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Good Things to Eat as Suggested by Rufus
by Rufus Estes
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GOOD THINGS TO EAT

AS

SUGGESTED BY RUFUS

A COLLECTION OF PRACTICAL RECIPES FOR

PREPARING MEATS, GAME, FOWL, FISH,

PUDDINGS, PASTRIES, ETC.

BY

RUFUS ESTES

FORMERLY OF THE PULLMAN COMPANY PRIVATE CAR SERVICE, AND PRESENT CHEF OF THE SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES OF THE UNITED STATES STEEL CORPORATIONS IN CHICAGO



CHICAGO PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR 1911

Copyrighted 1911 BY RUFUS ESTES, CHICAGO



FOREWORD

That the average parent is blind to the faults of its offspring is a fact so obvious that in attempting to prove or controvert it time and logic are both wasted. Ill temper in a child is, alas! too often mistaken for an indication of genius; and impudence is sometimes regarded as a sign of precocity. The author, however, has honestly striven to avoid this common prejudice. This book, the child of his brain, and experience, extending over a long period of time and varying environment, he frankly admits is not without its faults—is far from perfect; but he is satisfied that, notwithstanding its apparent shortcomings, it will serve in a humble way some useful purpose.

The recipes given in the following pages represent the labor of years. Their worth has been demonstrated, not experimentally, but by actual tests, day by day and month by month, under dissimilar, and, in many instances, not too favorable conditions.

One of the pleasures in life to the normal man is good eating, and if it be true that real happiness consists in making others happy, the author can at least feel a sense of gratification in the thought that his attempts to satisfy the cravings of the inner man have not been wholly unappreciated by the many that he has had the pleasure of serving—some of whom are now his stanchest friends. In fact, it was in response to the insistence and encouragement of these friends that he embarked in the rather hazardous undertaking of offering this collection to a discriminating public.

To snatch from his daily toil a few moments, here and there, in order to arrange with some degree of symmetry, not the delicacies that would awaken the jaded appetite of the gourmet, but to prepare an ensemble that might, with equal grace, adorn the home table or banquet board, has proven a task of no mean proportions. Encouraged by his friends, however, he persevered and this volume is the results of his effort.

If, when gathered around the festal board, in camp or by fireside, on train or ship, "trying out" the recipes, his friends will pause, retrospectively, and with kindly feelings think from whence some of the good things emanated, the author will feel amply compensated for the care, the thought, the labor he has expended in the preparation of the book; and to those friends, individually and collectively, it is therefore dedicated.



SKETCH OF MY LIFE

I was born in Murray County, Tennessee, in 1857, a slave. I was given the name of my master, D. J. Estes, who owned my mother's family, consisting of seven boys and two girls, I being the youngest of the family.

After the war broke out all the male slaves in the neighborhood for miles around ran off and joined the "Yankees." This left us little folks to bear the burdens. At the age of five I had to carry water from the spring about a quarter of a mile from the house, drive the cows to and from the pastures, mind the calves, gather chips, etc.

In 1867 my mother moved to Nashville, Tennessee, my grandmother's home, where I attended one term of school. Two of my brothers were lost in the war, a fact that wrecked my mother's health somewhat and I thought I could be of better service to her and prolong her life by getting work. When summer came I got work milking cows for some neighbors, for which I got two dollars a month. I also carried hot dinners for the laborers in the fields, for which each one paid me twenty-five cents per month. All of this, of course, went to my mother. I worked at different places until I was sixteen years old, but long before that time I was taking care of my mother.

At the age of sixteen I was employed in Nashville by a restaurant-keeper named Hemphill. I worked there until I was twenty-one years of age. In 1881 I came to Chicago and got a position at 77 Clark Street, where I remained for two years at a salary of ten dollars a week.

In 1883 I entered the Pullman service, my first superintendent being J. P. Mehen. I remained in their service until 1897. During the time I was in their service some of the most prominent people in the world traveled in the car assigned to me, as I was selected to handle all special parties. Among the distinguished people who traveled in my care were Stanley, the African explorer; President Cleveland; President Harrison; Adelina Patti, the noted singer of the world at that time; Booth and Barrett; Modjeski and Paderewski. I also had charge of the car for Princess Eulalie of Spain, when she was the guest of Chicago during the World's Fair.

In 1894 I set sail from Vancouver on the Empress of China with Mr. and Mrs. Nathan A. Baldwin for Japan, visiting the Cherry Blossom Festival at Tokio.

In 1897 Mr. Arthur Stillwell, at that time president of the Kansas City, Pittsburg & Gould Railroad, gave me charge of his magnificent $20,000 private car. I remained with him seventeen months when the road went into the hands of receivers, and the car was sold to John W. Gates syndicate. However, I had charge of the car under the new management until 1907, since which time I have been employed as chef of the subsidiary companies of the United States Steel Corporation in Chicago.



HINTS TO KITCHEN MAIDS

It is always necessary to keep your kitchen in the best condition.

Breakfast—If a percolator is used it should first be put into operation. If the breakfast consists of grapefruit, cereals, etc., your cereal should be the next article prepared. If there is no diningroom maid, you can then put your diningroom in order. If hot bread is to be served (including cakes) that is the next thing to be prepared. Your gas range is of course lighted, and your oven heated. Perhaps you have for breakfast poached eggs on toast, Deerfoot sausage or boiled ham. One of the above, with your other dishes, is enough for a person employed indoors.

When your breakfast gong is sounded put your biscuits, eggs, bread, etc., in the oven so that they may be ready to serve when the family have eaten their grapefruit and cereal.

Luncheon—This is the easiest meal of the three to prepare. Yesterday's dinner perhaps consisted of roast turkey, beef or lamb, and there is some meat left over; then pick out one of my receipts calling for minced or creamed meats; baked or stuffed potatoes are always nice, or there may be cold potatoes left over that can be mashed, made into cakes and fried.

Dinner—For a roast beef dinner serve vegetable soup as the first course, with a relish of vegetables in season and horseradish or chow-chow pickle, unless you serve salad.

If quail or ducks are to be served for dinner, an old Indian dish, wild rice, is very desirable. Prepare this rice as follows:

Place in a double boiler a cupful of milk or cream to each cupful of rice and add salt and pepper to taste. It requires a little longer to cook than the ordinary rice, but must not be stirred. If it becomes dry add a little milk from time to time.

Do not serve dishes at the same meal that conflict. For instance, if you have sliced tomatoes, do not serve tomato soup. If, however, you have potato soup, it would not be out of place to serve potatoes with your dinner.

Fish should never be served without a salad of some kind.

The above are merely suggestions that have been of material assistance to me.



TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Four teaspoonfuls of a liquid equal 1 tablespoonful. Four tablespoonfuls of a liquid equal 1/2 gill or 1/4 cup. One-half cup equals 1 gill. Two gills equal 1 cup. Two cups equal 1 pint. Two pints (4 cups) equal 1 quart. Four cups of flour equal 1 pound or 1 quart. Two cups of butter, solid, equal 1 pound. One half cup of butter, solid, equals 1/4 pound 4 ounces. Two cups of granulated sugar equal 1 pound. Two and one half cups of powdered sugar equal 1 pound. One pint of milk or water equals 1 pound. One pint of chopped meat equals 1 pound. Ten eggs, shelled, equal 1 pound. Eight eggs with shells equal 1 pound. Two tablespoonfuls of butter equal 1 ounce. Two tablespoonfuls of granulated sugar equal 1 ounce. Four tablespoonfuls of flour equal 1 ounce. Four tablespoonfuls of coffee equal 1 ounce. One tablespoonful of liquid equals 1/2 ounce. Four tablespoonfuls of butter equal 2 ounces or 1/4 cup. All measurements are level unless otherwise stated in the recipe.



GOOD THINGS TO EAT

SOUPS

ASPARAGUS SOUP—Take three pounds of knuckle of veal and put it to boil in a gallon of water with a couple of bunches of asparagus, boil for three hours, strain, and return the juice to the pot. Add another bunch of asparagus, chopped fine, and boil for twenty minutes, mix a tablespoonful of flour in a cup of milk and add to the soup. Season with salt and pepper, let it come to a boil, and serve at once.

BEAN SOUP—One-half pound or one cup is sufficient for one quart of soup. Soups can be made which use milk or cream as basis. Any kind of green vegetable can be used with them, as creamed celery or creamed cauliflower. The vegetable is cooked and part milk and part water or part milk and part cream are used.

BISQUE OF CLAMS—Place a knuckle of veal, weighing about a pound and one-half, into a soup kettle, with a quart of water, one small onion, a sprig of parsley, a bay leaf, and the liquor drained from the clams, and simmer gradually for an hour and a half, skimming from time to time; strain the soup and again place it in the kettle; rub a couple of tablespoonfuls of butter with an equal amount of flour together and add it to the soup when it is boiling, stirring until again boiling; chop up twenty-five clams very fine, then place them in the soup, season and boil for about five minutes, then add a pint of milk or cream, and remove from the fire immediately, and serve.

BISQUE OF LOBSTER—Remove the meat of the lobster from its shell and cut the tender pieces into quarter-inch dice; put the ends of the claw-meat and any tough portions in a saucepan with the bones of the body and a little cold water and boil for twenty minutes, adding a little water from time to time as may be necessary; put the coral to dry in a moderate oven, and mix a little flour with some cold milk, and stir the milk, which should be boiling, stirring over the fire for ten minutes, then strain the water from the bones and other parts, mix it with milk, add a little butter, salt, pepper and cayenne to taste, and rub the dry coral through a fine-haired sieve, putting enough into the soup having it a bright pink color. Place the grease fat and lobster dice in a soup tureen, strain the boiling soup over them, and serve at once.

BISQUE OF OYSTERS—Place about thirty medium-sized oysters in a saucepan together with their own juice and poach them over a hot fire, after which drain well; then fry a shallot colorless in some butter, together with an onion, sprinkle over them a little curry and add some of the oyster juice, seasoning with salt and red pepper. Pound the oysters to a good firm paste, moistening them with a little of their juice, and strain through fine tammy cloth. Warm them over the fire, but do not let them boil; add a small quantity of thickening of potato flour mixed with a little water. When about to serve incorporate some cream and fine butter, garnishing with some chopped oysters and mushrooms, mixed with breadcrumbs and herbs. Add a little seasoning of salt, pepper and nutmeg, some raw egg yolks, and roll this mixture into ball-shape pieces, place them on a well-buttered baking sheet in a slack oven and poach them, then serve.

BLACK BEAN SOUP—Wash one pint of black beans, cover with one quart of cold water and let soak over night. In the morning pour off the water and pour over three pints of cold water. Cook, covered, until tender, four or five hours, add one tablespoonful of salt the last hour, rub through a strainer, add the strained beans to the water in which they were boiled, return to the soup kettle. Melt one tablespoonful of flour, stir this into the hot soup, let boil, stirring constantly; add a little pepper, slice thinly one lemon, put all the slices into the tureen and pour the soup over. Serve very hot.

CHESTNUT SOUP—Peel and blanch the chestnuts, boil them in salted water until quite soft, pass through a sieve, add more water if too thick, and a spoonful of butter or several of sweet cream. Season to taste and serve with small squares of bread fried crisp in butter or olive oil.

CHICKEN GUMBO, CREOLE STYLE—For about twelve or fifteen, one young hen chicken, half pound ham, quart fresh okra, three large tomatoes, two onions, one kernel garlic, one small red pepper, two tablespoons flour, three quarts boiling water, half pound butter, one bay leaf, pinch salt and cayenne pepper. To mix, mince your ham, put in the bottom of an iron kettle if preferred with the above ingredients except the chicken. Clean and cut your chicken up and put in separate saucepan with about a quart or more of water and teaspoonful of salt; set to the side of the fire for about an hour; skim when necessary. When the chicken is thoroughly done strip the meat from the bone and mix both together; just before serving add a quart of shrimps.

CREAM OF CELERY SOUP—Chop fine one head of celery and put on to cook in one pint of water. Boil until tender, add one pint of milk, thicken with a spoonful of butter, season to taste, and strain. Then add one cupful of whipped cream and serve at once.

EGG SOUP—Beat three eggs until light, then add one-half cupful of thick sweet cream and one cupful of milk, pour over this two quarts of boiling water, set on the fire until it comes to a boil, season to taste, then pour over broken bread in the tureen and serve.

GREEN PEA SOUP—Put one quart of green peas into two cups of boiling water, add a saltspoon of salt, and cook until tender. Rub peas and liquor through a puree strainer, add two cups of boiling water, and set back where the pulp will keep hot. Heat two cups of milk, add a teaspoon of flour rubbed into a rounding tablespoon of butter, season with salt, pepper, and a level teaspoon of sugar. Add to the hot vegetable pulp, heat to the boiling point, and serve.

GREEN TOMATO SOUP—Chop fine five green tomatoes and boil twenty minutes in water to cover. Then add one quart hot milk, to which a teaspoonful soda has been added, let come to a boil, take from the fire and add a quarter cupful butter rubbed into four crackers rolled fine, with salt and pepper to taste.

ONION SOUP—Cut three onions small, put one-quarter cup of butter in a kettle and toast one tablespoon flour till bright yellow in color; in it mix with this the onions, pour on as much broth as is wanted, add a little mace and let boil, then strain, allow to cook a little longer, add yolk of two eggs, and serve.

PEANUT SOUP—Made like a dry pea soup. Soak a pint and one-half nut meats over night in two quarts of water. In the morning add three quarts of water, bay-leaf, stalk of celery, blade of mace and one slice of onion. Boil slowly for four or five hours, stirring frequently to keep from burning. Rub through a sieve and return to the fire, when heated through again add one cupful of cream. Serve hot with croutons.

SAGO SOUP—Wash one-half cup sago in warm water, add desired amount of boiling broth (meat or chicken), a little mace, and cook until the sago is soft, and serve.

SALMON SOUP—Take the skin and bones from canned salmon and drain off the oil. Chop fine enough of the fish to measure two-thirds of a cup. Cook a thick slice of onion in a quart of milk twenty minutes in a double boiler. Thicken with one-quarter cup of flour rubbed smooth with one rounding tablespoonful of butter. Cook ten minutes, take out the onion, add a saltspoon of pepper, one level teaspoon of salt and the salmon. Rub all through a fine strainer, and serve hot. The amount of salmon may be varied according to taste.

SORREL SOUP—Wash thoroughly a pint of sorrel leaves and put in a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of butter, four or five of the large outside leaves, a sliced onion, and a few small sprigs of parsley. Toss over the fire for a few minutes, then sift into the pan two tablespoonfuls of flour and stir until blended with the butter remaining. Transfer to the soup kettle and pour in gradually, stirring all the time, three quarts of boiling water. Cook gently for fifteen or twenty minutes, then add a cupful of mashed potato and one of hot milk. Season with salt, pepper and a little nutmeg. Have in the soup tureen some croutons of bread toasted brown, pour the hot soup over them and serve. The sorrel should be cut in fine pieces before cooking. This is one of the delicacies of the early spring, its slightly acid flavor making it particularly appetizing.

TOMATO SOUP—Put one quart can of tomatoes, two cups of water, one-half level tablespoon of sugar, one level teaspoon of salt, four whole cloves, and four peppercorns together in a saucepan and simmer twenty minutes. Fry a rounding tablespoon of chopped onion and half as much minced parsley in a rounding tablespoon of butter until yellow, add two level tablespoons of cornstarch. Stir until smooth, then turn into the boiling soup and simmer ten minutes. Add more salt and pepper and strain.

TOMATO SOUP—Into a saucepan put one quart can of tomatoes and two cups of broth from soup bones. To make this cover the bones and meat with cold water and simmer slowly for several hours. Add to tomato and stock a bit of bay leaf, one stalk celery cut in pieces, six peppercorns, a level teaspoon of salt and a rounding teaspoon of sugar. Cook slowly until tomato is soft. Meanwhile put a rounding tablespoon of butter in a small saucepan and when melted and hot turn in a medium-sized onion cut fine. When this has cooked slowly until yellow, but not browned, add enough of the tomato to dilute it, then turn all back into the larger saucepan. Mix and press through a strainer to take out the seeds and bits of vegetables, reheat, and serve with small croutons.

TOMATO SOUP, CORNED BEEF STOCK—Put one quart can tomatoes on to boil, add six peppercorns, one-half inch blade of mace and a bit of bay leaf the same size. Fry one sliced onion in one level tablespoonful butter or beef fat until slightly colored, add this to the tomato, and simmer until the tomato is quite soft, and the liquor reduced one-half. Stir in one-fourth teaspoon of soda, and when it stops foaming turn into a puree strainer and rub the pulp through. Put the strained tomato on to boil again and add an equal amount of corned beef liquor, or enough to make three pints in all.

Melt one heaped tablespoon butter in a smooth saucepan, add one heaped tablespoon cornstarch, and gradually add part of the boiling soup. Stir as it thickens, and when smooth stir this into the remainder of the soup. Add one teaspoon salt and one-fourth teaspoon paprika. Reserve one pint of this soup to use with spaghetti. Serve buttered and browned crackers with the soup.

VEGETABLE BROTH—Take turnips, carrots, potatoes, beets, celery, all, or two or three, and chop real fine. Then mix with them an equal amount of cold water, put in a kettle, just bring to a boil, not allowing it to boil for about three or four hours, and then drain off the water. The flavor will be gone from the vegetables and will be in the broth.

VEGETABLE SOUP—Take one-half a turnip, two carrots, three potatoes, three onions and a little cabbage. Run through a meat chopper with coarse cutter and put to cook in cold water. Cook about three hours. If you wish you can put a little bit of cooking oil in. When cooked add one quart of tomatoes. This will need about six quarts of water.

The most nutritious soups are made from peas and beans.

VEGETABLE SOUP (without stock)—One-half cup each of carrot and turnip, cut into small pieces, three-fourths cup of celery, cut fine, one very small onion sliced thin, four level tablespoons of butter, three-fourths cup of potato, cut into small dice, one and one-half quarts of boiling water, salt and pepper to taste. Prepare the vegetables and cook the carrot, celery and onion in the butter for ten minutes without browning. Add the potato and cook for three minutes longer, then add the water and cook slowly for one hour. Rub through a sieve, add salt and pepper to taste, and a little butter if desired.

WHITE SOUP—Put six pounds of lean gravy beef into a saucepan, with half gallon of water and stew gently until all the good is extracted and remove beef. Add to the liquor six pounds of knuckle of veal, one-fourth pound ham, four onions, four heads of celery, cut into small pieces, a few peppercorns and bunch of sweet herbs. Stew gently for seven or eight hours, skimming off the fat as it rises to the top. Mix with the crumbs of two French rolls two ounces of blanched sweet almonds and put in a saucepan with a pint of cream and a little stock, boil ten minutes, then pass through a silk sieve, using a wooden spoon in the process. Mix the cream and almonds with the soup, turn into a tureen, and serve.

WINE SOUP—Put the yolks of twelve eggs and whites of six in an enameled saucepan and beat thoroughly. Pour in one and a half breakfast cupfuls of water, add six ounces of loaf sugar, the grated rind and strained juice of a large lemon, one and one-half pints of white wine. Whisk the soup over a gentle fire until on the point of boiling, removing immediately. Turn into a tureen, and serve with a plate of sponge cakes or fancy biscuits. (This soup should be served as soon as taken from fire.)

CHESTNUT SOUP—Peel and blanch the chestnuts, boil them in salted water until quite soft, pass through a sieve, add more water if too thick, and a spoonful of butter or several of sweet cream, season to taste, and serve with small squares of bread fried crisp in butter or olive oil.



FISH

BOILED CODFISH, WITH CREAM SAUCE—Take out the inside of a cod by the white skin of the belly, taking care to remove all blood. Place the fish in a kettle with salted cold water; boil fast at first, then slowly. When done take out and skin. Pour over it a sauce made as follows:

One-fourth pound butter put into a stewpan with one tablespoonful of flour, moistened with one pint of cream or rich milk, and salt and pepper, and also one teaspoonful essence of anchovies. Place the pan over the fire and let thicken, but not boil.

BOILED MACKEREL—Prepare and clean some mackerel. Put in water and boil until they are done. When cooked, drain and put the mackerel on a hot dish. Blanch some fennel in salted water. When it is soft drain and chop finely. Put one tablespoonful in half pint of butter sauce. Serve in a sauce boat with the fish.

BOILED SALMON WITH SAUCE TARTARE—Scrape the skin of the fish, wipe, and if you have no regular fish kettle with a perforated lid, tie in a piece of cheesecloth and place gently in a kettle of boiling salted water. Push the kettle back on the fire (where it will simmer gently, instead of boiling hard) and cook, allowing about six minutes to the pound. Remove carefully, drain, and chill. If the fish breaks and looks badly take out the bones, flake, pile lightly on the platter and pour the sauce over it. This may be a hot sauce Hollandaise or a cold sauce tartare.

BROILED MACKEREL—Draw and wash the mackerel. Cut off heads and rub over with salt and leave for an hour. Rub a gridiron with olive oil, lay the mackerel on it and broil over a charcoal fire. Place some chopped parsley and onions on a hot dish, with the hot fish, squeezing over the mackerel a little lemon juice. Serve hot.

BROILED MACKEREL, WITH BLACK BUTTER—Take some mackerel, open and remove bones. Season with butter, pepper, and salt. Place the fish on a gridiron and broil over a clear fire. Put a part of the butter in a saucepan and stir it over the fire until it is richly browned, squeezing into it a little lemon juice. Place the fish on a hot dish, arrange some sprigs of parsley around it, and pour over it the butter sauce, and serve hot.

CODFISH CONES—When it is not convenient to make and fry fish balls try this substitute. Pick enough salt codfish into shreds to measure two cups and let stand in cold water for two or more hours, then drain dry. Make a sauce from one cup of hot milk, two level tablespoons each of flour and butter, and cook five minutes. Mash and season enough hot boiled potatoes to measure two cups, add the sauce and the fish and beat well with a fork. Shape in small cones, set on a butter pan, brush with melted butter and scatter fine bread crumbs over. Set in oven to brown.

CODFISH HASH—Take a cup of cooked cod, pick in pieces and soak in cold water for twelve hours. Boil some potatoes and add them to the finely chopped fish, a little at a time. Put in a saucepan with some butter and stir. Let it cook gently.

FINNAN HADDIE FISH CAKES—The finnan haddie parboiled with an equal quantity of mashed potatoes, season with melted butter, salt and pepper, add a beaten egg, and mold into cakes.

FISH, EAST INDIA STYLE—Peel two medium-sized onions, cut into thin slices. Put in a stewpan with a small lump of butter and fry until lightly browned. Pour over them some white stock, judging the quantity by that of the fish; one ounce of butter, little curry powder, salt, lemon juice, a little sugar, and cayenne pepper. Boil the stock for fifteen or twenty minutes, then strain into a stewpan, skim and put in the fish, having it carefully prepared. Boil gently, without breaking the fish. Wash and boil half a cup of rice in water, and when cooked it should be dried and the grains unbroken. Turn the curry out on a hot dish, garnish with croutons of fried bread. Serve hot, with the rice in separate dish.

FISH EN CASSEROLE—One of those earthen baking dishes with close-fitting cover of the same ware and fit for placing on the table is especially useful for cooking fish. For instance, take two pounds of the thick part of cod or haddock, both of which are cheap fish. Take off the skin and lay in the casserole. Make a sauce from two cups of milk heated, with a good slice of onion, a rounding tablespoon of minced parsley, a small piece of mace, a few gratings of the yellow rind of lemon, half a level teaspoon of salt, and a little white pepper. Cook in the top of a double boiler for twenty minutes. Heat one-quarter cup of butter in a saucepan, add three level tablespoons of flour, and cook smooth, turn on the hot milk after straining out the seasonings. Cook until thick and pour over the fish. Cover and bake half hour, then if the fish is done serve in the same dish with little finely minced parsley scattered over.

LOUISIANA COD—Melt one-quarter cup of butter and let it begin to color, add two level tablespoons of flour and stir until smooth. Add one cup of water and cook five minutes. Add half a level teaspoon of salt, half as much pepper, and a teaspoon of lemon juice. Chop fine one medium-size onion and one small green pepper, after taking out the seeds. Brown them in two tablespoons of butter, add one cup of strained tomatoes, a bit of bay leaf, and the prepared sauce. Put slices of cod cut an inch thick into a casserole, pour on the sauce, cover closely, and bake in a slow oven three-quarters of an hour.

METELOTE OF HADDOCK—Wash and skin the haddock and remove the flesh from the bones in firm pieces suitable for serving. Put the head, bones and trimmings to cook in cold water and add a small sliced onion and salt and pepper. Boil six good-sized onions until tender, then drain and slice and put half of them into a buttered baking dish. Arrange the pieces of fish on these, sprinkle with salt and pepper, then add the remaining onions. Drain the fish from the trimmings, add to it two tablespoons lemon juice and pour it over onions and fish. Cover very closely and cook in the oven until the fish is tender. Then drain off the liquid, heat it to the boiling point, and thicken it with two eggs slightly beaten and diluted with a little of the hot liquid. Arrange the onions on a hot platter and place the fish on top, then pour over the thickened liquid.

A MOLD OF SALMON—If where one cannot get fresh fish, the canned salmon makes a delicious mold. Serve very cold on a bed of crisp lettuce or cress. Drain off the juice from a can of salmon, and flake, picking out every fragment of bone and skin. Mix with the fish one egg lightly beaten, the juice of a half lemon, a cup fine dry bread crumbs, and salt and pepper to season. Pack in a buttered mold which has a tight-fitting tin cover, steam for two hours, and cool. After it gets quite cold set on the ice until ready to carve.

OYSTERS A LA POULETTE—One quart oysters, four level tablespoons butter, four level tablespoons flour, one-half level teaspoon salt, one-fourth level teaspoon celery salt, one-half cup oysters liquor, one cup each of chicken stock and milk, juice one-half lemon. Look over the oysters, heat quickly to the boiling point, then drain and strain the liquor through cheesecloth. Melt the butter, add the flour, salt and celery salt, and when blended add the oyster liquor, chicken stock and milk, stirring until thick and smooth. Cook for five minutes, then add the oysters and lemon juice, and serve at once.

OYSTER FRICASSE—Put one pint of oysters into a double boiler or into the top of the chafing dish. As soon as the edges curl add the slightly beaten yolks of three eggs, a few grains of pepper and half a teaspoon of salt. Set over hot water and as soon as the egg thickens add a teaspoon of lemon juice. Spread on slices of toasted brown bread and garnish with celery tips. Celery salt is a good addition to the seasoning.

RECHAUFFE OF FINNAN HADDIE—Cover a finnan haddie with boiling water and let it simmer for twenty minutes, then remove the kettle and flake, discarding the skin and bones. For three cups of fish scald two cups of thin cream and add to the fish. Season with paprika or a dash of cayenne, and when thoroughly heated stir in the yolks of two eggs, diluted with a little hot cream.

SCALLOPED CLAMS IN SHELL—Chop the clams very fine and season with salt and cayenne pepper. In another dish mix some powdered crackers, moistened first with warm milk, then with clam liquor, a beaten egg and some melted butter, the quantity varying with the amount of clams used; stir in the chopped clams. Wash clean as many shells as the mixture will fill, wipe and butter them, fill heaping full with the mixture, smoothing with a spoon. Place in rows in a baking pan and bake until well browned. Send to the table hot.

SCALLOPED SHRIMPS—Make a sauce with a level tablespoon of cornstarch, a rounding tablespoon of butter and one cup of milk cooked together five minutes. Season with one-quarter level teaspoon of salt and a few grains of cayenne. Add one can of shrimps after removing all bits of shell and mincing them fine. Use, if preferred, the same amount of fresh shrimps. Put into buttered scallop shells, scatter fine bread crumbs over the top of each, and dot with bits of butter. Set in a quick oven to brown the crumbs, and serve hot in the shells.

STEWED CODFISH—Take a piece of boiled cod, remove the skin and bones and pick into flakes. Put these in a stewpan, with a little butter, salt, pepper, minced parsley and juice of a lemon. Put on the fire and when the contents of the pan are quite hot the fish is ready to serve.

CODFISH CONES—When it is not convenient to make and preparation into shapes, dip them into egg beaten with cream, then in sifted breadcrumbs and let them stand for half an hour or so to dry; then fry them a delicate color after plunging into boiling lard. Take them out, drain, place on a napkin on a dish and serve. The remainder of the chicken stock may be used for making consomme or soup.



BEEF, VEAL AND PORK

BEEF EN CASSEROLE—Have a steak cut two inches thick and broil two minutes on each side. Lay in a casserole and pour round two cups of rich brown sauce; add three onions cut in halves.

BEEF HASH CAKES—Chop cold corned beef fine and add a little more than the same measure of cold boiled potatoes, chopped less fine than the beef. Season with onion juice, make into small cakes, and brown in butter or beef drippings; serve each cake on a slice of buttered toast moistened slightly.

BEEF RAGOUT—Another way to serve the remnants of cold meat is to melt one rounding tablespoon of butter in a pan and let it brown lightly. Add two rounding tablespoons of flour and stir until smooth and browned; add one cup of strained tomato and one cup of stock or strained gravy, or part gravy and part water. When this sauce is thickened add two cups of meat cut in small, thin slices or shavings. Stir until heated through and no longer, as that will harden the meat. Season with salt and pepper, and serve at once.

BOILED BONED HAM—Wash a ham, place it in a saucepan, cover with cold water and boil for four or five hours, according to its size. Take out the bone, roll the ham and place it in a basin with a large weight on top. When cold put it on a dish, garnish with parsley, and serve.

BONED HAM—Have the bone taken from a small ham and put into a kettle of cold water with one onion cut in quarters, a dozen cloves, and a bay leaf. Cook slowly until tender and do not test it until you have allowed fifteen minutes to the pound. Take from the kettle, remove the skin, brush with beaten egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs and set in the oven to brown.

BREADED CUTLETS—Have the cutlets cut into portions of the right size for serving. Dust each side with salt and pepper. Beat one egg with a tablespoon of cold water, dip the cutlets in this and roll in fine bread crumbs. Fry three slices of salt pork in the frying-pan and cook the cutlets in this fat. As veal must be well done to be wholesome, cook it slowly about fifteen minutes. Serve with a gravy made from the contents of the pan or with a tomato sauce.

BROILED LIVER AND BACON—As broiling in most cases is wasteful, the liver and bacon are generally fried together, but the dish is somewhat spoiled by this method. The best way is to fry the well-trimmed slices of bacon, and after having washed and sliced the liver, say a third of an inch thick, dry it on a cloth and dip in flour. Place in the bacon fat and broil over a clear fire, adding pepper and salt while cooking. When done lay on a dish, placing a piece of bacon on each piece of liver.

BROILED PIG'S FEET—Thoroughly clean as many pig's feet as are required, and split lengthwise in halves, tying them with a broad tape so they will not open in cooking. Put in a saucepan with a seasoning of parsley, thyme, bay leaf, allspice, carrots and onions, with sufficient water to cover. Boil slowly until tender, and let them cool in the liquor. Dip in the beaten yolks of eggs and warmed butter. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and cover with bread crumbs seasoned with very finely chopped shallot and parsley. Put on a gridiron over a clear fire and broil until well and evenly browned. Unbind and arrange on a dish, garnish with fried parsley and serve.

BROILED SHEEP'S KIDNEYS—To broil sheep's kidneys cut them open, put them on small skewers. Season with salt and pepper and broil. When done serve with shallot or maitre d'hotel sauce.

BRUNSWICK STEW—Cut up one chicken, preferably a good fat hen, cover with cold water, season with salt and pepper, and cook slowly until about half done. Add six ears of green corn, splitting through the kernels, one pint butter beans and six large tomatoes chopped fine. A little onion may be added if desired. Cook until the vegetables are thoroughly done, but very slowly, so as to avoid burning. Add strips of pastry for dumplings and cook five minutes. Fresh pork can be used in place of the chicken and canned vegetables instead of the fresh.

CALVES' TONGUES—Wash and put into a saucepan with half a dozen slices of carrot, an onion sliced, five cloves, a teaspoon of whole peppercorns, and half a level tablespoon of salt. Cover with boiling water and simmer until tender. Drain and cool a little, then take off the skin. Drop back into the hot liquid to reheat. Serve with a sauce. Melt one-quarter cup of butter, add three slightly rounding tablespoons of flour, stir and cook until browned, add two cups of broth, brown stock of rich gravy melted in hot water, one-half level teaspoon of salt, the same of paprika, a saltspoon of allspice, one tablespoon of vinegar, a few grains of cayenne, and half a tablespoon of capers. Pour over the tongues and serve.

CORNED BEEF HASH—To two cups of chopped cold corned beef, add two cups of chopped cold boiled potatoes. Heat three tablespoons of bacon fat in a frying pan and add the meat and potato, add pepper and salt, if necessary, and moisten with water. Cook slowly until a nice brown underneath. Roll from the pan on to a hot platter. Garnish with parsley and serve with pickled beets.

ENGLISH POT ROAST—Cut one pound of cold roast into two-inch pieces, slice four good sized potatoes thin, also one onion, into a deep dish, put a layer of the beef, one of potatoes, one of onions, salt and pepper, another layer of meat, potatoes and onions, season again, add one cup gravy, and over all put a thick layer of potatoes. Bake three hours—the longer and slower the better.

FRANKFORT SAUSAGE—For this use any part of the pig, but equal quantities of lean and fat. Mince fine, season with ground coriander seed, salt, pepper, and a small quantity of nutmeg. Have ready skins, well cleaned and soaked in cold water for several hours, fill with the seasoned meat, secure the ends and hang in a cool, dry place until needed.

FRIED HAM—Cut off a thick slice of ham. Place in a saucepan over the fire, with sufficient water to cover and let come to a boil. Pour off the water, and fry the ham slowly until it is brown on both sides. Season with pepper and serve. Eggs are usually served with fried ham. They may be fried in the same pan or separately, in sufficient grease to prevent burning. Season with salt and pepper, place around the ham.

HAM AND CHICKEN PIE—Trim off the skin of some cold chicken and cut the meat into small pieces. Mix with an equal quantity of finely chopped lean ham and a small lot of chopped shallot. Season with salt, pepper and pounded mace, moisten with a few tablespoonfuls of white stock. Butter a pie dish, line the edges with puff paste and put in the mixture, placing puff paste over the top. Trim it around the edges, moisten and press together, cut a small hole in the top, and bake in a moderate oven. When cooked, pour a small quantity of hot cream through the hole in the top of the pie, and serve.

HAM CROQUETTES—Chop very fine one-fourth of a pound of ham; mix with it an equal quantity of boiled and mashed potatoes, two hard boiled eggs chopped, one tablespoonful chopped parsley. Season to taste. Then stir in the yolk of an egg. Flour the hands and shape the mixture into small balls. Fry in deep fat. Place on a dish, garnish with parsley and serve.

HASH WITH DROPPED EGGS—Mince or grind cold cooked meat and add two-thirds as much cold chopped vegetables. The best proportions of vegetables are half potato and one-quarter each of beets and carrots. Put a little gravy stock or hot water with butter melted in it, into a saucepan, turn in the meat and vegetables and heat, stirring all the time. Season with salt, pepper, and a little onion juice if liked. Turn into a buttered baking dish, smooth over, and set in the oven to brown. Take up and press little depressions in the top, and drop an egg into each. Set back into the oven until the egg is set, but not cooked hard. Serve in the same dish.

LAMB CHOPS EN CASSEROLE—Trim off the superfluous fat from the chops, and place them in a casserole with a medium sized onion, sliced and separated into rings. Cover each layer of chops with the onion rings, then add a pint of boiling water. Cover and cook for one hour and one-half in a moderate oven. Add salt and pepper and some sliced carrot, and cook until the carrot is tender. Remove the chops to a hot platter and pour over them the gravy which may be thickened, then garnish with the carrot.

LAMB CURRY—Cut the meat into small pieces, (and the inferior portions, such as the neck can be utilized in a curry), roll in flour and fry in hot olive oil, pork fat, or butter, until a rich brown. Mince or slice an onion and fry in the same way. Then put into a saucepan, cover with boiling water, and simmer until the bones and gristly pieces will slip out. When the meat is sufficiently tender add a cupful each strained tomato and rice, then a powder. Cook ten minutes longer and serve.

MEAT PIE—Chop fine, enough of cold roast beef to make two cupfuls, also one small onion, pare as many potatoes as desired and boil, mash and cream as for mashed potatoes. Drain a cupful of tomato liquid free from seeds, stir meat, onion and tomato juice together, put in a deep dish, spread potatoes over the top and bake in a hot oven.

MINCED MUTTON—Mince the meat from a cold roast of mutton, put into a saucepan. Make a roux, moisten with a little stock and season with salt and pepper, adding butter and some gherkins. Put the minced meat into the sauce and let it cook without boiling. Serve with thin slices of bread around the plate.

PIG'S EARS, LYONNAISE—Singe off all the hair from pig's ears, scrape and wash well and cut lengthwise into strips. Place them in a saucepan with a little stock, add a small quantity of flour, a few slices of onion fried, salt and pepper to taste. Place the pan over a slow fire and simmer until the ears are thoroughly cooked. Arrange on a dish, add a little lemon juice to the liquor and pour over the ears. Serve with a garnish of fried bread.

PORK CUTLETS AND ANCHOVY SAUCE—Broil on a well greased gridiron, over the fire, nicely cut and trimmed cutlets of pork. Place frills on the bones of the cutlets. Serve very hot with Anchovy Sauce.

RAGOUT OF COOKED MEAT—Cut one pint of cold meat into half-inch dice, removing the fat, bone and gristle. Put the meat into a stew pan, cover with boiling water and simmer slowly two or three hours or until very tender. Then add half a can of mushrooms cut fine, two tablespoons of lemon juice and salt and pepper to taste. Wet one tablespoonful of cornstarch to a smooth paste with a little cold water and stir into the boiling liquor, add a teaspoon of caramel if not brown enough. Cook ten minutes and serve plain or in a border of mashed potatoes. The seasoning may be varied by using one teaspoon of curry powder, a few grains of cayenne or half a tumbler of currant jelly and salt to taste.

RICE AND BEEF CROQUETTES—To use up cold meat economically combine two cups of chopped beef or mutton with two cups of freshly boiled rice. Season well with salt, pepper, onion juice, a large teaspoon of minced parsley, and a teaspoon of lemon juice. Pack on a large plate and set away to cool. After the mixture is cold, shape into croquettes, dip into beaten egg, roll in fine crumbs and fry in smoking hot fat.

ROLLED RIB ROAST—Have the backbone and ribs removed and utilize them for making a stew for lunch. Tie the meat into a round shape and sprinkle it with salt and pepper, then dredge with flour and place in a dripping pan. Have the oven hot when the meat is first put into it, in order that it may be seared over quickly to prevent the juices from escaping. Then reduce the heat and baste with the fat in the pan. When done place on a hot platter and surround with riced potato.

SHEEP'S BRAINS, WITH SMALL ONIONS—Take sheep's brains. Soak in lukewarm water and blanch. Stew with thin slices of bacon, a little white wine, parsley, shallots, cloves, small onions, salt and pepper. When done arrange the brains on a dish, with the onion's around; reduce the sauce and serve. Calves' brains may be dressed in the same way.

SHEEP'S TONGUES—Sheep's tongues are usually boiled in water and then broiled. To dress them, first skin and split down the center. Dip them in butter or sweet oil, mixed with parsley, green onions, mushrooms, clove of garlic, all shredded fine, salt and pepper. Then cover with bread crumbs and broil. Serve with an acid sauce.

SHOULDER OF VEAL BRAISED—Buy a shoulder of veal and ask the butcher to bone it and send the bones with the meat. Cover the bones with cold water and when it comes to a boil skim, then add a little onion and carrot and a few seasoning herbs and any spices desired. Simmer gently for an hour or so until you have a pint of stock. To make the stuffing take a stale loaf, cut off the crust and soak in a little cold water until soft. Rub the crumbs of the loaf as fine as possible in the hands, then add to the soaked and softened crust. Chop a half cup of suet fine, put into a frying pan a tablespoon of the suet, and when hot add an onion chopped fine. Cook until brown then add to the bread with regular poultry seasoning or else salt, pepper, and a bit of thyme. Mix well and stuff the cavity in the shoulder, then pull the flaps of the meat over and sew up. Put the rest of the suet in the frying pan and having dusted the meat with flour, salt and pepper and a sprinkling of sugar, brown on all sides in the fat into the bottom of the braising pan, which may be any shallow iron pot or granite kettle with a tight cover, put a layer of thin sliced onions and carrots, a bit of bay leaf and sprigs of parsley, and on this lay the meat. Add two or three cloves, pour hot stock around it, cover closely and braise in a hot oven for three hours.

SPANISH CHOPS—Gash six French chops on outer edge, extending cut more than half way through lean meat. Stuff, dip in crumbs, egg and crumbs, fry in deep fat five minutes and drain on brown paper.

For the stuffing mix six tablespoons of soft bread crumbs, three tablespoons of chopped cooked ham, two tablespoons chopped mushroom caps, two tablespoons melted butter, salt and pepper to taste.

HARICOT OF MUTTON—To make a la bourgeoise, cut a shoulder of mutton in pieces about the width of two fingers. Mix a little butter with a tablespoonful of flour and place over a slow fire, stirring until the color of cinnamon. Put in the pieces of meat, giving them two or three turns over the fire, then add some stock, if you have it, or about half pint of hot water, which must be stirred in a little at a time. Season with salt, pepper, parsley, green onions, bay leaf, thyme, garlic, cloves, and basil. Set the whole over a slow fire and when half done skim off as much fat as possible. Have ready some turnips, cut in pieces, and stew with the meat. When done take out the herbs and skim off what fat remains, reducing the stock if too thin.

VEAL CROQUETTES—Make a thick sauce from one cup of milk, two level tablespoons of butter, and four level tablespoons of flour. Cook five minutes, season with salt, pepper and celery salt, and a few drops of lemon juice, and a tablespoon of finely minced parsley. Add two cups of cold cooked veal chopped fine and cool the mixture. Shape into little rolls, dip in an egg beaten with one tablespoon of water then roll in fine bread crumbs. Fry in deep smoking hot fat. Be sure to coat the whole surface with egg and to have the fat very hot, as the mixture has been cooked once and merely needs beating to the center and browning on the outside.

VEAL LOAF—Mince fine three pounds lean raw veal and a quarter of a pound of fat pork. Add a half onion chopped fine or grated, a tablespoonful of salt, a teaspoonful pepper and a teaspoonful seasoning herbs. Mix well, add two-thirds of a cup cracker crumbs, a half cup veal gravy, the yolk of one egg and the whites of two beaten together. Form into a loaf, pressing firmly together. Brush over with the yolk of an egg, dust with finely rolled cracker crumbs and set in a greased rack in the dripping pan. When it begins to brown, turn a cup of hot water into the pan and baste frequently until done. It will take about an hour and a half in a moderate oven.

VEAL PATTIES—Make a sauce of two level tablespoons each of butter and flour, one cup of stock or boiling water, and one cup of thin cream. Cook five minutes, add two cups of finely chopped cooked veal, half a level teaspoon of salt, a saltspoon of pepper, also the beaten yolks of two eggs, and a tablespoon of finely minced parsley. As soon as the egg thickens take from the fire and fill hot pastry cases.

VIRGINIA STEW—A half grown chicken or two squirrels, one slice of salt pork, twelve large tomatoes, three cups of lima beans, one large onion, two large Irish potatoes, twelve ears of corn, one-fourth pound of butter, one-fourth pound of lard, one gallon of boiling water, two tablespoonfuls salt and pepper; mix as any ordinary soup and let it cook for a couple of hours or more, then serve.

BROILING STEAK—While many prefer steak fairly well done, still the great majority desire to have it either rare, or certainly not overdone. For those who wish a steak well done—completely through—and still not to have the outside crisp to a cinder, it is necessary to cut the steak possibly as thin as one-half inch, and then the outside can have that delicious and intense scorching which quickly prevents the escape of juices, and also gives the slightly burned taste which at its perfect condition is the most delicious flavor from my own preference that can be given to a steak. By this I do not mean a steak burned to a cinder, but slightly scorched over a very hot fire.

FOR RARE BROILED STEAK—For those who are fond of rare steak it can be cut from one inch to one and one-quarter inches in thickness and the outside thoroughly and quickly broiled, leaving the inside practically only partially cooked, so that the blood will follow the knife and still the steak has been heated completely through and a thin crust on either side has been well cooked, which has formed the shell to retain the juices.

PROPERLY FRYING STEAK—To fry steak properly (although some claim it is not proper to fry steak under any circumstances), it is necessary to have the butter, oleo, fat or grease piping hot, for two reasons: First, the steak sears over quickly, and the juices are thus retained within the steak to better advantage than by the slow process of cooking, but even more important is the fact that the incrustation thus formed not only holds the juices within the steak, but prevents the fat from penetrating and making the steak greasy, soggy and unattractive. As a rule, however, we must acknowledge that broiled steak is in varying degrees largely superior to fried steak.

BROILED LOIN STEAKS—Two loin steaks of about a pound each: season with salt and pepper to taste, baste on either side with a little oil. Place on a broiler over a bright charcoal fire, and broil for six minutes, on each side. Serve on a hot dish with Bordeaux sauce and garnish with rounds of marrow.

FRIED HAMBURG STEAK, WITH RUSSIAN SAUCE—Select a piece of buttock beef, remove the fat and chop very fine. Add finely chopped shallot, two eggs, salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg. Mix well and form into balls. Roll in bread crumbs and fry with a little clarified butter four or five minutes, turning frequently. Serve with Russian sauce.

FRIED SAUSAGE MEAT—Roll sausage meat into small balls, wrapping each in a thin rasher of bacon and fasten with a skewer. Fry lightly in a little butter. Serve with fried parsley and croutons of fried bread. Serve hot.

ROAST BEEF, AMERICAN STYLE—Lay the meat on sticks in a dripping pan, so as not to touch the water which is placed in the bottom of the pan. Season with salt and pepper and roast for three or four hours, basting frequently. When done sift over the top browned cracker crumbs and garnish with parsley.

ROAST BEEF ON SPIT—Remove most of the flap from sirloin and trim neatly. Have a clear brisk fire and place the meat close to it for the first half hour, then move it farther away, basting frequently, and when done sprinkle well with salt. The gravy may be prepared by taking the meat from the dripping pan which will have a brown sediment. Pour in some boiling water and salt. Strain over the meat. A thickening of flour may be added if necessary. Garnish with horseradish and serve with horseradish sauce.

ROAST RIBS OF BEEF—Break off the ends of the bones of the desired amount of ribs; take out the shin-bone, and place the meat in a baking pan. Sprinkle with salt and spread some small lumps of butter over it and dust with flour, baking in a moderate oven till done. Serve hot and garnish with horseradish.

ROAST SHOULDER OF PORK—Remove the bone from a shoulder of pork and spread it over inside with a stuffing of sage and onions, filling the cavity where the bone was taken out. Roll up and secure with a string, put in a pan and roast in a very hot oven till done. When done put on a dish, skim off the fat in the pan, add a little water and a tablespoon of made mustard, boil the gravy once and pass through a strainer over the meat and serve.

SMOKED BEEF WITH CREAM—Place the finely minced beef in a stewpan with a lump of butter, cooking it for two minutes, and moisten slightly with a little cream, add two tablespoonfuls of bechamel sauce. Serve as soon as it boils up.

STEAK—Cut the steak half an inch thick from between the two ribs, remove all gristle and fat, and trim in the shape of a flat pear. Sprinkle both sides with salt, pepper and oil to prevent outside hardening. Broil ten minutes over a moderate and even fire. Place about four ounces of maitre d'hotel butter on a dish. Lay the steak upon it and garnish with fried potatoes, serving either piquant, D'Italian, or tomato sauce.

STEWED SAUSAGE WITH CABBAGE—Procure a medium sized white cabbage, remove all the green leaves, and cut it into quarters, removing the center stalks. Wash thoroughly in cold water, drain well and cut into small pieces. Put in boiling salted water for five minutes. Take out and put in cold water and cool moderately. Drain in a colander and put in a saucepan with one gill of fat from soup stock or one ounce of butter. Season with a pinch of salt and one-half pinch of pepper, a medium sized onion and a carrot cut into small quarters. Put on the cover of the saucepan, set on a moderate fire and cook for half an hour. Take twelve sausages, prick them with a fork, add them to the cabbage and allow all to cook together for twelve minutes. Dress the cabbage on a hot dish and arrange the sausages and carrot on top. Serve very hot.

SUCKLING PIG—The pig should not be more than a month or six weeks old, and if possible should be dressed the day after it is killed. First, scald it as follows: Soak the pig in cold water for fifteen minutes, then plunge it into boiling water. Hold it by the head and shake around until the hairs begin to loosen. Take out of the water and rub vigorously with a coarse towel, until all hairs are removed. Cut the pig open, remove the entrails, wash thoroughly in cold water. Dry on a towel, cut the feet off at the first joint leaving enough skin to turn over and keep it wrapped in a wet cloth until ready for use.



SALADS

ASPARAGUS SALAD—Cook the asparagus in salted water, drain and chill. Serve with French dressing or sprinkle lightly with a little oil dressing; let stand a half hour and serve with mayonnaise or boiled dressing as any one of the three distinct kinds is appropriate with this salad.

BEET SALAD—Bake the beets until tender, remove the skins and place them in the ice box to chill. Shred a white cabbage finely and sprinkle well with salt and use lettuce leaves to line the salad bowl. Slice the beets, place them on the lettuce, spread with a layer of cabbage, garnish with sliced beets cut in points and dress with mayonnaise or boiled dressing.

BIRDS NEST SALAD—Have ready as many crisp leaves of lettuce as may be required to make a dainty little nest for each person. Curl them into shape and in each one place tiny speckled eggs made by rolling cream cheese into shape, then sprinkle with fine chopped parsley. Serve with French dressing hidden under the leaves of the nest.

CABBAGE SALAD—Chop or shave fine, half a medium size head of cabbage that has been left in cold water until crisp, then drain. Season with salt and pepper, then pour over it a dressing made this way: Beat the yolks of two eggs, add two tablespoons of melted butter and beat again. Add two tablespoons thick sour cream, two tablespoons sugar, a sprinkle of mustard and half cup of vinegar. Beat until thoroughly mixed, pour over the cabbage and toss lightly until uniformly seasoned.

CAULIFLOWER MAYONNAISE—Take cold boiled cauliflower, break into branches, adding salt, pepper and vinegar to season. Heap on a platter, making the flowers come to a point at the top. Surround with a garnish of cooked and diced carrots, turnips, green peas. Pour mayonnaise over all, chill and serve. Another garnish for cauliflower is pickled beets.

CELERY AND NUT SALAD—Cut enough celery fine to measure two cups, add one cup of finely shredded or shaved cabbage and one and one-half cups of walnut meats, broken in small pieces, but not chopped. Mix and moisten on a serving dish and garnish with celery tips.

CREOLE SALAD—Half cup of olive oil, five tablespoons of vinegar, half teaspoon of powdered sugar, one teaspoon salt, two tablespoons chopped red pepper, three tablespoons chopped green peppers, half Bermuda onion, parsley and lettuce and serve.

FISH SALAD—Remove skin and bones and flake cold cooked fish. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and add a few drops of lemon juice. Arrange on a bed of shredded lettuce in the shape of a fish. Cover with mayonnaise or cream dressing and garnish with hard boiled eggs and parsley.

JELLIED CUCUMBER—Pare and slice cucumbers and cook in water to cover until tender. Drain, season with salt, a few grains of cayenne, and to one cup of the cooked cucumber add a level teaspoon of gelatin dissolved in a spoonful of cold water. Stir the soaked gelatin in while the cucumber is hot. Set into a cold place to chill and become firm. If a large mold is used break up roughly into pieces, if small molds are taken then unmold onto lettuce leaves and serve with mayonnaise.

NUT AND CELERY SALAD—Cover one cup of walnut meats and two slices of onion with boiling water, to which is added a teaspoon of salt. Cook half an hour, drain, turn into ice cold water for ten minutes, then rub off the brown skin. Add the nuts broken in small pieces to two cups of celery cut in small pieces crosswise. Use only the white inner stalks, serve with a cream dressing.

SALAD—Two cups of apples cut into small pieces, one cup celery cut into small pieces, one cup English walnuts. Serve on a lettuce leaf with mayonnaise dressing, made without mustard, and thinned with cream. Garnish dish that dressing is made in with a little garlic.

SPANISH TOMATOES—Choose ten or a dozen large tomatoes, cut a slice from the stem end of each and scoop out the inside. Put the pulp into a basin with two ounces of melted butter, two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice, half a pound of chestnuts, boiled and grated, and seasoning of salt and white pepper to taste. Fill the tomatoes with this, which should be about the consistency of thick cream, spread with a thick mayonnaise, garnish with chopped parsley and serve on lettuce leaves.

TOMATO BASKETS—Tomato baskets are charming accessories for holding vegetable salad, chicken, shrimps, cold beans, asparagus tips, shredded celery, cucumbers cut in cubes and minced peppers. Choose firm, smooth tomatoes, not too large and as nearly one size as possible. Dip for half a minute in boiling water, skin and set in ice box to chill. Cut out pulp and seeds, dress the cavity with salt, pepper, oil and vinegar, then fill with the salad, seasoned with French dressing or mayonnaise. Handles of watercress may be attached to these baskets. Set on lettuce or cress, as desired.

TRIANON SALAD—Cut one grape fruit and two oranges in sections and free from seeds and membrane. Skin and seed one cup white grapes and cut one-third cup pecan nut meats in small pieces. Mix ingredients, arrange on a bed of romaine and pour over the following dressing: Mix four tablespoons olive oil, one tablespoon grape juice, one tablespoon grape vinegar, one-fourth teaspoon paprika, one-eighth teaspoon pepper and one tablespoon finely chopped Roquefort cheese. This dressing should stand in the ice-box four or five hours to become seasoned.

CREAM DRESSING—Mix one-half level tablespoon each of salt and mustard, three-quarters level tablespoon of sugar, one egg slightly beaten, two and one-half tablespoons of melted butter, three-quarters cup of cream, and heat in a double boiler. When hot add very slowly one-quarter cup of hot vinegar, stirring all the time. When thickened strain and cool.

FRENCH DRESSING—For party of six five tablespoons of oil and three of vinegar, juice of half lemon, two drops tabasco, tablespoon of salt, slice of onion, and boil for three minutes and ready for service. Strain and bottle and put in ice box, shake before using each time.

SALAD DRESSING—When making salad for a large family take quart bottle with a rather wide mouth, put in one-half cup of vinegar, one and one-half cups of olive oil, two level teaspoons of salt and one-half level teaspoon of pepper; cork the bottle tightly and shake vigorously until an emulsion is made. The proportion of vinegar may be larger if not very strong and more salt and pepper used if liked. Use from the bottle and shake well each time any is used.

Instructions for Preparing Poultry Before Dressing.

To serve poultry tender and delicate; it should be kept some hours after being killed before boiling or roasting. Poultry intended for dinner should be killed the evening before. When poultry has ceased to bleed, before picking put it into cold water, in a vessel large enough to completely cover it. Then take out and soak in boiling water for a few minutes. Pick it, being careful to take out all the small feathers. When cleaning the inside of poultry or game be sure not to break the gall bladder, for it will give a bitter taste to the meat. Be equally careful not to tear the intestines near the gizzard, as it will make the inside dirty and spoil the whole bird.



POULTRY AND POULTRY DRESSINGS

BOHEMIAN CHICKEN—Select a young and tender chicken and prepare as for frying or broiling. Place in a frying pan a pat of butter and place on the fire. Beat to a smooth, thin batter two eggs, three spoonfuls of milk and a little flour, season, dip each piece of the chicken in this batter and fry a rich brown in the heated butter.

CHICKEN A LA TARTARE—Have a chicken dressed and split down the back; it should not weigh over two and a half pounds. Put one quarter cup of butter in a frying pan with a teaspoon of finely minced parsley, half a teaspoon of salt and a little pepper. Brown each half of the chicken in the butter and on both sides. Take up the chicken, brush the inside over with an egg beaten with one tablespoon of cold water, lay in a dripping pan and dust over the egg half a cup of fine bread crumbs mixed with the same amount of minced cooked ham. Set in a hot oven and finish cooking. Serve on a hot dish with sauce tartare. The chicken will cook best if laid in a wire broiler resting on the dripping pan.

CHICKEN BROILED IN PAPER—Split a chicken and let it soak for two hours in oil mixed with parsley, sliced onion, cloves, salt and pepper. Put each half in papers, enclosing all the seasoning and broil over a very slow fire. When done take off the paper, bacon, etc., and serve with sauce a la ravigotte.

CHICKEN CROQUETTES—Stir a pint of fine chopped chicken into a cup and a quarter of sauce made of one-third cup of flour, three tablespoons of butter, a cup of chicken stock and one-fourth cup of cream, season with a few drops of onion juice, a teaspoon of lemon, one teaspoonful celery salt and pepper. When thoroughly chilled form into cylindrical shapes, roll in egg and bread crumbs and fry in deep fat. Serve surrounded with peas and figures stamped upon cooked slices of carrot. Season with salt, paprika and butter.

CHICKEN CROQUETTES—Take two chickens weighing about two pounds each, put them into a saucepan with water to cover, add two onions and carrots, a small bunch of parsley and thyme, a few cloves and half a grated nutmeg, and boil until birds are tender; then remove the skin, gristle and sinews and chop the meat as fine as possible. Put into a saucepan one pound of butter and two tablespoonfuls of flour, stir over the fire for a few minutes and add half a pint of the liquor the chickens were cooked in and one pint of rich cream, and boil for eight or ten minutes, stirring continually. Remove the pan from the fire, season with salt, pepper, grated nutmeg and a little powdered sweet marjoram, add the chopped meat and stir well. Then stir in rapidly the yolks of four eggs, place the saucepan on the fire for a minute, stirring well, turn the mass onto a dish, spread it out and let it get cold. Cover the hands with flour and form the preparation into shapes, dip them into egg beaten with cream, then in sifted breadcrumbs and let them stand for half an hour or so to dry; then fry them a delicate color after plunging into boiling lard. Take them out, drain, place on a napkin on a dish and serve. The remainder of the chicken stock may be used for making consomme or soup.

CHICKEN CROQUETTES WITH FISH FLAVOR—The foundation of all croquettes is a thick white sauce which stiffens when cold, so that mixed with minced fish, chicken or other compounds it can be easily handled and shaped into pears, cylinders, ovals, etc. When cooked the croquettes should be soft and creamy inside. This sauce is made as follows:—

Scald in a double boiler one pint rich milk or cream. Melt in a granite saucepan two even tablespoons butter, then add two heaping tablespoonfuls cornstarch or flour, and one tablespoon of flavor.

When blended add one-third of the hot cream and keep stirring as it cooks and thickens. When perfectly smooth put in all the cream. The sauce should be very thick. Add the seasoning, a half teaspoonful of salt, a half teaspoonful celery salt, white peppers or paprika to taste, then the meat.

In shaping the croquettes take about a tablespoonful of the mixture and handling gently and carefully, press gently into whatever shape is desired. Have ready a board sprinkled lightly with bread or cracker crumbs, and roll the croquettes lightly in this, taking care not to exert pressure sufficient to break them. Coat the croquettes with some slightly salted beaten egg. Then roll again in the crumbs. Fry in deep hot fat, a few at a time, then drain on paper.

CHICKEN POT PIE—Cut a fowl into pieces to serve and cook in water to cover until the bones will come out easily. Before taking them out drop dumplings in, cover closely and cook ten minutes without lifting the cover. The liquid should be boiling rapidly when the dough is put in and kept boiling until the end. For the dumplings sift two cups of flour twice with half a level teaspoon of salt and four level teaspoons of baking powder. Mix with about seven-eighths cup of milk, turn out on a well floured board and pat out half an inch thick. Cut into small cakes. If this soft dough is put into the kettle in spoonfuls the time of cooking must be doubled. The bones and meat will keep the dough from settling into the liquid and becoming soggy. Arrange the meat in the center with dumplings around the edge and a sprig of parsley between each. Thicken the liquid and season with salt and pepper as needed and a rounding tablespoon of butter.

CHICKEN TIMBALES—Mix three-fourths of a cupful of flour with a half teaspoonful of salt. Add gradually while stirring constantly, one-half cupful of milk and one well beaten egg and one tablespoonful of olive oil. Shape, using a hot Swedish timbale iron, and cook in deep fat until delicately brown. Take from the iron and invert on brown paper to drain. To make the filling for a dozen timbales, remove bones and skin from a pint bowlful of the white or white and dark meat mixed of cold boiled or roasted chicken, and cut in half inch pieces. Put over the first in a saucepan two tablespoonfuls of butter and two of flour and when melted and blended add milk and chicken broth, a cupful and a half or more as desired to make a rich cream sauce. Season with salt and pepper, add the chicken and, if preferred, one-half cupful of mushrooms cut in pieces the same size as the chicken. Then brown in butter before adding to the sauce. Fill the timbales.

DEVILED CHICKEN—Split the chickens down the back and broil until done, lay on a hot dripping pan and spread on a sauce, scatter fine crumbs over and set in a quick oven to brown. For the sauce beat a rounding tablespoon of butter light with one-half teaspoon of mixed mustard, one teaspoon of vinegar and a pinch of cayenne.

FRICASSED TURKEY OR GOOSE GIBLETS—Scald and pick giblets. Put them in a saucepan with a piece of butter, a bunch of parsley, green onions, thyme, bay-leaf and a few mushrooms; warm these over the fire, with a sprinkle of flour moistened with stock or water, adding salt and pepper to taste. Reduce to a thick sauce, adding to it the yolks of two eggs, and let simmer without boiling. Serve with sprinkling of vinegar.

FRIED CHICKEN—Cut up two chickens. Put a quarter of a pound of butter, mixed with a spoonful of flour, into a saucepan with pepper, salt, little vinegar, parsley, green onions, carrots and turnips, into a saucepan and heat. Steep the chicken in this marinade three hours, having dried the pieces and floured them. Fry a good brown. Garnish with fried parsley.

JELLIED CHICKEN—For jellied chicken have on hand three pounds of chicken that has been boiled and cut from the bone in strips. Mix a quart of rich chicken stock that has been boiled down and cleared with a teaspoonful each of lemon juice, chopped parsley, a dash of celery salt and a quarter teaspoonful each of salt and paprika. At the last stir in a teaspoonful of granulated gelatin that has been dissolved. When the jelly begins to thicken add the chicken and turn it into a mold. To have the chicken scattered evenly through the jelly, stand the dish containing the jelly in a pan of ice and turn in the jelly layer by layer, covering each with chicken as soon as it begins to thicken.

MARBLED CHICKEN—Steam a young fowl until tender or cook it gently in a small amount of water. Cut all the meat from the bones, keeping the white and dark meat separate. Chop the meat with a sharp knife, but do not grind it, season with salt and pepper. Press into a mold making alternate layers of light and dark meat. Strain the broth in which the fowl was cooked and which should be reduced by cooking to a small amount, season with salt and pepper, add a tablespoon of butter after skimming clear of all fat. Pour this broth over the meat and set all in the ice chest until cold and firm. Unmold and cut in thin slices with a sharp knife, then if liked garnish with cress and sliced lemon and serve.

POTTED CHICKEN—Truss a small broiler in shape and lay in casserole. Brush it generously with melted butter, put on the cover, and cook twenty minutes. Now add one cup of rich stock or beef extract dissolved in hot water to make a good strength. Cover and finish cooking. Serve uncovered in the same dish with spoonfuls of potato balls, small carrots sliced and tiny string beans laid alternately round the chicken. The vegetables should each be cooked separately.

PRESSED CHICKEN—Cut as for a stew. Skin the feet and place in the bottom of a stew pan. Arrange the fowl on top, just cover with water, and cook slowly until tender. Do not let the meat brown. Separate the dark and light meat and throw away the feet, from which the gluten has been extracted. Chop liver, skin, heart and gizzard fine. Add these chopped giblets to a dressing of stale bread crumbs seasoned and moistened with a little hot water and butter. Arrange the large pieces of meat around the sides and bottom of a baking dish, alternating dark and light, and fill alternately with dressing and chicken until the dish is full. Remove the fat from the water in which the chicken was cooked, heat boiling hot and pour over the chicken. Put into a press for several hours and when cold slice.

ROAST CHICKEN—Having drawn and trussed the chicken put it between some slices of bacon, take care to fasten the feet to the spit to keep it together, baste it with its gravy, when well done through, serve with cress round the dish, season with salt and vinegar. The chicken and bacon should be covered with buttered paper, until five minutes of the bird being done, then take off the paper, and finish the roasting by a very bright fire.

STUFFED CHICKEN—Put a pint of milk into a saucepan with a good handful of crumbs of bread and boil until very thick. Set away to cool. Add to this parsley, chopped green onion, thyme, salt, pepper, piece of butter and the yolks of four eggs, and place in body of chicken, sewing up the opening. Roast the chicken between rashers of bacon.

TURKEY GIBLETS A LA BOURGEOISE—The giblets of turkey consist of the pinions, feet, neck and gizzard. After having scalded pick them well and put in a saucepan with a piece of butter, some parsley, green onions, clove of garlic, sprig of thyme, bay-leaf, a spoonful of flour moistened with stock, salt and pepper. Brown to a good color.

TURKEY TRUFFLES—Take a fat turkey, clean and singe it. Take three or four pounds of truffles, chopping up a handful with some fat bacon and put into a saucepan, together with the whole truffles, salt, pepper, spices and a bay-leaf. Let these ingredients cook over a slow fire for three-quarters of a hour, take off, stir and let cool. When quite cold place in body of turkey, sew up the opening and let the turkey imbibe the flavor of the truffles by remaining in a day or two, if the season permits. Cover the bird with slices of bacon and roast.

ANCHOVY STUFFING—Put some large fine chopped onions into a frying pan with a little oil or butter and fry them to a light brown. Put them in a basin and add some breadcrumbs that have been dipped in water and squeeze quite dry. Then add a small piece of liver of the bird to be stuffed. The filling of seven or eight salted anchovies, a pinch of parsley, with a few chopped capers. Work these well together, sprinkle over a little pepper and thicken the mixture with yolks of eggs, when it is ready for use.

CHESTNUT STUFFING—Peel a sound good-sized shallot, chop it up fine, place it in a saucepan on a hot fire with one tablespoonful of butter and heat it for three minutes without browning. Then add one-fourth pound of sausage meat and cook for five minutes longer. Add ten finely chopped mushrooms and a dozen well pounded cooked peeled chestnuts and stir all well together, season with one pinch of salt, half pinch of pepper, one-half saltspoon of powdered thyme, and one teaspoonful of finely chopped parsley. Let this come to a boil, add one half ounce of sifted bread crumbs and twenty-five or thirty whole cooked and shelled chestnuts and mix all well together, being careful not to break the chestnuts. Allow to cool and then is ready for use.

CHESTNUT STUFFING FOR TURKEY—Put a dozen or fifteen large chestnuts into a saucepan of water, and boil them until they are quite tender, then take off the shells and skins, put into a mortar and pound them. Put four ounces of shredded beef suet into a basin, stir in one-half pound of bread crumbs, season with salt and pepper to taste, and squeeze in a little lemon juice. Mix in a pound of chestnuts and stuffing will be ready for use.

CHESTNUT STUFFING WITH TRUFFLES—Remove the dark or outer skins from some chestnuts, immerse in boiling water for a few minutes, remove the light skins and boil for about twenty minutes, put in a saucepan one pound of fat bacon and two shallots, and keep these over the fire for a few minutes. Then add the whole chestnuts, also one-half pound of chestnuts previously cut out into small pieces, put in pepper, spices and salt to taste, and a small quantity of powdered margoram and thyme. Hold it over the fire a little longer, turning it occasionally. It is then ready for use.

CHICKEN LIVER STUFFING FOR BIRDS—Chop a half pound of fat chicken livers in small pieces and put them in a frying pan, with two finely chopped shallots, two ounces of fat ham, also chopped thyme, grated nutmeg, pepper, salt and a small lump of butter. Toss it about over the fire until partly cooked. Then take it off and leave it until cold. Pound in a mortar, then it is ready to use.

CHICKEN STUFFING—Take the heart, liver, and gizzard of a fowl, chop fine, season to taste and mix with boiled rice, worked up with a little butter. Stuff the chicken with this.

GIBLET STUFFING FOR TURKEY—Put the giblets in a saucepan over the fire with boiling water to cover, sprinkle over a teaspoonful of salt and a quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper and boil gently until tender. Save the water in which the giblets were boiled to use for gravy. Chop the giblets quite fine, put them in a frying pan over the fire with four ounces of butter, two breakfast cups of stale breadcrumbs and a good seasoning of salt, pepper and any powdered sweet herbs except sage. Stir all these ingredients together until they are of a light brown, add a wine glass of sherry or Madeira wine, and the force meat is ready for use.

PICKLED PORK STUFFING FOR TURKEYS—Chop up very fine a quarter of a pound of fat and lean salted pork, break quite fine a couple of breakfast cupfuls of bread and put them in a frying pan over the fire with two heaping tablespoonfuls of butter, fry to a brown and season with salt, pepper and any sweet herbs except sage.

POTATO STUFFING—Cut some peeled raw potatoes into slices of moderate thickness and then cut into squares, rinse with cold water, drain and place them in a saucepan with a couple of ounces of butter, a chopped onion and one or two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley, a little salt and pepper and grated nutmeg, place the lid on the pan, keeping the pan at the side of the fire and shaking contents occasionally until nearly cooked, then chop fine an equal quantity of pig's liver and stir into the potatoes a few minutes before serving.

STUFFING FOR BIRDS—Peel two large onions, parboil them, then drain and chop them fine. Soak one breakfast cup of bread crumbs in as much milk as they will absorb without becoming too soft. Pour four ounces of butter in a stewpan, place it over the fire, and when the butter is melted put in the onions, breadcrumbs and one tablespoon of chopped parsley, pepper and salt to taste. Add a small quantity of grated nutmeg. Add the beaten yolks of two eggs and stir the mixture over the fire until it is reduced to a paste, without allowing it to boil. The stuffing is then ready. It can be made in larger or smaller quantities according to the number of the birds to be stuffed.

STUFFING FOR BOILED TURKEY OR RABBIT—Remove the outer peel of one pound of chestnuts, then put them in boiling water until the inner skins can easily be removed, then trim them and put them into small lined saucepan, cover them with broth and boil until the pulp and the broth has been well reduced. Pass the chestnuts through a fine wire sieve. Chop fine one-fourth pound of cold boiled fat bacon and mix it with the chestnut puree, season to taste with salt, pepper and minced lemon peel. The stuffing will then be ready to serve.

STUFFING FOR DUCKS—Peel a fair size onion and sour cooking apple, chop them both very fine, and mix them with six ounces of finely grated stale breadcrumbs, one scant tablespoonful of sage leaves either powdered or finely mixed, one tablespoon butter, a little salt and butter. Bind the whole together with a beaten egg and it is then ready for the ducks.

STUFFING FOR FISH—Weigh two pounds of breadcrumbs without the crusts, and cut it into small squares, mix in one-half tablespoon of powdered curry and a liberal quantity of salt and pepper. Dissolve six ounces of butter in one-half pint of warm water and beat in the yolks of four eggs. Pour the liquid mixture over the bread and stir it well, but do not mash it. It is then ready to serve.

STUFFING FOR FOWLS—Trim off the crusts from two pounds of bread, put the crumbs into a basin of cold water, soak it for five minutes then turn it onto a sieve and drain well, pressing out the water with a plate. When nearly dry cut the bread into small squares and season it well with powdered sage, salt and pepper. Warm one breakfast cupful of butter, beat in an egg and three teacupfuls of warm water and pour it over the bread, stirring it lightly, but not mashing it. Allow it to soak for ten minutes and the stuffing will then be ready to serve.

STUFFING FOR GOOSE—Roast fifty chestnuts, using care not to let them burn, remove the inner and outer peels and chop them fine. Chop the goose's liver, put it in a saucepan with one-half tablespoonful of chopped parsley, shallots, chives, and a little garlic and about two ounces of butter, fry them for a few minutes, then put in the chopped chestnuts with one pound of sausage meat, and fry the whole for fifteen minutes longer. The stuffing is then ready for use.

STUFFING FOR POULTRY—Put two handfuls of rice into a saucepan of water and parboil it, mix in ten or twelve chestnuts peeled or cut into small slices, one pan full of pistachio nuts and one handful of currants. Put the mixture in a saucepan with four ounces of butter, stir it well over the fire until thoroughly incorporated, season with pepper and salt and if liked a little ground cinnamon, and it is then ready for use. This stuffing is used for turkeys and other birds or anything else that is roasted whole.

STUFFING FOR POULTRY GALANTINE—Cut into squares three pounds of cooked flesh of either ducks or fowls; peel and chop two hard boiled eggs and one medium-size onion. Mix all of these together with three breakfast cupfuls of stale breadcrumbs, three well beaten eggs and one-half cupful of poultry fat that has been warmed; season to taste with pepper, salt and sage. After the force meat has been spread in the boned duck, or other bird, about one cupful of chopped jelly strewn over it will be an improvement and will set in the force meat.

STUFFING FOR RABBITS—Peel two onions and boil, when they are tender drain and mince them. Chop one-half pound pickled pork and few fine herbs, stir them in with the onions, then stir in the yolks of two eggs and add a sufficient quantity breadcrumbs to make it fairly consistent. Season to taste with pepper and salt, using a very little of the latter on account of the salt in the pork. Then stuffing is ready for use.

STUFFING FOR A SUCKLING PIG AND 'POSSUM—Put two tablespoonfuls of finely chopped onions into a saucepan with one teaspoon of oil. Toss them over the fire for five or six minutes, add eight ounces of rice boiled in stock, an equal quantity of sausage meat, four or five ounces of butter, a small quantity of minced parsley, and pepper and salt to taste. Turn the mixture into a basin and add three eggs to make the whole into a stiff paste. It is then ready for use.

STUFFING FOR TURKEY (ROASTED)—To one pound of sifted breadcrumbs add one-half pound of butter, one pound of boiled and mashed potatoes and a little summer savory rubbed to a fine powder, add sufficient eggs to stiffen and season with salt, pepper and grated nutmeg. A little sausage meat, grated ham and a few oysters or chopped mushrooms may be added; they are a marked improvement, as are also a few walnuts roasted, chestnuts and filberts, and the same may also be served in the gravy with the bird.

STUFFING FOR VEAL—Trim off the skin and mince fine one-fourth pound of beef suet. Mix with it one cupful of bread crumbs, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, two tablespoons of finely minced ham and the grated peel of a lemon. Season the stuffing to taste with pepper and salt and bind it with one beaten egg. It is then ready to use.

TRUFFLE AND CHESTNUT STUFFING—Peel off the thick outer skin of the chestnuts, pat them into a saucepan with a bay leaf, a lump of salt, and plenty of coriander seeds. Cover them with water, and boil until nearly tender. Drain the chestnuts and peel off the inner skin, for every half pound of chestnuts, weighed after they are boiled and peeled, allow one-half pound of bacon, one-quarter pound of truffles, and the chestnuts all cut up into small pieces; season to taste with salt, pepper and spices and add a little each of powdered thyme and marjoram; toss the mixture for a few minutes longer over the fire and it is then ready for use.

TRUFFLE STUFFING FOR TURKEY—Brush well one and one-half pounds of truffles, peel them, mince the peel very fine, cut the truffles into slices, put them all into a saucepan with one-quarter pound of minced fat bacon and any obtainable fat from the turkey. Also a good size lump of butter, with salt and pepper to taste. Cook for ten minutes and let it get cold before using. A turkey should be stuffed with this three days before it is cooked, and truffle sauce should accompany it.

ENGLISH STUFFING—First, take some stale bread (use your own judgment as to the quantity), and brown it in your oven. Also one onion (red ones preferred), a quarter of a pound of fresh pork, or sausages, and run it through your meat grinder with a few stalks of celery; place it in a saucepan, in which a small lump of butter has been dissolved. Beat one or two eggs in a pint of sweet milk. Stir all ingredients well. Place on the fire or in the oven and continue to stir, so as to see that the onions are cooked. After you have this done set in a cool place; when the above articles are cold, place inside the turkey. Your seasoning that you place in the turkey, or make your gravy with, is sufficient. Roast it in the same way as you have done in the past.



LUNCH DISHES

BREAD, WITH CREAM CHEESE FILLING—For this use the steamed Boston brown bread and a potato loaf of white. Take the crust from the white loaf, using a sharp knife. Then instead of cutting crosswise cut in thin lengthwise pieces. Treat the brown loaf in the same way. Butter a slice of the white bread on one side and do the same with a brown slice. Put the two buttered sides together with a thin layer of fresh cream cheese between. Next butter the top of the brown slice of bread, spread again with cream cheese and lay a second slice of buttered white bread on top. Repeat until there are five layers, having the white last. Now with a sharp knife cut crosswise in thin slices. Sometimes the cream cheese filling can be varied with chopped pistachio nuts or olives, or it can be omitted entirely. In any case, it is delicate and appetizing.

CHEESE CROQUETTES—Cut one pound of American cheese into small dice. Have ready a cupful of very hot cream sauce, made by blending a tablespoonful each of flour and butter, and when melted adding a scant cup of hot milk. Stir until smooth and thickened. Add the cheese to this sauce, also the yolks of two eggs diluted with a little cream. Stir the whole and let it remain on the stove a moment until the cheese gets "steady." Season with salt, red and white pepper, and just a grating of nutmeg. Put this mixture on the ice until cold, then form into small croquettes and roll in fine bread or cracker crumbs. Dip in beaten egg, then again roll in the crumbs, drop into boiling fat and cook to a golden brown.

CHICKEN AND PIMENTO SANDWICHES—Add to finely minced chicken, roasted or boiled, an equal amount of pimentos. Moisten with mayonnaise and spread between wafer thin slices of white or brown bread. A leaf of lettuce may also be added.

CRESS SANDWICHES—Take thin slices of rare roast beef and cut into small pieces. Add an equal quantity of minced watercress dressed with a teaspoonful of grated horseradish, a little salt and paprika to season, and enough softened butter or thick cream to moisten. Blend the ingredients well, and spread between thin slices of buttered graham or whole wheat bread. Cut in neat triangles, but do not reject the crust.

BANANA SANDWICHES—Remove the skin and fibers from four bananas, cut them in quarters and force through a ricer. Mix with the pulp the juice of half a lemon, a dash of salt and nutmeg and set it away to become very cold while you prepare the bread. This should be cut in very thin slices, freed from crusts and trimmed into any preferred shape. Slightly sweeten some thick cream and add a speck of salt. Spread the bread with a thin layer of the cream, then with the banana pulp put together and wrap each in waxed paper, twist the ends, and keep very cold until serving time.

GERMAN RYE BREAD SANDWICHES—Put between buttered slices of rye bread chopped beef, cheese or chicken, and cover with finely chopped pickle, dill or the plain sour pickle. Another variation of the German sandwich is a layer of bologna sausage, then a thin layer of pumpernickel covered with another thin slice of rye bread. Cut into strips half an inch wide and the length of the slice.

GRILLED SARDINES ON TOAST—Drain the sardines and cook in a buttered frying-pan or chafing dish until heated, turning frequently. Place on oblong pieces of hot buttered toast, and serve.

HAM SANDWICHES—Chop two cups of ham, using a little fat with the lean. Mix one tablespoon of flour with enough cold water to make smooth, add one-half cup of boiling water, and cook five minutes; then add the ham and one teaspoon of dry mustard. Mix well and press into a bowl or jar.

JAPANESE SANDWICHES—These are made of any kind of left-over fish, baked, broiled or boiled. Pick out every bit of skin and bone, and flake in small pieces. Put into a saucepan with just a little milk or cream to moisten, add a little butter and a dusting of salt and pepper. Work to a paste while heating, then cool and spread on thin slices of buttered bread.

KEDGEREE—For this take equal quantities of boiled fish and boiled rice. For a cupful each use two hard boiled eggs, a teaspoonful curry powder, two tablespoonfuls butter, a half tablespoonful cream, and salt, white pepper and cayenne to season. Take all the skin and bone from the fish and put in a saucepan with the butter. Add the rice and whites of the boiled eggs cut fine, the cream, curry powder and cayenne. Toss over the fire until very hot, then take up and pile on a hot dish. Rub the yolks of the boiled eggs through a sieve on top of the curry, and serve.

SANDWICH FILLINGS—Other timely and appetizing fillings are green pepper and cucumber chopped fine and squeezed dry, then seasoned with mayonnaise, any of the potted and deviled meats seasoned with chopped parsley or cress with a teaspoonful creamed butter to make it spread, cheese and chopped spinach moistened with lemon juice and mayonnaise, veal chopped fine with celery or cress and mayonnaise, Camembert cheese heated slightly, just enough to spread, a Boston rarebit made with cream and egg left over scrambled eggs and cress, roast chicken and chopped dill pickles, cheese and chopped dates or figs, orange marmalade, and sardines pounded to a paste with a few drops of lemon juice added.

SANDWICHES FROM COLD MUTTON—Chop very fine, and to each pint add a tablespoonful of capers, a teaspoonful each chopped mint and salt, a dash of pepper, and a teaspoonful lemon juice. Spread thickly on buttered slices of whole wheat bread, cover with other slices of buttered bread, and cut in triangles.

TONGUE CANAPES—Cut bread into rounds, toast delicately, spread with potted tongue. In the centre put a stuffed olive and surround with a row of chopped beet and another of chopped white of egg.

CORN TOAST—Toast some slices of stale bread and butter, then pour over some canned corn, prepared as for the table, sprinkling a little pepper over it. If you have not already done so. Do not prepare so long before serving as to soak the bread too much. Peas are also good used the same way.

TONGUE TOAST—Mince boiled smoked tongue very fine, heat cream to the boiling point and make thick with the tongue. Season to taste with pepper, nutmeg, parsley or chopped green peppers and when hot stir in a beaten egg and remove from the fire at once. Have ready as many slices as are required, spread with the creamed tongue and serve at once. If you have no cream make a cream sauce, using a tablespoonful each of butter and flour and a cup of milk.

LUNCHEON SURPRISE—Line buttered muffin cups with hot boiled rice about half an inch thick. Fill the centers with minced cooked chicken seasoned with salt and pepper and a little broth or gravy. Cover the tops with rice and bake in a moderate oven for fifteen minutes. Unmold on a warm platter and serve with a cream sauce seasoned with celery salt. If liked, two or three oysters may be added to the filling in each cup.

SARDINE RAREBIT—One level tablespoon butter, one-fourth level teaspoon salt, one-fourth level teaspoon paprika, one level teaspoon mustard, one cup thin cream or milk, one cup grated cheese, one-fourth pound can sardines, boned and minced, two eggs, toast or crackers. Melt the butter, add the salt, paprika, mustard, cream and cheese and cook over hot water, stirring until the cheese is melted. Then add the sardines and eggs slightly beaten. When thick and smooth serve on toast or crackers.

BANANA CROQUETTES—Remove skins and scrape bananas. Sprinkle with powdered sugar and moisten with lemon juice. Let stand twenty minutes; cut in halves crosswise. Dip in egg, then in fine cracker crumbs and fry in deep fat. When done drain on brown paper. Serve with lemon sauce.

BACON AND GREEN PEPPERS—Select firm green peppers, cut into rings, removing all the seeds. Soak for twenty minutes in salted ice water. Drain and dry and fry in the pan in which the bacon has cooked crisp. Keep the bacon hot meanwhile. When the peppers are tender heap them up in the center of a small platter and arrange the slices of bacon around them.

CHEESE RAMEKINS—Use two rounding tablespoons of grated cheese, a rounding tablespoon of butter, one-quarter cup of fine breadcrumbs, the same of milk, and a saltspoon each of mustard and salt, the yolk of one egg. Cook the crumbs in the milk until soft, add the stiffly beaten white of the egg. Fill china ramekins two-thirds full and bake five minutes. Serve immediately.

CHEESE TIMBALES—Crumble into timbale cups, alternate layers of bread and American cheese. Pour over them a mixture of eggs, milk, salt, pepper and mustard, allowing one egg and a tablespoonful of milk to each timbale. Cook in the oven or on top of the stove in a shallow pan of hot water, kept covered.

FRIED BANANAS—Peel some bananas and cut in halves crosswise, roll in flour and fry in deep hot fat. Set on end and pour a hot lemon sauce around them.

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