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History Plays for the Grammar Grades
by Mary Ella Lyng
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HISTORY PLAYS

for

THE GRAMMAR GRADES



Copyrighted, 1922, Mary Ella Lyng



To MISS CORA GALLAGHER Principal of MCKINLEY SCHOOL

In appreciation of a pleasant association and many kindnesses.



INTRODUCTION

The play idea will always appeal to the minds of children. History, so often thought to be a dry subject, is made a live wide awake game when the pupils live the parts. The great men and women of history are made real to them.

This method has been worked out by the pupils in the fifth grade in the McKinley School in San Francisco and found to be most successful.

The chief characters in Mace's Beginners History, the California State Text, have been dramatized. The children read the story and study by outline. Then with the help of the teacher the important events are made into a play.

Much outside reading is encouraged. This awakens an interest in good reading and an ability to do independent studying.

The lives of great men and women represent great things. Studying about these people is an inspiration to the children for the bigger and nobler things of life.

"Lives of great men, all remind us We can make our lives sublime, And departing leave behind us— Footprints on the sands of time."

Longfellow.

MARY ELLA LYNG



CONTENTS

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 5

JOHN SMITH and POCAHONTAS 7

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 8

WILLIAM PENN 10

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE 11

PILGRIMS 13

GEORGE WASHINGTON 15

GEORGE ROGERS CLARK 20

ANDREW JACKSON 21

JOHN C. FREMONT 24

WEBSTER, CLAY and CALHOUN 27

THE STORY OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN 33

GRANT AND LEE 35

ROBERT E. LEE 36

SOME WOMEN OF HISTORY 38



CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS

INTRODUCTION:

Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy, more than four hundred and fifty years ago. Genoa was a rich town on the Mediterranean Sea. She had trading routes to India, China and Japan.

Columbus was fond of stories of the sea and liked the study of geography. He was anxious to go to sea and while a boy made his first voyage. When he grew up to be a man, he went to Lisbon the capital of Portugal. The bold deeds of Henry of Portugal drew many seamen to this city.

Lisbon was full of learned men and sailors longing to go on long voyages. These sailors had tried to find a shorter way to India but without success.

Columbus thought this could be done by going directly west. He thought the world round although most people at that time thought it flat. After many trails he laid his plans before the Court of the King of Spain.

The first act will be Columbus at the Court of Spain.

ACT I.

King and Queen on throne—courtiers around.

Columbus enters and bows before king and queen.

Q. ISABELLA: You have come to us to talk about a shorter way to India?

COLUMBUS: Yes, your Majesty. According to this map and the proof I have gathered, I believe India to be directly west. I have gone on long voyages and have talked to many seamen about the signs of land to the westward. I believe the world to be round and if your Majesty could aid me I know I could find this shorter route.

QUEEN: We would be glad indeed to aid you, but at the present time Spain has little money. The war has taken so much.

WISE MAN OF SPAIN: Your Majesty, this man thinks the world round. That is foolish. If you use your eyes you can see it is flat. To sail westward in the hope of getting to India is impossible and ridiculous.

WISE MAN: Your Majesty, I think this man right. He says the world is round and I think if we study carefully, we will find it is so. If it is possible we should give him a chance.

End of Act I.

ACT II.

INTRODUCTION:

Columbus receiving little encouragement and after several years of waiting, set out to try his fortune in France. He stopped at a convent to beg for some bread. The Prior became interested in his plan and went to the Court of Spain, and begged the Queen not to allow Columbus to go to France but to help him in his plans.

The next act will be Columbus talking to Queen.

QUEEN: Columbus, I will pledge my jewels in order to raise the money for a fleet. I will fit out an expedition and make you Governor over the land you discover.

COLUMBUS: Thank you, your Majesty. The lands discovered will be taken up in the name of the King of Spain.

QUEEN: Will you take a vow to use the riches you obtain to help drive out the Turks from the Holy City of Jerusalem?

COLUMBUS: I will take that vow.

(Columbus takes vow).

End of Act II.

The voyage across the ocean was a long and tiresome one. The sailors became discouraged and wanted to return to Spain. Columbus kept on and finally was rewarded. The next act will be the discovery of land.

ACT III.

(Columbus talking to sailors:)

COLUMBUS: I rejoice my friends that you have had the grace to chant the vesper hymn in so devout a spirit at a moment when there is so much reason to be grateful to God for His goodness to us. What cheering signs have encouraged us to persevere. The birds in the air, the unusual fishes in the sea and the plants seldom met far from rocks where they grow. I deem it probable that we reach the land this very night. I call on you all to be watchful.

(Columbus and Luis walk apart from the other sailors. Columbus a little in advance, stops, calls Luis.)

COLUMBUS: Luis! Look in that direction, seest thou aught uncommon?

LUIS: I saw a light, Senor.

COLUMBUS: Thine eyes did not deceive thee.

LUIS: What think you, Don Christopher?

COLUMBUS: Land! Bid Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia to come hither.

(Rodrigo Sanchez comes. All look for light).

COLUMBUS: This is land. We will behold it soon.

(Sailors come up and look. All exclaim, Land! Land!)

COLUMBUS: See the land, Luis?

LUIS: Yes.

COLUMBUS: Behold the Indies! Praise be to God!

End of Columbus Act.



JOHN SMITH and POCAHONTAS

INTRODUCTION:

John Smith was the savior of Virginia. He was an officer in the new colony sent out to Jamestown. Captain Newport one of Raleigh's old sea captains brought a colony of one hundred settlers to America.

The first act will be Captain Newport talking to some London merchants.

FIRST MERCHANT: The King has given us a charter for our new colony in America.

SECOND MERCHANT: We need some men of adventure.

CAPT. NEWPORT: I know a man, John Smith, who could make the colony a success. He has had as wonderful adventures as the knights of old. He has just returned from fighting the Turks.

MERCHANT: We will see if the King will make him one of the officers in the company.

End of Act I.

ACT II.

INTRODUCTION:

Smith was made an officer but was not allowed to take part in governing the Colony but resolved to help by visiting the Indians and gathering food for the Colony. The next act will be Smith in the Indian village.

(Powhatan sitting around bench. His wives sit at his side. Women and children stand around. In front stood Powhatan's fierce warriors. Two big stones are rolled in front of Powhatan. Two warriors rush to Smith, drag him to the stones and force his head upon one of them). (Pocahontas the chief's daughter rushes in.)

POCAHONTAS: Save his life! Do not kill him!

POWHATAN: Your life is saved. You will be my son and play with my daughter.

End of Act II.

ACT III.

INTRODUCTION:

After awhile Smith returned to Jamestown. He found much trouble among the settlers. He took command and with the help of Pocahontas the little Indian maiden, restored order and saved them from starvation. Pocahontas was ever afterwards called "The good angel of the Colony." The next act will be Smith talking to the settlers.

SMITH: (Making speech). Every one of us must work. He that will not work shall not eat. You shall not only gather for yourself, but for those that are sick. They shall not starve. Some of you will plant grain, others will build better houses. If this will take place we will all be happier and more contented in Virginia.

End of Smith Act.



SIR WALTER RALEIGH

INTRODUCTION:

Walter Raleigh was the Englishman who checked the power of the Spanish in America. He was a friend of Queen Elizabeth, and first gained her friendship, by an interesting incident. This act tells the story.

ACT I.

(Walter Raleigh, Blount, and Tracy, walking along shore see boat of the Queen.)

BLOUNT: See, the Queen's barge lies at the stairs. We had best put back and tell the Earl what we have seen.

RALEIGH: Tell the Earl what we have seen! Let us do his errand, and tell him what the Queen says in reply.

BLOUNT: Do, I pray you, my dear Walter, let us take the boat and return.

RALEIGH: Not till I see the Queen come forth.

(Queen comes, Raleigh removes his hat and stands close to Queen as she approaches with her court. She hesitates to pass miry spot. Raleigh takes coat from shoulder and lays it on the ground. Queen looks at Raleigh and passes on).

BLOUNT: Come along, Sir Coxcomb, your gay mantle will need the brush today, I wot.

RALEIGH: This cloak shall never be brushed while in my possession.

BLOUNT: That will not be long, if you learn not a little more economy.

(Member of court comes after Raleigh. Queen and court at water's edge, waiting).

COURTIER: I was sent to bring a gentleman who has no coat, you, sir, I think. Please follow me.

BLOUNT: He is in attendance on me, the noble Earl of Sussex, Master of Horse.

COURTIER: I have nothing to say to that. My orders are from her Majesty.

(Walter and man walk toward Queen).

BLOUNT: Who in the world would have thought it!

(Raleigh is brought to Queen, who laughs, and talks to attendants).

QUEEN: You have this day spoiled a gay mantle in our service. We thank you for your service, though the manner of offering was something bold.

RALEIGH: In a sovereign's need, it is each man's duty to be bold.

QUEEN: (Speaking to attendant). That is well said, my lord. (To Raleigh) Well, young man, your gallantry shall not go unrewarded. Thou shalt have a suit, and that of the newest cut.

RALEIGH: May it please your majesty, but if it became me to choose—

QUEEN: Thou wouldst have gold? Fie, young man. Yet, thou mayest be poor. It shall be gold. But thou shall answer to me for the use of it.

RALEIGH: I do not wish gold, your majesty.

QUEEN: How, boy, neither gold nor garment! What then?

RALEIGH: Only permission to wear the cloak which did this trifling service.

QUEEN: Permission to wear thine own cloak, thou silly boy?

RALEIGH: It is no longer mine. When your majesty's foot touched it, it became a fit mantle for a prince.

QUEEN: Heard you ever the like, my Lords? What is thy name and birth?

RALEIGH: Raleigh is my name.

QUEEN: Raleigh? We have heard of you. You may wear thy muddy cloak, and here, I give thee this, to wear at the collar.

(Gives him a jewel of gold, Raleigh kneels, and kisses hand of Queen).



WILLIAM PENN

INTRODUCTION:

William Penn was a Quaker and founded the city of Brotherly Love. He was the son of a great naval officer, Admiral Penn. When he became a Quaker his family were very much disgraced. His father drove him from home.

The next act will be the meeting of King Charles and William Penn and others.

ACT I.

(King Charles and Court enter. Enter William Penn and others. All hats removed except King's and Penn. King removes his.)

PENN: Friend Charles, why dost thou remove thy hat?

KING: Because wherever I am, it is customary for but one to remain covered. (King passes on).

(Penn's father enters.)

PENN SR.: Sir, I will not permit such conduct toward the King. Leave this place at once.

End of Act I.

ACT II.

INTRODUCTION:

After Penn's father died, the King gave Penn a grant of land in payment of a debt owed to his father. Penn invited all persecuted Christians to the colony. He gave the colonists the right to choose their own rules and to make their own laws. He also gave them land for their houses and farms.

The next act will be Penn making a treaty with the Indians.

(Indians in row—Penn and people).

PENN: (Talks to Indians). We are the same as if one man's body were divided into two parts. We are all one flesh and one blood.

INDIAN CHIEF: We will live in love with William Penn and his children as long as the moon and the sun shall endure.

(Pipe of peace is smoked.)

End of Play.



SIR FRANCIS DRAKE

INTRODUCTION:

Sir Francis Drake was the English "Dragon" who sailed the Spanish Main and who "singed the King of Spain's beard." He was a most daring seaman. From boyhood he had been a sailor. The first act will be Drake at the Court of Queen Elizabeth.

ACT I.

QUEEN ELIZABETH AND COURT

FIRST MAID OF HONOR: Francis Drake has returned from his voyage around the world.

QUEEN: Tell me about this Francis Drake.

SECOND MAID OF HONOR: He is a cousin of Captain Hawkins and was with him when he had command of a ship against Mexico. The Spaniards killed many of the sailors and took all they had.

COURT: He hates the Spanish because he thought they were plotting to kill your Majesty.

QUEEN: Bring me to Francis Drake. I will visit him on his ship.

(Enter Queen and Court.)

QUEEN: How do you do, Francis Drake. They tell me you have made a voyage around the world.

DRAKE: Yes, your Majesty.

QUEEN: Tell me of your trip.

DRAKE: (Map and pointer showing the trip). We left England and sailed straight for the Strait of Magellan. I was determined to sail the Pacific. We entered this harbor. This is where Magellan spent a winter when he made his trip around the world. One of my men will tell you what happened here.

MAN: We sailed safely through the Strait but a terrible storm arose. One of our ships were lost and one sailed for England. We went from here, south and here we saw the first great treasure ship. We captured four hundred pounds of gold.

DRAKE: Week after week we sailed northward until we reached Peru, Pizarro's conquered land.

MAN: Here we saw another great treasure ship. We pursued her and captured more than twenty tons of silver bars, thirteen chests of silver and a great store of precious gems.

DRAKE: We sailed northward and back again southward and spent a time in this beautiful bay. I named the country New Albion and took possession in your Majesty's name.

MAN: The natives believed Francis Drake a god and begged us to stay with them always.

DRAKE: We sailed on until we saw the island where Magellan had been. We sailed on through the Indian Ocean, around the Cape of Good Hope and back to England.

QUEEN: Kneel Francis Drake (Drake kneels and is knighted by Queen). Arise, Sir Francis Drake.

ACT II.

Drake again went to fight the Spaniards. He sailed boldly for the coast of Spain. He captured shipload after shipload of treasure. He made the Spanish King very angry by his actions and the King resolved to crush England. Drake sailed right into the harbor of Cadiz. He burned so many Spanish ships that it took Spain another year to get the fleet ready.

The next act will be Drake and others talking to the Queen after the Spanish Armada had been destroyed.

QUEEN: My brave and noble Sir Francis Drake, you have crushed the Spanish power on the sea for all time I think.

NOBLE: He has certainly more than singed the King of Spain's beard this time.

DRAKE: The terrible storm that came up helped us to destroy the Spanish Fleet.

QUEEN: From now on our power on the sea will grow greater and greater. We can now go to America without danger from the Spanish.

End of Play.



PILGRIMS

ACT I.

INTRODUCTION:

The Pilgrims were persecuted for their religion in England. They went first to Holland. After a time they decided to come to America because they wanted their children to grow up in their own language and customs.

They set sail for America in the Mayflower. They had a long and dangerous journey, but on November 20, 1620 they found themselves looking with glad hearts upon the sandy but heavily-wooded shores of Cape Cod. They signed an agreement as to the government of the Colony and elected John Carver their first Governor.

Captain Standish was their captain. The first act will be Captain Miles Standish and his sixteen men returning from an exploring party.

ACT I.

CLASS: The people on Mayflower.

PEOPLE: Here come Miles Standish and his men! Welcome back to the Mayflower! What have you found, Standish?

STANDISH: We have tramped for three days through the forests, up and down hills along the coast but found no suitable place.

FIRST ONE OF MEN: We found this. (Corn). We decided to take it up and later we will pay the Indians double.

SECOND MAN: While we were examining an Indian snare, Bradford (points to Bradford) found himself swinging by one leg in the air—(much laughter). We have found a new way to catch game.

STANDISH: The second trip was no better but this time I think we have found a good place. I think it is the same place found by Capt. John Smith and named Plymouth by him.

GOVERNOR CARVER: I think this will be a good place to land. Shall we land here?

PEOPLE ABOARD MAYFLOWER: We will get ready to land.

PEOPLE: It is God's will.

ACT II.

INTRODUCTION:

The first winter for the Pilgrims was a hard one. Many of their people died. Among them Governor Carver. Miles Standish helped them in every way he could. He kept his army ready for any danger. The next act will be Samoset's visit to the Pilgrims.

ACT II.

Miles Standish and several pilgrims talking over military affairs.

STANDISH: We must drill every day in order to be ready for danger.

BRADFORD: Yes we must keep up our careful watching.

BREWSTER: Look at that fine looking Indian coming toward us.

(All look toward Indian coming).

SAMOSET: Welcome! Welcome!

STANDISH: You talk English?

SAMOSET: Me talk little. Me good Injun.

STANDISH: He looks like a good Indian.

SAMOSET: Me bring more Injuns. (Enter).

SQUANTO: Welcome Englishmen!

BRADFORD: You talk good English.

SQUANTO: My name Squanto, I been to London. I show you many things. How plant corn, by putting dead fish in hill. How to hoe corn and how to make into meal. I show you to catch eel and how make Indian moccasins, canoes and lots of things.

BRADFORD: We will be glad to learn all this Squanto. You are a good friend to us.

ACT III.

The next act will be the Pilgrims planning for the first Thanksgiving.

(Men and women talking.)

FIRST WOMAN: Our first summer is now over.

FIRST MAN: Yes, and we have a big harvest; our houses are repaired and the health of our people is good.

SECOND WOMAN: After the hardships of our first winter and the blessings from God we have now, we should have a Thanksgiving.

ALL TOGETHER: Yes we should. The time for rejoicing has come.

WOMEN: We will have a great feast.

MEN: We will have games and military movements.

MAN: We will invite Massasoit and his warriors who have been so kind to us.



GEORGE WASHINGTON and OTHER HEROES OF THE REVOLUTION

INTRODUCTION: (Told by pupil).

We are now going to tell you the story of George Washington and other heroes of the Revolutionary War.

George Washington was the first president of the United States and was called "The Father of His Country." As a boy he was a skilful horseback rider and liked to go into the forest with his dog and hunt. He had a very good mother. His father called her "The Rose of Epping Forest"—a place in England.

(Maps are used and pupil points out the places on maps with pointer).

The first act will be George Washington talking to his mother.

ACT I.

WASHINGTON: Mother, it is decided that I should go to sea, is it not?

MRS. WASHINGTON: Yes, George, we had consented to your going to sea but I would much rather have you go back to school and have a good education. According to these old Virginia days the oldest son in the family, when the father dies, receives a plantation and your brother, Laurence, has received a plantation on the Potomac.

WASHINGTON: Well, mother, if I give up my plans of going to sea and go back to school, what shall I do?

MRS. WASHINGTON: You will receive a plantation on the Rappahannock.

WASHINGTON: Well, I shall give up all my plans and go back to school and I will try to excel in all my work.

MRS. WASHINGTON: You must excel in both work and play and remember the Golden Rule—"Do unto others as you would have them do unto you."

(Several boys knock and enter—boys bow and speak to Mrs. Washington).

BOYS: How do you do, Mrs. Washington.

MRS. WASHINGTON: How do you do, boys.

FIRST BOY: George, we want you to come out and play with us.

SECOND BOY: Yes, we want you to be our captain.

THIRD BOY: We will take a walk in the woods.

FOURTH BOY: And maybe have a swim in the old swimming pool.

WASHINGTON: May I go out with the boys, mother?

MRS. WASHINGTON: Yes, George, but don't forget to come in before it gets too late.

End of Act I.

ACT II.

INTRODUCTION:

When George Washington was sixteen, he was made a surveyor for Lord Fairfax. At twenty he was put in Braddock's army and he saved the broken pieces. He was later elected to the house of Burgesses in Virginia.

After Washington's brother, Laurence, died, Washington received the beautiful Mt. Vernon plantation on the Potomac.

One day while Washington was on his way to Williamsburg, he met a beautiful woman named Mrs. Martha Custis, who later became his wife.

The second act will be Washington, Patrick Henry and others in the house of Burgesses in Virginia.

(House of Burgesses assembled. Class in House of Burgesses.)

SPEAKER AT DESK: As you know the French and Indian war has left both England and her colonies in debt and King George, thinking only of England, put a tax on tea and a Stamp Act on the Thirteen Colonies. Through such great men as Samuel Adams and our own Patrick Henry, these Acts have been repealed. Now we are confronted with the trouble in Boston. Shall the people of Boston be slaves or shall the thirteen colonies fight to save that town?

(Exclamations from House). Fight! Fight! No! No! Fight!

SPEAKER: I think Patrick Henry has a resolution to offer.

PATRICK HENRY: Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen: I offer resolutions declaring that Virginia arm herself for the coming war.

MEN OF HOUSE: Why should we fight England? It is the greatest country in the world and it is our Mother Country.

SECOND MAN OF HOUSE: Why not send petitions to the King asking him to send his two armies out of Boston?

THIRD MAN OF HOUSE: We cannot fight England. Look at Drake. He checked the Spanish Armada on the sea while Raleigh checked the Spanish on the land. If we fight England it will leave us weaker than we are.

FOURTH MAN OF HOUSE: If we fight our Mother Country now it will spoil the little nation we are trying to build up. We are not ready to fight.

PATRICK HENRY: Mr. Speaker.

SPEAKER: Mr. Henry.

HENRY: We must fight! I repeat it, Sir, we must fight. An appeal to arms and the God of Hosts is all that is left to us. They tell us, Sir, that we are weak; unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be next year, or next week? Sir, we are not weak if we make the proper use which the God of Nature has placed in our power. Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable, and let it come! Our brothers are all ready on the field. Why stand we here idle! Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death! (Much applause).

End of Act II.

ACT III.

INTRODUCTION:

The next act will be the second Continental Congress where George Washington was elected Commander in Chief of the American army and where Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and others were appointed to draw up the Declaration of Independence.

MR. HANCOCK, SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE: You all know that in the first Continental Congress we pledged to stand by Boston. If General Gage means to make war on that town, let him do it. Is there anything to say on the matter, gentlemen?

FRANKLIN: Mr. Hancock.

HANCOCK: Mr. Franklin.

FRANKLIN: I say that the thirteen colonies should unite in order to fight Great Britain.

HENRY: Mr. Hancock.

HANCOCK: Mr. Henry.

HENRY: I agree with Mr. Benjamin Franklin. I wish to repeat a statement I made once before. The distinctions between Virginians, Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers and New Englanders are no more. I am not a Virginian but an American. (Applause).

RICHARD HENRY LEE: Mr. Hancock.

HANCOCK: Mr. Lee.

LEE: I make a motion that the thirteen colonies unite in order to fight and that we declare ourselves free and independent of Great Britain.

MEMBER OF HOUSE: We must show reasons for separating from our Mother Country.

ROBERT LIVINGSTON: We must show great men like Pitt and Burke why we want to separate from England.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: I make a motion that a committee of men be appointed to draw up a Declaration of Independence.

R. H. LEE: I second that motion.

SPEAKER: It has been moved and seconded that a committee of men be appointed to draw up a declaration of independence. All those in favor say Aye! Contrary minded No!

Aye! Aye!

SPEAKER: I appoint Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Robert R. Livingston of New York, Roger Sherman of Connecticut and John Adams of Massachusetts to draw up a declaration of independence. And now gentlemen, the American Army needs a head. Who shall it be?

P. HENRY: I think Mr. Adams has a man in view.

HANCOCK: Mr. Adams.

ADAMS: I have but one man in mind, a gentleman from Virginia, whose skill and experience as an officer, whose independent fortune, great talents and excellent universal character would command the approbation of all America and unite the Colonies better than any other person in the Union. If you speak of solid information and sound judgment, Colonel Washington is unquestionably the greatest man on the floor.

LEE: Mr. President.

HANCOCK: Mr. Lee.

LEE: I nominate Colonel Washington as Commander in Chief of the American Army.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: I second that motion.

HANCOCK: It has been moved and seconded that Colonel Washington be made Commander in Chief of the American Army. All those in favor say Aye.

Aye! Aye!

HANCOCK: Not in favor, no. (All Aye). Then General Washington is Commander in Chief of the American Army.

(Cheers).

(Goes to ante room and brings in Washington who left during Mr. Adams' speech).

Gentlemen, this is General Washington, Commander in Chief of the American Army.

(More Cheers).

WASHINGTON: I beg it may be remembered by every gentleman in this room that I this day declare with the utmost sincerity I do not think myself equal to the task I am honored with.

End of Act III.

ACT IV.

INTRODUCTION:

The signing of the Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4th, 1776 by a Congress of representatives of the Colonies assembled in the State House in Philadelphia.

The next act will be the signing of the Declaration of Independence as written by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia.

PRES. HANCOCK: After several days of debating in Congress the Declaration of Independence as written by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia is about to be accepted. Is there anything more to say on the subject, gentlemen? Mr. Jefferson have you?

JEFFERSON: Mr. Hancock and Gentlemen. We feel that good reasons must be shown to the world and to those brave Englishmen, Pitt and Burke who have been our defenders for breaking away from our Mother Country. We have tried to show these causes in the paper that I have written.

HANCOCK: Mr. Adams.

ADAMS: Mr. Hancock. We believe that all men are created equal with the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. The present King of England has shown himself a tyrant in his treatment of the Colonies by his repeated acts. Thomas Jefferson has written these facts so the world may see them.

HANCOCK: Mr. Sherman.

SHERMAN: Mr. Hancock. He has taxed us unjustly, without giving us a voice in the matter. He has tried to force us to pay the debts of England. These are more reasons we wish to give to the world for our present action.

HANCOCK: Mr. Franklin.

FRANKLIN: We have sent petitions to him asking him to stop these abuses. He has answered with insult. A prince with such a character is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. We therefore, declare we are enemies in war, in peace friends.

MR. LEE: Mr. Hancock.

HANCOCK: Mr. Lee.

LEE: I make a motion that the Declaration of Independence as written by Mr. Jefferson be accepted and the news be given to the world that we are a free people.

MEMBER OF HOUSE: I second that motion.

HANCOCK: It has been moved and seconded that the Declaration of Independence be accepted and the news be given to the world that we are a free people. All those in favor say Aye.

Aye! Aye!

Contrary minded, No. And now gentlemen, I sign my name in large letters so George Third may read it without spectacles (writes name). We must all hang together in this matter.

FRANKLIN: Yes, we must all hang together, or we will hang separately.

HANCOCK: And now let the news be given to the world that we are a free people.

BOY: Ring! Grandpa, Ring! Oh Ring for Liberty!

End of Washington Act.



GEORGE ROGERS CLARK

INTRODUCTION:

George Rogers Clark was born in Virginia in 1752. Clark liked to roam the woods. He became a surveyor and an Indian fighter at the age of twenty-one. He was a great leader in Kentucky along with Boone and fought the Indians many times. The British officers aroused the Indians. They paid a certain sum for each scalp of an American. Clark decided to strike a blow at the British across the Ohio. He drilled his men at Corn Island at the falls of the Ohio, the beginning of Louisville. In June he shot the falls and after a long march they reached the old French town of Kaskaskia.

The first Act will be a dance at Kaskaskia.

ACT I.

(British and French dancing. Enter Clark and stands at door. Indian lying on floor springs to feet and gives terrible war whoop. The dancing stops. Women scream and men rush toward Clark).

CLARK: Go on with your dance but remember you dance under Virginia and not under Great Britain.

(British General goes up to Clark).

CLARK: I ask you to surrender in the name of Virginia.

BRITISH GENERAL: I surrender. (Hands his sword to Clark).

(French talk in corner. Father Gibault and other men come up to talk with Clark).

FATHER GIBAULT: We beg of you, Colonel Clark, to spare our lives and the lives of our families.

CLARK: Father, your lives are safe. America makes war on no church and will protect you all from insult. The King of France has made a treaty with the United States and is sending ships and soldiers to help us. All we want you to do is put up the American Flag.

FATHER GIBAULT: We are glad to hear this news. It makes us all very happy indeed. I will go to Vincennes and tell the good news.

End of Clark Act.



ANDREW JACKSON

INTRODUCTION:

Andrew Jackson was born in North Carolina in 1767. His parents were Scotch Irish.

Schools were few and poor and Andy learned more from the woods than from books. As a boy he was full of fun and mischief and fond of sports, but he was very hot tempered.

When he was thirteen he learned what war meant for it was the time of the Revolution. Colonel Tarleton killed more than a hundred of Jackson's neighbors and friends, among them Andy's own brother. He never forgave the British.

At fourteen he was taken prisoner by the British.

The first act will be Andrew Jackson and a British officer. Enter soldiers dragging Andrew. Officer at desk. Men salute officer.

MEN: We have found this young fellow acting in a suspicious manner around the camp, Colonel.

OFFICER: Well, well, a young rebel eh!

ANDREW: Yes, a rebel.

OFFICER: We'll see what you are good for, boy. Clean these boots.

JACKSON: I will not. I am a prisoner of war and expect to be treated as such.

OFFICER: You won't! Won't you! (Draws sword and strikes boy on head). (Soldiers drag him from room).

End of Act I.

ACT II.

INTRODUCTION:

At Camden smallpox killed his remaining brother and left Andrew poor and sickly looking. His mother also lost her life in caring for American prisoners. Jackson was left an orphan of the Revolution. He studied law and at twenty was admitted to practice in the courts of the State.

Stories from Tennessee made him long to see that beautiful country, so in company with nearly a hundred men, women and children he crossed the mountains into Tennessee.

The next Act will be Jackson and others sitting around a camp-fire, telling stories of the Revolution.

JACKSON: This beautiful country of Nolichucky Jack's is worth the trouble we have had in coming. Something in the stillness of the night makes me think of those dreadful Revolutionary days. What a time it was and what a lot of great heroes our country had.

ONE OF MEN: Yes, those were stirring days. Well do I remember that day on the Boston Common. On the slopes of the hill where the State House now stands there was a fine place to skate and slide. We fellows learned our spelling those days for if we didn't we couldn't skate. One day after school we hurried to the hillside. We found the ice broken everywhere. We knew the British Redcoats had done the damage. They thought it fun to make the Yankees angry. We went to General Gage and told him what his soldiers had done. He said "You are plucky boys. If my soldiers bother you again, let me know."

ONE OF THE GIRLS: Have you ever heard the story of Lydia Darrah?

No, tell us.

Lydia was my grandmother. She lived in Philadelphia with her husband and younger children. General Howe's adjutant took up his quarters and secured a back room in which private councils could be held. Just before one of these my grandmother was told to retire early as the British officers would require the room at seven o'clock and would remain late. Lydia suspected that something against the patriot army was to take place. She sent the family to bed and taking off her shoes crept down the stairs and listened at the door. She learned that all the British troops were to march out and surprise General Washington and his army. She knew it lay in her power to save the lives of thousands of people. She decided to find a way of telling the news.

Going to the mill for flour, she left her sack to be filled and hurried on to the American camp where she told one of the officers she knew. He galloped off to Headquarters and informed General Washington.

The British officers never knew who gave Washington the information.

JACKSON: She was a brave woman. There were many brave women and men.

MAN: And that fight at Bunker Hill. Of course we lost because we didn't have enough powder but how our brave boys did fight, as long as the powder held out. They cut down whole ranks of the British army as they advanced up the shore.

JACKSON: Well folks, I think we better go to bed. We have a hard journey ahead of us. I will keep watch.

(Jackson leans up against tree, smoking corncob pipe).

(Suddenly the sound of an owl is heard in the distance).

JACKSON speaks to the man with him: "A little too natural that owl. I fear it is Indians. We must arouse the people and go."

(Goes and arouses people who get ready to leave.)

End of Act II.

ACT III.

INTRODUCTION:

Jackson was successful as a lawyer; was made district attorney and was finally elected to Congress. Later became a frontier judge and a man of business. He won fame as a fighter in the war of 1812, and in many fights with the Indians and won the name of "Old Hickory."

The next act will be calling for volunteers to fight at New Orleans.

JACKSON'S SPEECH: The British are again our enemies. They are capturing our men on the high seas and forcing them to fight for Great Britain. Shall we stand this? No, I say no. Perry and other great sailors are fighting hard with our vessels. The British, if we are not careful, will capture New Orleans. Who volunteers to go with me? On to New Orleans and Victory!!

End of Act III.

ACT IV

INTRODUCTION:

After the Battle of New Orleans Jackson was a great hero. In 1828 he was elected President of the United States. He had bitter quarrels with Clay, Calhoun and Webster over the U. S. Banks. In the Senate was another great man, Thomas H. Benton. He and Jackson had once fought a duel but were now good friends. Benton took Jackson's part against the other men. Refusal of South Carolina to pay the tariff caused trouble during Jackson's time. This act was called nullification.

The next act will be President Jackson talking to General Scott about South Carolina.

ACT IV

JACKSON: South Carolina must be forced to obey the laws of the land. The tariff will be collected by force if necessary. To nullify an Act of Congress would be most dangerous to the Union. Take soldiers and war vessels, General Scott, to Charleston and enforce the law at all hazards.

GENERAL SCOTT: I will do my best to enforce the laws of the land, President Jackson.



JOHN C. FREMONT

INTRODUCTION:

John C. Fremont was born in Savannah, in the year 1813, while his parents were on a journey through the South. His father died soon after, and his mother moved to Charleston, South Carolina. He was well educated, and after college spent some years in travel.

He joined a company of engineers to explore the mountains between Tennessee and South Carolina to find a place for a railway. This region was a rough, beautiful, and wild country, and it gave Fremont a taste for exploring which never left him. His longing for wild life was gratified when he was made assistant to a famous Frenchman who went to explore the region between the Missouri and Canada.

He married Jessie Benton, daughter of the famous Senator Benton. Benton was interested in the growth of the West. He knew that Fremont was interested in exploring, and used his influence with President Van Buren to have Fremont explore the Rocky Mountains.

The first act will be Fremont talking to President Van Buren.

ACT I.

(Senator Benton talking to Van Buren:)

BENTON: The West is a great country, Mr. President. We should have it explored and investigated.

VAN BUREN: I agree with you, Senator Benton. The West should be explored. If we had a good man to send on this expedition.

BENTON: I know a man, Mr. President; John C. Fremont. He is an experienced engineer, and loves the wild life of adventure.

VAN BUREN: Bring Fremont to me.

(Fremont enters and is introduced by Benton).

VAN BUREN: You are an explorer of note, Mr. Fremont? Will you undertake a journey to the Rocky Mountains and bring back a report of that country?

FREMONT: Yes, I am very much interested in exploring the West, and with your permission and the permission of Congress, will try to find out all that we can about that great country.

End of Act I.

ACT II.

INTRODUCTION:

The next act will be Fremont telling about his first and second trip to the West.

SECRETARY TO PRESIDENT: Fremont and his famous guide, Kit Carson, have returned from their second exploring trip to the West and await outside.

PRESIDENT: Show them in.

(Enter Fremont and party).

FREMONT: I have just returned from my explorations, and would like to tell you of the trips. On my first trip I left Kansas City and followed the Kansas River to the South Pass. On my second trip I followed the same route to the South Pass, where I took four men, and continued on, to the highest peak in the Rocky Mountains.

ONE OF THE MEN: While there and on the top, we unfurled the stars and stripes in all its glory.

FREMONT: Then I decided to cross the mountains. After many weary months we beheld a great lake.

ONE OF THE MEN: You can imagine what feelings stirred the breasts of men shut in for months by mountains, at seeing what appeared to us to be an ocean here in the midst of a continent.

FREMONT: As we strained our eyes along its silent shores, I could hardly repress the almost desire to continue our explorations.

MAN: After making preparations, we crossed over the mountains till we reached the Columbia River, and traveled down to Vancouver. Here we were the guests of the Governor of the British Hudson Bay Company.

FREMONT: On November tenth, we started across the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and then on, till we came to Sutter's Fort.

MAN: Here we met the remarkable Captain Sutter. Captain Sutter is a native of Switzerland. He came here with the intention of building a colony. The Spanish Governor, Alvarado, gladly gave him a great tract of land. Captain Sutter has great herds of cattle and many acres of grain.

FREMONT: We then decided to cross the mountains farther to the south, where the San Joaquin River makes a gap. Here we beheld a great desert.

MAN: An Indian told us that there was neither water nor grass—nothing. Every animal that goes on this desert dies.

FREMONT: From here we traveled forward, reaching Salt Lake; having made a circuit of the Great Basin. Here we are, with the story of our trip.

PRESIDENT: You have had some wonderful experiences. And now, Mr. Fremont, I would like you to go on a third expedition—to explore the Pacific Coast.

FREMONT: Very well, Mr. President.

End of Act II.

ACT III.

INTRODUCTION:

Fremont did not know about the war with Mexico. On his way to the north, he heard that Mexicans were planning to kill every American in California. Jose Castro was a Mexican general. The Mexicans had one hundred and fifty horses. The Americans captured these horses. That was the first victory in the conquest of California.

The Bear Flag Rebellion.

The Americans were indeed a rough looking lot. Mounted on horseback, wearing leggings, and carrying pistols and guns. If the Americans had known that war was going on, they would have raised the Stars and Stripes. But not knowing it they decided to make a flag of their own.

The next act will be the forming of the California Republic.

(Men and soldiers around room).

MAN: We are now a Republic, and must have a Declaration of Independence.

OTHER MAN: Yes, and we must have a flag. Here is one. Mr. Todd made it. A bear is drawn on it, and a star. Underneath are the words, "California Republic."

OTHER MAN: We will raise this flag on the flagstaff of Sonoma. Now we are an independent Republic.

End of Act III.

ACT IV

INTRODUCTION:

The conquest of California came when a treaty was signed at the Rancho de Cahuenga. (Ca-wen-ga). The next act will be the Californians and Fremont at the Rancho de Cahuenga.

FREMONT: General Flores, General Vallejo, General Pico, and Californians: You know why you have been called to this meeting?

GENERAL FLORES: Yes, Captain Fremont, we know why we have been called. If we sign a treaty, and promise not to take up arms against the United States we will be pardoned for revolting.

FREMONT: Yes, you will be pardoned under those conditions. Do you promise?

CALIFORNIANS: We promise.

FREMONT: Very well, sign here.

(They sign.)

FREMONT: That will do, you are pardoned. Good afternoon, gentlemen.

CALIFORNIANS: Good afternoon, Captain Fremont.



WEBSTER, CLAY and CALHOUN

INTRODUCTION:

We are going to tell you the story of Webster, Clay and Calhoun.

Daniel Webster was born in New Hampshire in 1782. He was a very weakly child, no one thought that some day he would have an iron body. He spent most of his time playing in the woods and fields. He loved the animals that he found there. He had a brother named Ezekiel. One day as they were walking through the field, they noticed that some of the cabbage had been eaten so they planned to catch the thief.

The first act will be the story of the woodchuck.

ACT I

(Daniel and Ezekiel find woodchuck in trap).

EZEKIEL: Well Daniel I see that we have caught the woodchuck.

DANIEL: What shall we do with him?

EZEKIEL: I think that we should kill him.

DANIEL: I think we should take him into the woods and let him go.

EZEKIEL: Let us take the matter to father and let him settle it. (Go to father).

DANIEL: Father, we have caught the woodchuck and we do not know what to do with him. We have brought the matter to you to settle. Ezekiel wants to kill him and I want to let him go.

FATHER: Well boys, we will hold a court. I will be the judge and you will be the lawyers. One defend the case and the other prosecute. Ezekiel you may speak first, you are the prosecutor.

EZEKIEL: I think we should kill the woodchuck. If we let him go, he will be just as much trouble as ever, while if we kill him he can't eat any more cabbage and we can sell his skin for at least ten cents and small as that sum is it will help pay for some of the cabbage that he has eaten, so in either way he is of more value dead than alive.

FATHER: Very good, Ezekiel. Now Daniel we will hear from you.

DANIEL'S SPEECH: God made the woodchuck. He made him to live in the bright sunlight and the pure air. He made him to enjoy the free air and the good woods. The woodchuck is not a fierce animal like the wolf or the fox. He lives in quiet and peace. A hole in the side of a hill and a little food is all that he wants. He has harmed nothing but a few plants which he ate to keep himself alive. The woodchuck has a right to life, to food, to liberty, for God gave them to him.

Look at his soft pleading eyes. See him tremble with fear. He cannot speak for himself and this is the only way he can plead for the life that is so sweet to him. Shall we be so cruel as to kill him? Shall we be so selfish as to take from him the life that God gave him?

FATHER: Ezekiel, Ezekiel, let that woodchuck go!

ACT II.

INTRODUCTION: WEBSTER.

One day in spring, Daniel Webster's father took Daniel to Exeter Academy to prepare for college. All the boys laughed at his rustic dress and manners.

He finally entered Dartmouth College at the age of fifteen. He was the best student there. All the students liked him. At the age of eighteen he gave a Fourth of July oration in his college town. After he had finished at Dartmouth, he taught school in order to help his parents send his older brother to school. Later, he entered Christopher Gore's law office. He studied very hard and won name and fame as a lawyer.

The approach of the war of 1812 brought him into politics.

He was elected to Congress and took his seat in 1813.

INTRODUCTION: HENRY CLAY.

Henry Clay was born in Virginia at the year of Burgoyne's surrender, 1777. His father died when he was four years old. Little Henry lived near the "Slashes" the name given to a low flat region and went to school in a log cabin. He worked on a farm to do his share in the support of the family. Sometimes he would be seen barefooted behind the plow or else riding a horse to mill. From this he was called the "Mill boy of the Slashes." At fourteen he was a clerk in a store but he was made for better use.

He was put in the office of a famous lawyer who was a clerk in one of Virginia's courts. He went to Richmond and studied law there. He formed a debating club and was made leader. From here he went to Lexington. There his rise in law was rapid, his fame grew and he was known as a lawyer who seldom lost his case.

He was elected to the House of Representatives and was made speaker. As speaker he helped to bring on the War of 1812.

INTRODUCTION: JOHN C. CALHOUN.

Calhoun was born in the same year as Webster, 1782. He was born in South Carolina. His parents were Scotch-Irish. He learned more from the woods than he did from books and filled his memory before people could fill it. At the age of eighteen he began to prepare for college with the aid of his brother-in-law, a Presbyterian minister. Two years later he entered Yale College, studied hard and soon graduated with much honor. He studied law for three years, a year and a half in his own state and a year and a half in Connecticut. He began to practice law in South Carolina. He did not have much success. Perhaps the law was too dry for him or perhaps because he was soon to be elected to Congress.

In 1811 he was married and elected to Congress.

Henry Clay (Speaker) immediately put Calhoun on an important committee.

The next act will be John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Henry Clay speaking of the war of 1812.

CLAY (speaker): Members of Congress and fellow citizens: England has been at war with France for a number of years. France under Napoleon has secured a large part of Europe. England has tried in various ways to injure France by proclaiming that no ships of any nation shall trade with France.

Napoleon retorted, issuing a decree that no ships shall trade with Europe and these laws hurt American commerce. Shall we stand this or demand our rights?

Gentlemen, I say we must fight. On to Canada!

MEMBER OF HOUSE: I think we should be very careful about going to war with Great Britain. She has a thousand war vessels, while the United States has only ten or twelve first-class vessels.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: England's troops are numerous, well drilled and have had much experience. Our troops are few and poorly disciplined and unused to war. I think, all matters in dispute could be arranged without fighting.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: We would make a great mistake to fight England and France at the same time.

WEBSTER: The British in taking our men have made it a practice to stop American merchant ships and seize the best sailors. They claim these men are British citizens and could be rightfully seized. Whenever they see a fine looking seaman, they say: "You are an Englishman, we will take you!" We must fight with the navy. If the war must be continued go to the ocean. There the united wishes and exertions of the nation will go with you. Even our party divisions end at the water's edge.

MR. CALHOUN: We have tried in various ways to induce England and France to change these laws. These are not the only grievances we have. England has a large navy. She needs many sailors. When our ships were in her parts, she has seized our men and forced them on her ships. Is this right? Must we stand such treatment? No! So we call forth the patriotism and resources of our country to help us.

End of Act II.

ACT III

INTRODUCTION:

From 1819 to 1821, Congress was debating over the Missouri Compromise. The north opposed and the south favored. The excitement spread to the state Legislature and to the people. Many meetings were held.

Finally Henry Clay succeeded in getting Congress to pass the Missouri Compromise. This act admitted Missouri as a slave state.

Hayne had spoken against a protective tariff and for nullification and Daniel Webster felt called upon to reply so he made a great speech. His speech was considered by good judges the best ever delivered in Congress. He was probably the greatest orator of his time.

South Carolina refused to pay the tariff in 1832 and nullified the law of Congress. President Jackson hurried the army and navy to make her pay.

John Calhoun was for nullification. He said to save the South from the North, a state had a right to nullify a law of Congress.

The third act will be Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun, speaking on the right of nullification.

SPEAKER CLAY: Gentlemen, we have been debating on the right of a state to nullify. We must think of this matter in a calm manner. It is one of the most serious times of our country. Our Union is in danger. We have heard Mr. Hayne speak on Nullification; also Mr. Calhoun.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: Congress has no right to force another state to pay a tariff and we declare a state has a right to nullify.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: President Jackson says the Federal Union must and shall be preserved. He has warned the people of South Carolina that any attempt at resistance will be put down with a high hand. We of the North feel that this must be done in order to save the Union.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: Tariff is helpful to the North but not to the South. There is always a difference between the North and South and we of the South feel that nullification is right to save us from the North.

CALHOUN: Mr. Clay.

CLAY: Mr. Calhoun.

CALHOUN: The Southern people using slave labor will raise more tobacco and cotton than they need so the tariff is hurtful to them. The Northern people using free labor will manufacture all kinds of things and the tariff is helpful to them. The Southern people are for agriculture. The Northern people for manufacturing. The Southern are for slavery and the Northern are for free labor. To protect the South from the North the state has the right to nullify a law of Congress. The state has the right because the state is above the nation. The states made the constitution.

I believe that nullification is a means of saving the Union from secession.

HAYNES: That is the way I feel, Gentlemen. Nullification is right.

MR. WEBSTER: Mr. Clay.

MR. CLAY: Mr. Webster.

MR. WEBSTER: We must not let South Carolina refuse to obey the laws of the Union. For if she does she leaves the Union. If South Carolina leaves the Union other states will also leave. Gentlemen of Congress: Nullification is another name for secession. When my eyes shall be turned to behold for the last time the sun in heaven, may I not see him shining on the broken and dishonored fragments of a once glorious nation. But may I see our flag without a single stripe erased or polluted, not a single star obscured but everywhere spread all over in characters of living light, that sentiment dear to every American heart, Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.

MR. CLAY: Gentlemen: I offer a compromise hoping it will please both the North and South. I propose that the tariff be gradually reduced till 1842 when all duties shall be 20% on the value of the articles imported. I think, gentlemen this will be a solution of the question. We will debate on it at the next meeting.

End of Act III.

ACT IV

INTRODUCTION:

It was in 1848 that our country declared war on Mexico and won it with a great victory for the American Army. The treaty of peace with Mexico gave the United States all the territory then known as Alta (Upper California) and New Mexico.

The North and the South disputed over this territory. The South said: "It must be open to slavery." The North said: "It must be free." The quarrel grew so bitter that many men thought the Union would be destroyed.

Kentucky legislature sent Clay back to the United States Senate by a unanimous call, Democrats as well as Whigs joining in the vote. It was a proud moment for the old man.

Webster then went back to the United States Senate where he joined Clay in supporting the great Compromise of 1850. Calhoun opposed the Compromise.

The last act will be Clay, Webster and others talking on the Compromise of 1850.

SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE: Gentlemen, for many days we have been debating on the serious question of the danger of the South leaving the Union. Mr. Clay will read his Compromise.

(Mr. Clay enters on arm of friend. He is an old man now).

MR. CLAY: Mr. President and Gentlemen: I believe that the Union is in danger of destruction but if we can again compromise, I think it can be saved. This is what I propose: First that California shall be admitted as a free state. Second: That the slave trade be stopped in the District of Columbia. This should please the North. To please the South, First: I propose that all Federal Officers be given authority to hunt for slaves that have escaped to the North and without trial or jury be returned to their masters. Second: I propose that the new territories coming in as states decide for themselves whether they shall be free or slave.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: The fugitive slave law reads thus: 'Any slave escaping to the North might be seized wherever found and brought before a United States judge. He cannot give testimony, or prove that he is not a slave. All citizens are commanded to aid in the capture of the fugitive.' Are we willing to accept Mr. Clay's clause in this Compromise? As for myself, gentlemen, I think not.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: No, gentlemen, I do not think that we should accept this. Many of these people have escaped into the North and are living peaceably as free men. If this law goes into effect we will have men who for money will go into the North and return these people to slavery. There is a higher law even than an act of Congress. It is the Golden Rule: 'Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.'

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: I say, Sir, we should have our slaves returned. We need our slaves badly.

(Mr. Calhoun's speech is read).

MR. CLAY: I believe from the bottom of my soul that this measure is the re-union of the Union.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: Mr. Clay's country is Virginia. He does not understand that we of the South need slaves. If we of the South can't keep our slaves, we will leave the Union.

MR. CLAY: The honorable Senator speaks of Virginia being my country. This Union is my country, but even if my own state should raise the standard of disunion I would go against her. I would go against Kentucky much as I love her.

Mr. Calhoun's speech, Mr. President.

Mr. Calhoun is ill, I have a speech he wishes to be read.

MR. PRESIDENT: Honorable Senator, read Mr. Calhoun's speech.

(Mr. Calhoun's speech).

Gentlemen of Congress: The Union is in danger today on account of the Abolitionists. They have stirred up strife. All agitation against slavery should be stopped. The relation existing between the two races has existed for two centuries. We cannot permit it to be destroyed. 'Slavery is a good, a positive good.' There should be an equal division of territory between the North and South. If you of the North will not do this, then let our Southern states separate and depart in peace.

Having faithfully done my duty to the best of my ability, both to the Union and my section, I shall have the consolation that I am free from all responsibility.

MR. WEBSTER: Mr. President.

MR. PRESIDENT: Mr. Webster.

MR. WEBSTER: I wish to speak today not as a Massachusetts man nor as a Northern man, but as an American and a member of the United States Senate.

I speak today for the preservation of the Union. Hear me for my cause. I speak from an anxious heart for the return of the peace and quiet of this Union. I should rather have heard that this Union should never be dissolved than that word secession. Secession, peaceable secession. Sir, your eyes and mine will never see that miracle. Sir, I see as plainly as I see that sun in Heaven that secession means a war. It means a war, a war I cannot describe.

End of Play.



THE STORY OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN

ACT I.

INTRODUCTION:

Abraham Lincoln was born in Hardin County, Kentucky, February 12, 1809. His parents were very poor. When he was seven years old his parents moved to Indiana. (He educated himself. Whenever he came in from work he read a book. He read the Bible, AEsop's Fables, Robinson Crusoe and other books). He loved his mother very dearly. She died when he was very young. Her last words to him were: "Try to live as I have taught you and to love your Heavenly Father."

Many years after he said, "All I am or hope to be, I owe to my angel mother."

The first act will be Abraham Lincoln and John Hanks coming in from work.

HANKS: Gee, I am tired, aren't you?

LINCOLN: Yes. (Goes to cupboard, takes bread to eat, picks up book and begins to read).

HANKS: (Gets bread and lies down). What you reading?

LINCOLN: O, a story of George Washington.

HANKS: Tell us about him.

LINCOLN: After a while.

HANKS: All you do is to read and cipher anyway. I am going to take a nap.

End of Act I.

ACT II.

INTRODUCTION:

Abraham Lincoln went on a flat boat down the Mississippi. The boat was laden with supplies to sell at New Orleans. While in New Orleans Lincoln visited a slave auction. After having seen this auction, Lincoln was very much more opposed to slavery.

The next act will be Abraham Lincoln at the Slave auction. (Auctioneer and slaves. Sells several slaves. Class bid and carry on auction, etc.)

(At end of auction, auctioneer says:)

AUCTIONEER: Rest of these slaves to be sold tomorrow. Gentlemen be sure to come.

(Lincoln and Hanks talk.)

HANKS: Well, well. Abe Lincoln what do you think of that?

LINCOLN: I think it is terrible. If I ever get a chance to hit that thing, I'll hit it and I'll hit it hard.

HANKS: I don't blame you.

End of Act II.

INTRODUCTION:

After Lincoln came back from his voyage down the Mississippi, and the Blackhawk War, he ran for the State Legislature, but was defeated. A little later he ran again and this time he won. He said to a friend: "Did you vote for me?" His friend said, "I did." "Then," said Lincoln, "you must loan me two hundred dollars;" for Lincoln needed a new suit of clothes and stage coach fare to the Capital. Later he was sent to Congress and sometime later he was spoken of for President.

The next act will be Lincoln waiting in a newspaper office in Springfield for news of his nomination.

ACT III.

(Newspaper office. Lincoln and several men talking and walking around room. Among them Hanks.)

LINCOLN: I wonder who got the nomination.

EXCLAMATIONS: You got it Abe! Sure you got it! Hope Seward didn't get it! Oh! there is no chance, Abe has it I know! Sure, Sure.

(Enter man in great excitement).

Gentlemen, there has been a nomination. (People in office crowd around him and talk). Mr. Seward (disappointment on faces of Lincoln and men) Mr. Seward is the second name on the list. (Jumps upon chair and exclaims). Three cheers for Abraham Lincoln, the next president of the United States.

End of Act III.

ACT IV.

INTRODUCTION:

Abraham Lincoln was elected President. Soon after war broke out between the North and the South. Lincoln declared that the war was not to free the slaves but to save the Union. Lincoln soon saw that it was time to free the slaves, so he signed the Proclamation of Emancipation.

This act linked the name of Lincoln with one of the greatest acts in history.

The last act will be President Lincoln signing the Proclamation of Emancipation.

(Lincoln sits at desk. Two men are showing him papers. One enters and says: "Mr. Lincoln, here is Mr. Seward with the Proclamation." Enter Seward and several others.)

MR. SEWARD: I have brought you the Proclamation to sign, Mr. President.

(Lincoln takes paper, reads it over, takes up pen, tries to write, drops pen several times.)

MR. SEWARD: What is the matter, Mr. Lincoln?

MR. LINCOLN: I have been shaking hands since nine o'clock this morning and my right hand is almost paralyzed. If my name ever goes down into history it will be for this act and my whole soul is in it. If my hand trembles as I sign this document, the ones who examine it will say—he hesitated.



GRANT AND LEE

INTRODUCTION:

Ulysses S. Grant was born in Ohio, April 27, 1822. His father was a tanner. He was brought up for farm work. Later went to West Point from where he graduated in 1843. He distinguished himself in the Mexican War. He resigned from the army in 1854, tried various kinds of business in St. Louis and Galena, Illinois. On the day after the fall of Sumter, Grant made up his mind to return to the army. In August 1861 he became a brigadier general. From 1861 to 1863 his name was connected with most of the successful operations in the West, till Lincoln said of him, "I can't spare this man. He fights." His greatest characteristic was his indomitable grit.

The first act will be Grant sending his answer to General Buckner at the capture of Fort Donelson.

ACT I.

(Grant at desk, writing and looking over maps. Men at wall looking over maps. Officer speaks to General Grant.)

OFFICER: Two soldiers from General Buckner await outside, General Grant.

GRANT: Show them in.

(Enter soldiers with Union man. Soldier salutes).

SOLDIER: General Grant, General Buckner wishes to know on what terms you will consider the surrender of Fort Donelson.

GRANT: No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted. I propose to move immediately upon your works.

SOLDIER: Your answer will be given to General Buckner. Good bye, General Grant. (Salute).

GRANT: (Salute). Goodbye.



ROBERT E. LEE

INTRODUCTION:

Robert E. Lee was born in 1807, of an old aristocratic Virginia family; he graduated from West Point (1829) and spent thirty-two years in the regular army; he distinguished himself in the Mexican War.

Just before the Civil War broke out, he wrote to a friend: "If the Union is dissolved and the Government disrupted, I shall return to my native state and share the miseries of my people, and, save in defense, will draw my sword no more."

A few days after the fall of Fort Sumter, he was offered the command of the United States Army and declined it. He resigned and after Virginia seceded, accepted a Confederate commission. He took command of the Army of Northern Virginia June 1, 1862. He had great power over men and his soldiers had perfect confidence in "Uncle Robert."

ACT II.

INTRODUCTION:

The surrender of Appomattox Court House. Salute. Lee and his staff in room. Lee in full dress uniform. Grant enters with his staff. Grant shakes hands with Lee. Grant dressed in rough clothes.

GRANT: How do you do, General Lee. We have not met since the Mexican War. Strange is it not?

LEE: (Salute). How do you do, General Grant. No we have missed meeting. I have sent for you today, General Grant, to ask you the terms of a surrender.

GRANT: The terms are the same as those sent you a few days ago, General Lee. All of Northern Virginia must lay down their arms and take up the Stars and Stripes.

LEE: Write them and I will sign.

UNION SOLDIER SPEAKS TO OFFICER WITH LEE: Why is it that you and your General are in full dress uniform?

OFFICER: When Sherman came through we saved our best suit and this is all we have.

(Grant writes terms and reads to General Lee.)

The Terms: All the Army of Northern Virginia must lay down their arms and take up the Stars and Stripes. The men are to be allowed to return to their homes and are not to be disturbed by the United States authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they reside. They are to be allowed to take their horses home to do the spring plowing.

LEE: You have been generous, General Grant. (Offers sword to Grant. Grant takes it and returns it with this remark):

GRANT: A brave man should not be separated from his sword. I tender it back to you.

(Grant and Lee shake hands. Lee goes to his men and speaks to them).

LEE: Men we have fought through this war together. I have done my best for you.

GRANT: (Speaks to his men). This day is not to be spent as a day of victory but in peace and quiet. These men are now citizens of the same country and are to be treated as such.



SOME WOMEN OF HISTORY

INTRODUCTION:

We are now going to tell you the story of some of the great women of our nation, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Julia Ward Howe, and others.

The first act will be Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the first champion of Woman Suffrage, and the first Woman's Rights Convention.

ACT I.

MRS. STANTON TALKING: Ladies we are met here today to discuss women, our social, civil and religious conditions, and the rights of women. (Applause). For generations we have been held down by man (more applause). I want to read to you a set of resolutions. We will call them a Declaration of Sentiments. They will be met of course with ridicule but that does not matter. Right is right and in time will prevail. Here are some of the resolutions:

First: We should have the same right as any other citizen of the United States.

The right to own and manage our own property.

The right to cast a vote at an election.

There are others that we will talk of.

You see ladies we should have an equal vote with men. (Much applause).

ACT II.

INTRODUCTION:

Susan B. Anthony met Mrs. Stanton soon after this convention and though she had not been in sympathy with the "Declaration of Sentiments" she changed and was ever after a friend of women's suffrage. They started a weekly paper which they called "The Revolution."

The next act will be Mrs. Stanton and Miss Anthony talking about their paper.

MISS STANTON: We must let the people of the United States see that the only True Republic is this "Men their rights and nothing more—Women their rights and nothing less."

MISS ANTHONY: Yes, this is the only way for us to get our rights. We will organize a National Women's Suffrage Association.

MISS STANTON: We will go over the country to any state we are needed and talk to the people.

MISS ANTHONY: Yes, I will address Congress and I will cast a vote for the President. It is my right under the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

End of Act II.

Transcriber's Note: The reader is obliged to seek information on "Julia Ward Howe, and others" elsewhere, as the digital images of this document contain final blank pages and a back cover, but no further text.

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Transcriber's Note:

A Table of Contents has been added to this ebook for the reader's convenience.

Inconsistencies in punctuation, spelling and capitalization have been retained to match the text of the original document.

The following typographical corrections have been made:

Page 7: Removed stray parenthesis (Powhatan's fierce warriors.) Page 18: Changed Adam's to Adams' (Mr. Adams' speech) Page 22: Added missing word 'of' (before one of these) Page 22: Added missing letter 'i' to 'with' (with the Indians) Page 26: Added missing period (They sign.) Page 27: Changed 'ahe' to 'the' (caught the woodchuck) Page 30: Added missing word 'OF' (MEMBER OF CONGRESS) Page 33: Changed AEsops to AEsop's (AEsop's Fables) Page 34: Added missing period (Sure, Sure.) Page 34: Added missing period (Mr. Lincoln) Page 34: Added missing quotation marks (with the Proclamation.") Page 34: Changed . to ? (What is the matter, Mr. Lincoln?)

For ease of navigation during classroom use, a few minor formatting adjustments have been made in this ebook. Six speakers' names were converted to SMALL CAPS to match the style of the text; four cases of left-justified unattributed dialogue were indented (three cases of "Aye! Aye!" and one case of "No, tell us."); and parentheses were added around some stage directions to better differentiate them from dialogue.

THE END

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