Cover with meringue. Bake 15 minutes.
2 cups whole wheat flour 1/2 cup milk 1 tablespoon fat 2 tablespoons sugar 1/8 teaspoon salt 1 egg 1/2 lb. washed and scalded prunes, dates, figs or raisins 2 teaspoons baking powder
To prunes, add 1/2 cup water and soak 10 minutes. Simmer in same water until tender (about 10 minutes). Drain prunes and mash to a pulp. Mix flour, baking powder and salt. Add beaten egg and milk. Mix to a dough. Roll out thin, spread with prune pulp, sprinkle with two tablespoons sugar. Roll the mixture and place in greased baking dish. Bake 30 to 40 minutes. Take half cup of juice from prunes, add 1 tablespoon corn syrup. Bring to boiling point. Serve as sauce for prune roll.
MARMALADE BLANC MANGE
1 pint milk 1/8 cup cornstarch 2 yolks of eggs 1/3 cup orange marmalade 1/2 teaspoon vanilla Few grains of salt
Mix cornstarch with 1/4 cup of cold milk. Scald rest of milk, add cornstarch, and stir until thick. Cook over hot water 20 minutes. Add rest of ingredients. Cook, stirring 5 minutes. Chill and serve with two whites of eggs, beaten stiff, to which has been added 2 tablespoons orange marmalade. Two ounces grated chocolate and 1/3 cup corn syrup may be substituted for marmalade.
COFFEE MARSHMALLOW CREAM
2 cups strong boiling coffee 2 tablespoons gelatine (granulated) 2 tablespoons cold water 1/4 cup corn syrup 1 cup condensed milk 1/2 teaspoon vanilla
Soak gelatine in cold water until soft. Add coffee and stir until dissolved. Add other ingredients. Chill. One-quarter cup of marshmallows may be cut up and added just before chilling.
2 cups of left-over canned fruit or cooked dried fruit 2 cups of the juice or water 1/4 cup corn syrup 2 tablespoons gelatine 1 tablespoon lemon juice
Soften the gelatine in 2 tablespoons of the juice or water. Add the rest of the fruit after it has been heated. When the gelatine is dissolved, add the fruit, lemon juice and corn syrup. Pour in mold.
CEREAL AND DATE PUDDING
1 cup cooked cereal 2 cups milk 1-1/2 tablespoons fat 1 cup dates 1/4 cup corn syrup 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon grated lemon rind 1/2 teaspoon vanilla 1 egg
Cook over hot water until thick, and boil or bake 20 minutes. Serve with hot maple syrup.
BAKED APPLES WITHOUT SUGAR
Fill cored apples with 1 tablespoon honey, corn syrup, chopped dates, raisins, marmalade, or chopped popcorn mixed with corn syrup in the proportion of two tablespoons of syrup to a cup of corn. Put one-quarter inch of water in pan. Bake until tender and serve apples in pan with syrup as sauce.
APPLES AND POPCORN
Core apples. Cut just through the skin around the center of the apple. Fill the center with popcorn and 1 teaspoon of corn syrup. Bake 30 minutes.
MAPLE RICE PUDDING
1/2 cup rice 1-1/2 cups milk 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon 1/8 teaspoon salt 1/3 cup maple syrup 1/2 cup raisins 1 egg
Cook in top of double boiler or in steamer 35 minutes.
1 cup cooked cereal 1/2 cup corn syrup 1/4 teaspoon mapline 1/2 cup milk 1/2 cup chopped nuts 1/2 cup raisins or dates 1 egg
Cook in double boiler until smooth. Serve cold with cream or place in baking dish and bake 20 minutes.
OATMEAL AND PEANUT PUDDING
2 cups cooked oatmeal 1 cup sliced apple 1 cup peanuts 1/2 cup raisins 1/3 cup molasses 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon 1/8 teaspoon salt
Mix and bake in greased dish for 30 minutes. Serve hot or cold. This is a very nourishing dish.
CHOCOLATE BLANC MANGE
1 pint milk 1/3 cup cornstarch 1/3 cup corn syrup 1 egg 1 teaspoon vanilla 1/8 teaspoon salt 2 oz. grated chocolate
Mix cornstarch with 1/4 cup cold milk. Scald rest of milk. Add cornstarch. Cook until thick. Add a little of the hot mixture to the chocolate when melted. Mix all ingredients and cook 5 minutes, stirring constantly. Chill and serve with plain or chopped nuts.
OATMEAL FRUIT PUDDING
2 cups cooked oatmeal 1/8 cup molasses 1 cup raisins 1/8 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup chopped nuts 1 egg (beaten)
Mix well. Bake in greased baking dish 30 minutes
1/2 lb. prunes 2-1/2 cups cold water 2 tablespoons granulated gelatine 1/2 cup corn syrup or 1/4 cup sugar 2 teaspoons grated lemon or orange rind
Soak washed and scalded prunes in 2 cups cold water 10 minutes. Simmer until tender (about 10 minutes). Soak gelatine in 1/2 cup cold water. When soft, add to hot prune mixture. When gelatine is dissolved, add other ingredients and place in mold. Chill, and stir once or twice while chilling to prevent prunes settling to bottom of mold.
Core 6 apples. Cut line around apple just through skin. Fill center with mixture of one-quarter cup each of dates, nuts and figs or marmalade, to which has been added one-quarter cup corn syrup or honey. Bake 30 minutes with one-quarter inch water in baking pan. Stick outside of apple with blanched almonds to make porcupine quills.
SCALLOPED FRUIT PUDDING
2 tablespoons melted fat 2 cups crumbs 1/2 cup of fruit juice or water 1/4 cup corn syrup 2 cups of left-over canned or cooked dried fruit
Put one-quarter of the crumbs on the bottom of a buttered baking pan. Cover with one-half the fruit, one-half the corn syrup, one-half the liquid, one-quarter of the crumbs; the other half of the fruit, juice and corn syrup, and the rest of the crumbs, on top. Bake 20 minutes in a hot oven.
PRUNE FILLING FOR PIE
1/2 lb. pitted prunes 1/3 cup corn syrup, or 2 tablespoons sugar 1 cup water 2 teaspoons lemon rind 1/2 tablespoon fat 1 tablespoon cornstarch
Wash and scald prunes. Soak ten minutes in the water. Simmer until tender. Rub through colander. Add other ingredients, well blended. Bring to boiling point. Use as filling for pastry.
APPLE AND DATE FILLING
2 cups apples 1 cup dates 1 tablespoon, fat 1 teaspoon lemon rind 1/4 cup water
Mix all and use as filling for double crust, or cook until apples are tender. Mix well and use as filling for tarts, etc.
LEMON FILLING FOR PIE
1-1/2 cups corn syrup 1-1/2 cups water 1/3 cup cornstarch 2 eggs 1 tablespoon lemon rind 1/2 cup lemon juice (2 lemons) 1/8 teaspoon salt
Mix cornstarch and 1 cup water. Add to corn syrup. Cook over direct flame until thick. Cook over hot water 20 minutes. Mix other ingredients. Add one-half cup water and add to other mixture. Cook 5 minutes and use as filling—hot or cold.
SOUR CREAM FILLING FOR CAKE
1 cup sour cream (heated) 1 cup chopped nuts 2 tablespoons corn syrup 1 teaspoon gelatine 2 tablespoons cold water
Soften gelatine in cold water. Add heated cream and when dissolved add other ingredients. Chill and use for cake filling. This is a good way of using up leftover cream which has turned.
MOCK MINCE MEAT FILLING FOR PIE
1 cup cranberries, chopped 1 cup raisins 1 cup corn syrup 2 tablespoons flour mixed with 1/4 cup cold water 2 tablespoons fat
Mix all. Bring to boiling point and place in double crust pastry or cook until thick and use as filling for tarts.
PUMPKIN FILLING FOR PIE
2 cups stewed pumpkin 1 cup corn syrup 1 egg 2 tablespoons flour 1 teaspoon cinnamon 3/4 teaspoon nutmeg 1/4 teaspoon allspice 1/8 teaspoon ginger 1 teaspoon vanilla 1/8 teaspoon salt 1-1/2 cups milk
Mix all ingredients and bake in double crust pastry, or cook and serve in cooked single crust with meringue.
MERINGUE FOR CHOCOLATE, LEMON OR PUMPKIN PIE
2 egg whites 2 tablespoons corn syrup
Beat whites until very stiff. Add corn syrup by folding in. Do not beat.
WHEATLESS, EGGLESS, BUTTERLESS, MILKLESS, SUGARLESS CAKE
1 cup corn syrup 2 cups water 2 cups raisins 2 tablespoons fat 1 teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons cinnamon 1 teaspoon nutmeg 1-1/2 cups fine cornmeal, 2 cups rye flour; or, 3-1/2 cups whole wheat flour 1-1/2 teaspoons baking powder, or, 1/2 teaspoon soda
Cook corn syrup, water, raisins, fat, salt and spices slowly 15 minutes. When cool, add flour, soda or baking powder, thoroughly blended. Bake in slow oven 1 hour. The longer this cake is kept, the better the texture and flavor. This recipe is sufficient to fill one medium-sized bread pan.
SOUR MILK GINGER BREAD
2 tablespoons fat 1/4 cup molasses 1 egg 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup sour milk 1 teaspoon soda 2 cups whole wheat flour 1 teaspoon ginger
Mix soda and molasses. Add other ingredients. Bake in muffin pans 20 minutes or loaf 40 minutes.
1/4 cup fat 1 cup corn syrup 1-1/2 teaspoons mapline 1 egg 1 teaspoon baking powder 1-1/4 cups whole wheat flour 1/4 teaspoon soda 1/4 cup milk 1/2 teaspoon vanilla 1/2 cup coarsely cut nuts
Cream fat, syrup and mapline. Add beaten egg. Sift dry ingredients and add alternately with milk. Add flavoring and nuts last. Beat well. Bake 20 minutes in layer pan. This quantity makes one layer.
6 slices of bread cut in half 1/2 cup of milk 1 egg yolk 1 tablespoon corn syrup 2 tablespoons cocoanut Tart jelly
Mix milk, egg yolk and corn syrup. Dip bread in this mixture and brown in frying pan, with small amount of fat. Spread with currant or other tart jelly, preserve or marmalade. Sprinkle with cocoanut and serve as cakes.
SOY BEAN WAFERS
1 cup soy beans, finely chopped 1/2 cup butter or shortening 1/4 cup sugar 1/3 cup corn syrup 1/2 teaspoon lemon or vanilla 1/2 cup flour 1 egg 2 teaspoons baking powder
Soak beans over night, boil for 1 hour. Drain. Cool and put through food-chopper. Cream butter and sugar, add beans, egg. Sift flour with baking powder and add to first mixture. Drop by teaspoonfuls on a baking sheet and bake 8 minutes in a hot oven.
APPLE SPICE CAKE
1/2 cup fat 1/2 cup sugar 1 beaten egg 1/3 cup molasses 1/2 cup tart apple sauce 1/2 cup raisins, dates, prunes or currants (chopped) 1-1/2 cups flour 1/2 teaspoon allspice 1/4 teaspoon cloves 1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
Cream fat and sugar. Add egg. Alternate dry ingredients (which have been sifted together) with the liquid. Add fruit last. Beat well. Bake as loaf about 15 minutes, or in muffin pans about 25 minutes.
CRISP GINGER COOKIES
1 cup of molasses 2 tablespoons of fat 1 teaspoon soda and 1 teaspoon water (hot) 1 cup of flour 1 tablespoon ginger 1/2 teaspoon cloves 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon salt About 3 cups flour
Heat molasses and fat until fat is melted. Sift spices with one cup of flour. Dissolve soda in one teaspoon of hot water. Combine all and add enough more flour to make dough stiff enough to roll out. Bake 12 to 15 minutes in moderate oven.
SOFT CINNAMON COOKIES
1 cup molasses 2 tablespoons fat 1/2 cup boiling water 1 cup flour 1 teaspoon soda 1/2 teaspoon ginger 2 tablespoons cinnamon 1/8 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon of cloves
Mix molasses, fat, and boiling water. Sift dry ingredients. Add the liquid. Add enough more flour (about four cups) to make dough stiff enough to roll out. Cut and bake about 15 minutes in moderately hot oven.
WARTIME FRUIT CAKE
1 cup honey or corn syrup 1 tablespoon fat 1 egg 2 cups flour 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 teaspoon cloves 1/8 teaspoon salt 1 cup chopped dates, figs, prunes or raisins 3/4 teaspoon soda 2/3 cup milk
Cream fat, honey and egg. Sift dry ingredients. Add alternately with milk. Bake in loaf 45 minutes in moderate oven.
HOT WATER GINGER CAKES
1-1/2 cup molasses 3/4 cup boiling water 2-1/2 cups flour 1-1/8 teaspoons soda 1-1/2 teaspoons ginger 3/4 teaspoon salt 1/4 cup fat
Sift dry ingredients. Mix fat, molasses and boiling water. Add dry ingredients. Beat briskly for a few minutes, and pour into greased muffin pans. Bake twenty to thirty minutes in moderate oven.
SPICED OATMEAL FRUIT CAKES
1-3/4 cups whole wheat flour 3/4 cup cooked oatmeal 2/3 cup corn syrup 1/2 cup raisins, dates, prunes or figs 1/4 teaspoon soda 1/2 teaspoon baking powder 1 teaspoon cinnamon 3 tablespoons fat
Heat the corn syrup and fat. Sift dry ingredients and add to first mixture. Add fruit last. Bake in muffin pans for 30 minutes.
FRUIT WONDER CAKES
1 doz. salted wafers 1/3 cup chopped dates 1/3 cup chopped nuts 1 egg white 2 tablespoons corn syrup 1/2 teaspoon vanilla
Beat egg white until very stiff. Add other ingredients and place on the wafers. Place under broiler until a delicate brown.
2 teaspoons gelatine 2 tablespoons cold water 1/3 cup corn syrup 2 teaspoons cornstarch 1/4 cup chopped nuts 1/2 cup chopped dates 1/2 cup chopped raisins 1/4 teaspoon vanilla
Mix cornstarch with 1 tablespoon cold water. Heat corn syrup to the boil, add cornstarch and cook for three minutes. Soften the gelatine in two tablespoons cold water for five minutes; stir into the hot syrup after taking from fire. When gelatine has dissolved add the fruit and nuts and flavoring. Chill, cut in squares, and roll each in powdered sugar.
2 cups corn syrup 1/2 teaspoon soda 1 teaspoon water 2 tablespoons vinegar
Boil the syrup for fifteen minutes, then add the soda. Cook until a little snaps brittle when dropped in cold water. Add the vinegar when this stage is reached and pour into oiled pans. When cool enough to handle, pull until white; make into inch-thick rolls and clip off into neat mouthfuls with oiled scissors, or chill and break into irregular pieces when cold.
1 cup corn syrup 1 tablespoon fat 1 cup peanuts
Boil syrup and fat until brittle when tested in cold water. Grease a pan, sprinkle the roasted and shelled peanuts in it, making an even distribution, then turn in the syrup. When almost cold mark into squares. Cocoanut, puffed wheat or puffed rice may be used for candy instead of peanuts.
RAISIN AND PEANUT LOAF
Put equal quantity of seeded raisins and roasted peanuts through the food chopper, using the coarsest blade. Moisten with molasses just enough so that the mixture can be molded into a loaf. Chill, cut and serve as candy. Chopped English walnuts combined with chopped dates or figs make a very delicious loaf sweetmeat.
POPCORN BALLS AND FRITTERS
1 cup corn syrup 2 tablespoons vinegar Popcorn
Cook syrup for fifteen minutes, add vinegar, then when a little snaps when dropped in cold water turn over popped corn, mix well, and form into balls with oiled hands, or if fritters are desired, roll out the mass while warm and cut out with a greased cutter.
1 cup shredded cocoanut 1/2 cup chopped dates 1/4 cup corn syrup 1/8 teaspoon mapline
Mix corn syrup and mapline. Add enough to the dates and cocoanut to form a stiff cake. Mold into neat square at least an inch thick. Let stand in the refrigerator for one hour, then cut in squares and roll each in cornstarch.
Mix one-half cup each of chopped peanuts and raisins. Add a teaspoon of lemon juice and two tablespoons of cream cheese. Remove stones from fine large dates, and in their place insert a small roll of the cheese mixture. These are nice in place of candy or can be served with salad.