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Higher Lessons in English
by Alonzo Reed and Brainerd Kellogg
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** Transcriber's Notes **

Underscores mark italics; words enclosed in pluses represent boldface; Vowels followed by a colon represent a long vowel (printed with a macron in the original text).

To represent the sentence diagrams in ASCII, the following conventions are used:

- The heavy horizontal line (for the main clause) is formed with equals signs (==). - Other solid vertical lines are formed with minus signs (—). - Diagonal lines are formed with backslashes (). - Words printed on a diagonal line are preceded by a backslash, with no horizontal line under them. - Dotted horizontal lines are formed with periods (..) - Dotted vertical lines are formed with straight apostrophes (') - Dotted diagonal lines are formed with slanted apostrophes (') - Words printed over a horizontally broken line are shown like this:

——, helping '————-

- Words printed bending around a diagonal-horizontal line are broken like this:

wai ting ————- ** End Transcriber's Notes **



HIGHER LESSONS IN ENGLISH.

A WORK ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION,

IN WHICH THE SCIENCE OF THE LANGUAGE IS MADE TRIBUTARY TO THE ART OF EXPRESSION.

A COURSE OF PRACTICAL LESSONS CAREFULLY GRADED, AND ADAPTED TO EVERY-DAY USE IN THE SCHOOL-ROOM.

BY ALONZO REED, A.M.,

FORMERLY INSTRUCTOR IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN,

AND BRAINERD KELLOGG, LL.D.,

PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN.

Revised Edition, 1896.



PREFACE.

The plan of "Higher Lessons" will perhaps be better understood if we first speak of two classes of text-books with which this work is brought into competition.

Method of One Class of Text-books.—In one class are those that aim chiefly to present a course of technical grammar in the order of Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. These books give large space to grammatical Etymology, and demand much memorizing of definitions, rules, declensions, and conjugations, and much formal word parsing,—work of which a considerable portion is merely the invention of grammarians, and has little value in determining the pupil's use of language or in developing his reasoning faculties. This is a revival of the long-endured, unfruitful, old-time method.

Method of Another Class of Text-books.—In another class are those that present a miscellaneous collection of lessons in Composition, Spelling, Pronunciation, Sentence-analysis, Technical Grammar, and General Information, without unity or continuity. The pupil who completes these books will have gained something by practice and will have picked up some scraps of knowledge; but his information will be vague and disconnected, and he will have missed that mental training which it is the aim of a good text-book to afford. A text-book is of value just so far as it presents a clear, logical development of its subject. It must present its science or its art as a natural growth, otherwise there is no apology for its being.

The Study of the Sentence for the Proper Use of Words.—It is the plan of this book to trace with easy steps the natural development of the sentence, to consider the leading facts first and then to descend to the details. To begin with the parts of speech is to begin with details and to disregard the higher unities, without which the details are scarcely intelligible. The part of speech to which a word belongs is determined only by its function in the sentence, and inflections simply mark the offices and relations of words. Unless the pupil has been systematically trained to discover the functions and relations of words as elements of an organic whole, his knowledge of the parts of speech is of little value. It is not because he cannot conjugate the verb or decline the pronoun that he falls into such errors as "How many sounds have each of the vowels?" "Five years' interest are due." "She is older than me." He probably would not say "each have," "interest are," "me am." One thoroughly familiar with the structure of the sentence will find little trouble in using correctly the few inflectional forms in English.

The Study of the Sentence for the Laws of Discourse.—Through the study of the sentence we not only arrive at an intelligent knowledge of the parts of speech and a correct use of grammatical forms, but we discover the laws of discourse in general. In the sentence the student should find the law of unity, of continuity, of proportion, of order. All good writing consists of good sentences properly joined. Since the sentence is the foundation or unit of discourse, it is all-important that the pupil should know the sentence. He should be able to put the principal and the subordinate parts in their proper relation; he should know the exact function of every element, its relation to other elements and its relation to the whole. He should know the sentence as the skillful engineer knows his engine, that, when there is a disorganization of parts, he may at once find the difficulty and the remedy for it.

The Study of the Sentence for the Sake of Translation.—The laws of thought being the same for all nations, the logical analysis of the sentence is the same for all languages. When a student who has acquired a knowledge of the English sentence comes to the translation of a foreign language, he finds his work greatly simplified. If in a sentence of his own language he sees only a mass of unorganized words, how much greater must be his confusion when this mass of words is in a foreign tongue! A study of the parts of speech is a far less important preparation for translation, since the declensions and conjugations in English do not conform to those of other languages. Teachers of the classics and of modern languages are beginning to appreciate these facts.

The Study of the Sentence for Discipline.—As a means of discipline nothing can compare with a training in the logical analysis of the sentence. To study thought through its outward form, the sentence, and to discover the fitness of the different parts of the expression to the parts of the thought, is to learn to think. It has been noticed that pupils thoroughly trained in the analysis and the construction of sentences come to their other studies with a decided advantage in mental power. These results can be obtained only by systematic and persistent work. Experienced teachers understand that a few weak lessons on the sentence at the beginning of a course and a few at the end can afford little discipline and little knowledge that will endure, nor can a knowledge of the sentence be gained by memorizing complicated rules and labored forms of analysis. To compel a pupil to wade through a page or two of such bewildering terms as "complex adverbial element of the second class" and "compound prepositional adjective phrase," in order to comprehend a few simple functions, is grossly unjust; it is a substitution of form for content, of words for ideas.

Subdivisions and Modifications after the Sentence.—Teachers familiar with text-books that group all grammatical instruction around the eight parts of speech, making eight independent units, will not, in the following lessons, find everything in its accustomed place. But, when it is remembered that the thread of connection unifying this work is the sentence, it will be seen that the lessons fall into their natural order of sequence. When, through the development of the sentence, all the offices of the different parts of speech are mastered, the most natural thing is to continue the work of classification and subdivide the parts of speech. The inflection of words, being distinct from their classification, makes a separate division of the work. If the chief end of grammar were to enable one to parse, we should not here depart from long-established precedent.

Sentences in Groups—Paragraphs.—In tracing the growth of the sentence from the simplest to the most complex form, each element, as it is introduced, is illustrated by a large number of detached sentences, chosen with the utmost care as to thought and expression. These compel the pupil to confine his attention to one thing till he gets it well in hand. Paragraphs from literature are then selected to be used at intervals, with questions and suggestions to enforce principles already presented, and to prepare the way informally for the regular lessons that follow. The lessons on these selections are, however, made to take a much wider scope. They lead the pupil to discover how and why sentences are grouped into paragraphs, and how paragraphs are related to each other; they also lead him on to discover whatever is most worthy of imitation in the style of the several models presented.

The Use of the Diagram.—In written analysis, the simple map, or diagram, found in the following lessons, will enable the pupil to present directly and vividly to the eye the exact function of every clause in the sentence, of every phrase in the clause, and of every word in the phrase—to picture the complete analysis of the sentence, with principal and subordinate parts in their proper relations. It is only by the aid of such a map, or picture, that the pupil can, at a single view, see the sentence as an organic whole made up of many parts performing various functions and standing in various relations. Without such map he must labor under the disadvantage of seeing all these things by piecemeal or in succession.

But if for any reason the teacher prefers not to use these diagrams, they may be omitted without causing the slightest break in the work. The plan of this book is in no way dependent on the use of the diagrams.

The Objections to the Diagram.—The fact that the pictorial diagram groups the parts of a sentence according to their offices and relations, and not in the order of speech, has been spoken of as a fault. It is, on the contrary, a merit, for it teaches the pupil to look through the literary order and discover the logical order. He thus learns what the literary order really is, and sees that this may be varied indefinitely, so long as the logical relations are kept clear.

The assertion that correct diagrams can be made mechanically is not borne out by the facts. It is easier to avoid precision in oral analysis than in written. The diagram drives the pupil to a most searching examination of the sentence, brings him face to face with every difficulty, and compels a decision on every point.

The Abuse of the Diagram.—Analysis by diagram often becomes so interesting and so helpful that, like other good things, it is liable to be overdone. There is danger of requiring too much written analysis. When the ordinary constructions have been made clear, diagrams should be used only for the more difficult sentences, or, if the sentences are long, only for the more difficult parts of them. In both oral and written analysis there is danger of repeating what needs no repetition. When the diagram has served its purpose, it should be dropped.

AUTHORS' NOTE TO REVISED EDITION.

During the years in which "Higher Lessons" has been in existence, we have ourselves had an instructive experience with it in the classroom. We have considered hundreds of suggestive letters written us by intelligent teachers using the book. We have examined the best works on grammar that have been published recently here and in England. And we have done more. We have gone to the original source of all valid authority in our language— the best writers and speakers of it. That we might ascertain what present linguistic usage is, we chose fifty authors, now alive or living till recently, and have carefully read three hundred pages of each. We have minutely noted and recorded what these men by habitual use declare to be good English. Among the fifty are such men as Ruskin, Froude, Hamerton, Matthew Arnold, Macaulay, De Quincey, Thackeray, Bagehot, John Morley, James Martineau, Cardinal Newman, J. R. Green, and Lecky in England; and Hawthorne, Curtis, Prof. W. D. Whitney, George P. Marsh, Prescott, Emerson, Motley, Prof. Austin Phelps, Holmes, Edward Everett, Irving, and Lowell in America. When in the pages following we anywhere quote usage, it is to the authority of such men that we appeal.

Upon these four sources of help we have drawn in the Revision of "Higher Lessons" that we now offer to the public.

In this revised work we have given additional reasons for the opinions we hold, and have advanced to some new positions; have explained more fully what some teachers have thought obscure; have qualified what we think was put too positively in former editions; have given the history of constructions where this would deepen interest or aid in composition; have quoted the verdicts of usage on many locutions condemned by purists; have tried to work into the pupil's style the felicities of expression found in the lesson sentences; have taught the pupil earlier in the work, and more thoroughly, the structure and the function of paragraphs; and have led him on from the composition of single sentences of all kinds to the composition of these great groups of sentences. But the distinctive features of "Higher Lessons" that have made the work so useful and so popular stand as they have stood—the Study of Words from their Offices in the Sentence, Analysis for the sake of subsequent Synthesis, Easy Gradation, the Subdivisions and Modifications of the Parts of Speech after the treatment of these in the Sentence, etc., etc. We confess to some surprise that so little of what was thought good in matter and method years ago has been seriously affected by criticism since.

The additions made to "Higher Lessons"—additions that bring the work up to the latest requirements—are generally in foot-notes to pages, and sometimes are incorporated into the body of the Lessons, which in number and numbering remain as they were. The books of former editions and those of this revised edition can, therefore, be used in the same class without any inconvenience.

Of the teachers who have given us invaluable assistance in this Revision, we wish specially to name Prof. Henry M. Worrell, of the Polytechnic Institute; and in this edition of the work, as in the preceding, we take pleasure in acknowledging our great indebtedness to our critic, the distinguished Prof. Francis A. March, of Lafayette College.

* * * * *

LESSON 1.

A TALK ON LANGUAGE.

Let us talk to-day about a language that we never learn from a grammar or from a book of any kind—a language that we come by naturally, and use without thinking of it.

It is a universal language, and consequently needs no interpreter. People of all lands and of all degrees of culture use it; even the brute animals in some measure understand it.

This Natural language is the language of cries, laughter, and tones, the language of the eyes, the nose, the mouth, the whole face; the language of gestures and postures.

The child's cry tells of its wants; its sob, of grief; its scream, of pain; its laugh, of delight. The boy raises his eyebrows in surprise and his nose in disgust, leans forward in expectation, draws back in fear, makes a fist in anger, and calls or drives away his dog simply by the tone in which he speaks.

But feelings and desires are not the only things we wish to communicate. Early in life we begin to acquire knowledge and learn to think, and then we feel the need of a better language.

Suppose, for instance, you have formed an idea of a day; could you express this by a tone, a look, or a gesture?

If you wish to tell me the fact that yesterday was cloudy, or that the days are shorter in winter than in summer, you find it wholly impossible to do this by means of Natural language.

To communicate, then, your thoughts, or even the mental pictures we have called ideas, you need a language more nearly perfect.

This language is made up of words.

These words you learn from your mothers, and so Word language is your mother-tongue. You learn them, also, from your friends and teachers, your playmates and companions, and you learn them by reading; for words, as you know, may be written as well as spoken.

This Word language we may, from its superiority, call Language Proper.

Natural language, as was said, precedes this Word language, but gives way as Word language comes in and takes its place; yet Natural language may be used, and always should be used, to assist and strengthen Word language. In earnest conversation we enforce what we say in words, by the tone in which we utter them, by the varying expression of the face, and by the movements of the different parts of the body.

The look or the gesture may even dart ahead of the word, or it may contradict it, and thus convict the speaker of ignorance or deception.

The happy union of the two kinds of language is the charm of all good reading and speaking. The teacher of elocution is ever trying to recall the pupil to the tones, the facial expression, and the action, so natural to him in childhood and in animated conversation.

DEFINITION.—Language Proper consists of the spoken and the written words used to communicate ideas and thoughts.

DEFINITION.—English Grammar is the science which teaches the forms, uses, and relations of the words of the English language.

* * * * *

LESSON 2.

A TALK ON THOUGHTS AND SENTENCES.

To express a thought we use more than a single word, and the words arranged to express a thought we call a sentence.

But there was a time when, through lack of words, we compressed our thought into a single word. The child says to his father, up, meaning, Take me up into your lap; or, book, meaning, This thing in my hand is a book.

These first words always deal with the things that can be learned by the senses; they express the child's ideas of these things.

We have spoken of thoughts and sentences; let us see now whether we can find out what a thought is, and what a sentence is.

A sentence is a group of words expressing a thought; it is a body of which a thought is the soul. It is something that can be seen or heard, while a thought cannot be. Let us see whether, in studying a sentence, we may not learn what a thought is.

In any such sentence as this, Spiders spin, something is said, or asserted, about something. Here it is said, or asserted, of the animals, spiders, that they spin.

The sentence, then, consists of two parts,—the name of that of which something is said, and that which is said of it.

The first of these parts we call the Subject of the sentence; the second, the Predicate.

Now, if the sentence, composed of two parts, expresses the thought, there must be in the thought two parts to be expressed. And there are two: viz., something of which we think, and that which we think of it. In the thought expressed by Spiders spin, the animals, spiders, are the something of which we think, and their spinning is what we think of them. In the sentence expressing this thought, the word spiders names that of which we think, and the word spin tells what we think of spiders.

Not every group of words is necessarily a sentence, because it may not be the expression of a thought. Spiders spinning is not a sentence. There is nothing in this expression to show that we have formed a judgment, i.e., that we have really made up our minds that spiders do spin. The spinning is not asserted of the spiders.

Soft feathers, The shining sun are not sentences, and for similar reasons. Feathers are soft, The sun shines are sentences. Here the asserting word is supplied, and something is said of something else.

The shines sun is not a sentence; for, though it contains the asserting word shines, the arrangement is such that no assertion is made, and no thought is expressed.

* * * * *

LESSON 3.

A TALK ON SOUNDS AND LETTERS.

We have already told you that in expressing our ideas and thoughts we use two kinds of words, spoken words and written words.

We learned the spoken words first. Mankind spoke long before they wrote. Not until people wished to communicate with those at a distance, or had thought out something worth handing down to aftertimes, did they need to write.

But speaking was easy. The air, the lungs, and the organs of the throat and mouth were at hand. The first cry was a suggestion. Sounds and noises were heard on every side, provoking imitation, and the need of speech for the purposes of communication was imperative.

Spoken words are made up of sounds. There are over forty sounds in the English language. The different combinations of these give us all the words of our spoken tongue. That you may clearly understand these sounds, we will tell you something about the human voice.

In talking, the air driven out from your lungs beats against two flat muscles, stretched, like bands, across the top of the windpipe, and causes them to vibrate up and down. This vibration makes sound. Take a thread, put one end between your teeth, hold the other with thumb and finger, draw it tight and strike it, and you will understand how voice is made. The shorter the string, or the tighter it is drawn, the faster will it vibrate, and the higher will be the pitch of the sound. The more violent the blow, the farther will the string vibrate, and the louder will be the sound. Just so with these vocal bands or cords. The varying force with which the breath strikes them and their different tensions and lengths at different times, explain the different degrees of loudness and the varying pitch of the voice.

If the voice thus produced comes out through the mouth held well open, a class of sounds is formed which we call vowel sounds.

But if the voice is held back or obstructed by the palate, tongue, teeth, or lips, one kind of the sounds called consonant sounds is made. If the breath is driven out without voice, and is held back by these same parts of the mouth, the other kind of consonant sounds is formed.

The written word is made up of characters, or letters, which represent to the eye these sounds that address the ear.

You are now prepared to understand us when we say that vowels are the letters that stand for the open sounds of the voice, and that consonants are the letters that stand for the sounds made by the obstructed voice and the obstructed breath.

The alphabet of a language is a complete list of its letters. A perfect alphabet would have one letter for each sound, and only one.

Our alphabet is imperfect in at least these three ways:—

1. Some of the letters are superfluous; c stands for the sound of s or of k, as in city and can; q has the sound of k, as in quit; and x that of ks, gz, or z, as in expel, exist, and Xenophon.

2. Combinations of letters sometimes represent single sounds; as, th in thine, th in thin, ng in sing, and sh in shut.

3. Some letters stand each for many sounds. Twenty-three letters represent over forty sounds. Every vowel does more than single duty; e stands for two sounds, as in mete and met; i for two, as in pine and pin; o for three, as in note, not, and move; u for four, as in tube, tub, full, and fur; a for six, as in fate, fat, far, fall, fast, and fare.

W is a vowel when it unites with a preceding vowel to represent a vowel sound, and y is a vowel when it has the sound of i, as in now, by, boy, newly. W and y are consonants at the beginning of a word or syllable.

The various sounds of the several vowels and even of the same vowel are caused by the different shapes which the mouth assumes. These changes in its cavity produce, also, the two sounds that unite in each of the compounds, ou, oi, ew, and in the alphabetic i and o.

1. 2. Vocal Consonants. Aspirates. b..................p d..................t g..................k —————————-h j..................ch l————————— m————————— n————————— r————————— th.................th (in thine) (in thin) v..................f w————————— y————————— z (in zone)......s z (in azure).....sh

The consonants in column 1 represent the sounds made by the obstructed voice; those in column 2, except h (which represents a mere forcible breathing), represent those made by the obstructed breath.

The letters are mostly in pairs. Now note that the tongue, teeth, lips, and palate are placed in the same relative position to make the sounds of both letters in any pair. The difference in the sounds of the letters of any pair is simply this: there is voice in the sounds of the letters in column 1, and only whisper in those of column 2. Give the sound of any letter in column 1, as b, g, v, and the last or vanishing part of it is the sound of the other letter of the pair.

TO THE TEACHER.—Write these letters on the board, as above, and drill the pupils on the sounds till they can see and make these distinctions. Drill them on the vowels also.

In closing this talk with you, we wish to emphasize one point brought before you. Here is a pencil, a real thing; we carry in memory a picture of the pencil, which we call an idea; and there are the two words naming this idea, the spoken and the written. Learn to distinguish clearly these four things.

TO THE TEACHER.—In reviewing these three Lessons, put particular emphasis on Lesson 2.

* * * * *

LESSON 4.

ANALYSIS AND THE DIAGRAM.

TO THE TEACHER.—If the pupils have been through "Graded Lessons" or its equivalent, some of the following Lessons may be passed over rapidly.

DEFINITION.—A Sentence is the expression of a thought in words.

Direction.—Analyze the following sentences:—

Model.—Spiders spin. Why is this a sentence? Ans.—Because it expresses a thought. Of what is something thought? Ans.—Spiders. Which word tells what is thought? Ans.—Spin. [Footnote: The word spiders, standing in Roman, names our idea of the real thing; spin, used merely as a word, is in Italics. This use of Italics the teacher and the pupil will please note here and elsewhere.]

1. Tides ebb. 2. Liquids flow. 3. Steam expands. 4. Carbon burns. 5. Iron melts. 6. Powder explodes. 7. Leaves tremble. 8. Worms crawl. 9. Hares leap.

In each of these sentences there are, as you have learned, two parts—the Subject and the Predicate.

DEFINITION.—The Subject of a sentence names that of which something is thought.

DEFINITION.—The Predicate of a sentence tells what is thought.

DEFINITION.—The Analysis of a sentence is the separation of it into its parts.

Direction.—Analyze these sentences:—

Model.—Beavers build. This is a sentence because it expresses a thought. Beavers is the subject because it names that of which something is thought; build is the predicate because it tells what is thought. [Footnote: When pupils are familiar with the definitions, let the form of analysis be varied. The reasons may be made more specific. Here and elsewhere avoid mechanical repetition.]

1. Squirrels climb. 2. Blood circulates. 3. Muscles tire. 4. Heralds proclaim. 5. Apes chatter. 6. Branches wave. 7. Corn ripens. 8. Birds twitter. 9. Hearts throb.

Explanation.—Draw a heavy line and divide it into two parts. Let the first part represent the subject of a sentence; the second, the predicate.

If you write a word over the first part, you will understand that this word is the subject of a sentence. If you write a word over the second part, you will understand that this word is the predicate of a sentence.

Love conquers ======== ============

You see, by looking at this figure, that Love conquers is a sentence; that love is the subject, and conquers the predicate.

Such figures, made up of straight lines, we call Diagrams.

DEFINITION.—A Diagram is a picture of the offices and the relations of the different parts of a sentence.

Direction.—Analyze these sentences:—

1. Frogs croak. 2. Hens sit. 3. Sheep bleat. 4. Cows low. 5. Flies buzz. 6. Sap ascends. 7. Study pays. 8. Buds swell. 9. Books aid. 10. Noise disturbs. 11. Hope strengthens. 12. Cocks crow.

* * * * *

LESSON 5.

COMPOSITION—SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.

CAPITAL LETTER—RULE.—The first word of every sentence must begin with a capital letter.

PERIOD—RULE.—A period must be placed after every sentence that simply affirms, denies, or commands.

Direction.—Construct sentences by supplying a subject to each of the following predicates:—

Ask yourselves the questions, What tarnishes? Who sailed, conquered, etc.?

1. ——- tarnishes. 2. ——- capsize. 3. ——- radiates. 4. ——- sentence. 5. ——- careen. 6. ——- sailed. 7. ——- descends. 8. ——- glisten. 9. ——- absorb. 10. ——- corrode. 11. ——- conquered. 12. ——- surrendered. 13. ——- refines. 14. ——- gurgle. 15. ——- murmur.

Direction.—Construct sentences by supplying a predicate to each of the following subjects:—

Ask yourselves the question, Glycerine does what?

1. Glycerine ——-. 2. Yankees ——-. 3. Tyrants ——-. 4. Pendulums ——-. 5. Caesar ——-. 6. Labor ——-. 7. Chalk ——-. 8. Nature ——-. 9. Tempests ——-. 10. Seeds ——-. 11. Heat ——-. 12. Philosophers ——-. 13. Bubbles ——-. 14. Darkness ——-. 15. Wax ——-. 16. Reptiles ——-. 17. Merchants ——-. 18. Meteors ——-. 19. Conscience ——-. 20. Congress ——-. 21. Life ——-. 22. Vapors ——-. 23. Music ——-. 24. Pitch ——-.

TO THE TEACHER.—This exercise may profitably be extended by supplying several subjects to each predicate, and several predicates to each subject.

* * * * *

LESSON 6.

ANALYSIS.

The predicate sometimes contains more than one word.

Direction.—Analyze as in Lesson 4.

1. Moisture is exhaled. 2. Conclusions are drawn. 3. Industry will enrich. 4. Stars have disappeared. 5. Twilight is falling. 6. Leaves are turning. 7. Sirius has appeared. 8. Constantinople had been captured. 9. Electricity has been harnessed. 10. Tempests have been raging. 11. Nuisances should be abated. 12. Jerusalem was destroyed. 13. Light can be reflected. 14. Rain must have fallen. 15. Planets have been discovered. 16. Palaces shall crumble. 17. Storms may be gathering. 18. Essex might have been saved. 19. Caesar could have been crowned, 20. Inventors may be encouraged.

Direction.—Point out the subject and the predicate of each sentence in Lessons 12 and 17.

Look first for the word that asserts, and then, by putting who or what before this predicate, the subject may easily be found.

TO THE TEACHER.—Let this exercise be continued till the pupils can readily point out the subject and the predicate in ordinary simple sentences.

When this can be done promptly, the first and most important step in analysis will have been taken.

* * * * *

LESSON 7.

COMPOSITION—SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.

Direction.—Make at least ten good sentences out of the words in the three columns following:—

The helping words in column 2 must be prefixed to words in column 3 in order to make complete predicates. Analyze your sentences.

1 2 3 Arts is progressing. Allen was tested. Life are command. Theories will prolonged. Science would released. Truth were falling. Shadows may be burned. Moscow has been measured. Raleigh have been prevail. Quantity should have been lost.

Review Questions.

What is language proper? What is English grammar? What is a sentence? What are its two parts? What is the subject of a sentence? The predicate of a sentence? The analysis of a sentence? What is a diagram? What rule has been given for the use of capital letters? For the period? May the predicate contain more than one word? Illustrate.

TO THE TEACHER.—Introduce the class to the Parts of Speech before the close of this recitation. See "Introductory Hints" below.

* * * * *

LESSON 8.

CLASSES OF WORDS.

NOUNS.

Introductory Hints.—We have now reached the point where we must classify the words of our language. But we are appalled by their number. If we must learn all about the forms and the uses of a hundred thousand words by studying these words one by one, we shall die ignorant of English grammar.

But may we not deal with words as we do with plants? If we had to study and name each leaf and stem and flower, taken singly, we should never master the botany even of our garden-plants.

But God has made things to resemble one another and to differ from one another; and, as he has given us the power to detect resemblances and differences, we are able to group things that have like qualities.

From certain likenesses in form and in structure, we put certain flowers together and call them roses; from other likenesses, we get another class called lilies; from others still, violets. Just so we classify trees and get the oak, the elm, the maple, etc.

The myriad objects of nature fall into comparatively few classes. Studying each class, we learn all we need to know of every object in it.

From their likenesses, though not in form, we classify words. We group them according to their similarities in use, or office, in the sentence. Sorting them thus, we find that they all fall into eight classes, which we call Parts of Speech.

We find that many words name things—are the names of things of which we can think and speak. These we place in one class and call them Nouns (Latin nomen, a name, a noun).

PRONOUNS.

Without the little words which we shall italicize, it would be difficult for one stranger to ask another, "Can you tell me who is the postmaster at B?" The one would not know what name to use instead of you, the other would not recognize the name in the place of me, and both would be puzzled to find a substitute for who.

I, you, my, me, what, we, it, he, who, him, she, them, and other words are used in place of nouns, and are, therefore, called Pronouns (Lat. pro, for, and nomen, a noun).

By means of these handy little words we can represent any or every object in existence. We could hardly speak or write without them now, they so frequently shorten the expression and prevent confusion and repetition.

DEFINITION.—A Noun is the name of anything.

DEFINITION.—A Pronoun is a word used for a noun.

The principal office of nouns is to name the things of which we say, or assert, something in the sentence.

Direction.—-Write, according to the model, the names of things that can burn, grow, melt, love, roar, or revolve.

Model. Nouns. Wood Paper Oil Houses + burn or burns. Coal Leaves Matches Clothes

Remark.—Notice that, when the subject adds s or es to denote more than one, the predicate does not take s. Note how it would sound if both should add s.

Every subject of a sentence is a noun, or some word or words used as a noun. But not every noun in a sentence is a subject.

Direction.Select and write all the nouns and pronouns, whether subjects or not, in the sentences given in Lesson 18.

In writing them observe the following rules:—

CAPITAL LETTER—RULE.—Proper, or individual, names and words derived from them begin with capital letters.

PERIOD and CAPITAL LETTER—RULE.—Abbreviations generally begin with capital letters and are always followed by the period.

* * * * *

LESSON 9.

CAPITAL LETTERS.

Direction.From the following words select and write in one column those names that distinguish individual things from others of the same class, and in another column those words that are derived from individual names:—

Observe Rule 1, Lesson 8.

ohio, state, chicago, france, bostonian, country, england, boston, milton, river, girl, mary, hudson, william, britain, miltonic, city, englishman, messiah, platonic, american, deity, bible, book, plato, christian, broadway, america, jehovah, british, easter, europe, man, scriptures, god.

Direction.Write the names of the days of the week and the months of the year, beginning each with a capital letter; and write the names of the seasons without capital letters.

Remember that, when a class name and a distinguishing word combine to make one individual name, each word begins with a capital letter; as, Jersey City. [Footnote: Dead Sea is composed of the class name sea, which applies to all seas, and the word Dead, which distinguishes one sea from all others.]

But, when the distinguishing word can by itself be regarded as a complete name, the class name begins with a small letter; as, river Rhine.

Examples.—Long Island, Good Friday, Mount Vernon, Suspension Bridge, New York city, Harper's Ferry, Cape May, Bunker Hill, Red River, Lake Erie, General Jackson, White Mountains, river Thames, Astor House, steamer Drew, North Pole.

Direction.—Write these words, using capital letters when needed:—

ohio river, professor huxley, president adams, doctor brown, clinton county, westchester county, colonel burr, secretary stanton, lake george, green mountains, white sea, cape cod, delaware bay, atlantic ocean, united states, rhode island.

Remember that, when an individual name is made up of a class name, the word of, and a distinguishing word, the class name and the distinguishing word should each begin with a capital letter; as, Gulf of Mexico. But, when the distinguishing word can by itself be regarded as a complete name, the class name should begin with a small letter; as, city of London. [Footnote: The need of some definite instruction to save the young writer from hesitation and confusion in the use of capitals is evident from the following variety of forms now in use: City of New York, city of New York, New York City, New York city, New York State, New York state, Fourth Avenue, Fourth avenue, Grand Street, Grand street, Grand st., Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean sea, Kings County, Kings county, etc.

The usage of newspapers and of text-books on geography would probably favor the writing of the class names in the examples above with initial capitals; but we find in the most carefully printed books and periodicals a tendency to favor small letters in such cases.

In the superscription of letters, such words as street, city, and county begin with capitals.

Usage certainly favors small initials for the following italicized words: river Rhine, Catskill village, the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. If river and village, in the preceding examples, are not essential parts of the individual names, why should river, ocean, and county, in Hudson river, Pacific ocean, Queens county, be treated differently? We often say the Hudson, the Pacific, Queens, without adding the explanatory class name.

The principle we suggest may be in advance of common usage; but it is in the line of progress, and it tends to uniformity of practice and to an improved appearance of the page. About a century ago every noun began with a capital letter.

The American Cyclopedia takes a position still further in advance, as illustrated in the following: Bed river, Black sea, gulf of Mexico, Rocky mountains. In the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Little, Brown, & Co., 9th ed.) we find Connecticut river, Madison county, etc., quite uniformly; but we find Gulf of Mexico, Pacific Ocean, etc.]

Direction.—Write these words, using capital letters when needed:

city of atlanta, isle of man, straits of dover, state of Vermont, isthmus of darien, sea of galilee, queen of england, bay of naples, empire of china.

Remember that, when a compound name is made up of two or more distinguishing words, as, Henry Clay, John Stuart Mill, each word begins with a capital letter.

Direction.—Write these words, using capital letters when needed:—

great britain, lower california, south carolina, daniel webster, new england, oliver wendell holmes, north america, new orleans, james russell lowell, british america.

Remember that, in writing the titles of books, essays, poems, plays, etc., and the names of the Deity, only the chief words begin with capital letters; as, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Supreme Being, Paradise Lost, the Holy One of Israel.

Direction.—Write these words, using capital letters when needed:—

declaration of independence, clarendon's history of the great rebellion, webster's reply to hayne, pilgrim's progress, johnson's lives of the poets, son of man, the most high, dombey and son, tent on the beach, bancroft's history of the united states.

Direction.—Write these miscellaneous names, using capital letters when needed:—

erie canal, governor tilden, napoleon bonaparte, cape of good hope, pope's essay on criticism, massachusetts bay, city of boston, continent of america, new testament, goldsmith's she stoops to conquer, milton's hymn on the nativity, indian ocean, cape cod bay, plymouth rock, anderson's history of the united states, mount washington, english channel, the holy spirit, new york central railroad, old world, long island sound, flatbush village.

* * * * *

LESSON 10.

ABBREVIATIONS.

Direction.—Some words occur frequently, and for convenience may he abbreviated in writing. Observing Rule 2, Lesson 8, abbreviate these words by writing the first five letters:—

Thursday and lieutenant.

These by writing the first four letters:—

Connecticut, captain, Colorado, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, Oregon, professor, president, Tennessee, and Tuesday.

These by writing the first three letters:—

Alabama, answer, Arkansas, California, colonel, Delaware, England, esquire, Friday, general, George, governor, honorable, Illinois, Indiana, major, Monday, Nevada, reverend, Saturday, secretary, Sunday, Texas, Wednesday, Wisconsin, and the names of the months except May, June, and July.

These by writing the first two letters:—

Company, county, credit, example, and idem (the same).

These by writing the first letter:—

East, north, south, and west. [Footnote: When these words refer to sections of the country, they should begin with capitals.]

These by writing the first and the last letter:—

Doctor, debtor, Georgia, junior, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Master, Mister, numero (number), Pennsylvania, saint, street, Vermont, and Virginia.

These by writing the first letter of each word of the compound with a period after each letter:—

Artium baccalaureus (bachelor of arts), anno Domini (in the year of our Lord), artium magister (master of arts), ante meridiem (before noon), before Christ, collect on delivery, District (of) Columbia, divinitatis doctor (doctor of divinity), member (of) Congress, medicinae doctor (doctor of medicine), member (of) Parliament, North America, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, postmaster, post meridiem (afternoon), post-office, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and United States.

Direction.The following abbreviations and those you have made should be committed to memory:—

Acct. or acct., account. Bbl. or bbl., barrel. Chas., Charles. Fla., Florida. LL. D., legum doctor (doctor of laws).[Footnote: The doubling of the l to ll and in LL. D., and of p in pp., with no period between the letters, comes from pluralizing the nouns line, lean, and page.] Messrs., messieurs (gentlemen). Mme., madame. Mo., Missouri. Mrs., (pronounced missis) mistress. Mts., mountains. Ph.D., philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy). Recd., received. Robt., Robert. Supt., superintendent. Thos., Thomas. bu., bushel. do., ditto (the same) doz., dozen. e.g., exempli gratia (for example) etc., et caetera (and others). ft., foot, feet. hhd., hogshead. hdkf., handkerchief. i.e., id est (that is). l., line. ll., lines. lb., libra (pound). oz., ounce. p., page. pp., pages. qt., quart. vs., versus (against). viz., videlicet (namely). yd., yard.

Remark.—In this Lesson we have given the abbreviations of the states as now regulated by the "U. S. Official Postal Guide." In the "Guide" Iowa and Ohio are not abbreviated. They are, however, frequently abbreviated thus: Iowa, Ia. or Io.; Ohio, 0.

The similarity, when hurriedly written, of the abbreviations Cal., Col.; Ia., Io.; Neb., Nev.; Penn., Tenn., etc., has led to much confusion.

* * * * *

LESSON 11.

VERBS.

Introductory Hints.—We told you in Lesson 8 how, by noticing the essential likenesses in things and grouping the things thus alike, we could throw the countless objects around us into comparatively few classes.

We began to classify words according to their use, or office, in the sentence; we found one class of words that name things, and we called them nouns.

But in all the sentences given you, we have had to use another class of words. These words, you notice, tell what the things do, or assert that they are, or exist.

When we say Clocks tick, tick is not the name of anything; it tells what clocks do: it asserts action.

When we say Clocks are, or There are clocks, are is not the name of. anything, nor does it tell what clocks do; it simply asserts existence, or being.

When we say Clocks hang, stand, last, lie, or remain, these words hang, stand, last, etc., do not name anything, nor do they tell that clocks act or simply exist; they tell the condition, or state, in which clocks are, or exist; that is, they assert state of being.

All words that assert action, being, or state of being, we call Verbs (Lat. verbum, a word). The name was given to this class because it was thought that they were the most important words in the sentence.

Give several verbs that assert action. Give some that assert being, and some that assert state of being.

DEFINITION.—A Verb is a word that asserts action, being-, or state of being.

There are, however, two forms of the verb, the participle and the infinitive (see Lessons 37 and 40), that express action, being, or state of being, without asserting it.

Direction.Write after each of the following nouns as many appropriate verbs as you can think of:—

Let some express being and some express state of being.

+Model. Noun. burns. melt. scorches. Fire keep. (or) + spreads. Fires glow. rages. heat. exists.

Remark.—Notice that the simple form of the verb, as, burn, melt, scorch, adds s or es when its subject noun names but one thing.

Lawyers, mills, horses, books, education, birds, mind.

A verb may consist of two, three, or even four words; as, is learning, may be learned, could have been learned. [Footnote: Such groups of words are sometimes called verb-phrases. For definition of phrase, see Lesson 17.]

Direction.Unite the words in columns 2 and 3 below, and append the verbs thus formed to the nouns and pronouns in column 1 so as to make good sentences:—

Remark.—Notice that is, was, and has are used with nouns naming one thing, and with the pronouns he, she, and it; and that are, were, and have are used with nouns naming more than one thing, and with the pronouns we, you, and they. I may be used with am, was, and have.

1 2 3 Words am confused. Cotton is exported. Sugar are refined. Air coined. Teas was delivered. Speeches were weighed. I, we, you has been imported. He, she, it, they have been transferred.

As verbs are the only words that assert, every predicate must be a verb, or must contain a verb.

Naming the class to which a word belongs is the first step in parsing.

Direction.—Parse five of the sentences you have written.

Model.—Poland was dismembered.

Parsing.—Poland is a noun because ——; was dismembered is a verb because it asserts action.

* * * * *

LESSON 12.

MODIFIED SUBJECT.

ADJECTIVES.

Introductory Hints.—The subject noun and the predicate verb are not always or often the whole of the structure that we call the sentence, though they are the underlying timbers that support the rest of the verbal bridge. Other words may be built upon them.

We learned in Lesson 8 that things resemble one another and differ from one another. They resemble and they differ in what we call their qualities. Things are alike whose qualities are the same, as, two oranges having the same color, taste, and odor. Things are unlike, as an orange and an apple, whose qualities are different.

It is by their qualities, then, that we know things and group them.

Ripe apples are healthful. Unripe apples are hurtful. In these two sentences we have the same word apples to name the same general class of things; but the prefixed words ripe and unripe, marking opposite qualities in the apples, separate the apples into two kinds—the ripe ones and the unripe ones.

These prefixed words ripe and unripe, then, limit the word apples in its scope; ripe apples or unripe apples applies to fewer things than apples alone applies to.

If we say the, this, that apple, or an, no apple, or some, many, eight apples, we do not mark any quality of the fruit; but the, this, or that points out a particular apple, and limits the word apple to the one pointed out; and an, no, some, many, or eight limits the word in respect to the number of apples that it denotes.

These and all such words as by marking quality, by pointing out, or by specifying number or quantity limit the scope or add to the meaning of the noun, modify it, and are called Modifiers.

In the sentence above, apples is the Simple Subject and ripe apples is the Modified Subject.

Words that modify nouns and pronouns are called Adjectives (Lat. ad, to, and jacere, to throw).

DEFINITION.—A Modifier is a word or a group of words joined to some part of the sentence to qualify or limit the meaning.

The Subject with its Modifiers is called the Modified Subject, or Logical Subject.

DEFINITION.—An Adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun.

Analysis and Parsing.

1. The cold November rain is falling.

rain is falling ========================= ============== The cold November

Explanation.—The two lines shaded alike and placed uppermost stand for the subject and the predicate, and show that these are of the same rank, and are the principal parts of the sentence. The lighter lines, placed under and joined to the subject line, stand for the less important parts, the modifiers, and show what is modified. [Footnote: TO THE TEACHER.—When several adjectives are joined to one noun, each adjective does not always modify the unlimited noun. That old wooden house was burned. Here wooden modifies house, old modifies house limited by wooden, and that modifies house limited by old and wooden. This may be illustrated in the diagram by numbering the modifiers in the order of their rank, thus:—

================ ===== 3 2 1

Adverbs, and both phrase and clause modifiers often differ in rank in the same way. If the pupils are able to see these distinctions, it will be well to have them made in the analysis, as they often determine the punctuation and the arrangement. See Lessons 13 and 21.]

TO THE TEACHER.—While we, from experience, are clear in the belief that diagrams are very helpful in the analysis of sentences, we wish to say that the work required in this book can all be done without resorting to these figures. If some other form, or no form, of written analysis is preferred, our diagrams can be omitted without break or confusion.

When diagrams are used, only the teacher can determine how many shall be required in any one Lesson, and how soon the pupil may dispense with their aid altogether.

Oral Analysis.—(Here and hereafter we shall omit from the oral analysis and parsing whatever has been provided for in previous Lessons.) The, cold, and November are modifiers of the subject. The cold November rain is the modified subject.

TO THE TEACHER.—While in these "models" we wish to avoid repetition, we should require of the pupils full forms of oral analysis for at least some of the sentences in every Lesson.

Parsing.The, cold, and November are adjectives modifying raincold and November expressing quality, and the pointing out.

2. The great Spanish Armada was destroyed. 3. A free people should be educated. 4. The old Liberty Bell was rung. 5. The famous Alexandrian library was burned. 6. The odious Stamp Act was repealed. 7. Every intelligent American citizen should vote. 8. The long Hoosac Tunnel is completed. 9. I alone should suffer. 10. All nature rejoices. 11. Five large, ripe, luscious, mellow apples were picked. 12. The melancholy autumn days have come. 13. A poor old wounded soldier returned. 14. The oppressed Russian serfs have been freed. 15. Immense suspension bridges have been built.

* * * * *

LESSON 13.

COMPOSITION—ADJECTIVES.

Caution.—When two or more adjectives are used with a noun, care must be taken in their arrangement. If they differ in rank, place nearest the noun the one most closely modifying it. If of the same rank, place them where they will sound best—generally in the order of length, the shortest first.

Explanation.Two honest young men were chosen, A tall, straight, dignified person entered. Young tells the kind of men, honest tells the kind of young men, and two tells the number of honest young men; hence these adjectives are not of the same rank. Tall, straight, and dignified modify person independently—the person is tall and straight and dignified; hence these adjectives are of the same rank.

Notice the comma after tall and straight; and may be supplied; in the first sentence and cannot be supplied. See Lesson 21.

Direction.Arrange the adjectives below, and give your reasons:

1. A Newfoundland pet handsome large dog. 2. Level low five the fields. 3. A wooden rickety large building. 4. Blind white beautiful three mice. 5. An energetic restless brave people. 6. An enlightened civilized nation.

Direction.Form sentences by prefixing modified subjects to these predicates:

1. ——— have been invented. 2. ——— were destroyed. 3. ——— are cultivated. 4. ——— may be abused. 5. ——— was mutilated. 6. ——— were carved. 7. ——— have been discovered. 8. ——— have fallen. 9. ——— will be respected. 10. ——— have been built.

Direction.Construct ten sentences, each of which shall contain a subject modified by three adjectives—one from each of these columns:

Let the adjectives be appropriate. For punctuation, see Lesson 21.

The dark sunny That bright wearisome This dingy commercial Those short blue These soft adventurous Five brave fleecy Some tiny parallel Several important cheerless Many long golden A warm turbid

Direction.—Prefix to each of these nouns several appropriate adjectives:

River, frost, grain, ships, air, men.

Direction.—Couple those adjectives and nouns below that most appropriately go together:

Modest, lovely, flaunting, meek, patient, faithful, saucy, spirited, violet, dahlia, sheep, pansy, ox, dog, horse, rose, gentle, duck, sly, waddling, cooing, chattering, homely, chirping, puss, robin, dove, sparrow, blackbird, cow, hen, cackling.

* * * * *

LESSON 14.

MODIFIED PREDICATE.

ADVERBS.

Introductory Hints.—You have learned that the subject may be modified; let us see whether the predicate may be.

If we say, The leaves fall, we express a fact in a general way. But, if we wish to speak of the time of their falling, we can add a word and say, The leaves fall early; of the place of their falling, The leaves fall here; of the manner, The leaves fall quietly; of the cause, Why do the leaves fall?

We may join a word to one of these modifiers and say, The leaves fall very quietly. Here very modifies quietly by telling the degree.

Very quietly is a group of words modifying the predicate. The predicate with its modifiers is called the Modified Predicate. Such words as very, here, and quietly form another part of speech, and are called Adverbs (Lat. ad, to, and verbum, a word, or verb).

Adverbs may modify adjectives; as, Very ripe apples are healthful. Adverbs modify verbs just as adjectives modify nouns—by limiting them. The horse has a proud step = The horse steps proudly.

The Predicate with its Modifiers is called the +Modified +Predicate, or Logical Predicate.

DEFINITION.—An Adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. [Footnote: See Lesson 92 and foot-note.]

Analysis and Parsing.

1. The leaves fall very quietly.

leaves fall ======== ====== The quietly very

Oral Analysis.—Very quietly is a modifier of the predicate; quietly is the principal word of the group; very modifies quietly; the leaves is the modified subject; fall very quietly is the modified predicate.

Parsing.—Quietly is an adverb modifying fall, telling the manner; very is an adverb modifying quietly, telling the degree.

2. The old, historic Charter Oak was blown down. 3. The stern, rigid Puritans often worshiped there. 4. Bright-eyed daisies peep up everywhere. 5. The precious morning hours should not be wasted. 6. The timely suggestion was very kindly received. 7. We turned rather abruptly. 8. A highly enjoyable entertainment was provided. 9. The entertainment was highly enjoyed. 10. Why will people exaggerate so! 11. A somewhat dangerous pass had been reached quite unexpectedly. 12. We now travel still more rapidly. 13. Therefore he spoke excitedly. 14. You will undoubtedly be very cordially welcomed. 15. A furious equinoctial gale has just swept by. 16. The Hell Gate reef was slowly drilled away.

* * * * *

LESSON 15.

COMPOSITION—ADVERBS.

Caution.—So place adverbs that there can be no doubt as to what you intend them to modify. Have regard to the sound also.

Direction.—Place the, italicized words below in different positions, and note the effect on the sound and the sense:—

1. I immediately ran out. 2. Only one was left there. 3. She looked down proudly. 4. Unfortunately, this assistance came too late.

Direction.—Construct on each of these subjects three sentences having modified subjects and modified predicates:—-

For punctuation, see Lesson 21.

Model. —— clouds ——. 1. Dark, heavy, threatening clouds are slowly gathering above. 2. Those, brilliant, crimson clouds will very soon dissolve. 3. Thin, fleecy clouds are scudding over.

l. —— ocean ——. 2. —— breeze ——. 3. —— shadows ——. 4. —— rock ——. 5. —— leaves ——.

Direction.—Compose sentences in which these adverbs shall modify verbs:—

Heretofore, hereafter, annually, tenderly, inaudibly, legibly, evasively, everywhere, aloof, forth.

Direction.—Compose sentences in which five of these adverbs shall modify adjectives, and five shall modify adverbs:—

Far, unusually, quite, altogether, slightly, somewhat, much, almost, too, rather.

* * * * *

LESSON 16.

REVIEW.

TO THE TEACHER.—In all school work, but especially here, where the philosophy of the sentence and the principles of construction are developed in progressive steps, success depends largely on the character of the reviews.

Let reviews be, so far as possible, topical. Require frequent outlines of the work passed over, especially of what is taught in the "Introductory Hints." The language, except that of Rules and Definitions, should be the pupil's own, and the illustrative sentences should be original.

Direction.—Review from Lesson 8 to Lesson 15, inclusive.

Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (tell, for example, what three things such words as tick, are, and remain do in the sentence, what office they have in common, what such words are called, and why; what common office such words as ripe, the, and eight have, in what three ways they perform it, what such words are called, and why, etc.). Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules; illustrate what is taught of the capitalization and the abbreviation of names, and of the position of adjectives and adverbs.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

(SEE PAGES 150-153.)

TO THE TEACHER.—After the pupil has learned a few principles of analysis and construction through the aid of short detached sentences that exclude everything unfamiliar, he may be led to recognize these same principles in longer related sentences grouped into paragraphs. The study of paragraphs selected for this purpose may well be extended as an informal preparation for what is afterwards formally presented in the regular lessons of the text-book.

These "Exercises" are offered only as suggestions. The teacher must, of course, determine where and how often this composition should be introduced.

We invite special attention to the study of the paragraph.

* * * * *

LESSON 17.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES AND PREPOSITIONS.

Introductory Hints.—To express our thoughts with greater exactness we may need to expand a word modifier into several words; as, A long ride brought us there = A ride of one hundred miles brought us to Chicago. These groups of words, of one hundred miles and to Chicago—the one substituted for the adjective long, the other for the adverb there—we call Phrases. A phrase that does the work of an adjective is called an Adjective Phrase. A phrase that does the work of an adverb is called an Adverb Phrase.

As adverbs modify adjectives and adverbs, they may modify their equivalent phrases; as, The train stops only at the station. They sometimes modify only the introductory word of the phrase—this introductory word being adverbial in its nature; as, He sailed nearly around the globe.

That we may learn the office of such words as of, to, and at, used to introduce these phrases, let us see how the relation of one idea to another may be expressed. Wealthy men. These two words express two ideas as related. We have learned to know this relation by the form and position of the words. Change these, and the relation is lost—men wealth. But by using of before wealth the relation is restored—-men of wealth. The word of, then, shows the relation between the ideas expressed by the words men and wealth.

All such relation words are called Prepositions (Lat. prae, before, and positus, placed—their usual position being before the noun with which they form a phrase).

A phrase introduced by a preposition is called a Prepositional Phrase. This, however, is not the only kind of phrase.

DEFINITION.—A Phrase is a group of words denoting related ideas, and having a distinct office, but not expressing a thought.

DEFINITION.—A Preposition is a word that introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word modified.

Analysis and Parsing.

1. The pitch of the musical note depends upon the rapidity of vibration.

TO THE TEACHER.—See suggestions in Lesson 12, concerning the use of diagrams.

pitch depends ========== ================= The of upon note rapidity he musical he of vibration -

Explanation.—The diagram of the phrase is made up of a slanting line standing for the introductory word, and a horizontal line representing the principal word. Under the latter are drawn the lines which represent the modifiers of the principal word.

Oral Analysis.—-The and the adjective phrase of the musical note are modifiers of the subject; the adverb phrase upon the rapidity of vibration is a modifier of the predicate. Of introduces the first phrase, and note is the principal word; the and musical are modifiers of note; upon introduces the second phrase, and rapidity is the principal word; the and the adjective phrase of vibration are modifiers of rapidity; of introduces this phrase, and vibration is the principal word.

TO THE TEACHER.—See suggestions in Lesson 12, concerning oral analysis.

Parsing.—Of is a preposition showing the relation, in sense, of note to pitch; etc., etc.

TO THE TEACHER.—Insist that, in parsing, the pupils shall give specific reasons instead of general definitions.

2. The Gulf Stream can be traced along the shores of the United States by the blueness of the water. 3. The North Pole has been approached in three principal directions. 4. In 1607, Hudson penetrated within six hundred miles of the North Pole. [Footnote: "1607" may be treated as a noun, and "six hundred" as one adjective.] 5. The breezy morning died into silent noon. 6. The Delta of the Mississippi was once at St. Louis. 7. Coal of all kinds has originated from the decay of plants. 8. Genius can breathe freely only in the atmosphere of freedom.

in elow atmosphere just Falls only he

Explanation.——Only modifies the whole phrase, and just modifies the preposition.

9. The Suspension Bridge is stretched across the Niagara river just below the Falls. 10. In Mother Goose the cow jumps clear over the moon. 11. The first standing army was formed in the middle of the fifteenth century. 12. The first astronomical observatory in Europe was erected at Seville by the Saracens. 13. The tails of some comets stretch to the distance of 100,000,000 miles. 14. The body of the great Napoleon was carried back from St. Helena to France.

* * * * *

LESSON 18.

COMPOSITION-PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES.

COMMA-RULE.—Phrases that are placed out of their usual order [Footnote: For the usual order of words and phrases, see Lesson 51.] and made emphatic, or that are loosely connected with the rest of the sentence, should be set off by the comma. [Footnote: An expression in the body of a sentence is set off by two commas; at the beginning or at the end, by one comma.]

Remark.—This rule must be applied with caution. Unless it is desired to make the phrase emphatic, or to break the continuity of the thought, the growing usage among writers is not to set it off.

Direction.Tell why the comma is, or is not, used in these sentences:—

1. Between the two mountains lies a fertile valley. 2. Of the scenery along the Rhine, many travelers speak with enthusiasm. 3. He went, at the urgent request of the stranger, for the doctor. 4. He went from New York to Philadelphia on Monday. 5. In the dead of night, with a chosen band, under the cover of a truce, he approached.

Direction.—Punctuate such of these sentences as need punctuation:—

1. England in the eleventh century was conquered by the Normans. 2. Amid the angry yells of the spectators he died. 3. For the sake of emphasis a word or a phrase may be placed out of its natural order. 4. In the Pickwick Papers the conversation of Sam Weller is spiced with wit. 5. New York on the contrary abounds in men of wealth. 6. It has come down by uninterrupted tradition from the earliest times to the present day.

Direction.—See in how many places the phrases in the sentences above may stand without obscuring the thought.

Caution.—So place phrase modifiers that there can be no doubt as to what yon intend them to modify. Have regard to the sound also.

Direction.—Correct these errors in position, and use the comma when needed:—

1. The honorable member was reproved for being intoxicated by the president. 2. That small man is speaking with red whiskers. 3. A message was read from the President in the Senate. 4. With his gun toward the woods he started in the morning. 5. On Monday evening on temperance by Mr. Gough a lecture at the old brick church was delivered.

Direction.—Form a sentence out of each of these groups of words:—

(Look sharply to the arrangement and the punctuation.)

1. Of mind of splendor under the garb often is concealed poverty. 2. Of affectation of the young fop in the face impertinent an was seen smile. 3. Has been scattered Bible English the of millions by hundreds of the earth over the face. 4. To the end with no small difficulty of the journey at last through deep roads we after much fatigue came. 5. At the distance a flood of flame from the line from thirty iron mouths of twelve hundred yards of the enemy poured forth.

Direction.—See into how many good, clear sentences you can convert these by transposing the phrases:—

1. He went over the mountains on a certain day in early boyhood. 2. Ticonderoga was taken from the British by Ethan Allen on the tenth of May in 1775.

* * * * *

LESSON 19.

COMPOSITION—PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES.

Direction.—Rewrite these sentences, changing the italicized words into equivalent phrases:—

Model.—The sentence was carefully written. The sentence was written with care.

1. A brazen image was then set up. 2. Those homeless children were kindly treated. 3. Much has been said about the Swiss scenery. 4. An aerial trip to Europe was rashly planned. 5. The American Continent was probably discovered by Cabot.

Direction.—Change these adjectives and adverbs into equivalent phrases; and then, attending carefully to the punctuation, use these phrases in sentences of your own:—

1. Bostonian 2. why 3. incautiously 4. nowhere 5. there 6. hence 7. northerly 8. national 9. whence 10. here 11. Arabian 12. lengthy 13. historical 14. lucidly 15. earthward

Direction.—Compose sentences, using these phrases as modifiers:—

Of copper; in Pennsylvania; from the West Indies; around the world; between the tropics; toward the Pacific; on the 22d of February; during the reign of Elizabeth; before the application of steam to machinery; at the Centennial Exposition of 1876.

* * * * *

LESSON 20.

COMPOUND SUBJECT AND COMPOUND PREDICATE.

CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.

Introductory Hints.Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth reigned in England. The three words Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth have the same predicate—the same act being asserted of the king and the two queens. Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth are connected by and, and being understood between Edward and Mary. Connected subjects having the same predicate form a Compound Subject.

Charles I. was seized, was tried, and was beheaded. The three predicates was seized, was tried, and was beheaded have the same subject—the three acts being asserted of the same king. Connected predicates having the same subject form a Compound Predicate.

A sentence may have both a compound subject and a compound predicate; as, Mary and Elizabeth lived and reigned in England.

The words connecting the parts of a compound subject or of a compound predicate are called Conjunctions (Lat. con, or cum, together, and jungere, to join).

A conjunction may connect other parts of the sentence, as two word modifiers—A dark and rainy night follows; Some men sin deliberately and presumptuously.

It may connect two phrases; as, The equinox occurs in March and in September.

It may connect two clauses, that is, expressions that, standing alone, would be sentences; as, The leaves of the pine fall in spring, but the leaves of the maple drop in autumn.

Interjections (Lat. inter, between, and jacere, to throw) are the eighth and last part of speech.

Oh! ah! pooh! pshaw! etc., express bursts of feeling too sudden and violent for deliberate sentences.

Hail! fudge! indeed! amen! etc., express condensed thought as well as feeling.

Any part of speech may be wrenched from its construction with other words, and may lapse into an interjection; as, behold! shame! what!

Professor Sweet calls interjections sentence-words.

Two or more connected subjects having the same predicate form a Compound Subject.

Two or more connected predicates having the same subject form a Compound Predicate.

DEFINITION.—A Conjunction is a word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses.

DEFINITION.—An Interjection is a word used to express strong or sudden feeling.

Analysis and Parsing.

1. Ah! anxious wives, sisters, and mothers wait for the news.

Ah wives ======== ' ' wait sisters 'x ==== ========== ========' anxious for 'and/ ' /
ews mothers ' / ——- ========'/ he

Explanation.—The three short horizontal lines represent each a part of the compound subject. They are connected by dotted lines, which stand for the connecting word. The x shows that a conjunction is understood. The line standing for the word modifier is joined to that part of the subject line which represents the entire subject. Turn this diagram about, and the connected horizontal lines will stand for the parts of a compound predicate.

Oral Analysis.—-Wives, sisters, and mothers form the compound subject; anxious is a modifier of the compound subject; and connects sisters and mothers.

Parsing.—And is a conjunction connecting sisters and mothers; ah is an interjection, expressing a sudden burst of feeling.

2. In a letter we may advise, exhort, comfort, request, and discuss.

(For diagram see the last sentence of the "Explanation" above.)

3. The mental, moral, and muscular powers are improved by use.

powers came ================= ========= The X and and of ........ ....... parentage muscular —————- moral from mental land ————-

4. The hero of the Book of Job came from a strange land and of a strange parentage. 5. The optic nerve passes from the brain to the back of the eyeball, and there spreads out. 6. Between the mind of man and the outer world are interposed the nerves of the human body. 7. All forms of the lever and all the principal kinds of hinges are found in the body. 8. By perfection is meant the full and harmonious development of all the faculties. 9. Ugh! I look forward with dread to to-morrow. 10. From the Mount of Olives, the Dead Sea, dark and misty and solemn, is seen. 11. Tush! tush! 't will not again appear. 12. A sort of gunpowder was used at an early period in China and in other parts of Asia. 13. Some men sin deliberately and presumptuously. 14. Feudalism did not and could not exist before the tenth century. 15. The opinions of the New York press are quoted in every port and in every capital. 16. Both friend and foe applauded.

friend - ' ' applauded 'and.... Both >== ========== ' / foe ' / ' /

Explanation.—The conjunction both is used to strengthen the real connective and. Either and neither do the same for or and nor in either—or, neither—nor.

Remark.—A phrase that contains another phrase as a modifier is called a Complex Phrase. Two or more phrases connected by a conjunction form a Compound Phrase.

Direction.Pick out the simple, the complex, and the compound phrases in the sentences above.

* * * * *

LESSON 21.

COMPOSITION—-CONNECTED TERMS AND INTERJECTIONS.

COMMA—RULE.—Words or phrases connected by conjunctions are separated from each other by the comma unless all the conjunctions are expressed.

Remark.—When words and phrases stand in pairs, the pairs are separated according to the Rule, but the words of each pair are not.

When one of two terms has a modifier that without the comma might be referred to both, or, when the parts of compound predicates and of other phrases are long or differently modified, these terms or parts are separated by the comma though no conjunction is omitted.

When two terms connected by or have the same meaning, the second is logically explanatory of the first, and is set off by the comma, i. e., when it occurs in the body of a sentence, a comma is placed after the explanatory word, as well as before the or.

Direction.Justify the punctuation of these sentences:

1. Long, pious pilgrimages are made to Mecca. 2. Empires rise, flourish, and decay. 3. Cotton is raised in Egypt, in India, and in the United States. 4. The brain is protected by the skull, or cranium. 5. Nature and art and science were laid under tribute. 6. The room was furnished with a table, and a chair without legs. 7. The old oaken bucket hangs in the well.

Explanation.—No comma here, for no conjunction is omitted. Oaken limits bucket, old limits bucket modified by oaken, and the limits bucket modified by old and oaken. See Lesson 13.

8. A Christian spirit should be shown to Jew or Greek, male or female, friend or foe. 9. We climbed up a mountain for a view.

Explanation.—No comma. Up a mountain tells where we climbed, and for a view tells why we climbed up a mountain.

10. The boy hurries away from home, and enters upon a career of business or of pleasure. 11. The long procession was closed by the great dignitaries of the realm, and the brothers and sons of the king.

Direction.—Punctuate such of these sentences as need punctuation, and give your reasons:—

1. Men and women and children stare cry out and run. 2. Bright healthful and vigorous poetry was written by Milton. 3. Few honest industrious men fail of success in life.

(Where is the conjunction omitted?)

4. Ireland or the Emerald Isle lies to the west of England. 5. That relates to the names of animals or of things without sex. 6. The Hebrew is closely allied to the Arabic the Phoenician the Syriac and the Chaldee. 7. We sailed down the river and along the coast and into a little inlet. 8. The horses and the cattle were fastened in the same stables and were fed with abundance of hay and grain. 9. Spring and summer autumn and winter rush by in quick succession. 10. A few dilapidated old buildings still stand in the deserted village.

EXCLAMATION POINT—RULE.—All Exclamatory Expressions must be followed by the exclamation point.

Remark.—Sometimes an interjection alone and sometimes an interjection and the words following it form the exclamatory expression; as, Oh! it hurts. Oh, the beautiful snow!

O is used in direct address; as, O father, listen to me. Oh is used as a cry of pain, surprise, delight, fear, or appeal. This distinction, however desirable, is not strictly observed, O being frequently used in place of Oh.

CAPITAL LETTERS—RULE.—The words I and O should be written in capital letters.

Direction.Correct these violations of the two rules given above:

1. o noble judge o excellent young man. 2. Out of the depths have i cried unto thee. 3. Hurrah the field is won. 4. Pshaw how foolish. 5. Oh oh oh i shall be killed. 6. o life how uncertain o death how inevitable.

* * * * *

LESSON 22.

ANALYSIS AND PARSING.

Direction.—Beginning with the 8th sentence of the first group of exercises in Lesson 21, analyze thirteen sentences, omitting the 4th of the second group.

Model.—A Christian spirit should be shown to Jew or Greek, male or female, friend or foe.

spirit should be shown / Jew =============== ================ _/' A Christian /' \' Greek / ' / ' o / x ' / male / '_/' ' \' female x ' ' ' / friend \_/' - \' foe -

* * * * *

LESSON 23.

COMPOSITION—CONNECTED TERMS.

Direction.+—Using the nouns below, compose sentences with compound subjects; compose others in which the verbs shall form compound predicates; and others in which the adjectives, the adverbs, and the phrases shall form compound modifiers:

In some let there be three or more connected terms. Observe Rule, Lesson 21, for punctuation. Let your sentences mean something.

NOUNS.

Washington, beauty, grace, Jefferson, symmetry, lightning, Lincoln, electricity, copper, silver, flowers, gold, rose, lily.

VERBS.

Examine, sing, pull, push, report, shout, love, hate, like, scream, loathe, approve, fear, obey, refine, hop, elevate, skip, disapprove.

ADJECTIVES.

Direction.See Caution, Lesson 13.

Bright, acute, patient, careful, apt, forcible, simple, homely, happy, short, pithy, deep, jolly, mercurial, precipitous.

ADVERBS.

Direction.See Caution, Lesson 15. Neatly, slowly, carefully, sadly, now, here, never, hereafter.

PHRASES.

On sea; in the city; by day; on land; by night; in the country; by hook; across the ocean; by crook; over the lands; along the level road; up the mountains.

* * * * *

LESSON 24.

REVIEW.

CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION.

Direction.+—Give the reason for every capital letter and for every mark of punctuation used below:

1. The sensitive parts of the body are covered by the cuticle, or skin. 2. The degrees of A.B., A.M., D.D., and LL.D. are conferred by the colleges and the universities of the country. 3. Oh, I am so happy! 4. Fathers and mothers, sons and daughters rejoice at the news. 5. Plants are nourished by the earth, and the carbon of the air. 6. A tide of American travelers is constantly flooding Europe. 7. The tireless, sleepless sun rises above the horizon, and climbs slowly and steadily to the zenith. 8. He retired to private life on half pay, and on the income of a large estate in the South.

Direction.Write these expressions, using capital letters and marks of punctuation where they belong:

1. a fresh ruddy and beardless french youth replied 2. maj, cal, bu, p m, rev, no, hon, ft, w, e, oz, mr, n y, a b, mon, bbl, st 3. o father o father i cannot breathe here 4. ha ha that sounds well 5. the edict of nantes was established by henry the great of france 6. mrs, vs, co, esq, yd, pres, u s, prof, o, do, dr 7. hurrah good news good news 8. the largest fortunes grow by the saving of cents and dimes and dollars 9. the baltic sea lies between sweden and russia 10. the mississippi river pours into the gulf of mexico 11. supt, capt, qt, ph d, p, cr, i e, doz 12. benjamin franklin was born in boston in 1706 and died in 1790

Direction.Correct all these errors in capitalization and punctuation, and give your reasons:

1 Oliver cromwell ruled, over the english People, 2. halloo. I must speak to You! 3. john Milton, went abroad in Early Life, and, stayed, for some time, with the Scholars of Italy, 4. Most Fuel consists of Coal and Wood from the Forests 5. books are read for Pleasure and the Instruction and improvement of the Intellect, 6. In rainy weather the feet should be protected by overshoes or galoches 7. hark they are coming! 8. A, neat, simple and manly style is pleasing to Us. 9. alas poor thing alas, 10. i fished on a, dark, and cool, and mossy, trout stream.

* * * * *

LESSON 25.

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW.

ANALYSIS.

1. By the streets of By-and-by, one arrives at the house of Never.—Spanish Proverb [Footnote: By-and-by has no real streets, the London journals do not actually thunder, nor were the cheeks of William the Testy literally scorched by his fiery gray eyes. Streets, house, colored, thunder, and scorched are not, then, used here in their first and ordinary meaning, but in a secondary and figurative sense. These words we call Metaphors. By what they denote and by what they only suggest they lend clearness, vividness, and force to the thought they help to convey, and add beauty to the expression.

For further treatment of metaphors and other figures of speech, see pages 87, 136, 155, 156, 165, and Lesson 150.]

2. The winds and waves are always on the side of the ablest navigators.—Gibbon. 3. The axis of the earth sticks out visibly through the center of each and every town or city.—Holmes. 4. The arrogant Spartan, with a French-like glorification, boasted forever of little Thermopylae.—De Quincey. 5. The purest act of knowledge is always colored by some feeling of pleasure or pain.—Hamilton. 6. The thunder of the great London journals reverberates through every clime.—Marsh. 7. The cheeks of William the Testy were scorched into a dusky red by two fiery little gray eyes.—Irving. 8. The study of natural science goes hand in hand with the culture of the imagination.—Tyndall. [Footnote: Hand in hand may be treated as one adverb, or with may be supplied.] 9. The whole substance of the winds is drenched and bathed and washed and winnowed and sifted through and through by this baptism in the sea.—Swain. 10. The Arabian Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the Chinese Wall, and from the shores of the Caspian Sea to those of the Indian Ocean.—Draper. 11. One half of all known materials consists of oxygen.—Cooke. 12. The range of thirty pyramids, even in the time of Abraham, looked down on the plain of Memphis.—Stanley.

* * * * *

LESSON 26.

WRITTEN PARSING.

+Direction+.—Parse the sentences of Lesson 25 according to this +Model for Written Parsing.

Nouns. Pron. Verbs. Adj. Adv. Prep. Conj. Int. - - - 1st streets, the,the. By,of, sentence By-and- one. arrives. at,of by, house, Never. - - - 2d sentence

TO THE TEACHER.—Until the Subdivisions and Modifications of parts of speech are reached, Oral and Written Parsing can be only a classification of the words in the sentence. You must judge how frequently a lesson like this is needed, and how much parsing should be done orally day by day. In their Oral Analysis let the pupils give at first the reasons for every statement, but guard against their doing this mechanically and in set terms; and, when you think it can safely be done, let them drop it. But ask now and then, whenever you think they have grown careless or are guessing, for the reason of this, that, or the other step taken.

Here it may be well to emphasize the fact that the part of speech to which any word belongs is determined by the use of the word, and not from its form. Such exercises as the following are suggested:—

Use right words. Act right. Right the wrong. You are in the right.

Pupils will be interested in finding sentences that illustrate the different uses of the same word. It is hardly necessary for us to make lists of words that have different uses. Any dictionary will furnish abundant examples. It is an excellent practice to point out such words in the regular exercises for analysis.

* * * * *

LESSON 27.

REVIEW.

TO THE TEACHER.—See suggestions, Lesson 16.

Direction.—Review from Lesson 17 to Lesson 21, inclusive.

Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (tell, for example, what such words as long and there may be expanded into, how these expanded forms may be modified, how introduced, what the introductory words are called, and why, etc.). Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules; illustrate fully what is taught of the position of phrases, and of the punctuation of phrases, connected terms, and exclamatory expressions. How many parts of speech are there?

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

(SEE PAGES 153-156.)

TO THE TEACHER.—See notes to the teacher, pages 30, 150.

* * * * *

LESSON 28.

NOUNS AS OBJECT COMPLEMENTS.

Introductory Hints.+—In saying Washington captured, we do not fully express the act performed by Washington. If we add a noun and say, Washington captured Cornwallis, we complete the predicate by naming that which receives the act.

Whatever fills out, or completes, is a Complement. As Cornwallis completes the expression of the act by naming the thing acted upon—the object—we call it the Object Complement. Connected objects completing the same verb form a Compound Object Complement; as, Washington captured Cornwallis and his army.

DEFINITION.—The Object Complement of a Sentence completes the predicate, and names that which receives the act.

The complement with all its modifiers is called the Modified Complement.

Analysis.

1. Clear thinking makes clear writing.

thinking makes writing ============ ===================== clear clear

Oral Analysis.—-Writing is the object complement; clear writing is the modified complement, and makes clear writing is the entire predicate.

2. Austerlitz killed Pitt. 3. The invention of gunpowder destroyed feudalism. 4. Liars should have good memories. 5. We find the first surnames in the tenth century. 6. God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. 7. Benjamin Franklin invented the lightning-rod. 8. At the opening of the thirteenth century, Oxford took and held rank with the greatest schools of Europe.

took / - Oxford / ' rank ======== =and' ========== ' / ' held / -/

revolves / moon / ' ==== and' ' ' keeps side -

9. The moon revolves, and keeps the same side toward us. 10. Hunger rings the bell, and orders up coals in the shape of bread and butter, beef and bacon, pies and puddings. 11. The history of the Trojan war rests on the authority of Homer, and forms the subject of the noblest poem of antiquity. 12. Every stalk, bud, flower, and seed displays a figure, a proportion, a harmony, beyond the reach of art. 13. The natives of Ceylon build houses of the trunk, and thatch roofs with the leaves, of the cocoa-nut palm. 14. Richelieu exiled the mother, oppressed the wife, degraded the brother, and banished the confessor, of the king. 15. James and John study and recite grammar and arithmetic.

James study grammar ========= /=========== /=============== ' / ' / ' 'and and' ===== and' John ' / ' recite / ' arithmetic =========/ ===========/ ===============

* * * * *

LESSON 29.

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES AS ATTRIBUTE COMPLEMENTS.

Introductory Hints.—The subject presents one idea; the predicate presents another, and asserts it of the first. Corn is growing presents the idea of the thing, corn, and the idea of the act, growing, and asserts the act of the thing. Corn growing lacks the asserting word, and Corn is lacks the word denoting the idea to be asserted.

In logic, the asserting word is called the copula—it shows that the two ideas are coupled into a thought—and the word expressing the idea asserted is called the predicate. But, as one word often performs both offices, e. g., Corn grows, and, as it is disputed whether any word can assert without expressing something of the idea asserted, we pass this distinction by as not essential in grammar, and call both that which asserts and that which expresses the idea asserted, by one name—the predicate. [Footnote: We may call the verb the predicate; but, when it is followed by a complement, it is an incomplete predicate.]

The maple leaves become. The verb become does not make a complete predicate; it does not fully express the idea to be asserted. The idea may be completely expressed by adding the adjective red, denoting the quality we wish to assert of leaves, or attribute to them—The maple leaves become red.

Lizards are reptiles. The noun reptiles, naming the class of the animals called lizards, performs a like office for the asserting word are. Rolfe's wife was Pocahontas. Pocahontas completes the predicate by presenting a second idea, which was asserts to be identical with that of the subject.

When the completing word expressing the idea to be attributed does not unite with the asserting word to make a single verb, we distinguish it as the Attribute Complement. [Footnote: Subjective Complement may, if preferred, be used instead of Attribute Complement.] Connected attribute complements of the same verb form a Compound Attribute Complement.

Most grammarians call the adjective and the noun, when so used, the Predicate Adjective and the Predicate Noun.

DEFINITION.—The Attribute Complement of a Sentence completes the predicate and belongs to the subject.

Analysis.

1. Slang is vulgar.

Slang is vulgar ========== =================

Explanation.—The line standing for the attribute complement is, like the object line, a continuation of the predicate line; but notice that the line which separates the incomplete predicate from the complement slants toward the subject to show that the complement is an attribute of it.

Oral Analysis.—Vulgar is the attribute complement, completing the predicate and expressing a quality of slang; is vulgar is the entire predicate.

2. The sea is fascinating and treacherous. 3. The mountains are grand, tranquil, and lovable. 4. The Saxon words in English are simple, homely, and substantial. 5. The French and the Latin words in English are elegant, dignified, and artificial. [Footnote: The assertion in this sentence is true only in the main.] 6. The ear is the ever-open gateway of the soul. 7. The verb is the life of the sentence. 8. Good-breeding is surface-Christianity. 9. A dainty plant is the ivy green.

Explanation.—The subject names that of which the speaker says something. The terms in which he says it,—the predicate,—he, of course, assumes that the hearer already understands. Settle, then, which—plant or ivy—Dickens supposed the reader to know least about, and which, therefore, Dickens was telling him about; and you settle which word—plant or ivy—is the subject. (Is it not the writer's poetical conception of "the green ivy" that the reader is supposed not to possess?)

10. The highest outcome of culture is simplicity. 11. Stillness of person and steadiness of features are signal marks of good-breeding. 12. The north wind is full of courage, and puts the stamina of endurance into a man. 13. The west wind is hopeful, and has promise and adventure in it. 14. The east wind is peevishness and mental rheumatism and grumbling, and curls one up in the chimney-corner. 15. The south wind is full of longing and unrest and effeminate suggestions of luxurious ease.

* * * * *

LESSON 30.

ATTRIBUTE COMPLEMENTS—CONTINUED.

Analysis.

1. He went out as mate and came back captain.

as - ' went ' mate /======================= He / ' out ==== =and ' ' came captain ======================= ack

Explanation.—Mate, like captain, is an attribute complement. Some would say that the conjunction as connects mate to he; but we think this connection is made through the verb went, and that as is simply introductory. This is indicated in the diagram.

2. The sun shines bright and hot at midday. 3. Velvet feels smooth, and looks rich and glossy. 4. She grew tall, queenly, and beautiful. 5. Plato and Aristotle are called the two head-springs of all philosophy. 6. Under the Roman law, every son was regarded as a slave. 7. He came a foe and returned a friend. 8. I am here. I am present.

Explanation.—The office of an adverb sometimes seems to fade into that of an adjective attribute and is not easily distinguished from it. Here, like an adjective, seems to complete am, and, like an adverb to modify it. From their form and usual function, here, in this example, should be called an adverb, and present an adjective.

9. This book is presented to you as a token of esteem and gratitude. 10. The warrior fell back upon the bed a lifeless corpse. 11. The apple tastes and smells delicious. 12. Lord Darnley turned out a dissolute and insolent husband. 13. In the fable of the Discontented Pendulum, the weights hung speechless. 14. The brightness and freedom of the New Learning seemed incarnate in the young and scholarly Sir Thomas More. 15. Sir Philip Sidney lived and died the darling of the Court, and the gentleman and idol of the time.

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