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Greek in a Nutshell
by James Strong
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Greek in a Nutshell,

An Outline of

GREEK GRAMMAR

with

BRIEF READING LESSONS;

Designed for Beginners in the New Testament.

BY

JAMES STRONG, S.T.D., Professor of Exegetical Theology in Drew Theological Seminary

NEW YORK: EATON & MAINS CINCINNATI: JENNINGS & GRAHAM

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by NELSON & PHILLIPS, In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.



PREFACE.



This little Manual was originally prepared for the NORMAL CLASS, at the request of the editor of that Journal, and was at the same time expected to form an instruction book at the Sunday-School Assembly annually held at Chautauqua. This accounts for its form in twelve series of two pages each. The reading lessons, however, have been made sufficiently full for subsequent study. Of course the simplest elements only of the Greek language can be comprised in such narrow limits; nor can a full vocabulary or ready facility be acquired in so short a course. Nevertheless, a good beginning may be made, and that is "half the battle" in any enterprise. It is believed that a thorough mastery of this small volume will prove a conquest over all the real difficulties of the original tongue of the New Testament.

J. S.



LESSON I.



READING

1. THE ALPHABET.

Form. Name. Sound. A Al'pha a in man, [arm.[1]] Be'ta b Gam'ma g in go, [king.[2]] Del'ta d Ep'silon e in met. Ze'ta dz in adze. E'ta e in they. or The'ta th in thin. Io'ta i in tin, [machine[3]] or Kap'pa k Lamb'da l Mu m Nu n Xi x Om'icron in not. Pi p Rho r , final Sig'ma s in this. Tau t in it. U'psilon u in full. Phi f Khi kh (German ch.) Psi ps O'mega in no.

2. Notes on the Alphabet.

1. sounds broad, like a in arm, at the end of a word, and before final or followed by a different consonant.

2. has the nasal sound, like ng in king, before , , , or .

3. has its long sound, like i in machine, at the end of a syllable.

Every letter is sounded, and, with the above exceptions, invariably the same.



2. ACCENT.

3. Each word, except a very few monosyllables, has one of the following accents written over a vowel in it, which marks the place of the spoken tone. A few small words, called enclitics, generally throw their accent, as an acute, on the last syllable of the preceding word.

4. The acute ('), which is the foundation of all the accents, stands on one of the last three syllables. In verbs, with the exception of certain forms, it stands as far toward the beginning of the word as the rules below allow. In other parts of speech it stands on the same syllable as in the ground-form, (that given in the lexicon,) except as required by these rules. When the last syllable has a long vowel or diphthong it stands on the syllable before the last.

5. The grave accent (') is only written in place of the acute on the last syllable when not before a pause, or when unemphatic. It is understood to belong to all other syllables.

6. The circumflex (~) is placed on a syllable formed by the combination of two, the first of which had an acute and the second a grave; hence only on the last, or next to the last syllable, and only on a long vowel or a diphthong. When the last syllable has a short vowel, such a penult, if accented, takes the circumflex.



3. BREATHINGS, VOWELS, DIPHTHONGS, ETC.

7. A vowel beginning a word takes either the rough breathing, (), which is pronounced like h, or else, to show the absence of that, the smooth breathing, (), which has no appreciable sound. Initial and always take the rough breathing; and double in the middle of a word takes the smooth breathing on the first, and the rough on the second.

8. The vowels are short, ( and ,) long, ( and ,) or doubtful, (, , and ,) which last, although naturally short, are sometimes lengthened by derivation.

9. The diphthongs are as follows:—

Proper. With Iota Subscript. Improper. sounds ay = = and " i = = and " oy = " we " ow " yu " oo

10. In diphthongs the breathing and accent are written over the second vowel. A capital (initial) letter in other cases takes them before it.

11. The punctuation marks are the comma, (,), the semicolon, (), the period, (.), and the interrogation point, ().



LESSON II.

EUPHONIC CHANGES.

12. When two consonants come together the first is made homogeneous with the second, as follows:—

13. Mutes of a different class must have the same degree of hardness according to the following classification:—

Smooth. Middle. Rough. Sibilant (with s.) Kappa-mutes. Pi-mutes Tau-mutes

14. A smooth final mute is roughened before a vowel with the rough breathing. A rough mute is not doubled, nor can successive syllables begin with an aspirate. A tau-mute is sometimes dropped before , and always before ; before a different tau-mute it is changed into .

15. Before a kappa-mute is changed into , a pi-mute into , and a tau-mute into .

16. before a kappa-mute becomes , before a pi-mute , before a liquid (, , , or ) it is changed into the same liquid, before or it is dropped.

17. is appended to certain endings in or before a pause or a vowel.

18. There are several other less important rules, and some exceptions to most of the above.

19. A long vowel or diphthong is used as an equivalent for two (usually short) vowels in immediate succession, or as a compensation for the omission of a consonant, sometimes for both.

20. The changes in the union of two vowels are various, depending upon their comparative strength, position, and relation to the long vowels, or diphthongs respectively. They are readily learned by practice.

21. Compensation is not always thus made for the omission of a consonant. Sometimes the omission occurs too far back in the derivation to be easily traced.

22. A final vowel is sometimes elided before another vowel, and its place indicated by the apostrophe, (').

23. There are several dialects, which chiefly affect the vowels, (like provincial pronunciation;) but in later Greek (to which the New Testament belongs) they were merged in "the common dialect," the Attic pre-dominating.

NOUNS.

Nouns are of three declensions, three genders, three numbers, and five cases, all indicated by changes of termination.

24. The declensions (numbered 1, 2, and 3) are only different modes of inflection.

25. Names and designations of males, nations, the months, rivers, and winds, are almost invariably masculine; those of females, countries, islands, cities, trees, and plants, are usually feminine; of the neuter gender are most names of fruits and diminutives, and always the names of the letters, infinitives, clauses, indeclinable words, and words used as the symbol of a sound. In the third declension especially the (grammatical) gender in many instances is arbitrary.

26. The singular and plural are used as in English. The dual denotes two or a pair; it is comparatively rare, and never occurs in the New Testament.

27. The cases express the relations of words to each other in a sentence, as follows:—

Name. Use. Equivalent. Nominative. Subject of a finite verb. (Simple form.) Genitive. Origin or ownership. From, of, etc. Dative. Position or manner. In, by, for, to, etc. Accusative. Direction or object. Toward, into, etc. Vocative. Address. O!

28. The following are the terminations of the First Declension:—

Singular. Cases. Plural. Masc. Fem. Masc. and Fem. or or Nominative. or Genitive. or Dative. or Accusative. or Vocative.

Dual. Nom., Acc., Voc., ; Gen., Dat., .

29. The in the terminations of the singular is mostly used when , ,or precedes it; and in the Nom., Acc., and Voc. when or , and frequently when , precedes it. A few nouns have in the Gen. sing.



LESSON III.

NOUNS—Continued.

30. The following are the terminations of the Second Declension:—

Singular. Cases. Plural. Masc. Neut. Masc. Neut. Nominative. Genitive. Dative. Accusative. Vocative.

Dual. Nom., Acc., Voc., ; Gen., Dat., .

31. The few fem. nouns of this declension take the masc. terminations. The Voc. masc. sing. is occasionally .

32. The following are the terminations of the Third Declension:—

Singular. Cases. Plural. Masc. and Fem. Neut. Masc. and Fem. Neut. (or long vowel (naked stem.) Nominative. before final letter.) Genitive. Dative. () or (naked stem.) Accusative. (like Nom. or Neut.) (naked stem.) Vocative.

Dual. Nom., Acc., Voc., ; Gen., Dat., .

33. The Nom. sing. is so often changed by the euphonic rules that the stem of the noun is best seen in the Gen. Nouns in , , and take the (Attic) Gen. , ( regarded as short.) The of the Acc. sing. is usually after a consonant. Many irregularities and some anomalies occur, which may generally be learned from the lexicon.

ADJECTIVES.

34. These are declined like nouns, having sometimes three sets of terminations for the respective genders, sometimes two, (masc. and fem. alike,) rarely but one, (all genders alike.) The masc. and neut. are always of the same declension, (second or third,) and the fem., when different, always of the first. Participles are declined like adjectives.

35. Adjectives are compared either by using an adverb expressive of degree, or, more regularly, by adding to the stem of the positive the syllables or for the comparative, and or for the superlative. Some euphonic changes occur in making these additions, which then take the regular declensional endings.

NUMERALS.

36. The cardinal numbers are either simple, (the units, tens, and a few others,) or compound, (intermediate numbers.) Those from one to four inclusive, and the hundreds and thousands, are declined like adjectives. They may all be learned from the lexicon.

37. The ordinals are mostly formed from the cardinals by adjective endings.

PRONOUNS.

38. Of the personal pronouns, those of the 1st and 2d persons only are specially noteworthy, being declined as nouns irregularly:—

I or Me. We or Us. Thou or Thee. Ye or You. Nominative. Genitive. () Dative. () Accusative. ()

39. The rest are declined as adjectives—masc. , fem, , neut. ; often compounded, one or both parts being declined; but, with the exception of , (interrogative , indefinite ,) neut. , Gen. , of the third declension, the article (definite only) and the demonstrative alone are very peculiar in declension, as follows:—

Singular. The. Plural. Masc. Neut. Fem. Masc. Neut. Fem. Nominative. Genitive. Dative. Accusative. -

Dual. Nom., Acc., Voc., , ; Gen., Dat., , .

Singular. This, These. Plural. Masc. Neut. Fem. Masc. Neut. Fem. Nominative. Genitive. - Dative. Accusative.

Dual. Nom., Acc., Voc., , ; Gen., Dat., ,



LESSON IV.

VERBS.

40. There are three VOICES, Active, Middle, and Passive, generally distinguished by the termination.

The Middle is properly reflexive. Some of its tenses have an active meaning. A few verbs, called deponent, are throughout pass. in form, but act. or mid. in meaning.

41. There are five MOODS in each voice, the Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative, and Infinitive, to which may be added the Participles; they are mostly known by means of the union-vowel—that which immediately precedes the termination.

42. The Indic., Imper., Infin., and Participles correspond to the English, and have a short union-vowel, (, , or ,) except the Perf. and Pluperf. pass., which have no union-vowel; the Pluperf. act. and mid., which have ; and the Aorists pass., which have or its equivalent.

43. The Imper. has but two persons. 2d and 3d. The Infin. has but one termination for all numbers and persons, and is very often used as a neut. noun, with the article, etc., yet retaining its construction as a verb.

44. The Subj. and Opt. are used in certain dependent relations, like the English subjunctive and potential; the former has a long union-vowel, ( or ,) and the latter a diphthong, (, , or .) The former generally represents an act as contingent upon outward circumstances, and the latter upon a will.

45. The TENSES are nine, the Present, Imperfect, Perfect, Pluperfect, two Aorists, (1st and 2d, equivalent in sense,) and three Futures, (1st and 2d, equivalent to each other, and 3d, very rarely used;) they are distinguished by certain letters prefixed, inserted, or added to the stem or root of the verb. They represent time as compared with the present, and never date from that of a preceding verb.

46. The Pres., Perf., Pluperf., and Fut. answer very nearly to the same tenses in English.

47. The Imperf. denotes an act as going on, but incomplete or habitual at some time past: "was doing," etc.

48. The Aorists indicate a single act at a definite time, (past in the Indic., but undetermined in the others moods.)

49. All the tenses with respect to form may be classed thus:—

I. Primary, or Absolute. Present. Perfect. Futures.

II. Secondary, or Historical. Imperfect. Pluperfect. Aorists.

These classes usually have the following endings respectively:—

Active Form. Persons. Middle and Passive. I. II. I. II. Pres. and Fut. Perf. Opt. Sing. - 1st 2d () - 3d Plur. 1st 2d () () () 3d [2d, , 3d, . Dual. 1st, , 2d, , 3d, .]

Notes on the Table of Verb Endings.

50. In the Pres. and Fut. the of the 1st sing. act. is contracted (with the union-vowel) into , and the of the 2d sing. pass. into or .

51. Signification limits the primary terminations to the Indic. and Subj., and the secondary to the Indic. and Opt.: likewise the Imperf. and Pluperf. to the Indic., and the Imper. to the Pres., the Aorists and (rarely) the Perf.

52. The active terminations are assumed throughout by the Perf. and Pluperf. mid., and the Aorists pass.

53. The terminations of the Imper. are analogous to the secondary in the act., and in the mid. and pass. they are merely the same strengthened, thus: Sing. 2d,—[Aor. pass, , 1st Aor. act. ()ov] (pass. [1st Aor. mid. ] or ); 3d, (pass. ,) Plur. 2d, (pass. ); 3d, [or contr. ] (pass, . [Dual. 2d, (); 3d, (,)]

54. The Infin. in the act. forms ends in , [contr., with union-vowel into ] (Pres., Fut., and 2d Aor.,) , (1st Aor.,) or , (Perf. act. and mid. and both Aor. pass.;) elsewhere in .

55. In the Participles the stem ends in in the act. forms, (except the Perf. act. and mid., which have ;) the rest take , (Perf. pass, .) These latter are [masc. and neut.] of the second declension, the others of the third.

56. Verbs in insert before the final of the 3d pers. sing. Pres. Indic. act., and vary in a few other terminations, chiefly by contraction.



LESSON V.

VERBS—Continued.

57. The root of every primitive verb is a monosyllable, consisting of a short vowel (, , , , or ) between two (usually simple) consonants. Sometimes one or the other of the latter has been dropped far back in the etymology. This root is most readily found in the 1st Fut., subject only to euphonic changes. The 2d Aor. always has a monosyllabic root, with a single vowel never long; but this may be somewhat different from the true root. Primitive verbs only have a 2d Aor.

58. The Pres. and Imperf. commonly strengthen the root, either by adding a hard consonant, (sometimes more than one,) or (oftener) by changing the root vowel into the corresponding long one or diphthong.

59. The following tenses add certain characteristic letters to the root:—

1st Fut. and 1st Aor. act. and mid., (of verbs not liquid,) and 3d Fut. 1st Aor. pass. 1st Fut. pass. 2d Fut. pass. 2d (in liquid verbs 1st) Fut. act. and mid. Perf. and Pluperf. Act. of pure and liquid verbs Perf. and pluperf. act. ending in a pi- or kappa-mute ()

60. Tenses expressing _past time_ (Imperf. and Aorists Indic.) prefix ("syllabic _augment") to the root; this coalesces with an initial vowel ("temporal augment") into the corresponding long vowel or diphthong. The Perf., Pluperf., and 3d Fut. not only do the same throughout the moods, but also prefix to the _syllabic_ augment the initial consonant of the root ("reduplication") when this is a simple consonant or a mute followed by a liquid. The Pluperf. prefixes a second syllabic augment to the reduplication.

61. Initial , (which is doubled after the syllabic augment,) , , and , do not, except in a few cases, allow the reduplication. Verbs compounded with a preposition generally take the augment, etc., between it and the primitive. A few other irregularities occur.

62. Verbs are classified in conjugation according to the radical letter following the root vowel, or diphthong, in the 1st pers. sing. Pres. Indic. act., lexicon form: in "liquid" verbs (not derivatives in , which is merely strengthened for ) this is a liquid; in "pure" verbs it is absent, so that the root appears to end in a vowel, etc. Very many verbs seem to be anomalous in some of their forms in consequence of deriving these from an obsolete kindred root. The lexicon gives most of these peculiarities.

63. Liquid verbs almost always strengthen their root in the Pres. and Imperf.; they lengthen it in the 1st Aor. act. and mid. by changing the root vowel, if into , if into , while and merely become long. as a root vowel is generally changed into in the 1st Aor. and 1st Fut. pass., the Perf. and Pluperf. act. and pass., and the 2d Aor. and 2d Fut. throughout, and again into in the Perf. and Pluperf. mid.

64. The above strengthening in the Pres. and Imperf. consists in doubling , annexing to ; or, in case of or , in adding to a preceding or , or lengthening or . The radical is often dropped in Perf. and Pluperf.

65. Verbs with followed by a pi- or kappa-mute in the root frequently neglect to strengthen it in the Pres. and Imperf.; and verbs with in the root preceded by a liquid, usually change it into and in the same tenses as liquid verbs, except in the 1st Aor. and Fut. pass.

66. Pure verbs lengthen the root vowel before a tense characteristic, also in the Perf. and Pluperf. pass. A few occasionally neglect this, and some insert instead.

67. Verbs in (lexicon form instead of ) are but another mode of conjugating pure verbs (being the only primitives of that class whose root ends in , , or o) in the Pres., Imperf., and 2d Aor.; in all which tenses the union-vowel coalesces with the root vowel. They have a peculiar inflection, chiefly by reason of the Imperf. and 2d Aor. act. taking throughout the terminations of the Aorists pass. The Pres. and Imperf. reduplicate with the initial consonant, (prefixing simply if that cannot be done, and sometimes adopting other modes of strengthening,) and in the act. they lengthen the root in the Indic., or into , into . The 2d Aor. (those in being factitious have not this tense) has in the act. a long vowel or diphthong throughout, except the Imperative or o, and the Participle.

Notes on Certain Verbs in .

68. [to put] has, in the Act., 1st Aor. , Perf. ; [to give] has, 1st Aor., .

69. [to be] is inflected thus: [thou art], () [is], , , () [we, ye, they are], [be thou], [being], etc.; the rest mostly regular. See the lexicon for these, and for [to send], and [to go].

70. Several verbs annex , , (), etc., instead of , etc., in the Pres. and Imperf.



LESSON VI.

SYNTAX.—CONCORD.

71. All words placed under the same construction agree together in all the accidents which they possess in common.

72. "Apposition" occurs as in English.

73. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case.

74. The noun is often understood, especially if neut., ("things.")

75. Sometimes a relative is "attracted" into the case of the omitted antecedent.

76. A verb agrees with its subject nominative in number and person.

77. The case of the subject of the Infin. depends upon other relations.

78. Neuters plur. generally have a sing. verb.

GOVERNMENT.

79. Any word may govern another (or others) which in sense is dependent upon it in the case appropriate for expressing such relation either with or without a preposition.

>>> - -> Genitive. Dative. Accusative.

80. GENITIVE, denoting origin, answering to Whence? and expressed by from.

81. "Local," involving external relations of space, either in a literal or a figurative sense. This includes actual motion from an object, generally with a preposition, ( ;) separation from it, usually with verbs compounded with a preposition; and commencement.

82. "Causal," denoting a more internal relation, as if the outgoing of some agency or property, as follows:—

83. Active, either direct, inferential, or metaphysical. This includes relations of source, (e.g., derivation, [commonly with , sometimes , direct authorship with ,] possession, property, [often with an Infin.]) partitive use, (e.g., a class, material, partial relations,) and the Gen. of time, (in the course of which,) especially the "Gen. absolute," with a Participle, as affording occasion.

84. Passive, that is, indirect, the act being for the sake of the Gen. This includes verbs implying a mental operation, adjectives, and other words denoting skill, and the Gen. of crime or purpose, (the last mostly an Infin. with the article.)

85. Mutual, e.g., comparison and price or penalty.

86. The "attributive Gen." is a comprehensive relation, arising under several of the above heads, between two nouns designating different objects, which may be thus expressed: When two nouns are connected with each other, that one which completes the idea of the other and defines it more fully is put in the Gen.

87. DATIVE, denoting position, answering to Where? and expressed by at.

88. "Local," involving the more palpable relations of position. This includes the place, (at, by, near, in the midst of; generally with , , , etc.,) association, accompaniment, (frequently with ,) and the time (as a date) or circumstances of a transaction.

89. "Causal," denoting the object upon which the act or state appears, thus conceived as sharing in producing it, as follows:—

90. Personal, either actually or so imagined. This includes words expressing a correlative idea, as community, (in varied relations,) likeness, possession, agency, reference, etc.

91. Instrumental, as the mediate cause, e.g., the ground or reason, the means, the instrument, manner, and the measure of excess or deficiency.

92. In comprehensive phrase the "attributive Dat." expresses many indirect relations of an object to or for which an act is performed or a condition sustained.

93. ACCUSATIVE, denoting direction, answering to Whither? and expressed by toward.

94. "Local" involving the boundary, place, or object of motion, especially with .

95. "Causal," involving an influence, change, or result, as impressed upon the object, as follows:—

96. The effect, either the thing effected, an attribute of the effect, or the effect intended.

97. The object acted upon, e.g., with directly transitive verbs, those expressing a good or bad influence, patience, swearing, sometimes a mental affection, etc.; also the space or way after a verb of motion; the time, (throughout which,) measure, and weight; and finally ("Attributive Accusative") with any verb or adj. (sometimes other words) to define its application more closely, especially if of kindred signification.

ORDER OF WORDS IN A SENTENCE.

98. This is usually not, as in English, that of grammatical dependence, but rather the order of thought; important or emphatic words come first, after the connecting particles; prepositions and the article precede their nouns; and qualifying terms are grouped in a harmonious balance around the principal ones.



LESSON VII.

EXERCISE ON JOHN 1, 1-5.

1 1 2 3 4 ,5 6 4 6 3 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was

2 7 8 ,9 6 10 3 4 .5 11 with God, and God was the Word. This one

3 3 1 2 7 8 .9 12 '13 was in the beginning with God. All things by

14 ,15 6 16 14 15 17 him were made, and without him was made not even

4 18 19 .20 1 21 22 ,3 6 one thing which has been made. In him life was, and

5 23 22 3 24 25 26 27 6 24 the life was the light of men; and the

25 1 28 29 ,30 6 23 31 light in the darkness shines, and the darkness

32 33 .34 it not admitted.

DIRECTIONS.—Spell the Greek, giving the English equivalents of the consonants, (as in 1,) and the exact phonetic value or sound of the vowels. Call the rough breathing h. Be careful to put the spoken accent where it is written. Continue this practice through all the passages given in the following lessons, until the words can be pronounced readily and accurately. Familiarize yourself with the forms of the letters by writing them. Let the pupil do this while learning the foregoing grammatical lessons, and after the recitation of each of them let the teacher direct attention, while the passage at the head of the reading lessons is pronounced, to the examples illustrating each point, as they occur—by way of paradigm.

PARSING NOTES ON THE ABOVE.

1. —prep. atonic, 3; stands first, 98.

2. —noun, from nom. , 1st decl. fem., 28; circumflex, 6; local dat., 88; emphatic position, 98.

3. —verb, irreg. in , 69; 3d pers. sing. imperf. indic. act., 47; appended irreg. as ending, 49; long vowel, 67.

4. —art., nom. masc. sing., 39; agrees with its noun, 73; following, 98.

5. —noun, 2d decl. nom. sing. masc., 30; subject of , 76; balances clause, 98.

6. —conj., changed accent, 5; position, 98.

7. —prep., lit., towards; gov. acc., 27; accent, 5.

8. —art., acc. sing. masc., 39; agreement, 73.

9. —noun, lit., [the] deity; 2d decl. masc., 25; acc. sing., 30; government, 94; position, 98.

10. —same as 9; nom. agreeing with subj., 71; without the art. because the predicate; emphatic position, 98.

11. —pron., 39; agrees with , understood ( 73) as subj. of sentence; first as connective; accent, 6; and breathing, 10.

12. —adj. pron., from , (stem, ); 3d decl. nom. plur. neut., 32; indef. without noun expressed, 74; subject of sentence; emphatic position, 98.

13. '—prep, for , with final letter elided, 22.

14. —adj. pron. used as personal; gen. masc. sing., 30; causal, 82. Gen. and dat. of 1st and 2d decl. are always circumflex when accented on last syllable.

15. —verb, came to be, lit., was born; from , (for , strengthened [ 63] by reduplication, [ 67,] and then contracted for ;) depon., 40; true root , [our kin,] 57, here appearing in 2d aor. mid., 48; is simple aug., (hence the verb is in the indic., 60;) third is mood-vowel, 42; is 3d pers. sing. mid., 49; agreement with subj., 78.

16. —prep., lit., apart; accent, 5; case after, 81.

17. —compound neg. particle, from and .

18. v—numeral adj., 36; indef., 74; 3d decl. nom. sing. neut., 32; subj. of .

19. —relative adj., 39; 2d decl. nom. sing. neut., 34; agreement, 73; subj. of .

20. —verb, same as 15; root-vowel changed in perf. mid., 63; is reduplication, 60; last is mood-vowel of indic., 42; no additional ending, 44; hence 3d pers. sing. (perf.) act., 52; final added before pause, 17.

21. — pron., same as 14; dat. sing. masc., 30; government, as 2.

22. —noun, 1st decl. fem. nom. sing., 28; subject of verb following.

23. —art., fem. nom. sing., 39; agrees with , 73; atonic, 3.

24. —art., neut. nom. sing., 39; agrees with .

25. —noun, 3d. decl. nom. sing. neut., (stem for ); here added (as some neut. nouns have) and dropped, 14; predicate nom., 71.

26. —art., gen. plur. masc., 39; agreement, 73.

27. —noun, from . ; 2d decl. gen. plur. masc., 32; government, 86; accent, 4.

28. —art., dat. sing. fem., 39; agreement, 73.

29. —noun from ; 1st decl. dat. sing. fem., 29; final , 29; subscript, 9; government, 88.

30. —verb, from ; root, , strengthened, 64; is mood-vowel of indic., 42; final is tense-ending of pres. 3d sing. act., 49; agrees with , 76.

31. —noun, as 29; nom. sing., subj. of clause.

32. —pron., as 21; acc. neut. sing., 39; object of , 97.

33. — simple neg. adv.; atonic, 3.

34. —verb, from ; comp. of , down, and , I receive; the root of the simple verb is , here appearing in the 2d Aor., 57; aug., 60, excluding final of prep., 61; last likewise shows indic., 42; no tense-ending in 3d pers. sing. act. secondary, 49 appended. 17. The tense expresses the act of the Jews in rejecting Christ.



LESSON VIII.

EXERCISE ON JOHN 1, 6-11.

6 1 2 3 4 ,5 6 There was a man sent from God, the name

7 7 8 9 10 11 ,12 13 to him was John: this one came for testimony that

14 15 16 ,17 13 18 he might testify concerning the Light, that all might

8 19 '20 .21 22 23 24 25 ,26 believe through him. Not was that one the Light,

9 '27 13 14 15 16 .17 23 but that he might testify concerning the Light. There was

25 26 25 ,28 29 30 31 ,32 the Light the true one, which lights every man,

10 33 11 34 .35 36 37 38 v,23 coming into the world. In the world he was,

39 40 41 '20 21 ,1 39 40 41 and the world through him was made, and the world

11 42 22 .43 11 44 45 ,10 39 46 him not knew. To the own things he came, and the

47 42 22 .48 own persons him not received.

1. —See lesson vii, No. 15.

2. —See vii, 27; subj. of sentence.

3. —part. from , lit., I send away; comp. of prep, , off, and , I send; root , vowel changed, 63; aug. cuts off final of prep., 61; no reduplication, 60; perf. tense because aug. beyond indic., 60; and no union-vowel, 42; pass. part. ending , ( 55,) accent; is nom. masc. sing., 34, 30; agrees with , 73.

4. —prep., lit., near; with gen., =from near.

5. —See vii, 9, 10; here gen., 81.

6. —noun; neut, 3d decl. nom. sing.; (stem, , final mute always dropped for euphony;) subj. to was understood, (copula may freely be supplied.)

7. —pers. adj. pron.; dat. sing. masc. from , vii, 14; governed, 92.

8. —prop. noun; 1st decl. masc. nom. sing., 28; predicate after neut. verb, (understood,) agreeing with subj., 71.

9. —See vii, 11.

10. —verb, assigned to , but really from defective ; root, ; temporal aug., [+=,] 60; hence indic., as union-vowel () following also shows, 42; simple root 2d aor., 57; hence no tense ending in 3d pers. sing. act., 49; appended, 17; accent, 6.

11. —prep., lit., to, that is, here, for the purpose of; atonic, 3.

12. —noun; 1st decl. fem. acc. sing., from , 28; governed, 96.

13. —conj., meaning, in order that; introducing dependent clause.

14. —verb, from ; first is root-vowel, lengthened before tense-sign, ( 66,) which is of 1st fut., 59; is union-vowel of subj., ( 44,) the subscribed being 3d pers. sing. act., 49; accent, 4.

15. —prep., lit., around; governs gen., 82.

16. —art.; gen. sing. neut., 39.

17. —noun, see vii, 25. Gen. (sing.) and dat. (sing. and plur.) of monosyllables of 3d decl. accent the ultimate.

18. —See vii, 12; nom. masc. plur., men being understood, 74; subj. of clause.

19. —verb, from ; second is sign of 1st fut., 59; sign of subj., 44; 3d plur. act., 49.

20. —See vii, 13.

21. —See vii, 14.

22. —neg. adv., same as , (vii, 83,) with euphonic before a vowel.

23. —See vii, 3.

24. —demonst, adj. pron., 39; =he, nom. masc. sing., subj. of sentence, 27; accent, 6.

25. —See vii, 24.

26. —See vii, 25.

27. '—conj. for , final vowel elided, 22.

28. —adj., from ; neut. 2d decl., 34; nom. sing., 30; agreeing with , 73.

29. —See vii, 19.

30. —verb, from ; strengthened root, 58; union vowel of indic., 42; final 3d sing. (pres.) act., 49.

31. —indef. adj., see No. 18; acc. sing. masc. agreeing with , 73.

32. —noun, see No. 2; acc. sing., 30; governed, 97.

33. —part. from , see No. 10; deponent, 40; pres. pass., 55; sing., 30; either acc. masc., (and then agreeing with ,) or, as is better, (see John iii, 19,) nom. neut., (and then agreeing with .)

34. —See vii, 8.

35. —noun, from ; acc. sing. 2d decl., 30; governed, 94.

36. —See vii, 1.

37. —art., dat. sing. masc., 39; agrees with , 73.

38. —noun, see No. 35; dat. sing., 8.

39. —See vii, 6.

40. —See vii, 4.

41. —noun, see No. 35; subj., 27.

42. —pron., see No. 7; acc. sing. masc., 97.

43. —verb, from , (strengthened [ 70] from root , [ 67,] =our know); 2d aor., 57; is augment of indic., 60; is root and union-vowel, 67; no other ending, hence 3d sing. act., 49.

44. —art., plur. neut. acc., 39.

45. —adj., fr. ; plur. neut. acc., 30; agreement, 74; meaning home here, (lit., the own things of him;) government, 44.

46. —art., nom. plur. masc., 39.

47. —adj., see No. 45; nom. plur. masc., 30; meaning family here, 74; subj., 27.

48. —verb from , compounded with , near, (see No. 4,) as in vii, 34; 2d aor., 57; indic., 42; 3d plur., 49.



LESSON IX.

EXERCISE ON JOHN 1, 12-18.

12 1 2 3 ,4 5 6 7 Whoever, however, received him, he gave to them privilege

8 9 ,10 11 12 13 14 children of God to become, to the ones believing to the

13 15 16 17 18 19 ,20 21 name of him; who not out of bloods, nor out of

22 ,23 22 ,24 '25 will of flesh, nor out of will of man, but out

14 .26 27 28 ,29 of God were born. And the Word flesh became, and

30 31 ,32 ( 33 34 tented among us, and we beheld the glory of

, 35 36 37 ,38) 39 him, glory as of an only-born near from a Father,) full

15 40 .41 42 43 44 of grace and truth. John testifies about

, 45 46 47 48 49 50 him, and has cried, saying. This was he whom I said, The

51 52 53 54 ,55 56 one behind me coming, before me has become; because

16 57 . 58 59 first of me he was. And out of the fullness of him WE

17 60 ,61 62 63 64 all received, and grace for grace: because the

65 66 ,67 law through Moses was given; the grace and the truth

18 68 69 .70 71 72 73 through Jesus Christ became. God no-one has seen

74 75 ,76 77 78 ever; the only-born Son, the one being into the

79 , 80 .81 bosom of the Father, that one explained Him.

1. Comp. , 39; nom. plur. masc., 30.

2. Not first, 98.

3. , vii, 34; 3 plur. 2 aor. act.

4. vii, 14; acc. sing. masc., 39; gov., 97.

5. , 68; 3 sing., 49; aug., 60; mood-vowel, 42; , 17.

6. No. 4; dat. plur. masc., 92.

7. , 28; acc. sing., 97.

8. , 30; acc. sing., after neut. verb , 72.

9. vii, 9; gen. sing. 86.

10. vii, 15; 2 aor. mid. infin., 54; accent peculiar.

11. vii, 4; dat. plur. masc., 73.

12. ; str. pres., 58; act. part., 55; ( 42) becomes , 14, 16, 19; 3 decl., 55; dat. plur., 32; agrees with , 72; as if a noun, 74.

13. viii, 9; denotes close union.

14. 39; agree., 73.

15. neut. 3 decl. acc. sing., 32; dropped in stem , 18; gov., 94.

16. As No. 6; gov., 86.

17. vii, 19; nom. plur. masc., 30; subj. of , 27.

18. viii, 8.

19. For before a vowel, 18; atonic, 3.

20. , neut. 3 decl. like No. 15; gen., 81; plur. is Hebraistic, of natural descent; accent, 4.

21. vii, 17, used as conj.

22. , like No. 15; gov., 81.

23. , fem. 3 decl., 32; gov., 86; accent special.

24. , irreg. 3 decl.; gen. sing., 86.

25. vii, 20.

26. , strictly, I beget; prim. as vii, 15; 2 aor. pass. 3 plur., (analyze.)

27. vii, 5.

28. No. 23; nom. sing., 32; , 13.

29. vii, 15.

30. , from , a tent; 1 aor. act. 3 sing., (analyze.)

31. vii, 1.

32. 38; gov., 88.

33. , depon., 40; 1 aor, mid., 1 plur., (analyze;) subj. understood, unemphatic.

34. , 29; acc. sing., 97.

35. atonic, 3.

36. , 3 decl., two term., 34; gen. sing. masc., 86; becomes , 6.

37. Takes gen., dat., or acc.

38. , 3 decl., contr. like No. 24; gov., 81.

39. 3 decl., like No. 36; nom. sing. masc., 73.

40. , ( dropped, 14); 3 decl. fem. sing., 83.

41. , 29; gen.sing., 83; accent, 4.

42. 1 decl. masc., 28.

43. , 62; pres. ind. act., 42; 3 sing., 49; becomes , 20.

44. Gen. as if from the center, 81.

45. , ( 58) for , 57; perf. act., 60; irreg., 59; 3 sing., 49.

46. , 65; pres. part. act., 55; nom. masc. sing., 32; for , 19, and viii, 5.

47. 39.

48. vii, 3.

49. vii, 19; acc. sing. masc., attrib., 97.

50. Def. verb; 2 aor. act. ind., 3 sing. for , (analyze.)

51. Gov. gen. like No. 44.

52. 38.

53. , depon., 40; pres. part., 55; nom. masc. sing., 30.

54. No. 51; accent from "enclitic," 3.

55. vii, 20.

56. Conj.

57. For , 35; gov. gen. compar., ( 85,) or attrib., 86.

58. , like No. 22; gov., 81.

59. 38; emphat., No. 33.

60. vii, 12; nom. plur. masc., 73.

61. No. 3; 1 plur., 49.

62. Even.

63. No. 40; acc. sing., 32; depends upon , 97; of stem dropped, 18.

64. Gov. gen., 85.

65. 30.

66. , 32; Attic gen., 33; gov., 82.

67. , 67; reg. in 1 aor. pass., 59; irreg. short root vowel, 66; long union-vowel, 42; 3 sing., 52.

68. Irreg. gen. sing. from , 30.

69. , 40.

70. vii, 15.

71. vii, 9.

72. Comp. of , vii, 17, and , numeral, irreg.

73. , irreg. redup., 60; perf. act., 59; 3 sing.

74. Comp. adv.

75. No. 36.

76. 30.

77. , 69; like No. 46.

78. No 13.

79. 30.

80. viii, 19.

81. Depon. , 40; 1 aor. mid., 59; aug. merged in first , 61; indic., 42; 3 sing., 49.



LESSON X.

EXERCISE ON OUR LORD'S PRAYER, (Matt, vi, 9-13; Luke xi, 2-4.)

1 ( ,2 Thus therefore pray YE: (Whenever ye pray,

3) 4 ,5 6 say:) Father of us, the one in the heavens, let be hallowed the

7 , 8 9 , 10 name of thee; let come the kingdom of thee; let be done the

11 12 ,13 14 will of thee, as in heaven, also upon the earth; the bread

15 16 (17) ,18 (19 of us, the needful, give (give) to us to-day; as to the time

20 ,21) 22 23 ( 24) by day; and forgive to us the debts (the sins)

, 25 26 , ( of us, as also we forgive to the debtors of us; (and this do,

27 25 28 29 ,) for ourselves we forgive to every one owing to us;) and not

30 ,31 32 mayest thou lead us into trial; but deliver thou us away

33 [ 34 ,9 from the evil: [because of THEE is the kingdom, and the

,35 36 .37 .38] power, and the glory to the ages. Amen.]

REMARK.—The words above in parentheses are the variations in the passage of Luke. The concluding doxology in brackets is not found in the oldest manuscripts, and is probably spurious.

1. , lit., pray towards; depon., 40; pres., 58; indic., 42; 2d plur. mid., 49.

2. Subj., 42; required by conditional particle preceding, 44.

3. ; pres., 65; imper., 42; 2d plur. act., 49.

4. , (accent irregularly shifted;) 3d decl., 32; voc. sing., 27.

5. , 30; dat. plur., 88.

6. , root , from =holy; 1st aor. pass., 59; for , 14; in imper., 42; 3d pers. sing., 53; as if act., 52.

7. ix, 5; accent, 3.

8. viii, 8; 2d aor. 48; imper. 42; 3d sing. act., 53.

9. Nom. sing. fem., 29; cannot take the enclitic's accent ( 3) like No. 7, as another acute immediately precedes.

10. , vii, 15; 1st aor. pass., No. 6; first assumed irreg. as if a deriv.

11. No. 7.

12. No. 5; dat. sing., 88.

13. , 28; gen. sing., of place all over, like time, 83.

14. . 30; acc. sing. 97.

15. , prob. comp. of , for, and , subsistence; used only here; acc. sing. masc., 34.

16. From , 67; irreg,, 2d aor. imp. 2d sing. act.

17. Same verb; irreg. pres. imper. 2d sing. act.

18. Compound adv.

19. Elliptical, 74; "attrib. acc." 97.

20. For , 22, 14.

21. From , 29; acc. sing. of time, 97; here distributive, daily.

22. From =send away; and , 69; irreg. 2d aor. imper.; 2d sing. act., like No. 16.

23. From , like No. 7; acc. plur. neut., 32.

24. From . 28.

25. From same as No. 22; pres. ind. 1st plur. act., 49;

26. From , 28; dat. plur., 92.

27. Def. adj. pron., 39; used as pers. of all persons.

28. From , see vii, 12; dat. sing. masc., 32.

29. Pres. act. part, of , like ix, 12; dat. sing. masc., 92.

30. Assigned to , but really belonging to the defective cognate, , irreg. reduplicate, 1st aor., from , into, and an obsolete , (for , 16;) subj., 41, (dependent end upon an implied verb of wishing or deprecating 44;) 2d sing. act., 51.

31. From , 30; acc. sing., 94.

32. From , 62; depon., 40; 1st aor., 59; imper. union-vowel , 42; 2d sing. mid., 53.

33. Noun implied, 74; 2d decl., 34; gen. sing. neut., 81.

34. From , 69.

35. See 33.

36. See ix, 34.

37. From , 32; acc. plur., 94.

38. Adv. from the Heb., verily.



LESSON XI.

EXERCISE ON LUKE i, 1-4.

1 2 3 4 5 Inasmuch as many undertook to arrange a narrative about

6 7 ,8 9 10 the fully believed among us transactions, just as transmitted them

7 o 11 12 13 14 to us the from the beginning eye-witnesses and ministers

15 16 17 18 v19 of the word; it seemed good to me also, having followed close from the first

20 ,21 22 ,23 24 to all things carefully, regularly to thee to write, most excellent

,25 26 27 28 Theophilus, in order that thou mayest recognize about what thou wast instructed

.29 words the certainty.

1. Comp. of , since, (from , upon, , if,) , now, and the intensive particle, .

2. Irreg. from , really an old ; nom. plur. masc., 34; persons understood, 74.

3. From , lay hand upon, from , upon, and , a hand; aug., 61; , 66; 1st aor., 59; Ind., 42; 3d plur. act.; 49.

4. From , (comp. of , up, i.e., thoroughly, and , arrange;) depon., 40; 1st aor., (root, , str. in pres. by , 58, which excludes the ,) 59, (=, 13;) infin. mid., 54; depends, like a nom. ( 25) in the acc. upon ., 97.

5. From , (like in the paradigm,) 33; acc. sing. depend. on ., 97.

6. From , comp. of , full, , bear, i.e., in mind; redupl., 60; , 66; no tense sign, 59; perf. pass. part., 55; gen. plur., 30; agrees with ., 73.

7. See 38.

8. Like in the paradigm; gen. plur., see viii, 13.

9. Comp. of , (see x, 20,) down, i.e., exactly, and , as.

10. From , comp. of , near, i.e., from one to another, and , 68; 2d aor., (,) 57; indic., 60, also 42; 3d plur. act., 49.

11. See 22.

12. See vii. 2.

13. From , comp. of , self, and , I see; nom. plur. masc., 28.

14. From , (comp. of , under, and , rower,) 28.

15. See paradigm.

16. From , really an obsol. ; 1st aor., 59; indic., 60; 3d sing. act., 49.

17. Comp. of , ( 22,) and , 38; case, 92.

18. From , comp. of , near, and ; aug., (+=,) 60; perf. act., 59; second , 66; part., 55; dat. sing., ( 32,) masc., 34; agrees with , 73.

19. Deriv. adv., lit., from above, i.e., from top to bottom.

20. See viii, 16; dat. plur., 88.

21. Adv. from , exact.

22. Adv. comp. of , (as No. 17,) and , orderly, an old gen., 31.

23. From , (not str., 58;) 1st aor., as No. 4; infin. act., 54; subj. of .

24. From , 34; superl., ( 35,) of an obsol. , strong, assigned to , good; Voc. sing. masc., 30.

25. Nom, , 30.

26. From , comp. of , upon, i.e., by means of some reminding or determining circumstance, and , I know, for , 70, (root , know,) contracted like , vii, 15; 2d aor., 57; subj., 44; 2d sing. act., 51.

27. Rel., 39; gen. plur., 30; agrees with , 75; for , ( 75,) , 91.

28. From , (comp. of , down, as in No. 17, and , I echo,) whence our catechize; 1st. aor. pass., 59; exception to 14; second , 66; third , 42; 2d sing., 52.

29. From , lit., non-tottering; acc. sing., 29; depends upon ., 97.



PARADIGMS OF NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION.

Feminine. Masculine. Cases. Shadow. Door. Root. Honor. Youth. Judge. Nominative. Genitive. Dative. Accusative. Vocative.

Nominative. Genitive. Dative. Accusative. Vocative.



PARADIGMS OF NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION.

Masculine. Neuter. Word. Jesus. Fig. Cases. Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. Nominative. Genitive. Dative. Accusative. Vocative.



PARADIGMS OF NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION

Masculine and Feminine. Neuter. Cases. Shepherd. Lion. Hair. City. Body. Light. Wall. Sing. Nominative. Genitive. Dative. Accusative. Vocative.

Plur. Nominative. Genitive. Dative. Accusative. Vocative.



PARADIGMS OF ADJECTIVES, (of three terminations, 34.) 1st and 2d Decl.—, Fair.

Singular. Plural. Cases. Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut. Nominative. Genitive. Dative. Accusative. Vocative. Similarly, , , , Just.

1st and 3d Decl.—, All.

Singular. Plural. Cases. Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut. Nominative. Genitive. Dative. Accusative. Vocative.

Similarly those ending in

M. F. N. M.&N. M. F. N. M.&N. M. F. N. M.&N. G. G. G. G. G. G. G. G. G. G. G. G.

Forms in two terminations are similar; for example:—

M.&F. N. Gen. M.&F. N. Gen. M.&F. N. Gen.

SYNOPSIS (1st sing., etc.) OF REGULAR (Mute) VERBS.—, Strike.

Active Voice.

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part. Pres. Imp'f. 1st A. 1st F. Perf. Plup. 2d A. 2d F.

Passive Voice.

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part. Pres. Imp'f. [ Perf. [ Plup. 1st A. 1st F. 2d A. 2d F. 3d F.

Middle Voice.

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part. Pres. Same throughout as the Passive. Imp'f. Same throughout as the Passive. Perf. Plup. 1st A. 1st F. 2d A. 2d F.



REGULAR VERB-ENDINGS, (including mood-vowel.)

Active (includ. 52.) 1 2 3 Ind.of Pres. and Fut. s. p.

Subjunctive throughout s. p.

Ind. of Perf. and 1 Aor. s. p. [1]

Ind. of Imp. and 2 Aor. s. p.

Ind. of Aor., Pass., & Opt.[2] s. p.

Indic. of Plup. s. p.

Opt., exc. as ab've & bel'w s. p.

Opt. of 1 Aor. s. p.

Imp. of Pres., 2 Aor., & Perf. s. p.

Imper. of 1 Aor. s. p.

Imper. of Aor. Pass. s. [3] p.

Mid. and Pass. (except 52.) 1 2 3 Ind. of Pres. and Fut. s. p.

Subj. throughout s. (exc. Perf. Pass.[4]) p.

Ind. of 1 Aor. Mid. s. p.

Ind. of Imp. and s. 2 Aor. Middle. p.

Ind. of Perf. Pass.[4] s. p.

Ind. of Plup. Pass.[4] s. p.

Opt., exc. as bel'w s. (and Perf. Pass.[4]) p.

Opt. of 1 Aor. Mid. s. p.

Imper. of Pres. s. and 2 Aor. (Mid.) p.

Imper. of 1 Aor. Mid. s. p.

Imper. of 1 Perf. Pass.[4] s. p.

[Footnote 1: But in 1st Aor.]

[Footnote 2: The Opt. has an extra mood-diphthong, , before ending.]

[Footnote 3: But in 1st Aor., see 14.]

[Footnote 4: The Perf. and Plup. Pass. are often inflected periphrastically (especially in the Opt. and Subj.) by means of an auxiliary (from , to be. with the participle.]



SYNOPSIS OF VERBS IN .

Active Voice.

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part. Pres. Imp. 2 A.

Pres. Imp. 2 A.

Pres. Imp. 2 A.

Pres. Imp.



SYNOPSIS OF VERBS IN .—(Continued.)

Middle Voice, (including Pres. and Imper. Pass.)

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part. Pres. Imp. 2 A.

Pres. Imp. 2 A.

Pres. Imp. 2 A.

Pres. Imp.

All the other tenses are regular, as if from , , , , meaning respectively to stand, put, give, and show.



PECULIAR ENDINGS OF VERBS IN

Singular. Plural. - - 1. - - - - - = 2. - - = 1. - 3.- - = 3. - - = 2. - - - - - -

has as a union-vowel throughout the subj. (pres. and 2d aor.) of both voices, and has in the 2d and 3d sing., and 2d plur. of the subj. pres. All the other forms follow the inflection of the regular verb.

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