** Transcriber's Notes **
Underscores mark italics; words enclosed in pluses represent boldface; words enclosed in /slashes/ represent underlined words. Words enclosed in tildes represent a wavy underline.
To represent the sentence diagrams in ASCII, the following conventions are used:
- The heavy horizontal line (for the main clause) is formed with equals signs (==). - Other solid vertical lines are formed with minus signs (—). - Diagonal lines are formed with backslashes (). - Words printed on a diagonal line are preceded by a backslash, with no horizontal line under them. - Dotted horizontal lines are formed with periods (..) - Dotted vertical lines are formed with straight apostrophes (') - Dotted diagonal lines are formed with slanted apostrophes (') - Words printed over a horizontally broken line are shown like this:
——, helping '————-
- Words printed bending around a diagonal-horizontal line are broken like this:
wai ting ————- ** End Transcriber's Notes **
GRADED LESSONS IN ENGLISH.
ONE HUNDRED PRACTICAL LESSONS,
CAREFULLY GRADED AND ADAPTED TO THE CLASS-ROOM,
ALONZO REED, A.M.,
FORMERLY INSTRUCTOR OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN
BRAINERD KELLOGG, LL.D., PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN
REVISED EDITION, 1896.
A COMPLETE COURSE IN ENGLISH. BY ALONZO REED, A.M., AND BRAINERD KELLOGG, LL.D.
REED'S WORD LESSONS, A COMPLETE SPELLER. Designed to teach the correct spelling, pronunciation, and use of such words only as are most common in current literature, and as are most likely to be misspelled, mispronounced, or misused, and to awaken new interest in the study of synonyms and of word-analysis. 188 pages, 12mo.
REED'S INTRODUCTORY LANGUAGE WORK. A simple, varied, and pleasing, but methodical series of exercises in English to precede the study of technical grammar. 253 pages, 16mo, linen.
REED & KELLOGG'S GRADED LESSONS IN ENGLISH. An elementary English grammar, consisting of one hundred practical lessons, carefully graded and adapted, to the class-room. 215 pages, 16mo, linen.
REED & KELLOGG'S HIGHER LESSONS IN ENGLISH. A work on English grammar and composition, in which the science of the language is made tributary to the art of expression. A course of practical lessons carefully graded, and adapted to every-day use in the school-room. 386 pages, 16mo, cloth.
REED & KELLOGG'S ONE-BOOK COURSE IN ENGLISH. A carefully graded and complete series of lessons in English grammar and composition based on the natural development of the sentence. For schools that have not time to complete more than one book on grammar. 328 pages, 16mo, cloth.
KELLOGG & REED'S WORD-BUILDING. Fifty lessons, combining Latin, Greek, and Anglo-Saxon roots, prefixes, and suffixes, into about fifty-five hundred common derivative words in English; with a brief history of the English language. 122 pages, 16mo, cloth.
KELLOGG & REED'S THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. A brief history of the grammatical changes of the language and its vocabulary, with exercises on synonyms, prefixes, suffixes, word-analysis, and word-building. A text-book for high schools and colleges. 226 pages, 16mo, cloth.
KELLOGG'S TEXT-BOOK ON RHETORIC. Revised and enlarged edition. Supplementing the development of the science with exhaustive practice in composition. A course of practical lessons adapted for use in high schools, academies, and lower classes of colleges. 345 pages, 12mo, cloth.
KELLOGG'S TEXT-BOOK ON ENGLISH LITERATURE. with copious extracts from the leading authors, English and American, and full instructions as to the method in which these books are to be studied. 485 pages, 12mo, cloth.
The plan of "Graded and Higher Lessons in English" will perhaps be better understood if we first speak of two classes of text-books with which this course is brought into competition.
Method of One Class of Text-books.—In one class are those that aim chiefly to present a course of technical grammar in the order of Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. These books give large space to grammatical Etymology, and demand much memorizing of definitions, rules, declensions, and conjugations, and much formal word parsing,—work of which a considerable portion is merely the invention of grammarians, and has little value in determining the pupil's use of language or in developing his reasoning faculties. This is a revival of the long-endured, unfruitful, old-time method.
Method of Another Class of Text-books.—In another class are those that present a miscellaneous collection of lessons in Composition, Spelling, Pronunciation, Sentence-analysis, Technical Grammar, and General Information, without unity or continuity. The pupil who completes these books will have gained something by practice and will have picked up some scraps of knowledge; but his information will be vague and disconnected, and he will have missed that mental training which it is the aim of a good text-book to afford. A text-book is of value just so far as it presents a clear, logical development of its subject. It must present its science or its art as a natural growth, otherwise there is no apology for its being.
The Study of the Sentence for the Proper Use of Words.—It is the plan of this course to trace with easy steps the natural development of the sentence, to consider the leading facts first and then to descend to the details. To begin with the parts of speech is to begin with details and to disregard the higher unities, without which the details are scarcely intelligible. The part of speech to which a word belongs is determined only by its function in the sentence, and inflections simply mark the offices and relations of words. Unless the pupil has been systematically trained to discover the functions and relations of words as elements of an organic whole, his knowledge of the parts of speech is of little value. It is not because he cannot conjugate the verb or decline the pronoun that he falls into such errors as "How many sounds have each of the vowels?" "Five years' interest are due." "She is older than me." He probably would not say "each have," "interest are," "me am." One thoroughly familiar with the structure of the sentence will find little trouble in using correctly the few inflectional forms in English.
The Study of the Sentence for the Laws of Discourse.—Through the study of the sentence we not only arrive at an intelligent knowledge of the parts of speech and a correct use of grammatical forms, but we discover the laws of discourse in general. In the sentence the student should find the law of unity, of continuity, of proportion, of order. All good writing consists of good sentences properly joined. Since the sentence is the foundation or unit of discourse, it is all-important that the pupil should know the sentence. He should be able to put the principal and the subordinate parts in their proper relation; he should know the exact function of every element, its relation to other elements and its relation to the whole. He should know the sentence as the skillful engineer knows his engine, that, when there is a disorganization of parts, he may at once find the difficulty and the remedy for it.
The Study of the Sentence for the Sake of Translation.—The laws of thought being the same for all nations, the logical analysis of the sentence is the same for all languages. When a student who has acquired a knowledge of the English sentence comes to the translation of a foreign language, he finds his work greatly simplified. If in a sentence of his own language he sees only a mass of unorganized words, how much greater must be his confusion when this mass of words is in a foreign tongue! A study of the parts of speech is a far less important preparation for translation, since the declensions and conjugations in English do not conform to those of other languages. Teachers of the classics and of modern languages are beginning to appreciate these facts.
The Study of the Sentence for Discipline.—As a means of discipline nothing can compare with a training in the logical analysis of the sentence. To study thought through its outward form, the sentence, and to discover the fitness of the different parts of the expression to the parts of the thought, is to learn to think. It has been noticed that pupils thoroughly trained in the analysis and the construction of sentences come to their other studies with a decided advantage in mental power. These results can be obtained only by systematic and persistent work. Experienced teachers understand that a few weak lessons on the sentence at the beginning of a course and a few at the end can afford little discipline and little knowledge that will endure, nor can a knowledge of the sentence be gained by memorizing complicated rules and labored forms of analysis. To compel a pupil to wade through a page or two of such bewildering terms as "complex adverbial element of the second class" and "compound prepositional adjective phrase," in order to comprehend a few simple functions, is grossly unjust; it is a substitution of form for content, of words for ideas.
Subdivisions and Modifications after the Sentence.—Teachers familiar with text books that group all grammatical instruction around the eight parts of speech, making eight independent units, will not, in the following lessons, find everything in its accustomed place. But, when it is remembered that the thread of connection unifying this work is the sentence, it will be seen that the lessons fall into their natural order of sequence. When, through the development of the sentence, all the offices of the different parts of speech are mastered, the most natural thing is to continue the work of classification and subdivide the parts of speech. The inflection of words, being distinct from their classification, makes a separate division of the work. If the chief end of grammar were to enable one to parse, we should not here depart from long-established precedent.
Sentences in Groups—Paragraphs.—In tracing the growth of the sentence from the simplest to the most complex form, each element, as it is introduced, is illustrated by a large number of detached sentences, chosen with the utmost care as to thought and expression. These compel the pupil to confine his attention to one thing till he gets it well in hand. Paragraphs from literature are then selected to be used at intervals, with questions and suggestions to enforce principles already presented, and to prepare the way informally for the regular lessons that follow. The lessons on these selections are, however, made to take a much wider scope. They lead the pupil to discover how and why sentences are grouped into paragraphs, and how paragraphs are related to each other; they also lead him on to discover whatever is most worthy of imitation in the style of the several models presented.
The Use of the Diagram.—In written analysis, the simple map, or diagram, found in the following lessons, will enable the pupil to present directly and vividly to the eye the exact function of every clause in the sentence, of every phrase in the clause, and of every word in the phrase—to picture the complete analysis of the sentence, with principal and subordinate parts in their proper relations. It is only by the aid of such a map, or picture, that the pupil can, at a single view, see the sentence as an organic whole made up of many parts performing various functions and standing in various relations. Without such map he must labor under the disadvantage of seeing all these things by piecemeal or in succession.
But, if for any reason the teacher prefers not to use these diagrams, they may be omitted without causing the slightest break in the work. The plan of this book is in no way dependent on the use of the diagrams.
The Objections to the Diagram.—The fact that the pictorial diagram groups the parts of a sentence according to their offices and relations, and not in the order of speech, has been spoken of as a fault. It is on the contrary, a merit, for it teaches the pupil to look through the literary order and discover the logical order. He thus learns what the literary order really is, and sees that this may be varied indefinitely, so long as the logical relations are kept clear.
The assertion that correct diagrams can be made mechanically is not borne out by the facts. It is easier to avoid precision in oral analysis than in written. The diagram drives the pupil to a most searching examination of the sentence, brings him face to face with every difficulty, and compels a decision on every point.
The Abuse of the Diagram.—Analysis by diagram often becomes so interesting and so helpful that, like other good things, it is liable to be overdone. There is danger of requiring too much written analysis. When the ordinary constructions have been made clear, diagrams should be used only for the more difficult sentences, or, if the sentences are long, only for the more difficult parts of them. In both oral and written analysis there is danger of repeating what needs no repetition. When the diagram has served its purpose, it should be dropped.
SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITION EXERCISES
The exercises in composition found in the numbered Lessons of this book are generally confined to the illustration and the practical application of the principles of the science as these principles are developed step by step. To break up the continuity of the text by thrusting unrelated composition work between lessons closely related and mutually dependent is exceedingly unwise.
The Composition Exercises suggested in this revision of "Graded Lessons" are designed to review the regular Lessons and to prepare in a broad, informal way for text work that follows. But since these Exercises go much farther, and teach the pupil how to construct paragraphs and how to observe and imitate what is good in different authors, they are placed in a supplement, and not between consecutive Lessons of the text.
To let such general composition work take the place of the regular grammar lesson, say once a week, will be profitable. We suggest that the sentence work on the selections in the Supplement be made to follow Lessons 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 77; but each teacher must determine for himself when these and the other outlined lessons can best be used. We advise that other selections from literature be made and these exercises continued with the treatment of the parts of speech.
For composition work to precede Lesson 30 we suggest that the teacher break up a short story of one or two paragraphs into simple sentences, making some of these transposed, some interrogative, and some exclamatory. The pupils may be required to copy these, to underline the subject and the predicate, and to tell, in answer to suggestive questions, what some of the other words and groups of words do (the questions on the selections in the Supplement may aid the teacher). The pupils may then write out the story in full form. To vary the exercise, the teacher might read the story and let the pupils write out the short sentences.
A TALK ON LANGUAGE.
The teacher is recommended, before assigning any lesson, to occupy the time of at least two or three recitations, in talking with his pupils about language, always remembering that, in order to secure the interest of his class, he must allow his pupils to take an active part in the exercise. The teacher should guide the thought of his class; but, if he attempt to do all the talking, he will find, when he concludes, that he has been left to do all the thinking.
We give below a few hints in conducting this talk on language, but the teacher is not expected to confine himself to them. He will, of course, be compelled, in some instances, to resort to various devices in order to obtain from the pupils answers equivalent to those here suggested.
Teacher.—I will pronounce these three sounds very slowly and distinctly, thus: b-u-d. Notice, it is the power, or sound, of the letter, and not its name, that I give. What did you hear?
Pupil.—I heard three sounds.
T.—Give them. I will write on the board, so that you can see them, three letters—b-u-d. Are these letters, taken separately, signs to you of anything?
P.—Yes, they are signs to me of the three sounds that I have just heard.
T.—What then do these letters, taken separately, picture to your eye?
P.—They picture the sounds that came to my ear.
T.—Letters then are the signs of what?
P.—Letters are the signs of sounds.
T.—I will pronounce the same three sounds more rapidly, uniting them more closely—bud. These sounds, so united, form a spoken word. Of what do you think when you hear the word bud?
P.—I think of a little round thing that grows to be a leafy branch or a flower.
T.—Did you see the thing when you were thinking of it?
T.—Then you must have had a picture of it in your mind. We call this mental picture an idea. What called up this idea?
P.—It was called up by the word bud, which I heard.
T.—A spoken word then is the sign of what?
P.—A spoken word is the sign of an idea.
T.—I will call up the same idea in another way. I will write three letters and unite them thus: bud. What do you see?
P.—I see the word bud.
T.—If we call the other word bud a spoken word, what shall we call this?
P.—This is a written word.
T.—If they stand for the same idea, how do they differ?
P.—I see this, and I heard that.
T.—You will observe that we have called attention to four different things; viz., the real bud; your mental picture of the bud, which we have called an idea; and the two words, which we have called signs of this idea, the one addressed to the ear, and the other to the eye.
If the pupil be brought to see these distinctions, it may aid him to observe more closely and express himself more clearly.
Teacher.—What did you learn in the previous Lesson?
Pupil.—I learned that a spoken word is composed of certain sounds, and that letters are signs of sounds, and that spoken and written words are the signs of ideas.
This question should be passed from one pupil to another till all of these answers are elicited.
All the written words in all the English books ever made, are formed of twenty-six letters, representing about forty sounds. These letters and these sounds make up what is called artificial language.
Of these twenty-six letters, a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes w and y, are called vowels, and the remainder are called consonants.
In order that you may understand what kind of sounds the vowels stand for, and what kinds the consonants represent, I will tell you something about the human voice.
The air breathed out from your lungs beats against two flat muscles, stretched like strings across the top of the windpipe, and causes them to vibrate. This vibrating makes sound. Take a thread, put one end between your teeth, hold the other in your fingers, draw it tight and strike it, and you will understand how voice is made.
If the voice thus produced comes out through the mouth held well open, a class of sounds is formed which we call vowel sounds.
But, if the voice is held back by your palate, tongue, teeth, or lips, one kind of consonant sounds is made. If the breath is driven out without voice, and is held back by these same parts of the mouth, the other kind of consonant sounds is formed. Ex. of both: b, d, g; p, t, k.
The teacher and pupils should practice on these sounds till the three kinds can easily be distinguished.
You are now prepared to understand what I mean when I say that the vowels are the letters which stand for the open sounds of the voice, and that the consonants are the letters which stand for the sounds made by the obstructed voice and the obstructed breath.
The teacher can here profitably spend a few minutes in showing how ideas may be communicated by Natural Language, the language of sighs, groans, gestures of the hands, attitudes of the body, expressions of the face, tones of the voice, etc. He can show that, in conversation, we sometimes couple this Natural Language of tone and gesture with our language of words, in order to make a stronger impression. Let the pupil be told that, if the passage contain feeling, he should do the same in Reading and Declaiming.
Let the following definitions be learned, and given at the next recitation.
DEFINITION.—Artificial Language, or Language Proper, consists of the spoken and written words used to communicate ideas and thoughts.
DEFINITION.—English Grammar is the science which teaches the forms, uses, and relations of the words of the English Language.
Let the pupils be required to tell what they learned in the previous lessons.
Teacher.—When I pronounce the two words star and bud thus: star bud, how many ideas, or mental pictures, do I call up to you?
T.—Do you see any connection between these ideas?
T.—When I utter the two words bud and swelling, thus: bud swelling, do you see any connection in the ideas they stand for?
P.—Yes, I imagine that I see a bud expanding, or growing larger.
T.—I will connect two words more closely, so as to express a thought: Buds swell. A thought has been formed in my mind when I say, Buds swell; and these two words, in which something is said of something else, express that thought, and make what we call a sentence. In the former expression, bud swelling it is assumed, or taken for granted, that buds perform the act; in the latter, the swelling is asserted as a fact.
Leaves falling. Do these two words express two ideas merely associated, or do they express a thought?
P.—They express ideas merely associated.
P.—Because, in these words, there is something said or asserted of leaves.
T.—When I say, Falling leaves rustle, does falling tell what is thought of leaves?
T.—What does falling do?
P.—It tells the kind of leaves you are thinking and speaking of.
T.—What word does tell what is thought of leaves?
T.—You see then that in the thought there are two parts; something of which we think, and that which we think about it.
Let the pupils give other examples.
Commit to memory all definitions.
DEFINITION.—A Sentence is the expression of a thought in words.
Which of the following expressions contain words that have no connection, which contain words merely associated, and which are sentences?
1. Flowers bloom. 2. Ice melts. 3. Bloom ice. 4. Grass grows. 5. Brooks babble. 6. Babbling brooks. 7. Grass soar. 8. Doors open. 9. Open doors. 10. Cows graze. 11. Curling smoke. 12. Sugar graze. 13. Dew sparkles. 14. Hissing serpents. 15. Smoke curls. 16. Serpents hiss. 17. Smoke curling. 18. Serpents sparkles. 19. Melting babble. 20. Eagles soar. 21. Birds chirping. 22. Birds are chirping. 23. Birds chirp. 24. Gentle cows. 25. Eagles are soaring. 26. Bees ice. 27. Working bees. 28. Bees work. 29. Crawling serpents. 30. Landscape piano. 31. Serpents crawl. 32. Eagles clock. 33. Serpents crawling.
Illustrate, by the use of a, b, and p, the difference between the sounds of letters and their names. Letters are the signs of what? What is an idea? A spoken word is the sign of what? A written word is the sign of what? How do they differ? To what four different things did we call attention in Lesson 1?
How are vowel sounds made? How are the two kinds of consonant sounds made? What are vowels? Name them. What are consonants? What is artificial language, or language proper? What do you understand by natural language? What is English grammar?
What three kinds of expressions are spoken of in Lessons 3 and 4? Give examples of each. What is a sentence?
On the following sentences, let the pupils be exercised according to the model.
Model.—Intemperance degrades. Why is this a sentence? Ans.—Because it expresses a thought. Of what is something thought? Ans.—Intemperance. Which word tells what is thought? Ans.—Degrades.
1. Magnets attract. 2. Horses neigh. 3. Frogs leap. 4. Cold contracts. 5. Sunbeams dance. 6. Heat expands. 7. Sunlight gleams. 8. Banners wave. 9. Grass withers. 10. Sailors climb. 11. Rabbits burrow. 12. Spring advances.
You see that in these sentences there are two parts. The parts are the Subject and the Predicate.
DEFINITION.—The Subject of a sentence names that of which something is thought.
DEFINITION.—The Predicate of a sentence tells what is thought.
DEFINITION.—The Analysis of a sentence is the separation of it into its parts.
Analyze, according to the model, the following sentences.
Model.—Stars twinkle. This is a sentence, because it expresses a thought. Stars is the subject, because it names that of which something is thought; twinkle is the predicate, because it tells what is thought.
To the Teacher.—After the pupils become familiar with the definitions, the "Models" may be varied, and some of the reasons maybe made specific; as, "Plants names the things we tell about; droop tells what plants do," etc.
Guard against needless repetition.
1. Plants droop. 2. Books help. 3. Clouds float. 4. Exercise strengthens. 5. Rain falls. 6. Time flies. 7. Rowdies fight. 8. Bread nourishes. 9. Boats capsize. 10. Water flows. 11. Students learn. 12. Horses gallop.
ANALYSIS AND THE DIAGRAM.
Hints for Oral Instruction.—I will draw on the board a heavy, or shaded, line, and divide it into two parts, thus:
We will consider the first part as the sign of the subject of a sentence, and the second part as the sign of the predicate of a sentence.
Now, if I write a word over the first line, thus—(doing it)—you will understand that that word is the subject of a sentence. If I write a word over the second line, thus—you will understand that that word is the predicate of a sentence.
Planets revolve ============ ===========
The class can see by this picture that Planets revolve is a sentence, that planets is the subject, and that revolve is the predicate.
These signs, or illustrations, made up of straight lines, we call Diagrams.
DEFINITION.—A Diagram is a picture of the offices and relations of the different parts of a sentence.
Analyze and diagram the following sentences.
1. Waves dash. 2. Kings reign. 3. Fruit ripens. 4. Stars shine. 5. Steel tarnishes. 6. Insects buzz. 7. Paul preached. 8. Poets sing. 9. Nero fiddled. 10. Larks sing. 11. Water ripples. 12. Lambs frisk. 13. Lions roar. 14. Tigers growl. 15. Breezes sigh. 16. Carthage fell. 17. Morning dawns. 18. Showers descended. 19. Diamonds sparkle. 20. Alexander conquered. 21. Jupiter thunders. 22. Columbus sailed, 23. Grammarians differ. 24. Cornwallis surrendered.
* * * * *
You have now learned to analyze sentences, that is, to separate them into their parts. You must next learn to put these parts together, that is, to build sentences.
We will find one part, and you must find the other and do the building.
To the Teacher.—Let some of the pupils write their sentences on the board, while others are reading theirs. Then let the work on the board be corrected.
Correct any expression that does not make good sense, or that asserts something not strictly true; for the pupil should early be taught to think accurately, as well as to write and speak grammatically.
Correct all mistakes in spelling, and in the use of capital letters and the period.
Call attention to the agreement in form of the predicate with the subject. See Notes, p. 163.
Insist on neatness. Collect the papers before the recitation closes.
CAPITAL LETTER-RULE.—The first word of every sentence must begin with a capital letter.
PERIOD—RULE.—A period must be placed after every sentence that simply affirms, denies, or expresses a command.
Construct sentences by supplying a subject to each of the following predicates.
Ask yourself the question, What swim, sink, hunt, etc.?
1. —— swim. 2. —— sinks. 3. —— hunt. 4. —— skate. 5. —— jingle. 6. —— decay. 7. —— climb. 8. —— creep. 9. —— run. 10. —— walk. 11. —— snort. 12. —— kick. 13. —— flashes. 14. —— flutters. 15. —— paddle. 16. —— toil. 17. —— terrifies. 18. —— rages. 19. —— expand. 20. —— jump. 21. —— hop. 22. —— bellow. 23. —— burns. 24. —— evaporates.
This exercise may profitably be extended by requiring the pupils to supply several subjects to each predicate.
Construct sentences by supplying a predicate to each of the following subjects.
Ask yourself the question, Artists do what?
1. Artists ——. 2. Sailors ——. 3. Tides ——. 4. Whales ——. 5. Gentlemen ——. 6. Swine ——. 7. Clouds ——. 8. Girls ——. 9. Fruit ——. 10. Powder ——. 11. Hail ——. 12. Foxes ——. 13. Water ——. 14. Frost ——. 15. Man ——. 16. Blood ——. 17. Kings ——. 18. Lilies ——. 19. Roses ——. 20. Wheels ——. 21. Waves ——. 22. Dew ——. 23. Boys ——. 24. Volcanoes ——. 25. Storms ——. 26. Politicians ——. 27. Serpents ——. 28. Chimneys ——. 29. Owls ——. 30. Rivers ——. 31. Nations ——. 32. Indians ——. 33. Grain ——. 34. Rogues ——. 34. Volcanoes ——. 35. Rome ——. 36. Briars ——.
This exercise may be extended by requiring the pupils to supply several predicates to each subject.
Of what two parts does a sentence consist? What is the subject of a sentence? What is the predicate of a sentence? What is the analysis of a sentence?
What is a diagram? What rule for the use of capital letters have you learned? What rule for the period?
Let the pupils "choose sides," as in a spelling match. Let the teacher select predicates from Lesson 8, and give them alternately to the pupils thus arranged. The first pupil prefixes to his word whatever suitable subjects he can think of, the teacher judging of their fitness and keeping the count. This pupil now rises and remains standing until some one else, on his side or the other, shall have prefixed to his word a greater number of apt subjects. The strife is to see who shall be standing at the close of the match, and which side shall have furnished the greater number of subjects. The exercise may be continued with the subjects of Lesson 9. Each pupil is to be limited to the same time—one or two minutes.
The predicate sometimes contains more than one word.
Analyze and diagram according to the model.
Model.—Socrates was poisoned.
Socrates was poisoned ============ ================
This is a sentence, because it expresses a thought. Socrates is the subject, because ——; was poisoned is the predicate, because ——. [Footnote: The word because—suggesting a reason—should be dropped from these "Models" whenever it may lead to mere mechanical repetition.]
1. Napoleon was banished. 2. Andre was captured. 3. Money is circulated. 4. Columbus was imprisoned. 5. Acorns are sprouting. 6. Bells are tolled. 7. Summer has come. 8. Sentences may be analyzed. 9. Clouds are reddening. 10. Air may be weighed. 11. Jehovah shall reign. 12. Corn is planted. 13. Grammarians will differ. 14. Snow is falling. 15. Leaves are rustling. 16. Children will prattle. 17. Crickets are chirping. 18. Eclipses have been foretold. 19. Storms may abate. 20. Deception may have been practiced. 21. Esau was hated. 22. Treason should have been punished. 23. Bees are humming. 24. Sodom might have been spared.
To the Teacher.—Continue oral and written exercises in agreement. See Notes, pp. 163,164.
Prefix the little helping words in the second column to such of the more important words in the third column as with them will make complete predicates, and join these predicates to all subjects in the first column with which they will unite to make good sense.
1 2 3 - - Burgoyne are woven. Henry Hudson was defeated. Sparrows can be condensed. Comets is inhaled. Time have been worn. Turbans may be slacked. Lime has been wasted. Steam could have been seen. Air must have been deceived. Carpets were quarreling.
Point out the subject and the predicate of each sentence in Lessons 28, 31, 34.
Look first for the word that asserts, and then, by putting who or what before this predicate, the subject may easily be found.
To the Teacher.—Most violations of the rules of concord come from a failure to recognize the relation of subject and predicate when these parts are transposed or are separated by other words. Such constructions should therefore receive special attention. See Notes, pp. 164, 165.
Introduce the class to the Parts of Speech before the close of this recitation. See "Hints for Oral Instruction."
See "Suggestions for COMPOSITION EXERCISES," p. 8, last paragraph.
CLASSES OF WORDS.
Hints for Oral Instruction.—By the assistance of the few hints here given, the ingenious teacher may render this usually dry subject interesting and highly attractive. By questioning the pupil as to what he has seen and heard, his interest may be excited and his curiosity awakened.
Suppose that we make an imaginary excursion to some pleasant field or grove, where we may study the habits, the plumage, and the songs of the little birds.
If we attempt to make the acquaintance of every little feathered singer we meet, we shall never get to the end of our pleasant task: but we find that some resemble one another in size, shape, color, habits, and song. These we associate together and call them sparrows.
We find others differing essentially from the sparrows, but resembling one another. These we call robins.
We thus find that, although we were unable to become acquainted with each individual bird, they all belong to a few classes, with which we may soon become familiar.
It is so with the words of our language. There are many thousand words, all of which belong to eight classes.
These classes of words are called Parts of Speech.
We classify birds according to their form, color, etc., but we group words into classes, called Parts of Speech, with respect to their use in the sentence.
We find that many words are names. These we put in one class and call them Nouns.
Each pupil may give the name of something in the room; the name of a distinguished person; a name that may be applied to a class of persons; the name of an animal; the name of a place: the name of a river; the name of a mountain; the name of something which we cannot see or touch, but of which we can think; as, beauty, mind.
Remind the pupils frequently that these names are all nouns.
DEFINITION.—A Noun is the name of anything.
Write in columns, headed nouns, the names of domestic animals, of garden vegetables, of flowers, of trees, of articles sold in a dry goods store, and of things that cannot be seen or touched; as, virtue, time, life.
Write and arrange, according to the following model, the names of things that can float, fly, walk, work, sit, or sing.
Nouns. Cork Clouds Model. Wood + floats or float. Ships Boys
Such expressions as Cork floats are sentences, and the nouns cork, ship, etc., are the subjects. You will find that every subject is a noun or some word or words used for a noun.
Be prepared to analyze and parse the sentences which you have made. Naming the class to which a word belongs is the first step in parsing.
Model for Analysis.—This is a sentence, because ——-; cork is the subject, because ——-; floats is the predicate, because ——-.
Parsing.—Cork is a noun, because it is the name of a thing—the bark of a tree.
Select and write all the nouns in the sentences given in Lessons 28, 31, 34.
Tell why they are nouns.
In writing the nouns, observe the following rule.
CAPITAL LETTER—RULE.—Every proper or individual name must begin with a capital letter.
To the Teacher.—See Notes, pp. 167-169.
With respect to what, do we classify words (Lesson 14)? What are such classes called? Can you illustrate this classification? What are all names? What is a noun? What is the first step in parsing? What is the rule for writing individual names?
Hints for Oral Instruction.—We propose to introduce you now to another class of words. (The teacher may here refer to the talk about birds.)
You have learned that one very large class of words consists of names of things. There is another very important class of words used to tell what these things do, or used to express their existence.
When I say, Plants grow, is grow the name of anything? P.—No. T.—What does it do? P.—It tells what plants do. It expresses action.
T.—When I say, God is, what does is express? P.—It expresses existence, or being.
T.—When I say, George sleeps, sleeps expresses being and something more; it tells the condition, or state in which George is, or exists, that is, it expresses state of being.
All the words that assert action, being, or state of being, we call Verbs.
Let the teacher write nouns on the board, and require the pupils to give all the words of which they can think, telling what the things named can do. They may be arranged thus:—
Noun. Verbs. grow, droop, Plants + decay, flourish, revive.
Each pupil may give a verb that expresses an action of the body; as weep, sing; an action of the mind; as, study, love; one that expresses being or state of being.
DEFINITION.—A Verb is a word that asserts action, being, or state of being.
The office of the verb in all its forms, except two (the participle and the infinitive, see Lessons 48 and 49), is to assert. This it does whether the sentence affirms, denies, or asks a question.
To the Teacher.—In the exercises of this and the next two Lessons, let the pupils note the agreement of the verb with its subject. See Notes, pp. 163-165.
Supply, to each of the following nouns, as many appropriate verbs as you can think of.
Let some express being or state of being.
Water ——. Wind ——. Pens ——. Parrots ——. Vines ——. Farmers ——. Trees ——. Ministers ——.
One verb may consist of two, three, or four words; as, is singing, will be sung, might have been sung.
Form verbs by combining the words in columns 2 and 3, and add these verbs to all the nouns in column 1 with which they appropriately combine.
1 2 3 - Laws has been published. Clouds have been paid. Food will be restored. Health should have been preserved. Taxes may be collected. Books are obeyed.
The examples you have written are sentences; the nouns are subjects, and the verbs are predicates.
As verbs are the only words that assert, every predicate must be a verb, or must contain a verb.
Be prepared to analyze and parse five of the sentences that you have written.
Model.—Laws are obeyed. Diagram and analyze as in Lesson 11.
Parsing.—Laws is a noun, because——; are obeyed is a verb, because it asserts action.
Select and write all the verbs in the sentences given in Lessons 28, 31, 34, and tell why they are verbs.
From the following nouns and verbs, build as many sentences as possible, taking care that every one makes good sense.
Poems, was conquered, lambs, rebellion, stars, forests, shone, were seen, were written, treason, patriots, meteors, fought, were discovered, frisk, Cain, have fallen, fled, stream, have crumbled, day, ages, deer, are flickering, are bounding, gleamed, voices, lamps, rays, were heard, are gathering, time, death, friends, is coming, will come.
To the Teacher.—Before this recitation closes, let the teacher open up the subject of Lesson 19. See "Hints for Oral Instruction."
Hints for Oral Instruction.—We propose to introduce you now to the third part of speech. T.—If I should ask who whispered, and some boy should promptly confess, what would he say? P.—I whispered. T.—Would he mention his own name? P.—No. T.—What word would he use instead? P.—I.
T.—Suppose that I had spoken to that boy and had accused him of whispering, how should I have addressed him without mentioning his name? P.—You whispered. T.—What word would be used instead of the name of the boy to whom I spoke? P.—You.
T.—Suppose that, without using his name, I had told you what he did, what should I have said? P.—He whispered. T.—What word would have been used instead of the name of the boy of whom I spoke? P.—He.
(Repeat these questions and suppose the pupil to be a girl.)
T.—If I should tell that boy to close his book, when his book was already closed, what would he say without mentioning the word book? P.—It is closed.
T.—If I should accuse several of you of whispering, and one should speak for himself and for the others whispering with him, what would he say? We whispered.
T—Suppose that a boy should inform me that all of the boys on that seat had whispered, what would he say? P.—They whispered.
I, you, he, she, it, we, and they are not names, but they are used instead of names. We call such words Pronouns.
DEFINITION.—A Pronoun is a word used for a noun.
CAPITAL LETTERS—RULE.—The words I and O should be written in capital letters.
Analysis and Parsing.
Model.—You will be rewarded.
Oral Analysis—This is a sentence, because——; you is the subject, because——; will be rewarded is the predicate, because——.
Parsing.—You is a pronoun, because it stands for the name of the person spoken to; will be rewarded is a verb, because——.
1. We think. 2. She prattles. 3. We have recited. 4. I study. 5. You have been seen. 6. It has been decided. 7. He was punished. 8. They are conquered. 9. Thou art adored.
Compose nine similar sentences, using a pronoun for the subject of each, and diagram them.
To the Teacher.—Call special attention to the agreement of the verb with I and you. See Notes, p. 164.
Before this recitation closes, explain "Modified Subject." See "Hints for Oral Instruction."
Hints for Oral Instruction.—The Subject and the Predicate may be considered as the foundation on which every sentence is built. No sentence can be constructed without them.
You have already learned that these parts alone, sometimes make a complete structure; but we are about to show you that they are often used as the foundation of a structure, which is completed by adding other parts.
I hold in my hand several pieces of metal, with letters and other characters stamped on them. What do you say I have in my hand? P.—Money. T.—Yes. What other word can you use? P.—Coin. T.—Yes. I will write on the board this sentence: Coin is stamped.
The subject coin is a general name for all such pieces of metal. I will write the word the before this sentence. The coin is stamped. I have now made an assertion about one particular coin, so the meaning of the subject is limited by joining the word the.
I can again limit the meaning of the subject by putting the word a before it. The assertion is now about one coin, but no particular one. I point to the piece near me and say, This coin is stamped. I point to the one farther from me and say, That coin is stamped.
When words are joined to the subject to limit its meaning, we say that the subject is modified.
The words the, a, this, and that modify the subject by limiting the word to one coin, or to one particular coin.
We can modify the subject by joining some word which will tell what kind of coin is meant.
Here is a coin dated 18—. We can say, The new coin is stamped. Here the word new tells what kind of coin is meant. What other words can I use to modify coin? P.—Beautiful, bright, new, round, silver. T.—These words beautiful, bright, new, round, and silver modify the subject by telling the qualities of the coin.
We call the words the, beautiful, etc., Modifiers.
DEFINITION.—A Modifier is a word or group of words joined to some part of the sentence to qualify or limit the meaning.
The Subject with its Modifiers is called the Modified Subject.
Analyze and diagram the following sentences.
Model.—The genial summer days have come.
days have come ==================== ============ The genial summer
Explanation of the Diagram.—The lighter lines, joined to the subject line, stand for the modifiers, the less important parts.
Oral Analysis.—This is a sentence, because——; days is the subject, because——; have come is the predicate, because——; The, genial, and summer are modifiers of the subject, because they are words joined to the subject to modify its meaning. The genial summer days is the modified subject.
To the Teacher.—To excite thought and guard against mere routine, pupils may, so far as they are able, make the reasons specific. For example, "The points out some particular clouds, dark tells their color," etc.
Here and elsewhere the teacher must determine how far it is profitable to follow "Models." There is great danger of wasting time in repeating forms that require no mental effort.
1. The angry wind is howling. 2. The dead leaves fall. 3. The dark clouds lower. 4. The tall elm bends. 5. All men must die. 6. The lusty bellows roared. 7. A boding silence reigned. 8. Little Arthur was murdered. 9. The mighty oak was uprooted. 10. The fragile violet was crushed. 11. The beautiful marble statue was carved. 12. The turbid torrent roared. 13. The affrighted shepherds fled. 14. The vivid lightning flashes. 15. Those elegant Etruscan vases are broken.
What is a verb? Give examples of verbs of action. Of being. Of state of being. May a verb consist of more than one word? Illustrate. Verbs are the only words that do what? What must every predicate contain?
What parts of speech are explained in the preceding Lessons? What is a pronoun? Give the rule for writing the words I and 0.
What is the foundation on which every sentence is built? May the subject be modified? What is a modifier? What is the modified subject?
We have here prepared the foundations of sentences which you are to complete by writing two or more suitable modifiers to each subject. Be careful to choose and arrange your material so as to make a neat and appropriate structure.
Model.————— eminence was reached. That lofty eminence was reached.
1. —— speaker was applauded. 2. —— difficulties were overcome. 3. —— leaf trembles. 4. —— accident happened. 5. —— books should be read. 6. —— houses are built. 7. —— soldiers perished. 8. —— opinions prevailed. 9. —— leader fell. 10. —— task is completed.
For other subjects and predicates, the teacher is referred to Lessons 7 and 11.
Build sentences by prefixing modified subjects to the following predicates.
1. —— frolic. 2. —— crawl. 3. —— are dashing. 4. —— was caught. 5. —— escaped. 6. —— chatter. 7. —— flourished. 8. —— whistles.
Build, on each of the following subjects, three sentences similar to those in the model.
Model ——————- sun ———————-
The bright sun is shining. The glorious sun has risen. The unclouded sun is sinking.
1. —— snow ——. 2. —— dew ——. 3. —— wind ——. 4. —— landscape ——.
To the Teacher.—Please take notice that the next Lesson begins with "Hints for Oral Instruction."
Hints for Oral Instruction.—You are now prepared to consider the fourth part of speech. Those words that are added to the subject to modify its meaning are called Adjectives.
Some grammarians have formed a separate class of the little words the, and an or a, calling them articles.
I will write the word boys on the board, and you may name adjectives that will appropriately modify it. As you give them, I will write these adjectives in a column.
small large white black straight + boys. crooked five some all
What words here modify boys by adding the idea of size? What by adding the idea of color? What by adding the idea of form? What by adding the idea of number? What are such words called? Why?
Let the teacher name familiar objects and require the pupils to join appropriate adjectives to the names till their stock is exhausted.
DEFINITION.—An Adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun.
Analysis and Parsing.
Model.—A fearful storm was raging. Diagram and analyze as in Lesson 20.
Nouns. Pronouns. Adjectives. Verbs. storm A fearful was raging.
Oral Parsing.—A is an adjective, because it is joined to the noun storm, to modify its meaning; fearful is an adjective, because ———; storm is a noun, because ———; was raging is a verb, because ——-.
1. The rosy morn advances. 2. The humble boon was obtained. 3. An unyielding firmness was displayed. 4. The whole earth smiles. 5. Several subsequent voyages were made. 6. That burly mastiff must be secured. 7. The slender greyhound was released. 8. The cold November rain is falling. 9. That valuable English watch has been sold. 10. I alone have escaped. 11. Both positions can be defended. 12. All such discussions should have been avoided. 13. That dilapidated old wooden building has fallen.
To the Teacher.—See Notes, pp. 169, 170.
Prefix five adjectives to each of the following nouns.
Shrubs, wilderness, beggar, cattle, cloud.
Write ten sentences with modified subjects, using in each two or more of the following adjectives.
A, an, the, heroic, one, all, many, every, either, first, tenth, frugal, great, good, wise, honest, immense, square, circular, oblong, oval, mild, virtuous, universal, sweet, careless, fragrant.
Write five sentences with modified subjects, each of which shall contain one of the following words as a subject.
Chimney, hay, coach, robber, horizon.
An and a are forms of the same word, once spelled an, and meaning one. After losing something of this force, an was still used before vowels and consonants alike; as, an eagle, an ball, an hair, an use. Still later, and for the sake of ease in speaking, the word came to have the two forms mentioned above; and an was retained before letters having vowel sounds, but it dropped its n and became a before letters having consonant sounds. This is the present usage.
CORRECT THESE ERRORS.
A apple; a obedient child; an brickbat; an busy boy.
CORRECT THESE ERRORS.
A heir; a hour; a honor.
Notice, the first letter of these words is silent.
CORRECT THESE ERRORS.
An unit; an utensil; an university; an ewe; an ewer; an union; an use; an history; an one.
Unit begins with the sound of the consonant y; and one, with that of w.
To the Teacher.—See "Suggestions for COMPOSITION EXERCISES," p. 8, last paragraph.
Hints for Oral Instruction.—I will now show you how the predicate of a sentence may be modified.
The ship sails gracefully. What word is here joined to sails to tell the manner of sailing? P.—Gracefully.
T.—The ship sails immediately. What word is here joined to sails to tell the time of sailing? P.—Immediately.
T.—The, ship sails homeward. What word is here joined to sails to tell the direction of sailing? P.—Homeward.
T.—These words gracefully, immediately, and homeward are modifiers of the predicate. In the first sentence, sails gracefully is the Modified Predicate.
Let the following modifiers be written on the board as the pupil suggests them.
instantly. soon. daily. hither. The ship sails + hence. there. rapidly. smoothly. well.
Which words indicate the time of sailing? Which, the place? Which, the manner?
The teacher may suggest predicates, and require the pupils to find as many appropriate modifiers as they can.
The Predicate with its modifiers is called the Modified Predicate.
Analysis and Parsing.
Analyze and diagram the following sentences, and parse the nouns, pronouns, verbs, and adjectives.
Model.—The letters were rudely carved.
letters were carved ======== ============== The udely
Written Parsing.—See Model, Lesson 22.
Oral Analysis.—This is a sentence, because——; letters is the subject, because——; were carved is the predicate, because——; The is a modifier of the subject, because——; rudely is a modifier of the predicate, because——; The letters is the modified subject, were rudely carved is the modified predicate.
1. He spoke eloquently. 2. She chattered incessantly. 3. They searched everywhere. 4. I shall know presently. 5. The bobolink sings joyously. 6. The crowd cheered heartily. 7. A great victory was finally won. 8. Threatening clouds are moving slowly. 9. The deafening waves dash angrily. 10. These questions may be settled peaceably. 11. The wounded soldier fought bravely. 12. The ranks were quickly broken. 13. The south wind blows softly. 14. Times will surely change. 15. An hour stole on.
ANALYSIS AND PARSING.
ONE MODIFIER JOINED TO ANOTHER.
Analyze and diagram the following sentences, and parse the nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verbs.
Model.—The frightened animal fled still more rapidly.
animal fled ================== ==================== The frightened apidly more still
Explanation of the Diagram.—Notice that the three lines forming this group all slant the same way to show that each stands for a modifying word. The line standing for the principal word of the group is joined to the predicate line. The end of each of the other two lines is broken, and turned to touch its principal at an angle.
Oral Analysis.—This is a sentence, because——; animal is the subject, because——; fled is the predicate, because——; The and frightened are modifiers of the subject, because——; still more rapidly is a modifier of the predicate, because it is a group of words joined to it to limit its meaning; rapidly is the principal word of the group; more modifies rapidly, and still modifies more, The frightened animal is the modified subject; fled still more rapidly is the modified predicate.
1. The crocus flowers very early. 2. A violet bed is budding near. 3. The Quakers were most shamefully persecuted. 4. Perhaps he will return. 5. We laughed very heartily. 6. The yellow poplar leaves floated down. 7. The wind sighs so mournfully. 8. Few men have ever fought so stubbornly. 9. The debt will probably be paid. 10. The visitor will soon be here. 11. That humane project was quite generously sustained. 12. A perfectly innocent man was very cruelly persecuted.
What is an adjective? What are the words an or a, and the called by some grammarians? When is a used, and when an? Give examples of their misuse.
What is the modified predicate? Give an example. Give an example of one modifier joined to another.
Select your subjects from Lesson 9, and construct twenty sentences having modified subjects and modified predicates.
Select sentences from Lessons 6, 7, and 11, and conduct the exercise as directed in Lesson 10. Let the strife be to see who can supply the greatest number of modifiers to the subject and to the predicate. The teacher can vary this exercise.
Hints for Oral Instruction.—You have learned, in the preceding Lessons, that the meaning of the predicate may be limited by modifiers, and that one modifier may be joined to another. Words used to modify the predicate of a sentence and those used to modify modifiers belong to one class, or one part of speech, and are called Adverbs.
T.—She decided too hastily. What word tells how she decided? P.—-Hastily. T.—What word tells how hastily? P.—Too. T.—What then are the words too and hastily? P.—Adverbs.
T.—Too much time has been wasted. What word modifies much by telling how much? P.—Too. T.—What part of speech is much? P.—An adjective. T.—What then is too? P.—An adverb.
T.—Why is too in the first sentence an adverb? Why is too in the second sentence an adverb? Why is hastily an adverb?
Let the teacher use the following and similar examples, and continue the questions. He thinks so. So much time has been wasted.
Let the teacher give verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, and require the pupils to modify them by appropriate adverbs.
DEFINITION.—An Adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
Analysis and Parsing.
Analyze, diagram, and parse the following sentences.
Model.—We have been very agreeably disappointed. Diagram as in. Lesson 25.
For Written Parsing, use Model, Lesson 22, adding a column for adverbs.
Oral Parsing.—We is a pronoun, because——; have been disappointed is a verb, because——; very is an adverb, because it is joined to the adverb agreeably to tell how agreeably; agreeably is an adverb, because it is joined to the verb have been disappointed to indicate manner.
1. The plough-boy plods homeward. 2. The water gushed forth. 3. Too much time was wasted. 4. She decided too hastily. 5. You should listen more attentively. 6. More difficult sentences must be built. 7. An intensely painful operation was performed. 8. The patient suffered intensely. 9. That story was peculiarly told. 10. A peculiarly interesting story was told. 11. An extravagantly high price was paid. 12. That lady dresses extravagantly.
The pupil will notice that, in some of the examples above, the same adverb modifies an adjective in one sentence and an adverb in another, and that, in other examples, an adjective and a verb are modified by the same word. You may learn from this why such modifiers are grouped into one class.
ANALYSIS AND PARSING.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES FOR REVIEW.
1. You must diagram neatly. 2. The sheaves are nearly gathered. 3. The wheat is duly garnered. 4. The fairies were called together. 5. The birds chirp merrily. 6. This reckless adventurer has returned. 7. The wild woods rang. 8. White fleecy clouds are floating above. 9. Those severe laws have been repealed. 10. A republican government was established. 11. An unusually large crop had just been harvested. 12. She had been waiting quite patiently. 13. A season so extremely warm had never before been known. 14. So brave a deed [Footnote: Can be commended is the verb, and not is an adverb.] cannot be too warmly commended.
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES FOR REVIEW.
Build sentences containing the following adverbs.
Hurriedly, solemnly, lightly, well, how, somewhere, abroad, forever, seldom, exceedingly.
Using the following subjects and predicates as foundations, build six sentences having modified subjects and modified predicates, two of which shall contain adverbs modifying adjectives; two, adverbs modifying adverbs; and two, adverbs modifying verbs.
1. ———- boat glides ——-. 2. ———- cloud is rising ——-. 3. ———- breezes are blowing ——-. 4. ———- elephant was captured ——-. 5. ———- streams flow ——-. 6. ———- spring has opened ——-.
We here give you, in classes, the material out of which you are to build five sentences with modified subjects and modified predicates.
Select the subject and the predicate first.
Nouns and Pronouns. Verbs. Adjectives. Adverbs.
branch was running large, that lustily coach were played both, the downward they cried all, an very we is growing several, a rapidly games cheered amusing not, loudly, then
ERRORS FOR CORRECTION.
To the Teacher.—We here suggest additional work in composition, with particular reference to the choice and position of adjectives. See Notes, pp. 171,172.
Caution.—When two or more adjectives are used with a noun, care must be taken in their arrangement. If there is any difference in their relative importance, place nearest the noun the one that is most intimately connected with it.
To the Teacher.—We have in mind here those numerous cases where one adjective modifies the noun, and the second modifies the noun as limited by the first. All ripe apples are picked. Here ripe modifies apples, but all modifies apples limited by ripe. Not all apples are picked, but only all that are ripe.
CORRECT THE FOLLOWING ERRORS OF POSITION.
A wooden pretty bowl stood on the table. The blue beautiful sky is cloudless. A young industrious man was hired. The new marble large house was sold.
Caution.—When the adjectives are of the same rank, place them where they will sound the best. This will usually be in the order of their length—the longest last.
CORRECT THESE ERRORS.
An entertaining and fluent speaker followed. An enthusiastic, noisy, large crowd was addressed.
Caution.—Do not use the pronoun them for the adjective those.
CORRECT THESE ERRORS.
Them books are nicely bound. Them two sentences should be corrected.
CORRECT THE FOLLOWING MISCELLANEOUS ERRORS.
arouse, o romans hear, o israel it is i i may be Mistaken you Have frequently been warned some Very savage beasts have been Tamed
What is an adverb? Give an example of an adverb modifying an adjective; one modifying a verb; one modifying an adverb. Why are such expressions as a wooden pretty bowl faulty? Why is an enthusiastic, noisy, large crowd faulty? Why is them books wrong? Why is i may be Mistaken wrong? Why is hear, o israel, wrong? Study the Review Questions given in previous Lessons.
To the Teacher.—See COMPOSITION EXERCISES in the Supplement—Selection from Darwin.
PHRASES INTRODUCED BY PREPOSITIONS.
Hints for Oral Instruction.—In the preceding Lessons, you have learned that several words may be grouped together and used as one modifier. In the examples given, the principal word is joined directly to the subject or to the predicate, and this word is modified by another word. In this Lesson also groups of words are used as modifiers, but these words are not united with one another, or with the word which the group modifies, just as they are in the preceding Lessons. I will write on the board this sentence: De Soto marched into Florida. T.—What tells where De Soto marched? P.—Into Florida. T.—What is the principal word of the group? P.—Florida. T.—Is Florida joined directly to the predicate, as rapidly was in Lesson 25? P.—No. T.—What little word comes in to unite the modifier to marched? P.—Into. T.—Does Florida alone, tell where he marched? P.—No. T.—Does into alone, tell where he marched? P.—No.
T.—These groups of related words are called Phrases. Let the teacher draw on the board the diagram of the sentence above.
Phrases of the form illustrated in this diagram are the most common, and they perform a very important function in our language.
Let the teacher frequently call attention to the fact that all the words of a phrase are taken together to perform one distinct office.
A phrase modifying the subject is equivalent to an adjective, and, frequently, may be changed into one. The dew of the morning has passed away. What word may be used for the phrase of the morning? P.—Morning. T.—Yes. The morning dew has passed away.
A phrase modifying the predicate is equivalent to an adverb, and, frequently, may be changed into one. We shall go to that place. What word may be used for the phrase, to that place? P.—There. T.—Yes. We shall go there.
Change the phrases in these sentences:—-
_A citizen of America was insulted.
We walked toward home_.
Let the teacher write on the board the following words, and require the pupils to add to each, one or more words to complete a phrase, and then to construct a sentence in which the phrase may be properly employed: To, from, by, at, on, with, in, into, over.
DEFINITION.—A Phrase is a group of words denoting related ideas but not expressing a thought.
Analysis and Parsing.
Analyze the following sentences, and parse the nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs.
Model.—The finest trout in the lake are generally caught in the deepest water.
trout are caught ================ ================ The finest in generally in lake water he he deepest
Explanation of the Diagram.—You will notice that the diagram of the phrase is made up of a slanting line, standing for the introductory and connecting word, and a horizontal line, representing the principal word. Under the latter, are placed the little slanting lines standing for the modifiers of the principal word. Here and elsewhere all modifiers are joined to their principal words by slanting lines.
Oral Analysis.—This is a sentence, because ———; trout is the subject, because ——-; are caught is the predicate, because ———; the words The and finest, and the phrase, in the lake, are modifiers of the subject, because ——-; the word generally and the phrase, in the deepest water, are modifiers of the predicate, because ———; in introduces the first phrase, and lake is the principal word; in introduces the second phrase, and water is the principal word; the and deepest are modifiers of water; The finest trout in the lake is the modified subject, and are generally caught in the deepest water is the modified predicate.
1. The gorilla lives in Africa. 2. It seldom rains in Egypt. 3. The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth. 4. The wet grass sparkled in the light. 5. The little brook ran swiftly under the bridge. 6. Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga. 7. The steeples of the village pierced through the dense fog. 8. The gloom of winter settled down on everything. 9. A gentle breeze blows from the south. 10. The temple of Solomon was destroyed. 11. The top of the mountain is covered with snow. 12. The second Continental Congress convened at Philadelphia.
Build sentences, employing the following phrases as modifiers.
To Europe, of oak, from Albany, at the station, through the fields, for vacation, among the Indians, of the United States.
Supply to the following predicates subjects modified by phrases.
—— is situated on the Thames. —— has arrived. —— was destroyed by an earthquake. —— was received. —— has just been completed. —— may be enjoyed.
Supply to the following subjects predicates modified by phrases.
Iron ——. The trees ——. Squirrels ——. The Bible ——. Sugar ——. Cheese ——. Paul ——. Strawberries ——. The mountain ——.
Write five sentences, each of which shall contain one or more phrases used as modifiers.
Re-write the following sentences, changing the italicized words into equivalent phrases.
Model.—A golden image was made. An image of gold was made.
You will notice that the adjective golden was placed before the subject, but, when changed to a phrase, it followed the subject.
1. The book was carefully read. 2. The old soldiers fought courageously. 3. A group of children were strolling homeward. 4. No season of life should be spent idly. 5. The English ambassador has just arrived. 6. That generous act was liberally rewarded.
Change the following adjectives and adverbs into equivalent phrases, and employ the phrases in sentences of your own building.
Wooden, penniless, eastward, somewhere, here, evening, everywhere, yonder, joyfully, wintry.
Make a sentence out of the words in each line below.
Boat, waves, glides, the, the, over. He, Sunday, church, goes, the, on, to. Year, night, is dying, the, the, in. Qualities, Charlemagne, vices, were alloyed, the, great, of, with. Indians, America, intemperance, are thinned, the, out, of, by.
Hints for Oral Instruction.—In the preceding Lessons, the little words that were placed before nouns, thus forming phrases, belong to a, class of words called Prepositions. You noticed that these words, which you have now learned to call prepositions, served to introduce phrases. The preposition shows the relation of the idea expressed by the principal word of the phrase to that of the word which the phrase modifies. It serves also to connect these words.
In the sentence, The squirrel ran up a tree, what word shows the relation of the act of running, to the tree? Ans. Up.
Other words may be used to express different relations. Repeat, nine times, the sentence above given, supplying, in the place of up, each of the following prepositions: Around, behind, down, into, over, through, to, under, from.
Let this exercise be continued, using such sentences as, The man went into the house; The ship sailed toward the bay.
DEFINITION.—A Preposition is a word that introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word modified.
Analysis and Parsing.
Model.—Flowers preach to us.
For Analysis and Diagram, see Lesson 31.
For Written Parsing, see Lesson 22. Add the needed columns.
Oral Parsing.—Flowers is a noun, because——; preach is a verb, because——; to is a preposition, because it shows the relation, in sense, between us and preach; us is a pronoun, because it is used instead of the name of the speaker and the names of those for whom he speaks.
1. The golden lines of sunset glow. 2. A smiling landscape lay before us. 3. Columbus was born at Genoa. 4. The forces of Hannibal were routed by Scipio. 5. The capital of New York is on the Hudson. 6. The ships sail over the boisterous sea. 7. All names of the Deity should begin with capital letters. 8. Air is composed chiefly of two invisible gases. 9. The greater portion of South America lies between the tropics. 10. The laurels of the warrior must at all times be dyed in blood. 11. The first word of every entire sentence should begin with a capital letter. 12. The subject of a sentence is generally placed before the predicate.
(The teacher may find it profitable to make a separate lesson of this exercise.)
Let the teacher write on the board a subject and a predicate that will admit of many modifiers. The pupils are to expand the sentence into as many separate sentences as possible, each containing one apt phrase modifier. The competition is to see who can build the most and the best sentences in a given time. The teacher gathers up the slates and reads the work aloud, or has the pupils exchange slates and read it themselves.
COMPOUND SUBJECT AND COMPOUND PREDICATE.
When two or more subjects united by a connecting word have the same predicate, they form a Compound Subject; and, when two or more predicates connected in like manner have the same subject, they form a Compound Predicate.
In the sentence, Birds and bees can fly, the two words birds and bees, connected by and, have the same predicate; the same action is asserted of both birds and bees. In the sentence, Leaves fade and fall, two assertions are made of the same things. In the first sentence, birds and bees form the compound subject; and, in the second, fade and fall form the compound predicate.
Analyze and parse the following sentences.
Models.—Napoleon rose, reigned, and fell.
Frogs, antelopes, and kangaroos can jump.
rose Frogs ,=,===== ======.=. / ' ' Napoleon / X ' reigned antelopes ' X can jump ====== '======== ========' ========= and' 'and/ ' fell kangaroos ' / '-'====== =========='='
Explanation of the Diagram.—The short line following the subject line represents the entire predicate, and is supposed to be continued in the three horizontal lines that follow, each of which represents one of the parts of the compound predicate. These three lines are united by dotted lines, which stand for the connecting words. The X denotes that an and is understood.
Study this explanation carefully, and you will understand the other diagram.
Oral Analysis of the first sentence.
This is a sentence, because ——; Napoleon is the subject, because ——; rose, reigned, and fell form the compound predicate, because they belong in common to the same subject, and say something about Napoleon. And connects reigned and fell.
1. The Rhine and the Rhone rise in Switzerland. 2. Time and tide wait for no man. 3. Washington and Lafayette fought for American Independence. 4. Wild birds shrieked, and fluttered on the ground. 5. The mob raged and roared. 6. The seasons came and went. 7. Pride, poverty, and fashion cannot live in the same house. 8. The tables of stone were cast to the ground and broken. 9. Silver or gold will be received in payment. 10. Days, months, years, and ages will circle away.
What is a phrase? A phrase modifying a subject is equivalent to what? Illustrate. A phrase modifying a predicate is equivalent to what? Illustrate.
What are prepositions? What do you understand by a compound subject? Illustrate. What do you understand by a compound predicate? Illustrate.
CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.
The words and and or, used in the preceding Lesson to connect the nouns and the verbs, belong to a class of words called Conjunctions.
Conjunctions may also connect words used as modifiers; as,
A daring but foolish feat was performed.
They may connect phrases; as,
We shall go to Saratoga and to Niagara.
They may connect clauses, that is, expressions that, standing alone, would be sentences; as,
He must increase, but I must decrease.
DEFINITION.—A Conjunction, is a word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses.
The Interjection is the eighth and last part of speech. Interjections are mere exclamations, and are without grammatical relation to any other word in the sentence.
DEFINITION.—An Interjection is a word used to express strong or sudden feeling.
Bravo! hurrah! pish! hush! ha, ha! alas! hail! lo! pshaw!
Analyze and parse the following sentences.
Model.—Hurrah! that cool and fearless fireman has rushed into the house and up the burning stairs.
fireman has rushed ================== ====================== That and and ..... ........ up cool fearless into stairs house he urning he
Explanation of the Diagram.—The line representing the interjection is not connected with the diagram. Notice the dotted lines, one standing for the and which connects the two word modifiers; the other, for the and connecting the two phrase modifiers.
N. Pro. Adj. Vb. Adv. Prep. Conj. Int. fireman the has rushed into and hurrah house that up and stairs cool fearless burning
Oral Parsing of the conjunction and the interjection.
The two ands are conjunctions, because they connect. The first connects two word modifiers; the second, two phrase modifiers. Hurrah is an interjection, because it expresses a burst of sudden feeling.
1. The small but courageous band was finally overpowered. 2. Lightning and electricity were identified by Franklin. 3. A complete success or an entire failure was anticipated. 4. Good men and bad men are found in all communities. 5. Vapors rise from the ocean and fall upon the land. 6. The Revolutionary war began at Lexington and ended at Yorktown. 7. Alas! all hope has fled. 8. Ah! I am surprised at the news. 9. Oh! we shall certainly drown. 10. Pshaw! you are dreaming. 11. Hurrah! the field is won.
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITAL LETTERS.
COMMA—RULE.—Phrases that are placed out of their natural order [Footnote: A phrase in its natural order follows the word it modifies.] and made emphatic, or that are loosely connected with the rest of the sentence, should be set off by the comma.
PUNCTUATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.
Model.—The cable, after many failures, was successfully laid. Upon the platform 'twixt eleven and twelve I'll visit you. To me this place is endeared by many associations. Your answers with few exceptions have been correctly given. In English much depends on the placing of phrases.
COMMA—RULE.—Words or phrases connected by conjunctions are separated from each other by the comma unless all the conjunctions are expressed.
PUNCTUATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.
Model.—Caesar came, saw, and conquered. Caesar came and saw and conquered.
He travelled in England, in Scotland, and in Ireland.
(The comma is used in the first sentence, because a conjunction is omitted; but not in the second, as all the conjunctions are expressed.)
A brave prudent and honorable man was chosen.
Augustus Tiberius Nero and Vespasian were Roman emperors.
Through rainy weather across a wild country over muddy roads after a long ride we came to the end of our journey.
PERIOD and CAPITAL LETTER—RULE.—Abbreviations generally begin with capital letters and are always followed by the period.
CORRECT THE FOLLOWING ERRORS. Model.—Mr., Esq., N. Y., P. M.
gen, a m, mrs, no, u s a, n e, eng, p o, rev, prof, dr, gram, capt, coi, co, va, conn.
EXCLAMATION POINT—RULE.—All exclamatory expressions must be followed by the exclamation point.
PUNCTUATE THE FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONS.
Model.—Ah! Oh! Zounds! Stop pinching!
Pshaw, whew, alas, ho Tom, halloo Sir, good-bye, welcome.
To the Teacher.—Call attention to the agreement of verbs with compound subjects. Require the pupils to justify the verb-forms in Lesson 36 and elsewhere. See Notes, pp. 165-167.
Write predicates for the following compound subjects.
Snow and hail; leaves and branches; a soldier or a sailor; London and Paris.
Write compound predicates for the following subjects.
The sun; water; fish; steamboats; soap; farmers; fences; clothes.
Write subjects for the following compound predicates.
Live, feel, and grow; judges and rewards; owes and pays; inhale and exhale; expand and contract; flutters and alights; fly, buzz, and sting; restrain or punish.
Write compound subjects before the following predicates.
May be seen; roar; will be appointed; have flown; has been recommended.
Write compound predicates after the following compound subjects.
Boys, frogs, and horses; wood, coal, and peat; Maine and New Hampshire; Concord, Lexington, and Bunker Hill; pins, tacks, and needles.
Write compound subjects before the following compound predicates.
Throb and ache; were tried, condemned, and hanged; eat, sleep, and dress.
Choose your own material and write five sentences, each having a compound subject and a compound predicate.
Hints for Oral Instruction.—When we say, The sun gives, we express no complete thought. The subject sun is complete, but the predicate gives does not make a complete assertion. When we say, The sun gives light, we do utter a complete thought. The predicate gives is completed by the word light. Whatever fills out, or completes, we call a Complement. We will therefore call light the complement of the predicate. As light completes the predicate by naming the thing acted upon, we call it the Object Complement.
Expressions like the following may be written on the board, and by a series of questions the pupils may be made to dwell upon these facts till they are thoroughly understood.
The officer arrested ——-; the boy found ——-; Charles saw ——-; coopers make ——-.
Besides these verbs requiring object complements, there are others that do not make complete sense without the aid of a complement of another kind.
A complete predicate does the asserting and expresses what is asserted. In the sentence, Armies march, march is a complete predicate, for it does the asserting and expresses what is asserted; viz., marching. In the phrase, armies marching, marching expresses the same act as that denoted by march, but it asserts nothing. In the sentence, Chalk is white, is does the asserting, but it does not express what is asserted. We do not wish to assert merely that chalk is or exists. What we wish to assert of chalk, is the quality expressed by the adjective white. As white expresses a quality or attribute, we may call it an Attribute Complement.
Using expressions like the following, let the facts given above be drawn from the class by means of questions.
Grass growing; grass grows; green grass; grass is green.
DEFINITION.—The Object Complement of a sentence completes the predicate, and names that which receives the act.
DEFINITION.—The Attribute Complement of a sentence completes the predicate and belongs to the subject.
The complement with all its modifiers is called the Modified Complement.
Analysis and Parsing.
Model.—Fulton invented the first steamboat.
Fulton invented steamboat ======== ====================== he first
Explanation of the Diagram.—You will see that the line standing for the object complement is a continuation of the predicate line, and that the little vertical line only touches this without cutting it.
Oral Analysis.—Fulton and invented, as before. Steamboat is the object complement, because it completes the predicate, and names that which receives the act. The and first, as before. The first steamboat is the modified complement.
1. Caesar crossed the Rubicon. 2. Morse invented the telegraph. 3. Ericsson built the Monitor. 4. Hume wrote a history. 5. Morn purples the east, 6. Antony beheaded Cicero.
Model.—Gold is malleable.
Gold is malleable ==== ==============
In this diagram, the line standing for the attribute complement, like the object line, is a continuation of the predicate line; but notice the difference in the little mark separating the incomplete[Footnote: Hereafter we shall call the verb the predicate, but, when followed by a complement, it must be regarded as an incomplete predicate.] predicate from the complement.
Oral Analysis.—-Gold and is, as before.
Malleable is the attribute complement, because it completes the predicate, and expresses a quality belonging to gold.
7. Pure water is tasteless. 8. The hare is timid. 9. Fawns are graceful. 10. This peach is delicious. 11. He was extremely prodigal. 12. The valley of the Mississippi is very fertile.
To the Teacher—See Notes, pp. 183,184.
* * * * *
ERRORS IN THE USE OF MODIFIERS.
Caution.—Place adverbs where there can be no doubt as to the words they modify.
ERRORS TO BE CORRECTED.
I only bring forward a few things.
Hath the Lord only [Footnote: Adverbs sometimes modify phrases.]spoken by Moses?
We merely speak of numbers.
The Chinese chiefly live upon rice.
Caution.—In placing the adverb, regard must be had to the sound of the sentence.
ERRORS TO BE CORRECTED.
We always should do our duty. The times have changed surely. The work will be never finished. He must have certainly been sick.
Caution.—Adverbs must not be used for adjectives.
ERRORS TO BE CORRECTED.
I feel badly. Marble feels coldly. She looks nicely. It was sold cheaply. It appears still more plainly. That sounds harshly. I arrived at home safely.
Caution.—Adjectives must not be used for adverbs.
ERRORS TO BE CORRECTED.
The bells ring merry. The curtain hangs graceful. That is a decided weak point. Speak no coarser than usual. These are the words nearest connected. Talk slow and distinct. She is a remarkable pretty girl.
To the Teacher.—For additional exercises in distinguishing adjectives from adverbs, see Notes, p. 181.
What is a conjunction? What is an interjection? Give two rules for the use of the comma (Lesson 37). What is the rule for writing abbreviations? What is the rule for the exclamation point? What is an object complement? What is an attribute complement? Illustrate both. What are the cautions for the position of the adverb? What are the cautions for the use of the adverb and the adjective?
To the Teacher.—See COMPOSITION EXERCISES in the Supplement-Selection from Habberton.
* * * * *
ERRORS IN THE POSITION AND USE OF MODIFIERS.
Caution.—Phrase modifiers should be placed as near as may be to the words they modify.
To the Teacher.—For composition exercises with particular reference to arrangement, see Notes, pp. 172-176.
ERRORS TO BE CORRECTED.
A fellow was arrested with short hair. I saw a man digging a well with a Roman nose. He died and went to his rest in New York. Wanted—A room by two gentlemen thirty feet long and twenty feet wide. Some garments were made for the family of thick material. The vessel was beautifully painted with a tall mast. I perceived that it had been scoured with half an eye. A house was built by a mason of brown stone. A pearl was found by a sailor in a shell.
Punctuate these sentences when corrected.
Caution.—Care must be taken to select the right preposition.
To the Teacher.—For the preposition to be used, consult the Unabridged Dictionaries.
ERRORS TO BE CORRECTED.
They halted with the river on their backs. The cat jumped on the chair. He fell onto the floor. He went in the house. He divides his property between his four sons. He died for thirst. This is different to that. Two thieves divided the booty among themselves. I am angry at him.
Caution.—Do not use two negative, or denying, words so that one shall contradict the other, unless you wish to affirm.
ERRORS TO BE CORRECTED.
I haven't no umbrella.
Correct by dropping either the adjective no or the adverb not; as, I have no umbrella, or I have not an umbrella.
I didn't say nothing. I can't do this in no way. No other emperor was so wise nor powerful. Nothing can never be annihilated.
ANALYSIS AND PARSING.
1. Brutus stabbed Caesar. 2. Man is an animal. 3. Washington captured Cornwallis. 4. Wellington defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. 5. Balboa discovered the Pacific ocean. 6. Vulcan was a blacksmith. 7. The summer has been very rainy. 8. Columbus made four voyages to the New World. 9. The moon reflects the light of the sun. 10. The first vice-president of the United States was John Adams. 11. Roger Williams was the founder of Rhode Island. 12. Harvey discovered the circulation of blood. 13. Diamonds are combustible. 14. Napoleon died a prisoner, at St.. Helena. 15. In 1619 the first ship-load of slaves was landed at Jamestown.
The pupil will notice that animal, in sentence No. 2, is an attribute complement, though it is not an adjective expressing a quality belonging to man, but a noun denoting his class. Nouns then may be attribute compliments.
The pupil will notice also that some of the object and attribute complements above have phrase modifiers.
Using the following predicates, build sentences having subjects, predicates, and object complements with or without modifiers.
—— climb ——; —— hunt ——; —— command ——; —— attacked ——; —— pursued ——; —— shall receive ——; —— have seen ——; —— love ——.
Change the following expressions into sentences by asserting the qualities here assumed. Use these verbs for predicates:
Is, were, appears, may be, became, was, have been, should have been, is becoming, are.
Model.—Heavy gold. Gold is heavy.
Green fields; sweet oranges; interesting story; brilliant sunrise; severe punishment; playful kittens; warm weather; pitiful sight; sour grapes; amusing anecdote.
Prefix to the following nouns several adjectives expressing qualities, and then make complete sentences by asserting the same qualities.
white Chalk is white. Model. brittle + chalk. Chalk is brittle. soft Chalk is soft.
Gold, pears, pens, lead, water, moon, vase, rock, lakes, summer, ocean, valley.
Find your own material, and build two sentences having object complements, and two having attribute complements.
ANALYSIS AND PARSING.
expands /=========== Learning / ' mind ========= =and' ======= ' elevates / he ============
ran ========= / ' forward He / ' ======= === and' ' ' kissed him ================
In the second diagram, one of the predicate lines is followed by a complement line; but the two predicate lines are not united, for the two verbs have not a common object.