HISTORICAL EPOCHS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION;
WITH THE Judgment and Execution OF
LOUIS XVI. KING OF FRANCE;
AND A LIST OF THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL CONVENTION,
Who voted FOR and AGAINST his DEATH.
HISTORICAL EPOCHS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH OF H. GOUDEMETZ,
A FRENCH CLERGYMAN EMIGRANT IN ENGLAND.
DEDICATED, BY PERMISSION, TO
His ROYAL HIGHNESS the DUKE of YORK,
BY THE REV. DR. RANDOLPH.
TO WHICH IS SUBJOINED, WITH CONSIDERABLE ADDITIONS,
THE THIRD EDITION OF THE Judgment and Execution Of
LOUIS XVI. KING OF FRANCE;
WITH A LIST OF THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL CONVENTION,
Who voted FOR and AGAINST his DEATH;
AND THE NAMES OF MANY OF THE MOST CONSIDERABLE SUFFERERS IN THE COURSE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, DISTINGUISHED ACCORDING TO THEIR PRINCIPLES.
BATH, PRINTED BY R. CRUTTWELL FOR THE AUTHOR; AND SOLD BY C. DILLY, POULTRY, LONDON: THE BOOKSELLERS OF BATH, &c. MDCCXCVI
TO HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUKE OF YORK.
SIR, WITH the design of serving an amiable and worthy man, I have availed myself of your Royal Highness's permission to dedicate to you the translation of a work, which, as a faithful narrative of events, wants no additional comment to make it interesting. A detail of facts, in which your Royal Highness, in behalf of your country, has been so honourably engaged, may not prove unwelcome in aid of recollection; and a detail of facts, built on the experimental horrors of popular power, and which, proceeding from the wildness of theory to the madness of practice, has swept away every vestige of civil polity, and would soon leave neither law nor religion in the world, cannot, either in point of instruction or warning, be unreasonably laid before my fellow-citizens at large.
Under the sanction, therefore, Sir, of your illustrious name, I willingly commit to them this memorial. And if an innocent victim of oppression should thus derive a small, though painful, subsistence from a plain and publick (sic) recital of his country's crimes, I shall be abundantly repaid for the little share I may have had in bringing it into notice; and by the opportunity it affords me of subscribing myself
Your ever grateful and devoted humble servant,
BATH, July 22, 1796
THE following sheets contain a journal of principal events of the French Revolution. The best authorities have been resorted to, and the facts are related without any comment. The reader will find a faithful outline of an interesting and momentous period of history, and will see how naturally each error produced its corresponding misfortune.
Various causes contributed to effect a revolution in the minds of Frenchmen, and led the way to a revolution in the state. The arbitrary nature of the government had been long submitted to, and perhaps would have continued so much longer, if France had not taken part in the American war.
The perfidious policy of VERGENNES, who, with a view of humbling the pride of England, assisted the subject in arms against his Sovereign, soon imported into his own nation the seeds of liberty, which it had helped to cultivate in a country of rebellion; and the crown of France, as I once heard it emphatically observed, was lost in the plains of America. The soldier returned to Europe with new doctrines instead of new discipline, and the army in general soon grew dissatisfied with the Monarch, on account of unusual, and, as they thought, ignominious rigours which were introduced into it from the military school of Germany. The King also, from a necessity of retrenchment, had induced his ministers to adopt some mistaken measures of economy respecting the troops, and thus increased the odium which pride had fostered, and by diminishing the splendour of the crown, stripped it of its security and protection.
To this was added the wanton profusion of the Court in other expenses, and the external parade and brilliancy, which, if they impoverish, often dazzle and gratify the people, was exchanged for familiar entertainments, which gave rise to frequent jealousies among the nobles, and tended to lower that sense of awe and respect for royalty among the people, which in monarchies it is of the utmost importance to preserve.
At this time, also, philosophical discussion had reached its pinnacle of boldness. Infidelity had woven the web of discord in the human mind, which was now ripe for experiment, and ROUSSEAU and VOLTAIRE were the favourite authors.
Previous to the year 1789, from the extreme disorder of the finances, it became necessary to raise money by extraordinary taxes, which the common powers of the parliament were deemed insufficient to authorize; and afraid, in the present temper of the people, to impose upon them unusual burthens, ministers looked with solicitude for some other sanctions.
Monsieur DE CALONNE was unwilling to adopt so dangerous an expedient as that of assembling the states-general; [Footnote: An Assembly consisting of deputies from the three orders of citizens in France, namely, the clergy, the nobility, and the tiers-etat; which last included every French citizen who was not of the clergy or nobility.] he therefore adopted the expedient of summoning an assembly of notables, or eminent persons, chosen by the King from the different parts of the kingdom.
This assembly did not prove so favourable to the measures of the minister as he expected: Monsieur DE CALONNE was displaced, and the assembly was soon after dissolved, having declared itself incompetent to decide on the taxes proposed.
The King then commanded the parliament of Paris to register his edicts for successive loans to the government; but his commands were rejected. [Footnote: Chiefly, as it was supposed, through the influence of the Duke of Orleans.]
In the meantime, that spirit of discussing philosophical subjects, which we have before mentioned, now fixed itself on politics. The people exclaimed against the weight of taxes, and the extravagance of courtiers; they complained of peculiar exemptions from the general burthens, and of grievances which arose from lettres-de -cachet, and other despotic powers of the government.
The King, desirous of yielding to the wishes of the people, recalled Monsieur NECKAR to the administration, and in conformity to his advice, his Majesty declared his resolution of convening the states-general. But in order to regulate all matters relative to the meeting of this important assembly, it was resolved to convoke the notables a second time. Among these, a diversity of opinion appeared respecting the comparative number of deputies to be sent by the Commons, and the two other orders; the cardinal point on which the whole success of the revolution eventually turned. [Footnote: The last assembly of the states-general, which had been held in France in 1614, was composed of 140 deputies from the order of the clergy, among whom were five cardinals, seven archbishops, and 47 bishops; 132, representatives of the nobility; and 192 deputies from the commons. The Cardinal de JOYEUSE was president of the clergy; the Baron SENECEY of the nobility; and the president of the commons was ROBERT MIRON, Prevot-de-Marchands, (an officer similar to that of mayor of Paris.)] All the classes into which the notables were divided, decided for an equality of deputies, except those in which MONSIEUR and the Duke of ORLEANS presided.
In these, it was agreed that the representatives of the commons should be equal in number to those of the other two states. The ministry were of opinion that this double representation was adviseable (sic), and persuaded themselves that, through their weight and influence they should be able to prevent any mischief to be apprehended from this preponderance of the tiers-etat. By their advice, the King issued an ordinance in January 1789, throughout the whole kingdom, commanding the people to assemble in their bailiwicks, and to nominate deputies to represent them in the states-general; viz. 300 for the clergy, 300 for the nobility, and 600 for the commons.
HAC FONTE DERIVATA CLADES.
N. B. The first legislature, which was called the National Assembly, has now the name of the "Constituent Assembly."
The second is called the "Legislative Assembly;" and the third legislature is called "the National Convention."
****** HISTORICAL EPOCHS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.
1787. March. THE Assembly of Notables first convened under the ministry of Mons. de Calonne, comptroller-general of the finances. 1788. August. Mons. Necker replaced at the head of the finances on the dismission (sic) of Mons. de Calonne; and Mons. de Lomenie, archbishop of Toulouse, made prime minister. Nov. Mons. Necker persuades the King to call the Notables together a second time. 1789. January. Letters issued in the name of the King for an assembly of the States-general. The clergy to depute 300 representatives, the nobility the like number, and the commons 600. May 5. Opening of the States-general at Versailles. June 17. The chamber of the Tiers-Etat (commons) declares itself a national assembly. 19. The Tiers-Etat takes the famous oath, known by the "serment au Jeu de Paume," not to separate until the constitution should be established. 23. The King goes in person to the assembly—but his presence, far from intimidating the members, renders them so intractable that from this epoch may be dated the first attacks upon the royal authority. 24. Forty-eight of the nobles, with the Duke of Orleans at their head, unite with the tiers-etat (third estate, or commons). A considerable number of the clergy follow their example. 28. The King, from a desire of peace, requests the whole body of nobility and clergy to unite in one assembly with the commons; which is acceded to. 29. Great rejoicings in Paris on account of this union. July 11. The King in disgust dismisses Monsieur Necker. 12. The Prince de Lambesc appears at the Tuilleries with an armed party of soldiers. 13. The city of Paris flies to arms. The Bastille is attacked, and taken by the populace;
14. Mons. de L'Aulnay, the governor, falls a victim to the fury of the assailants. Bertier, intendant of Paris; Foulon, secretary of state; and de Flesselle, prevot des Marchands, (somewhat like mayor of Paris) are massacred. From, this period the maxim was adopted, "that insurrection was the most sacred of duties." 15. The King goes to the assembly to confer with it upon the disturbances of Paris. Many considerable persons fly the country. 16. The Marquis de la Fayette, and Monsieur Bailly, are nominated, one to command the national guards of Paris, the other to be mayor of Paris. 17. In hopes of quieting the alarming tumults, the King comes to Paris. Bailly harangues him freely at the Hotel de la Ville, (sic) and the King receives the three-coloured cockade. August 1. Massacre of the mayor of St. Dennis. 4. Abolition of tithes, and of all feudal rights and privileges. Louis is proclaimed the restorer of French liberty. 7. The King is obliged to recall Necker. 27. The liberty of the press is established. Sept. 15. The person of the King is decreed to be inviolable; and the crown of France hereditary and indivisible. 29. Decreed, that it be recommended that all church plate be brought to the mint. Oct. 1. The King is forced to accept and give the sanction of his approbation to the famous "Rights of Man." 5. The Marquis de la Fayette at the head of 30,000 Parisians marches to Versailles. 6. After murdering the King's guards under the windows of the Palace, they forcibly conduct both him and the Queen to Paris amidst the insults of the populace, and with great danger of their lives. 10. Tayllerang-Perigord, bishop of Autun, proposes that the nation should seize the property of the clergy. 12. Decreed, that the National Assembly be removed from Versailles to Paris. 15. The Duke of Orleans obtains leave to go to England. 19. The first sitting of the National Constituent Assembly at Paris. 21. The people of Paris hang a baker. The Jacobin Club commenced at this time; first known by the name of the "Club de la Propagande." The name of Jacobins was derived from the house where the club met, and which had belonged to the religious order of Jacobins. Nov. 22. The commune of Paris makes a patriotic gift of its silver buckles. A general patriotic contribution is first requested, and afterwards forced. Dec. 7. Decree upon the disturbances at Toulon. Another for dividing France into 83 departments, 83 tribunals, 544 civil tribunals, 548 districts, and 43,815 municipalities. 10. Vandernoot, and the disaffected in Brabant, write to the King and to the National Constituent Assembly; but their letter is returned. 25. Mons. de Favras, knight of St. Louis, arrested. 1790. January 1. The King is stripped of most of his royal prerogatives. 4. The assembly desires him to fix the amount of his civil list. 6. The castle of Keralier burnt by plunderers. The three orders of the clergy, nobility, and commons, suppressed as distinct orders of the monarchy. 7. Decree for the form of a civic oath to be taken by the national guards. 13. Decreed that Paris shall form one department. Decree in favour of Jews; another to remove the prejudices which are attached to the families of criminals. Feb. 1. The King, after a long speech to the assembly, takes the civic oath, together with all the members. 19. De Favras executed. 20. Death of Joseph IId. emperor of Germany. March. Massacres and fires in Lower-Languedoc. 7. Grand review of the national guards in the Elysian fields. The scarcity of specie induces the necessity of issuing paper money called assignats. 8. Decreed, that the colonies form a part of the French empire. 11. Insurrection at Meaux. 12. The red-book (book of court-accounts) made publick.(sic) 14. Insurrection at the national theatre. 18. Sale of the property of the church decreed, by which the government is enabled to abolish the duty on salt. April. The Prince of Conti takes the civic oath in the municipality of Paris. 11. The Abbe, Maury and Viscount Mirabeau attacked by the populace on coming out of the assembly. The assembly refuses to acknowledge the Roman Catholick (sic) religion as the religion of the state; and this resolution is followed by forbidding all particularity of dress or form in ecclesiastics. 22. General Paoli, at the head of a deputation from Corsica, presents himself to the national assembly. 24. Insurrection at Marseilles. May. Report and decree upon the disturbances at Mount Auban. Monastic vows prohibited in future. 17. Orders of knighthood and military decorations abolished. 22. Decreed, that the right of making peace and war belongs to the people. 25. The Parisians occupied with hanging several robbers. June. Public Seminaries and academies of instruction suppressed. 9. The King goes to the assembly, and requires 25 millions of livres for his civil list. 10. The Queen's dower fixed at four millions. One million is voted for the King's brothers. 16. Massacres and disorders at Nismes (sic). 19. Suppression of nobility, of all titles and orders, of armorial bearings, and of livery-servants. July 3. Justices of the peace appointed throughout the kingdom. 14. Ceremony of a general federation, at which the King is obliged to assist, to commemorate the destruction of the Bastille. Trial by jury introduced in criminal matters. Judges to be chosen by cantons and districts; one for the former, and five for the latter. 26. The constituent assembly publishes a civil constitution for the acceptance of the clergy, which they refuse to admit. August. Affair at Nancy—five regiments revolt. Insurrection at Martinico (sic) announced. Desilles shot at Nancy by the Swiss. Mons. Necker, whose popularity declined, is obliged to leave the kingdom precipitately. The assembly, having declared the property of the Crown to be that of the nation, grants to the King the sum he required for his civil list. Sept. Horrid massacres in the colonies. Oct. 28. Fourteen castles are burned and plundered in Dauphiny. 30. Outrageous conduct of two regiments at Befort. Nov. 2. The clergy propose to raise four millions of livres in their own body for the exigence of the state. The assembly seizes the whole ecclesiastical revenue, without any respect of persons or property. 13. Pillage of the house of the Marshal de Castries at Paris. 21. Duport-du-Terre appointed keeper of the seals. 27. The assembly requires that every ecclesiastic, doing duty, shall swear to maintain with all his power and interest the constitution, and every thing that had been or should be ordained by its decrees. 1791.
Jan. The debts of the church decreed to be national. The King refuses to sanction the above decrees respecting the clergy, but is at length forced to it by threats and terror. 4. The clergy in the national assembly refuse to comply with the foregoing decree, and in consequence of their refusal a law passes that their benefices shall be filled by such of the clergy as will take the oaths of allegiance to the state. Abolition of all the parliaments and sovereign courts of France. The Count d'Artois finds it prudent to quit the kingdom. Out of 138 prelates only four take the constitutional oath, namely, the archbishop of Sens, the bishops of Viviers, Orleans, and Autun. The latter alone carries his apostacy (sic) so far as to consecrate other bishops, who were presented to the vacant sees. Horrid treatment at Chateau-Gouthier of Mad'lle de la Barne de Joyeuse. 10. Decree about stamps. 14. Decreed, that bishops and parsons shall be elected by the people. 23. A violent meeting at the Jacobin club. 24. Massacres at the village de-la-Chapelle near Paris. 26. Decree to enforce the oath by priests. 29. Mirabeau president of the constituent national assembly. February. Deputation of Quakers to the assembly. Decree to admit the free cultivation of tobacco. Disorders in Le Querci. 21. The King's aunts stopped at Arnay-le-Duc, and forced to shew their pass, and permission to retire to Rome. With difficulty they obtain leave to proceed. Insurrection at Vincennes near Paris. March 4. The pope issues two letters against the ecclesiastical constitution of France, and the clergy who had taken the oath to it. He deprives the archbishop of Sens, the Cardinal de Lomenie de Brienne, of his cardinal's hat. Massacres at St. Domingo. 5. Indisposition of the King. 9. Decreed, that the prisoners charged with treason (leze-nation) shall be conveyed to Orleans. Gobet, a member of the assembly, appointed bishop of Paris. Insurrection and massacres at Douai. 22. Decree excluding women from the regency. 25. The majority of the Kings of France fixed at eighteen years. Discussion on the fate of the invalids. Mons. de M'Nemara massacred at l'Isle-de-France. 26. Public functionaries compelled to residence. 28. The monarchical club at Paris attacked by the populace with stones, and dispersed. 29. Report upon an insurrection at Toulon. The minister of the church of St. Sulpice, who had not conformed to the national oath, escapes with great difficulty from the violence of the populace. April 3. The death of Mirabeau announced to the assembly: decreed, that he shall have the honours of the Pantheon, (formerly the beautiful church of St. Genevieve). 7. Decreed, that no deputy to the national assembly shall be admissible into the ministry until four years after the expiration of the legislature of which he is a member. 8. Decreed that no deputy to the assembly shall accept any favour from the executive power for four years. Several nuns in Paris and elsewhere were publicly whipped for persisting to adhere to the old forms of worship. 10. Insurrection at Cevennes. Report on the insurrection of a regiment in Languedoc. 13. Engagement between the officers and garrison of Weissembourg. 14. Riot at Nantz (sic) on account of the inauguration of the three-coloured flag. 17. The sale of the property of the church is decreed. 18. The King proposes to go to St. Cloud; the people oppose and stop him. The King complains of this violence to the national assembly, but with little effect. 20. Report of massacres in the county of Venaissin. The King's ministers, through the influence or fear of the national assembly, write to all the foreign courts, that the King had placed himself at the head of the revolution—from this epoch may be dated the great emigrations of the nobility and other considerable persons. The Abbe Maury, the most intrepid defender of the cause of the church and the King, retires precipitately to Rome. 23. Sad recital in the assembly of distresses in St. Domingo. 26. Assignats of five livres are issued. 27. Massacres in the Limousin. 28. Decreed, that soldiers may frequent jacobin societies. May 1. The barriers are thrown open—all duties in the interior parts of the kingdom abolished. Civil war in the Venaissin. 3. The effigy of the pope (sic) burnt in the Palais-Royal. 7. Decree permitting priests, who have not conformed, to officiate in private. Mons. de Massei massacred at Tulle. Decree upon the people of colour. 19. Massacre in the Vivarais. 26. Decreed, that the Louvre and the Tuilleries united shall be the habitation of the King, and that all monuments of science and art shall be collected and kept there. 31. Decreed, that the punishment of death shall be inflicted without torture. From thence came the use of the guillotine;-an instrument of death so called from its author, a member of the national assembly. June. Letter of the Abbe Raynal to the assembly. Persecutions against non-conforming priests. Their tithes given to the proprietors of the estates. 5. The King deprived by decree of the power of granting pardons. 7. A law against regicides. Conforming priests are everywhere put in possession of the benefices of those who would not conform. A general sale of ecclesiastical property. 18. Decreed, that all military men take an oath of fidelity to the nation. Insurrection at Bastia. 21. The King and royal family make their escape 22. from Paris; they had nearly reached the frontiers, when they were stopped at Varennes, 25. and brought back ignominiously to Paris. Count Dampierre is massacred under the King's eyes. The Marquis de Bouille writes a menacing letter to the assembly on the subject of the King. An order is intimated to the King to disband his body guards. All the royal functions are suspended. The King is kept a close prisoner. Monsieur, the King's brother, escapes to Coblentz. July 9. M. de Cazeles resigns his place as a deputy. 10. The national guards ordered to the frontiers. 11. The body of Voltaire transferred to the Pantheon. 14. Grand celebration of the anniversary of this day. 17. Insurrection in the Champ de Mars—the red flag (the signal of danger) continues flying a long time. Disorders in the Pays-de-Caux, and at Brie-Compte-Robert. 23. Violent decree against emigrant nobles. The assembly proceeds rigorously against those who accompanied the King in his flight. The King himself is not considered so culpable. All distinctions of nobility, and all titles, are wholly abolished. The ministers are required to give an account every ten days to the assembly of the execution of its decrees. The decree on people of colour spreads consternation at St. Domingo. August. Money is coined from the metal of the bells in churches. One hundred thousand livres voted to the academy of science for the purpose of bringing weights and measures to one uniform standard. The title of Dauphin changed to that of Prince Royal. Rewards are decreed to all those who stopped the King. A committee is appointed to manage national domains; that is, the confiscated property of the King and clergy. Decreed, that if within a month the King do not take the oath to the nation, or if he retract it, he shall be adjudged to have forfeited the crown. Decreed, that the guard for the King shall not exceed 1200 foot, and 600 horse. Those who may be placed in succession to the throne to have no other title than that of French princes. Registers of the births, marriages, and burials, of the royal family to be deposited in the archives of the national assembly. Suppression of the payment of a mark of silver, which was heretofore required from such as were deputed to the legislature. Decreed, that every law relative to taxes shall be independent of the royal sanction. The ceremony of marriage to be considered hereafter as a civil contract only. Rousseau admitted to a place in the Pantheon. The national assembly declares, that it will not revise the constitution which it has just established, before the expiration of thirty years. Sept. The completion of the constitution announced to the people, and that it will admit of no change. The departments are all occupied in electing new deputies to represent them in a second assembly. Sixty members are appointed to carry the act of the constitution to the King. 4. The King restored to liberty. Suppression of the order of St. Esprit; the decorations of the blue ribband to be appropriated to the King and the Prince-royal only. The King declines to retain a distinction which he cannot communicate. Decreed, that the Rhine and Rhone be united by a canal. 14. The King accepts the constitution in form; he takes the oath in presence of the assembly; and is crowned by the president with a constitutional crown. Great rejoicings throughout all France. The national guard to take place of the King's. Whipping, and burning in the hand, annulled. Three days allowed to every person under accusation to defend himself and repel the charge. In consequence of the acceptance of the constitution, all criminal proceedings are stopped; all persons confined on suspicion of anti-revolutionary principles set at liberty; no more passports required; a general amnesty takes place; and the decree against emigrants is revoked. Disturbances at Arles—suppression of the high national court of Orleans—and of all royal notaries—national notaries appointed. Prohibitory or commanding clauses in wills to be of no avail henceforward. Every sort of property dependent upon, or connected with, churches or charities, is confiscated. All the world admitted to the title and rank of French citizen, without any distinction of country. Decree to unite Avignon and the county of Venaissin to France. Certificates of catholicism suppressed, which hitherto were required before admission into any office. Severe penalties against introducing titles of nobility into any public document. All the chambers and societies of commerce abolished. Jews admitted to the rights of French citizens. The constituent assembly prepares to lay down its powers, without rendering any account of its proceedings. Violent remonstrances against this. Decree against clubs and popular associations. 30. The King goes in state to close the session of this first or constituent assembly. CHAPTER II.
1791. Oct. 4. The second assembly takes the name of the Legislative Assembly, and is opened by the King in person. It consists of 700 members. An oath is taken to observe the law. An administrator in one of the departments flies with a large treasure. 17. Massacre at Avignon, with unusual horrors. Jourdan and his people destroy 600 victims in an ice-house. Insurrection at Paris on account of religious worship. The Marquis de la Fayette resigns the command of the Parisian guard. The expressions "sire" and "majesty," applied to the King, suppressed by decree. Twenty-one committees formed out of the legislative assembly to transact all business. Riots at Montpellier. The pictures of the Palace-royal sold for a million eight hundred thousand livres. 27. Insurrection in Alsace. 29. Notice given to Monsieur the King's eldest brother, to return to France, on pain of forfeiture of all his rights, and confiscation. One hundred millions of assignats issued. Disturbances in Artois and Lower Normandy on account of religious worship. The archbishop of Ausch, and several bishops, brought before the tribunals. 30. Insurrections in almost all parts of the kingdom, on account of the prohibition of religious worship. Charrier, ex-constituent, and nominated by the people as successor to the Cardinal de Rochefoucault, in the archbishoprick (sic) of Rouen, ashamed of his usurpation, abdicates the archiepiscopal dignity. Violent decree against emigrants; the King opposes his veto to it. The King refuses his assent also to another equally violent decree, for the banishment of all the catholic priests who had not taken the oath prescribed. Guimper, the first constitutional see, is taken possession of by D'Expilly, an ex-constituent, i.e. a member of the last assembly, which had taken the name of the constituent assembly. Violent insurrection in the colonies, supposed to be excited by some of the leading members of the assembly. Nov. New decree for a civic oath. In the legislative assembly the answers are read from foreign powers, relative to the King's acceptance of the constitution. Massacres at Caen in Normandy; horrid treatment of Mons. de Belsunce, a lieutenant-colonel. Eighty-four persons of consideration thrown into prison. 10. The Dunkirk carrier assassinated at Paris, and his letters stolen. 15. The King confined to his apartment, under the guard of a corporal. 17. Varnier denounced by Bazire, is sent to prison at Orleans. Pethion elected mayor of Paris. 18. He goes to the jacobins to thank them for having obtained his election. Manuel is appointed procureur syndic of the commune of Paris (a place next in importance to that of mayor). 20. Disorders at Montpellier. 25. Delatre committed to prison at Orleans. 26. Chabot enters the King's apartment with his hat on his head. Decreed, that non-conforming priests shall not make use of the churches. Dec. 1. Three hundred millions of small assignats issued. 2. Insurrection at Brest. 6. Malvoisin, and twelve others, imprisoned at Orleans. 16. Decreed, that every member of the Bourbon family shall quit France in three days. M. Loyaute sent to prison at Orleans. 20. Several castles burnt at Sens. 24. Insurrection in the departments of Loir et Cher. The King goes to the assembly to discuss the subject of war with foreign powers. 27. Lucknor and Rochambeau made marshals of France, and with La Fayette appointed to command the armies. M. de Narbonne goes to visit the frontiers. Forty soldiers, who had been sent to the galleys, are set at liberty. Establishment of a new high national court. Manuel causes the letters of Mirabeau, which were found in the mayor's office, to be printed and sold. 28. The Queen goes to the opera, and is much applauded. 29. Manifesto proposed by M. Condorcet, to acquaint the world with the sentiments of the French nation, if it should be forced into war. 31. Decreed, that the ceremonies of New-year's day shall be abolished. 1792.
Jan. 1. Egalite (duke of Orleans) ill received at the Tuilleries. 5. Massacre of the minister of Chateau-neuf. Motion of Herault, that foreign powers be required to forbid the white cockade to be worn by emigrants. 11. Carra proposes at the Jacobin club, that the crown of France be offered to the Duke of York. 15. Plan of a decree for declaring war against the Emperor. 16. Decreed, that Monsieur has forfeited the regency. Three hundred millions of small assignats issued. 17. Fire and ravages at Port-au-Prince. Great tumult at Paris on account of the monopoly of of sugar and coffee. 19. Fire of La-Force. 21. A conforming priest, his wife, and children, presented to the assembly, and loaded with caresses. 27. Summons to the Emperor, to declare whether or not he is willing to live in peace with France. 31. Decreed, that all travellers in France must supply themselves with a passport. Feb. 1. Decreed, that all those shall be imprisoned who travel under a false name. Eighty-four prisoners, who were confined in the castle of Caen, set at liberty. 2. Letter of Manuel to the King beginning with these words, "I do not love kings". 5. Fires and massacres at St. Domingo. 6. The Abbe Fauchet preaches at the Pantheon. 7. Riots at Paris on account of a false rumour of the King's flight. Great fires in the town of Haquenau. Decreed, that the property of emigrants belongs to the nation; order for its sequestration. Riots at Noyon about corn. Insurrection at Dunkirk. 14. The red bonnet becomes the general fashion. Assassination at Mount Heri. Insurrection at the Fauxbourg (sic) St. Marceau, on account of the scarcity of sugar. Struggle between the clubs of the Jacobins, and the Feuillants; the latter so called from a religious society of that name, at whose house they met. 17. De Lessart denounced by Fauchet. 22. Motion, that no deputy be permitted to go to the clubs of Jacobins or Feuillants. 28. Treaty of Pilnitz between the Emperor and Prussia. March 1. Death of the Emperor Leopold II. 3. Seditions at Etampes; Simoneau, the mayor, assassinated. De Lessart, minister for foreign affairs, sent to the prison of Orleans. 15. Death of Gustavus III. king of Sweden. Total change of the King's ministers. Decreed, that the King shall pay taxes like all other persons. 19. Jourdan, and his accomplices at Avignon acquitted. A new guard begins to do duty about the King. Roland appointed by the King minister of the interior department. Insurrection at Poitou. The Swiss Cantons demand from France the regiment of Ernest. Alienation of the domains of St. Lazare, and of Mount-Carmel, two orders of knighthood, of which Monsieur was president. April 1. Troubles in Provence and Dauphiny. On the motion of Torne, constitutional bishop of Bourges, all peculiar religious dresses are abolished, and all secular congregations. 6. Pethion writes to the 48 sections, inviting them to give a fete to the liberated soldiers of Chateau-vieux. 15. A civic fete is given to the above soldiers, who had been imprisoned for crimes. 16. Riots at the Hotel de Ville in Paris, on account of the statues of la Fayette and Bailli. 20. The King goes to the national assembly to demand whether it is willing to declare war. War declared against the King of Bohemia and Hungary. M. de Castellane, bishop of Mendes, sent to prison at Orleans. 29. The army of Dillon routed near Tournay, and that general massacred by his own soldiers near Lisle (sic). The French routed near Mons under the command of General Byron. May 2. Suppression of the military houses of Monsieur and the Count d'Artois. 6. Desertion of the royal German regiment. 8. Report of the murder of several commissaries. 10. Pethion, in the commune of Paris, presents a silver sword to Rene Audu, a heroine of the 6th of October 1789. Decree concerning prisoners of war. 11. New disorders at Avignon. 12. Desertion of the regiment of Berchini. 13. M. Brival, a deputy, writes to the King to desire that his cane may be restored to him, which was taken from him at the gate of the Tuilleries. Abbe Maury elevated to the dignity of an archbishop, and appointed nuncio extra-ordinary of the holy see, to the diet of Ratisbon. Decree, depriving the brothers of the King of the million which had been voted to them. Renewal of the decree for the transportation of priests, which the King still refuses to sanction. 14. Massacre of the Abbe Figuemont at Mentz. 16. Bavai taken by the Austrians. 24. Much pains taken to prove the existence of a committee in favour of the Austrians. 27. Discontent in Paris on account of the King's having a guard. 28. The King is forced to dismiss it. 29. Mareschal (sic) de Brissac, who commanded the King's guard, sent to prison at Orleans. 30. The first column of the Prussian army arrives at Frankfort. June 3. A civic fete in honour of M. Simoneau, mayor of Etampes, massacred the 3d of March in an insurrection. 6. Massacre at Brussels. Reduction of the monies allowed for the pay and entertainment of the King's ministers. 8. The King refuses to ratify the decree for encamping 20,000 men near Paris. 13. Roland, Claviere, and Servan, dismissed from the ministry. Ordered that all pedigrees of nobility be burnt, and all papers relative thereto. A number of patriotic gifts to support the expence (sic) of the war. The tree of liberty planted in all parts. 20. In order to force the King to sanction some decrees to which he had given a negative, the people go to the Tuilleries, break open the gates, and burst into the apartments. The King conducts himself with great firmness. The high national court at Orleans condemns Monsieur, the Count d'Artois, and the Prince of Conde, to be beheaded, and their property consequently to be forfeited. A new mode adopted for proving births, marriages, and burials. 26. The department of La Somme offers 200 batallions, to enforce respect to the King. Several others make similar offers. 28. La Fayette quits his army, and goes to complain to the national representatives of party violence. A petition against Pethion is signed at the houses of all the notaries. 30. La Fayette returns to the army, and as soon as he is departed, he is burnt in effigy at the palace royal. July 2. Letter of the King to the French armies. 3. Suppression of all the staff-officers of the national guard of Paris. 4. Decreed, that the nation is in danger. The Duke of Brunswick arrives at Coblentz. Distinguishing marks granted to the legislators and administrators. 6. Dumourier goes to take the command of the army. 7. Pethion, mayor of Paris and Manuel, suspended, but very soon after restored. Ministers all changed. 11. A petition against the King signed at the Elysian fields. 14. Anniversary of the federations observed with great ceremony. 19. Massacre of M, de Saillant, chef-du-camp de Sales. 20. Proclamation of the King, on the dangers of the country. Decree, that the property of emigrants be sold. Many of the constitutional priests sign a recantation of their oaths, and not enough are found to fill the vacant cures. Massacres at Alais, Bourdeaux, Arles, and in other places. 28. Decree, obliging people to mount guard under pain of imprisonment. Three hundred millions of assignats issued. M. d'Espemenil, an ex-constituent, is knocked down and poignarded at the Tuilleries, and with difficulty saves his life. 30. The Marseillois arrive at Paris; ravages and cruelties committed by them. Cockades of ribbands proscribed. Du Hamel massacred in the street of St. Florentin. Aug. 3. Decreed, that all Frenchmen be armed with pikes. Invitation to foreigners to come and defend the land of liberty. 5. Massacre at Toulon of nine members of the magistracy, under the pretence of aristocracy. A report is spread about the Tuilleries, that the King intends to escape. 8. Decreed, by a majority of 426 to 224, that there is no ground of accusation against La Fayette. Several members complain of outrages committed on them, on account of votes they had given. 10. Attack and pillage of the palace of the Tuilleries. Massacre of the Swiss, and of a great number of the King's followers. Louis XVI. and his family fly for safety to the assembly. Horrible riots and outrages in Paris. 11. Continuation of frightful outrages and murders. All foreign ambassadors quit France. 12. Roland, Clariere, and Servan, recalled to the ministry. Danton appointed minister of justice. The statues of the King all thrown down. Servan appointed minister of the war department; de Monge, of the marine; Clavieres, of finances; Roland, of the interior; and Le Brun, of foreign affairs. The King and his family are all conducted to the Temple. 14. Several ex-ministers and royalists committed to prison. Decreed, that all the administrations of the kingdom shall be new formed. 15. Persons departing, even with passports, stopped. 17. Establishment of a tribunal for the summary trial of royalists. 18. The Austrians and Prussians enter the French territory. Decree against La Fayette; who, with part of his staff, quits the army and falls into the hands of the Austrians, by whom he is detained a prisoner. 20. Montmorin, ex-minister of foreign affairs, imprisoned. 22. M. D'Angremont guillotined at the Carouzel (sic). 23. Longwy taken by the Prussians. 24. M. de la Porte, comptroller of the civil list, guillotined. 25. M. Durozoi, author of the gazette of Paris, guillotined. 26. A civic festival, in honour of the sans-culottes who were killed in the affair of the 10th of August. Decreed, that all ecclesiastics who have not taken the national oath, shall be transported. In the number of these victims were 138 archbishops and bishops, and sixty-four thousand priests of the second order. General Kellerman commands the army of Marshal Luckner, and Dumourier that of General la Fayette. 27. In a sitting of the jacobins, Manuel causes an oath to be taken, that every exertion will be used to purge the earth of the pest of royalty. 30. Domiciliary visits, that is, nightly searches in the citizens houses, for obnoxious persons. Sept. 1. Letter of the minister Roland, to all the municipalities, to induce them to agree in finding the King guilty. M. Montmorin, governor of Fontainbleau, although acquitted by the tribunal, is conveyed back to prison by the people. 2. The city of Verdun is taken by the Prussians. From the 2d (sic) to the 9th of this month, the most horrid outrages perpetrated without ceasing, 7605 prisoners, &c. inhumanly murdered, and the assassins publicly demand their wages. Every house is a scene of dismay. Massacres and butcheries are committed in all the prisons and religious houses. These horrors drive a great number of inhabitants from Paris. The Duke de la Rochefoucault, ex-constituent and president of the department of Paris, is torn to pieces by the populace. 10. Massacre at Versailles of 53 prisoners from Orleans, who, it appears, were summoned to Paris for the express purpose of having them disposed of in this expeditious manner. Troops are enrolled for the frontiers. A camp is formed close to Paris. 13. The French armies fall back towards Chalons. 14. The King accepts the constitution. 15. Decreed, that the King's person is inviolable, and the crown of France indivisible and hereditary. 16. Robbery of the wardrobe of the crown. Decree, formally allowing divorces. 18. Philips, of the club of jacobins, presents in a little box, to the legislative assembly, the heads of his father and mother, whom his patriotism, as he said, had just sacrificed. 19. The last sitting of the legislative assembly. CHAPTER III.
1792. Sept. 20. First sitting of the third legislature, which takes the title of National Convention. It consists of 745 members. 21. Decreed, that royalty is abolished, and that the kingdom of France is a republic. The battle of Grand-Pre gained by General Dumouricr. 22. Danton resigns the ministry in order to take a place in the convention. 23. The old Marshal Luckner is ordered to the bar of the convention. 27. Mons. Cazotte, an author much esteemed, and who with difficulty escaped from the assassins of the 2d of September, is conducted to the guillotine at 80 years of age. 29. The Austrians begin to bombard Lisle (sic). Spires taken by the army of Gen. Custine. Oct. 2. The Duke of Brunswick, commanding the Prussians, begins his retreat from France, and raises the siege of Thionville. 4. The title of Citizen is substituted for those of Monsieur and Madame by a decree. 7. The Austrians raise the siege of Lisle. 8. Massacre at Cambray. 9. The soldiers of General Dumourier massacre their prisoners. 10. Servan quits the ministry. Garat is appointed minister of justice. 13. Verdun evacuated by the Prussians. 14. A civic festival in honour of the conquest of Savoy. 18. Nine emigrants guillotined in the Place-de-Greve. 22. The French retake Longwy. 23. Mayence taken by General Custine. 24. Great accusations of Roland to the convention. 25. The French territory evacuated by the Austrians and Prussians. 26. Frankfort on the Main taken by the French. 31. A great number of returned emigrants denounced to the commune of Paris. Nov. 2. All work at the camp near Paris is stopped. 3. The house of the deputy Marat is invested, and the people demand his head. 4. Robespierre endeavours to acquit himself of the charges brought against him by the deputy Louvet. 6. Report in the assembly of disturbances in the department of Mayence and Loire. Three hundred millions of assignats issued with new emblems. A discourse upon Atheism pronounced by Dupont, and applauded by the convention. The Princess de Rohan-Rochefort is sent to prison for having written to the ex-minister Bertrand. 7. The battle of Gemappe—the Austrians are defeated by superior numbers, and an immense artillery. Dumourier after his victory takes Mons. A revolt announced at Guadaloupe. 10. Decreed, that all emigrants who shall return to France shall suffer death, whether men, women, or children, not excepting those who had never borne arms. 12. Ghent taken by the French. 14. Brussels taken by the French. 19. General Montesquieu emigrates. 23. De la Coste, ex-minister, and Du Fresne de St. Leon, committed to the prison of the Abbaye. 24. Insurrection at Chartres and the neighbourhood, on account of bread. 25. The King asks of the convention some Latin books, that he may instruct his son himself. 26. Address from Finisterre to the convention, denouncing the deputies Marat, Robespierre, Danton, Chabot, Barire, and Merlin. Buzot supports the accusation. 27. Kersaint proposes to the convention to make a descent upon England with one hundred thousand men, and to sign an immortal treaty upon the Tower of London, which shall fix the destiny of nations, and confirm liberty for ever to the world. The Belgians protest against a decree which trenches on their sovereignty. 30. Decree, charging the municipalities to keep registers of baptisms, marriages and buryings. Dec. 1. Pethion quits the mayoralty to become a member of the convention. Chambon is elected his successor. Manuel gives up the place of procureur de la commune for a seat in the convention; Chaumette succeeds him. 3. Decreed that Louis Capet shall be brought to trial, and that the convention shall be his judges. 4. Decreed, that whoever shall propose the restoration of royalty shall suffer death. 8. The royal family is forbid the use of knives, scissars,(sic) or razors; the King not to be shaved, but his beard clipped with scissars. 9. The bust of Mirabeau torn from the Pantheon, and dragged by the populace to the Place-de-Greve. The minister of justice reads to the convention 150 addresses from the communes of Normandy in favour of the King. Philip Egalite renounces all eventual succession to the crown of France, to assume the title of French citizen. 18. The King is interrogated at the bar of the convention. Barrere is president. He demands for his advocates Target and Tronchet, the former refuses to defend him; but Mons. de Malesherbes, making a voluntary offer of being his defender, is accepted with Tronchet, and Monsieur de Seze is added to them. The mayor of Paris, the procureur de la commune, le secretaire Greffier, and thirty municipal officers on horseback, escorted the King's carriage when he was going to the bar of the convention to be interrogated, and to hear the act of his accusation read. The president said, "Louis,—The French "people accuse you of having committed a multitude "of crimes in order to establish tyranny upon the "ruins of liberty." The King having answered with great precision and coolness, "Louis," said the president, "a copy shall be given to you of your accusations. The convention permits you to retire, and will acquaint you with the result of its deliberations." 14. The charge d'affaires of Spain writes an earnest letter in favour of the King, from his master. The convention treats it with neglect. 16. The French make themselves masters of Aix-la-Chapelle. The King is brought a second time to the bar of the convention. Monsieur de Seze makes an able speech in his defence at the bar. The King then speaks to the convention: "My counsel has laid before you my "justification and defence, I have nothing to add "but this, that, in addressing you perhaps for the "last time, I declare that my conscience reproaches "me with no crime towards my country, and that my "advocates have spoken nothing but the truth." 27. Generals Luckner and Rochambeau made marshals of France. 1793 January. Roland publishes a letter to oppose the calumnies against him. The loyal subjects of Brabant send an address to the emperor. Mont Blanc declared to be an 84th department, of which Chamberry is the capital; this new department contains 364,652 souls. General Dumourier writes some severe truths to the convention, and offers to give in his resignation, disclaiming all pretensions to a dictatorship. The convention rejects the King's appeal to the people. Prince Charles of Hesse-Philipstadt dies of wounds he received at Frankfort. The alien bill passed in England; in consequence of which, persons suspected may be sent out of the kingdom by the executive power. The Prussians and Hessians drive the French from Hocheim. The King of Prussia publishes a declaration, that his army enters Poland only because that country was infested with French democratic madness. Remarkable address of the department of Finisterre against Marat and Robespierre. La Fayette is conveyed to Magdebourg. The Empress of Russia assigns lands in the Crimea to French emigrants, and causes to be paid to the Prince of Conde, at Frankfort, 200,000 rupees for the expences of journey. Dumourier goes to Paris while the convention is debating about the King. The jacobins insult him. His army is said to be 120,000 strong. General Custine celebrates at Mayence the festival of liberty, by burning the archiepiscopal ornaments. 17. The convention terminates its deliberations 18. concerning the King. He is condemned to 19. death. All endeavours to delay the execution of the sentence are rejected. Of the members of the convention, 366 vote for death absolutely; 23 for death, but leaving it hereafter to be discussed, when the execution should take place; 8 for death, and a certain delay or respite; 2 for death at the peace; 319 for detention; and 2 for detention in irons. Pelletier, one who voted for the King's death, is assassinated at a tavern. 20. Louis hears with calmness the reading of his sentence of death. Allowed only two hours to take a final leave of his wife, his children, and his sister, who are frantic with grief.
21. Louis is conducted to the scaffold; his behaviour is steady and dignified, he speaks a few words protesting his innocence, forgiving his enemies, and hoping that his death might restore peace to his wretched country. The commander of the troops orders the drums and trumpets to strike up, that his voice might be drowned, and that he should not proceed. In a minute after this, his head is severed from his body. A dead silence prevails in Paris. The places of public amusement and all shops are shut up. His last will soon after published. The minister Roland, after assisting at the King's execution resigns his office, so do the deputies Manuel and Kersaint. 24. The remains of Pelletier are placed with great ceremony in the Pantheon. The French envoy at Naples demands and obtains an audience of the King. The convention decrees, that their army shall consist of 502,000 men next campaign. 26. Dumourier leaves Paris for the army, with orders to take Cologne, cost what it may. Liege determines to unite itself with France. Paris, who assassinated Pelletier, is arrested, but shoots himself. General mourning at London and Madrid for Louis XVI. The convention decrees the union of Nice to the republic of France. The British ministry signify to Mons. Chauvelin, who had been ambassador from Louis XVI. that he is no longer to be considered as such, and must quit England. The sections of Paris complain of want of provisions. Lanjuinais, speaking against the murders of the 2d of September, says, that the number of victims, assassinated that day, amounted to 8,000, others say 12,000, and the deputy Louvet states them at 28,000. Feb. 1. The Convention declares war against the King of England, and Stadtholder of Holland. General Dumourier levies sixty millions of livres on the abbeys in Brabant. The nurse of Madame Royale requests permission to see her in prison, but without success. Proclamation by the Emperor, to assure to the Belgians their ancient privileges. Great debates in the convention about war. The marines of Rochelle come to swear fidelity to the convention. Philip Egalite takes the oath, in quality of high admiral of France. The Marseillois leave Paris, and return home. An engagement takes place at Mayence between the national guard and the troops of the line, on the subject of the King's death. General Bournonville is recalled from the army, and appointed minister of war. Dumourier begins to lose ground in the esteem of the people. Eight hundred millions of assignats issued. Citzen (sic) Basseville, secretary of the French legation, is massacred by the people at Rome. Chambon quits the mayoralty of Paris, and is replaced by the ex-minister Pache. The parliament of England votes for war. The French take possession of Deux-Ponts; the duke with difficulty escapes. Lyons, opposes with energy the murderous plans of the jacobins. The Emperor solicits earnestly the triple contingent from the empire. New coinage in France, with the legend of "Republique Francoise. (sic)" The wife of the Emperor sacrifices some of her rich ornaments to defray the cost of the war. General Miranda sends to the convention the magnificent key of gold, which was given by Charles III. to the inhabitants of Louvain. 17. The French make an irruption into Holland, take the fort St. Michel, surround Maestricht, and menace Breda. Lyons destroys the jacobin club, and burns the tree of liberty. Paris is in great disorder. Dumourier addresses a proclamation to the Dutch against the Stadtholder. The States-general answer it by a manifesto. Condorcet reads a constitutional act to the convention; the jacobins reject it. The national convention of Liege decrees the destruction of its cathedral. Marat excites great tumult in the convention. Venice acknowledges the republic; Bavaria observes neutrality. Custine transports the clergy of Mayence who refuse to take the oath of liberty. The French bombard Maestricht, which is defended by the Prince of Hesse-Cassel. The Grand Duke of Tuscany declares a neutrality with regard to the French republic. 25. The British troops under the Duke of York sail from England. Breda surrenders to the French. Dumourier bombards Gertruydenberg and Williamstadt with Dutch artillery. The Convention decrees that soldiers have a right to elect their officers. Marat urges this decree, and strikes in the face several of those who oppose it, even in the convention. The Duke of York arrives at the Hague. The Stadtholder declares he will defend the republic to the last. 28. The Archduke Charles, the Prince of Cobourg, and Duke of Wurtemburg, arrive at Duren. The French merchants offer to send fifty privateers to sea. Discourse pronounced in the convention by Anacharsis Cloots, on universal fraternity. Riots in Paris at the houses of the bakers and grocers. Brussels desires, and obtains an union with France. Revolution in Geneva after the French example. The convention encourages addresses from all quarters on the death of the tyrant. Decreed, that the troops of the line shall form but one body with the national guards. All treaties of commerce and alliance, with powers at war, are annulled. The convention requires 300,000 men to compleat (sic) their armies. March 1. Prince Cobourg beats the French near Altenhover. The British troops land at Fort Ecluse. The Austrians retake Aix-la-Chapelle. Proclamation of Dumourier, to stir up the inhabitants of Liege, Belgium, and Holland. 2. Carra denounces the farmers-general. Deputy Rhul moves, that the property of foreign princes be put up to sale. 3. The French raise the siege of Maestricht, and besiege Williamstadt without success. They 4. are beaten at Tongres by the Prussians. Gertruydenberg surrenders to Gen. Dumourier. Zurich, Bern, and other Swiss cantons acknowledge the French republic. Manuel accuses the jacobins (sic) of all the evils since the revolution. Dumourier imposes 120,000 florins upon the city of Antwerp. War declared against Spain. 5. The bloody capture of Liege by the Austrians. Taking of Ruremond. The Prussians gain some advantage near Mayence. Upon the motion of Danton, it is decreed, that a revolutionary-criminal tribunal be established. All persons imprisoned for debt are released by the convention. Prince Cobourg requires from Liege six hundred thousand florins. Arrival of 14,000 Hanoverians in the Low-Countries. The commune of Paris hoists a black flag, as a sign of extreme danger to the country. General Miranda imprisoned in chains at Brussels. 9. Dantzig submits itself to the King of Prussia. Dumourier conveys to Lisle the treasures of the churches of Brussels. He stops the first commissioners of the convention, and sends them to Paris; he reviews his troops at Brussels, and marches to the enemy. Robespierre demands that all despots be overturned, and that liberty be established on the ruin of all aristocracies. Monsieur, regent of France, creates the Count d'Artois lieutenant-general of the kingdom. Decreed, that the palace of St. Cyr, near Versailles, be destroyed. Decreed, that plate be considered as merchandize. La Source inveighs bitterly against the English government. It is calculated, that 150 divorces take place, every month in Paris since the decree. Dumourier causes the plate to be restored to the churches of Belgium, of which they had been plundered. Buzot declaims in the tribune against the despotism of the convention. 10. Epoch of the counter-revolutions in La Vendee. The French abandon the siege of Williamstadt. The Austrian advanced guard enters Tirlemont, but are obliged again to evacuate it. 16. The States-general reward the garrison of Williamstadt for their gallant defence. 17. The French and Austrian armies drawn up in order of battle all day opposite to each other. 18. Bloody battle of Neerswinde, which lasts the whole day. The French wholly defeated. 19. The battle of Tirlemont; General Valence wounded, and the French routed. Dumourier suspected of treason at Paris. 23. Battle of Louvain between the French and Austrians. The Prussians approach Mayence. Dumourier demands a truce of six days to evacuate the Low Countries. The Empire declares war against France, in consequence of a resolution of the diet of Ratisbon. The Austrians enter Louvain. Prince Cobourg refuses a truce to Dumourier. The Duke Frederick of Brunswick quits the army on account of his health. The Prussians approach Mayence. General Santerre solicits a discharge from the command of the troops of Paris, that he may have leisure to attend to the affairs of his brewery. Chenier proposes an oaken crown as a reward for republican generals. Duhem complains to the convention, that the vessel of state is near foundering. Garat passes from the office of minister of justice to that of the interior. Discourse of Danton, to rouse the people en masse (in a body.) A constitutional priest, commanding a battalion, begs the convention to preserve his rectory for him whilst he goes to the frontiers. The inhabitants of Frankfort write to Custine, that they are not willing to receive the French government. Insurrection at Orleans. 24. The Austrians enter Brussels and Mechlin. The Prussians pass the Rhine at St. Goar. 26. Antwerp submits to the Austrians. The statue of Prince Charles of Loraine, which the insurgents overturned, is restored. 27. Namur and Mons evacuated by the French. The Archduke Charles appointed governor of the Low Countries. Danton proposes to the convention, that all citizens be justified to kill any persons who are hostile to the revolution, wherever they may find them. 29. The Austrians enter Ghent. At the end of this month, all Brabant has returned to the dominion of the Emperor. Tumults and plunders in private houses at Paris. The convention summons Dumourier to its bar. The French are driven out of Worms, and Spires. April 2. The convention sends Bournonville, the minister of war, with four commissioners to arrest Dumourier; but he, apprized of their intentions, seizes them, and delivers them to the Prince of Cobourg. Dumourier sends General Miaczinski to secure Lisle, but he is suspected, and arrested there. The French evacuate Breda and Gertruydenberg. Dumourier, accompanied by Gen. Valance, and two sons of Philip Egalite, together with some regiments and the military chest, passes over to the Austrians. This step of Dumourier induces the convention to declare itself permanent. The German princes and nobles, who were detained prisoners at Landau, are conveyed to Paris as hostages for the commissioners who are kept by the Austrians. Domiciliary visits are recommended at Paris. Mons. de Blanchland, governor of St. Domingo, is guillotined at Paris, and dies with extraordinary firmness. Great congress held at Antwerp by the chiefs of the allied armies. Decreed, that henceforward commissioners shall remain with the armies, and be invested with powers unlimited. Philip Egalite, his third son, his sister, and the Prince of Conti (sic), conducted prisoners to Marseilles. The commune of Vernon is unwilling to suffer Madame d'Orleans to depart, on account of her ill heath, and they promise to answer with their lives for their benefactress and friend. The Prussians prepare for the siege of Mayence. The creditors of Egalite fix his annual allowance at about 8000l. a year. His income is said to have been between three and four hundred thousand a year. Gen. Dampierre forms the camp of Famars, the French having retired from Holland. Great debates in the convention on the subject of a petition from 35 sections of Paris, against the chiefs of the Mountain. The English take the island of Tobago. General Miaczinski, Compte (sic) d'Arenberg, and le Compte Linanges, sent to the Abbaye at Paris, to answer for the safety of the commissioners. 12. A long and violent tumult in the convention, because the members come intoxicated. 13. Marat escapes from prison, and writes an insulting letter to the convention; decree of accusation against him. 15. Thirty-five sections of Paris demand the deposition of Brissot, and twenty other members of the convention. Marat remains concealed, but his journal appears every day. Weissenau is destroyed by heavy artillery; Dampierre makes a vigorous resistance. A battle between Valenciennes and Conde. The garrison of Lisle makes a powerful sortie. Dumourier is allowed no part in the operations against France; at Frankfort he publishes his contempt for Egalite, and respect for his sons. 21. The Elector of Mayence addresses a letter of thanks to his subjects. The bishop of Liege returns to his dominions. The French make themselves masters of Mont-Beliard. America declares for neutrality. Count d'Artois goes to Petersburgh (sic). The Spaniards obtain considerable advantages near Perpignan. The royalists of La Vendee publish a manifesto, against whom the convention orders twenty thousand men to march. Treaty between Great-Britain and Russia; another between Great-Britain and Sardinia. Great disorders at Marseilles and Aix. 28. The archduke Charles makes a solemn entry into Brussels, as governor-general of the Low Countries; 400 citizens draw his coach. Kellerman deposed from his command by the convention. The Emperor reproaches the Elector of Bavaria with his neutrality, in a remarkable note. Engagement between the French and Austrians near Landau. Dampierre declares that only 800 men accompanied Dumourier. Marat suffers himself to be conducted to prison. The revolutionary tribunal acquits Marat; he is conducted in triumph to the convention by the mob, who force themselves into the seats of the members. The commissioners of the convention, at Marseilles, are obliged to fly. The French make a brisk sally from Mayence. An insurrection at Breslau, raised by a taylor, (sic) and not suppressed without cannon. 30. Decreed, that the revolutionary tribunal shall be suspended till the 1st of June next. May 1. Dampierre gives a bloody battle, to keep up a communication between Conde and Valenciennes. Deputies from Nantes require support from the convention; they announce, that the war of La Vendee has already cost the lives of 2000 patriots. 3. The King of Prussia, after several bloody fights, with various success, drives the French from Costheim. Sallies are made every day from Valenciennes; Gen. Mack is wounded in the arm. Great fire in the port and magazines of l'Orient (sic). Twelve hundred millions of assignats issued. Melancholy accounts laid before the convention, of the wretched state of the interior parts of France. 6. Houchard attacks the Austrians near Landau. The garrison of Mayence, and the camp of Famars, make a sally; a number of men killed. 8. A warm attack at Costheim. A battle also at Longwy. This day was a day of general fighting, in all the armies. 9. General Dampierre dies of his wounds. Lamarche takes the temporary command. 10. The convention holds its first sitting in the hall of the Tuilleries, now called the National Palace. Battle of Hasnon. The convention is disposed to grant to Dampierre the honour of the Pantheon; but Danton proposed, and carried a decree, that no one should obtain that honour till 20 years after his death. 7. Custine is appointed general of the northern army. The elector of Bavaria renounces his neutrality, and orders his contingent of troops march. General Miranda is acquitted by the revolutionary tribunal; and receives a civic crown from the people. General Valence, who had gone over to the Austrians with Dumourier, is ordered to quit the states of the empire. Interrogatory of Philip Egalite at Marseilles. The popular tribunal, of Marseilles suspended, because it was become more adverse to the jacobins since the arrival of the Bourbons. General Miaczinski condemned to death by the revolutionary tribunal. Santerre sent against the royalists of La Vendee. Kellerman recovers the esteem of the convention, and is employed again in the armies. 17. Custine attacks the Austrians near Landau with 30,000 men, and forces them to retire. General Wurmser repasses the Rhine. Every day there are skirmishes near Mayence. Miaczinski is executed—his depositions against Pethion, Gensonnet, and others, not being proved. 23. The allies attack the camp of Famars, and the whole line from Orchies to Maubeuge. A bloody action during the whole day. The French secretly during the night abandoned the camp of Famars. Riots in Paris, on account of the arrest of Hebert, compiler of a gazette called Le-Pere-du-Chesne. Count d'Artois joins his brother at Ham. It appears that six patriotic merchants of Holland had promised Dumourier four millions of florins, provided he conquered the country. Le Gendre proposes to exclude from the convention all who voted for the appeal to the people. The two parties in the convention come to actual blows; and confusion and disorder continue for three hours. The anti-jacobins obtain the upper hand at Lyons, and 400 persons are sacrificed. 25. Marat insults the convention. Decreed, that any member who shall call another villain, or conspirator, or such-like names, shall be expelled the convention. Marat instantly violates this law. Great tumults. 26. All printing-offices and presses, not in the interest of the jacobins, such as those of Brissot, Condorcet, Pru de l'Homme, Rabaut, &c. are destroyed. 27. The elector of Bavaria, after receiving the Emperor's note, becomes active; a part of his army marches to Mayence. 30. Hebert is set at liberty. The French from Landau make an effort to deliver Mayence. A bold sally is made from Mayence. Prince Louis, son of Prince Ferdinand, makes a vigorous resistance. The jacobins are victorious in Paris. 100,000 citizens are under arms all night. The tocsin (alarm bell) is ringing all day. The forty-eight sections of Paris demand an act of accusation against twenty members; among whom are, Pethion, Brissot, Barbaroux, Chambon, Gorsas, Guadet, Lanjuinais, Verniaud, &c. Six escape, and among them is Brissot. Madame Roland is arrested; her husband not to be found. The convention in horrible tumult; and the president (Isnard) unable to calm it, breaks up the sitting. The result of this famous day was to devote twenty-two members to the guillotine, to declare forty-one out of the protection of the law, and to imprison seventy-one. June. A legion of French gentlemen sails from England to Ostend. A party of male and female negroes are presented to the convention. The generals of the French armies are as follows: Custine commands the army of the North at Bouchain; Houchard that of the Moselle, at Sar Louis; Beauharnols, the army of the Rhine, at Wissenbourg; Kellerman, that of the Alps, at Chamberry; Brunet, that of Italy, at Nice; De Flers, that of the Eastern Pyrenees, at Bayonne; Biron, the army of the coasts of Nantes, at Nantes; and Wimpfer, that of the coasts of Cantal, at Bayeux. 7. The royalists in La Vendee obtain considerable advantages. Baron Trenck becomes a jacobin. 9. A bloody battle near Arlon. The French very numerous. General Schroeder forced to retreat. Arlon pillaged by the French. Discussion in the convention about a forced loan of a milliard of livres. The Prince of Waldec killed in an attack near Lisle at the head of the Dutch. Severe complaints from most of the departments about the sitting of the 31st of May. Saumur and Angers taken by the royalists. 13. Manifesto from the Marseilleois to the French republicans against the convention. 14. The departments of Eure and Calvados declare that the convention is not free. The club of jacobins is shut up at Aix. De-Ferraris, general of artillery, begins to bombard Valenciennes. The Prussians open trenches before Mayence. Marat returns to the convention after a fortnight's voluntary suspension. Plan of a republican constitution read. 18. The revolutionary tribunal sends eighteen persons to the guillotine. General Wimpfer loses the confidence of the convention, on account of the disorders in Calvados. 19. The news reaches London of a naval action on the 18th of April between the French and English. The army of the Emperor is stated to amount to 225,274 men, exclusive of artillery and the staffs. Des-Forges nominated minister of foreign affairs. Count Byland executed. Dumourier arrives in London. He is ordered to leave England immediately, but in terms of civility. The royalists under Gaston suffer great losses near Nantes. 20. Deputies assemble at Grenoble to give a judgment upon the proceedings of the convention on the 31st of May. Ferrand, commandant of Valenciennes, exerts himself by every means to prevent the inhabitants from desiring to surrender. Decree of accusation against Wimpfer. 23. Pethion and Lanjuinais escape. Decree of accusation against Brissot. The cathedral of Mayence burnt down; the Prussians summon the city to surrender. The Imperialists take Weissenau. July 1. The Queen is informed that she must separate herself from her son, whose education is committed to Simon, a shoemaker. Barrere reports to the assembly, that an insurrection has taken place in Corsica. 8. Condorcet is denounced by Chabot. Buzot, Barbaroux, Gorsas, Lanjuinais, &c. are declared traitors. Some other members are decreed to be in accusation. General Sandos is delivered to the revolutionary tribunal. Biron is accused of incivism. The French are forced to evacuate the camp of Caesar on the Scheldt. Conde surrenders by capitulation to his Imperial Majesty. Insurrection at Lyons, and in several other departments. Declaration by the chiefs of the royal and catholick army of La Vendee. Admiral Truguet complains to the convention of the ill state of the marine. 12. Charlotte Corday assassinates Marat; he is buried with great ceremony in the Pantheon. Charlotte Corday is executed. 14. The republicans in La Vendee are defeated by the royalists. Deputies from St. Domingo complain of ravages by the commissioners Polverel and Santonax, who are declared to be in accusation. Rigorous decree against Corsica. General Paoli declared a traitor. The royalists continue their successes. 23. Mayence surrenders to the Prussians. D'Arnaud-Baculard, an eminent writer, is guillotined for having lodged an emigrant in his house. Decreed, that every soldier shall suffer death who shall throw away his arms to fly from an enemy. Decree of accusation against Gen. Custine. 27. General D'Oyre, the commandant of Mayence during the siege, and all his staff, put under arrest by the convention. Valenciennes surrenders to the Duke of York. The Prince of Cobourg takes possession of it for the Emperor. 29. Tremendous hail-storms at Paris. General Custine is sent to the Abbaye. Decreed, that every 10th of August shall be celebrated as the festival of the unity and indivisibility of the republic. Ordered, that every knight of St. Louis shall deposit his cross in his municipality. Decreed, that no assignats, with the late King's effigy, under the value of 100 livres, shall have in future any value, but be received only at present in payment of taxes. Decreed, that all strangers in France, especially English, be committed to prison. Decreed, that all forests and all crops of corn in La Vendee be burnt. Decreed, that every vestige of royalty be destroyed. Decreed, that the trial of the Queen be commenced. Decreed, that a camp of 300,000 men be formed between Valenciennes and Paris. The invention of the telegraph laid before the convention. The effects of the India company seized and sealed. The members of the revolutionary tribunal doubled, in order that they may be able to go through business more expeditiously. 31. Engagement between the republicans and Sardinians. Motion by Danton, to pass a national sponge over the enormous number of assignats. Aug. 1. The convention regulates an uniformity of weights and measures in the republic. It denounces to all Europe the government of England. Ordered, that the Queen be sent to the ordinary prison of the Conciergerie, and given up to the revolutionary tribunal. Chambon moves, that all castles be erased from the face of the republic. 2. A fire in the arsenal of Huningen. 7. Decreed, that Pitt is the enemy of the human race. 8. All academics and literary societies, which had been established by letters patent, suppressed by decree. A colossal statue of liberty is erected in the place of that of Louis XV. 14. The new constitution accepted by the federes. Decreed, upon the motion of Barrere, that the nation will repair in mass to the frontiers; this was the origin of requisitions. 18. The battle of Lincelles in favour of the allies. The army of the convention enters Marseilles, after dispersing the few troops which that city had raised to oppose it. Decree for a plan of education purely republican. The convention charges its commissioners to spare nothing to reduce Lyons, which is in a state of rebellion. A child appears at the bar of the convention, saying, that instead of preaching up one self-made God, the convention had established gods in the principles of equality and the rights of man. 28. Custine is guillotined, at Paris. Lord Hood addresses a proclamation to the Southern provinces of France. Lord Hood takes possession of Toulon, by agreement with the chief men and inhabitants of the city, in the name of Louis XVII. Action between the Spaniards and the French under Dagobert, in which the former lose their camp. 29. The Spaniards obtain advantages over another army of the French towards the Western Pyrenees. Within the last six months, twenty-seven generals of the republican armies have been disgraced or accused; of whom, five destroyed themselves, three perished on the scaffold, and fourteen deserted to the enemy. 30. Motion to imprison the wives and children of emigrants. Motion of Danton to cause the expence of the war to fall upon merchants and the wealthy. Sept. 3. Declaration of war by the King of Naples against the French republic. Poland is obliged to yield to the treaty of partition proposed by Prussia. Decreed, that every administrator of public accounts, and every national agent shall give in an exact statement of his fortune previous to the year 1791. Le Brun and Claviere, ex-ministers, are deivered to the revolutionary tribunal. Energetic address from the convention to the French people, respecting the treason at Toulon. Decreed, that all foreign property in France, especially English, shall be sequestered. The convention resolves that new commissioners be sent to St. Domingo, in the room of Polverel and Santonax. The Vendean generals write to the Count d'Artois, inviting him to put himself at their head. 11. The city of Quesnoy surrenders to the Imperialists. Robespierre declares to the convention, that the country is in extreme danger. The republicans are defeated at Chantonnay by the royalists. 12. The Dutch are defeated at Menin. The Duke of York is forced to raise the siege of Dunkirk. General Dumerbian, of the army in Italy, is arrested. Engagement between the royalists and republicans. The Duke de Bethune-Charost arrested. 14. The French attack the combined armies in different points near Weissembourg without any thing decisive. The Duke de Nivernois and other considerable persons arrested. Duhem states to the convention, that its philanthropy cost France 120,000 persons last year. The number of vessels found in Toulon by the English was twenty-two ships of the line and five frigates. 15. Decreed, that every young man from 18 to 25 must immediately join the army. Menin retaken by General Beaulieu. 17. The French fail in their attempt to pass the Rhine at Huningen. Decreed, that all former nobles and relations of emigrants, shall be considered as suspected, and be imprisoned. Engagement between the Spaniards and French; the former retire with loss. 18. The royalists near Saumur take the flying artillery of the republicans. 19. The siege of Lyons is commenced. Decreed, that all women shall carry tickets of civism, and wear a three-coloured cockade. Collot d'Herbois proposes to seize and bury all counter-revolutionists under the land of liberty, by means of mines. Barrere proposes to banish all those who are averse to republican government. 20. Decreed, that the vulgar aera (sic) be abolished, and that a new manner be adopted of dividing days and years, to be called the Republican Calendar. The French attack the Duke of Brunswick, and are repulsed near Bitche; several actions take place in consequence. 21. Decreed, that no produce or manufacture of England shall be imported into France or the colonies, but in French bottoms; nor foreign ships convey the commodities of France from one French port to another, under pain of confiscation. 22. A great number of persons of distinction arrested. The King of Prussia leaves his army, and returns to Berlin. The Prussians make the French to retreat in the dutchy (sic) of Deux-ponts. Two thousand millions of assignats issued. 29. Prince Cobourg passes the Sambre, and invests Maubeuge. Decreed that all fathers and mothers shall inform where their children, in a state of requisition, are concealed. Barrere proposes, that as the French nation has proclaimed liberty to the earth, it should proclaim liberty also to the sea. Madame Du Barry, General Houchard, General Quetinau, and Marshal Luckner, are prisoners in the Abbaye. The Duchesses of Grammont and of Chatelet, with many other nobles, are imprisoned in the Hotel de la Force. The number of prisoners in Paris is 2560. The Queen remains in a dungeon of the Conciergerie, her trial not yet commenced; nor that of the deputies, who were put out of the protection of the law. Brissot, and others, taken and carried to Paris. Oct. 1. The French obtain a victory over the Sardinians in the Tarentaise, and in Maurienne. On the side of Saorgio, the Sardinians have some advantages over the French. A great number of members are arrested in the very convention, and delivered to the revolutionary tribunal. Drouet, who stopped the King at Varennes, falls into the hands of the Austrians. The constitutional bishop of Derdogne (sic) presents his new wife to the convention. 6. Gorsas, a member of the convention, is arrested in the Palais Royal, and guillotined in 24 hours. Disgrace of Generals Houchard, Schomberg, and Landremont, who are replaced by Jourdan, Delmas, and Moreau. Thuriot complains to the convention, that Jourdan is appointed to a command, and enjoys public confidence; a man of blood, fire, and pillage, whose name posterity will not read without horror. The national agent, Hebert, reduces the prisoners in the temple to the strictest regimen; the Queen is served on pewter. 8. The allies gain considerable advantages over the French at Toulon. Cambon proposes to discredit specie in order to raise the value of assignats. Billaud Varennes proposes the immediate trial of the Queen. Arrest of all the members of the constituent assembly, who protested against the constitution of 1791. Republican women appear at the bar of the convention, declaring that they, as well as men, are conscious of their rights, and know how to resist oppression. 8. Lyons, after some days of siege, is forced to submit. Barrere moves, that the city be destroyed, and that a column be erected on the spot, with these words engraven on it, "Lyons waged war against liberty; Lyons is no more." 13. The allies make themselves masters of the Strong and famous lines of Weissembourg. Lauterbourg surrenders to them next day. All monuments of former Kings who were buried at St. Denis, are destroyed by order of the convention. 15. The Queen appears at the bar of the revolutionary tribunal; Fouquier, the public accuser, reads the list of injuries and grievances with which she is charged, and immediately obtains a sentence of death against her; she hears it with downcast eyes, and without uttering a word. 16. Marie Antoinette of Austria, Queen of France, is conveyed in a cart to the place of execution, her hands tied behind her back, and with her back to the horse's tail. She mounted the scaffold quickly, amidst acclamations of the people, which excited only a smile of pity in her. She looked earnestly at the Tuilleries, and seemed to dwell upon the place where her children were; before she was fastened to the guillotine, she threw her eyes up to heaven, and Soon after her head was severed from her body. Decreed, that the money of France be changed into francs of gold and of silver, and into republicans. Work-houses established to prevent begging. General Ferrand, writing to the convention an account of his exploits in Arragon and Catalonia, says, that he expects to plant the tree of liberty on the walls of Madrid next campaign. Prince Cobourg, attacked by the French, raises the siege of Maubeuge, and repasses the Sambre. 17. The French are successful in Piedmont. It is announced to the convention, that the intruding bishop of Moulins officiated in a red bonnet, and with a pike instead of the cross and mitre. Every external sign of religion is abolished. The inscription on burying places is, "that death is "only an eternal sleep." 22. Andre Dumont informs the convention from Abbeville, that he was making the cross and crucifix to disappear. "I shall comprehend in my proscription "all those black animals called priests." The convention orders, that the news of the conquest of La Vendee be sent to all the departments. 24. The royalists again appear, and gain great advantage over the republicans. Decreed, that every city which surrenders without standing one assault shall be razed to the ground. Permission granted to women to regulate their fortune, as well as their husbands. The number of prisoners in Paris amounts to 4000. The French attack the allies for six days successively; always bringing up fresh troops; constantly repulsed, they still return and take possession of the post, if possible, at any expence. 27. New decree against priests. The French lose 3000 men in two actions; one against Wurmser, and a second against the Prussians. The royalists of La Vendee compleatly (sic) defeat the French republicans. The French, who had taken Menin, Courtray, Furnes, who besieged Nieuport, and threatened Ostend, are obliged to retire, and evacuate all they had got in Brabant. The commissioners at Lyons write, that 800 workmen are labouring to demolish the city, pursuant to an order of the convention. Lyons was the second city of France. 30. The Duke of York retakes Marchiennes, and makes 1629 prisoners. 31. Twenty-one members of the convention guillotined in 37 minutes, viz. Brissot, Verniaud, Duprat, Valaze, Gensonnet, Le Hardy, Ducos, Boyer, Fonfrede, Boileau, Gardier, Du Chastel, Sillery, Fauchet, Duperret, La Source, Carra, Beauvais, Mainville, Antiboul, Vegee, and La Case. The royalists of La Vendee take the island of Noirmoutier. Nov. 1. Egalite conveyed from Marseilles to the prison of the Conciergerie in Paris. A column of Vendeans passes the Loire at Ancenis. Two actions between the Spaniards and French; the latter lose between five and six thousand men. A member proposes to guillotine all farmers and labourers that monopolize. Decreed, that all lead, iron, copper, and bells of churches, shall be applied to the use of the war. The British ambassador presses the Grand Duke of Tuscany to join the allies. Decreed, that natural children shall share inheritances equally with legitimate; provided the parents have no other husband or wife. Spoils and plunder of the churches are daily sent to the convention. The grand master of Malta takes part with the allies against France. Philip Egalite (formerly Duke of Orleans) is guillotined upon the scaffold to which he brought his unfortunate King. Lidon, a member of the convention, shoots himself. Complaints from all parts of want of bread. The inhabitants declare they have only a quarter of a pound of bread each a day. Bailly, first mayor of Paris, guillotined. General Beaulieu defeats the French, and forces them to retreat to Philipville. Ordered, that farmers of the national domains pay their rents in kind. Some persons are ordered to take away by night the shrine of St. Genevieve, the patroness of Paris, and whom the Parisians always respected peculiarly; it is carried to the Mint. 7. Gabet and his constitutional clergy renounce in the convention the sacerdotal character. Madame Roland is condemned to death and executed the same day, with five municipal officers of Pont-de-Ce. 11. Festival of Reason, in the cathedral of Paris. A woman is appointed to receive the homage there which is denied to the Deity. 12. The royalists of La Vendee continue their successes. The Piedmontese still unsuccessful, losing their camp and stores at La Magdeleine. The national vengeance is at length glutted with the blood of the inhabitants of Lyons; between 2 and 3000 persons have been massacred by tying them together, and firing upon them with case-shot; and the sabre finished those whose wounds were not mortal. Fort-Louis surrenders to the allies. 200 persons are guillotined at Strasbourg for hesitating to pay their proportion of a sum ordered to be raised in that city within 24 hours. Collot d'Herbois and Foucher, commissioners at Lyons, write, that the work of destruction goes on too slow. Mines and fires are necessary to forward the demolition of so great a city. The allies make a sally from Toulon, kill 2000 French, destroy the works, and take eleven pieces of cannon. Manuel and Cassy, members of the convention, and Generals Houchard and Brunet, are guillotined. 18. Thuriot, Chabot, Bazire, L'Aunay, all deputies, are imprisoned. Chamfont cuts his throat. Several actions near Bitche, between the French and Prussians; the latter are forced to retire. On the other hand the French lose 8000 men in an action against Wurmser. The Sardinians after two actions are forced to retreat. Monsieur Lavordy, formerly comptroller of finances, guillotined. 26. The Vendeans beat the republicans, and take the post of Austrain. The Sardinians under General Brentano repulse the French. The Spaniards obtain a victory. Chambon, member of the convention, mayor of Paris at the King's massacre, is put out of the protection of the law, and killed by the inhabitants of Tulle, among whom he had taken refuge. Gen. La Morbiere is guillotined. 27. The royalists of La Vendee take several towns in Brittany; on the 19th they take Granville, but evacuate it. Barnave, a deputy to the first assembly, one of the, authors of the revolution, and Duport, then minister of justice, guillotined. 29. Project to erect a monument upon the Pont-Neuf, representing the people as giants. The convention receives from all parts the letters of priesthood from the intruders. Decreed, that a municipal officer with a red bonnet shall inter the dead. Robespierre declaims against the eagerness with which they set about the work of destroying religion. A deputation of women appears at the bar with the red bonnet. Decree, offering rewards to every abjuring priest. At Rochefort and other cities the pictures and books of the churches are burned. St. Domingo taken by the English. The orator of the students of the republican school comes to the bar, to assure the convention that he and his comrades detest God. Remonstrances of Mr. Drake, the British minister, to the Senate of Genoa on the subject of neutrality. A member informs the convention that ten thousand firelocks are made in Paris daily. Decreed, that a colossal statue be erected in Paris 46 feet high, with the rights of man and the constitutional act for a pedestal. Furious declamation of Robespierre against the British government. 30. General O'Hara, commander at Toulon, taken prisoner by the French. The inhabitants of Marly send to the convention all the precious effects of the palace of Marly, and all the iron of the famous works of that place. Decreed, that all the lakes and marshes of the republic be dried, and sowed with grain of various sorts. Dec. 1. The Jacobins of Nantes drown 90 priests destined for Guiana, by sinking the ship in which they were embarked. Madame du Barry, the Duke Chatelet, the two Rabauts, members of the convention, Kersaint and Noel, members also, are all guillotined. The ex-minister Claviere kills himself in prison. One hundred and fifty persons guillotined at Dunkirk. The festival of an ass celebrated at Lyons, in derision of religious worship. Collot d'Herbois informs the convention of the massacres which he has executed at Lyons. The right wing of the Austrian army takes 1200 prisoners, and kills 1700. The Prince of Conde takes 7 cannon, and kills 1300 men. The Duke of Brunswick kills takes and (sic) 6000 men. 3. Wurmser defeats the army opposed to him, kills 10,000, and makes 5,000 prisoners. 4. The French evacuate Deux-Ponts, having lost immense numbers of men and of artillery. Raymond le Veuve is guillotined at Bourdeaux (sic). The French attack the Austrian and Prussian armies almost daily, and are constantly repulsed with loss. 11. The French, notwithstanding their constant losses continue to attack the lines of the allies. They lose 5000 in an attack near Haguenau. Valadi is discovered and guillotined. 12. The royalists are defeated with great loss near Mans. In an action near La Guerche, the Vendeans kill 7000 republicans, and take their artillery. Birateau, member of the convention, guillotined at Bourdeaux. The festival of reason celebrated in all cities of France, as in Paris. Madame de Villette, niece of Voltaire, dies on the scaffold. 14. The French make an attack on the posts of the allies on the side of Courtray, and are repulsed. The general, with his aid-du-camp (sic) and staff to the number of 25, are arrested at Lisle. 16. The French again attack the lines of Gen. Wurmser, and are again repulsed with great loss. 18. The royalists of La Vendee are again victorious near Concale. Toulon is retaken by the republicans, its name is changed on the motion of Barrere, to that of the "Port of the Mountain." Letter of Chabot from the prison of the Luxemburg to the convention. 20. The Duke of Brunswick, near Weissembourg defeats the French army, kills 10,000, and takes their camp and baggage with 47 pieces of artillery. Rejoicings in Paris on account of the retaking of Toulon. The French, after having so often attacked the allies with great loss, and returned as often to harrass (sic) them still, at length carry their point. They take 16 cannon, kill 500 men, and recover the strong lines of Weissembourg. 27. The allies raise the siege of Landau. 1794. Jan. 1. The representatives of the people, in order to get rid of prisoners in La Vendee direct that all of them be thrown into the Loire. 2. The island of Noirmoutier is retaken by the republicans; 800 royalists are killed and 1200 are made prisoners. 3. The old marshal Luckner, and the son of General Custine,