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History of the English People, Index
by John Richard Green
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HISTORY

OF

THE ENGLISH PEOPLE

BY

JOHN RICHARD GREEN, M.A. HONORARY FELLOW OF JESUS COLLEGE, OXFORD

INDEX

London MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD. NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN CO. 1896

First Edition, 1879; Reprinted 1882, 1886, 1891. Eversley Edition, 1896.



INDEX

Abbot, George, Archbishop of Canterbury, iv. 341; his Puritanism, v. 90; protests against Lady Essex's divorce, 191; pleads for help for the Elector Palatine, 218; suspended, 255

Abelard, i. 283, 285

Abercromby, General, vii. 266

Abercromby, Sir Ralph, viii. 140, 165

Aberdeen sacked by Montrose, vi. 23

Aberffraw, princes of, ii. 46, 108

Abergavenny besieged by Owen Glyndwr, iii. 11

Abergavenny, Edward Neville, first Lord, iii. 114

Abergavenny, George Neville, tenth Lord, vii. 23

Abermenai, English fleet repulsed from, ii. 54

"Abhorrers," vi. 314

Abingdon, Abbey of, its relations with Oxford, i. 306-308

Abingdon, James Bertie, first Earl of, vii. 23

Aboukir, battle of, viii. 141

Acadia, strife of French and English in, vii. 242, 243

Accursi, Francesco, ii. 102

Aclea, battle of, i. 103

Acre, siege of, viii. 141

Acts of Parliament. See Statutes

Adam of Usk, ii. 178

Adamnan's Life of St. Columba, i. 8

Adams, John, vii. 281

Addington, Henry, viii. 156, 170. See Sidmouth

Addison, Joseph, vii. 158, 159, 292

Adela, daughter of William the Conqueror, i. 214

Adelard of Bath, i. 282, 293

Admonition to the Parliament, iv. 296

Adrian IV., Pope, i. 250

Adrian VI., Pope, iii. 249

AElfheah, Archbishop of Canterbury, i. 142; translation of, 145

AElfred, king of Wessex, i. 105; his struggle with the northmen, 106, 107; treaty with them, 107; character, 107-110; rule, 111, 112; literary and educational work, 113-115; organization of fleet and fyrd, 116; second struggle with northmen, ib., 117; death, 117; Asser's Life of, 5; Sayings of, 278, 280

AElfred, son of AEthelred II., i. 147, 148

AElfric, ealdorman of Central Wessex, i. 140

AElla, king of Deira, i. 52, 53

AElle, king of the South Saxons, i. 34

AEsc, king of Kent, i. 49

AEthelbald, king of Mercia, i. 90, 96

AEthelbald, king of Wessex, i. 103

AEthelberht, king of Kent, i. 56, 57, 59, 62, 65

AEthelberht, king of Wessex, i. 103

AEthelflaed, Lady of the Mercians, i. 117, 118

AEthelgifu, mother-in-law of King Eadwig, i. 136, 137

AEthelfrith, king of Northumbria, i. 60, 62

AEtheling, the, i. 11

AEthelred, king of Mercia, i, 89

AEthelred I., king of Wessex, i. 103-105

AEthelred II., King, i. 139-141

AEthelred, ealdorman of Mercia, i. 117

AEthelric, king of Bernicia, i. 52, 53, 60

AEthelstan, King, i. 119, 120

AEthelweard's Chronicle, i. 5

AEthelwine, ealdorman of East Anglia, i. 139, 140

AEthelwulf, king of Wessex, i. 103

Agenois, dispute about, ii. 197, 198, 209, 219

Agincourt, battle of, iii. 30-32

Agitators, Council of, vi. 52, 53, 57

Agriculture, changes in, under Elizabeth, iv. 278

Aidan, St., i. 69-71

Aids, feudal, ii. 104; "free," 152, 153

Aiguillon taken by the Earl of Derby, ii. 234; besieged by John of France, ib., 235

Aislabie, Chancellor of the Exchequer, vii. 192

Aix-la-Chapelle, peace of, vi. 250; vii. 231

Albany, Robert, first Duke of, iii. 9, 16

Albany, Alexander, third Duke of, iii. 232; Protector of Scotland, 235; struggle with Margaret, 247, 248

Albemarle, Edward, Duke of, ii. 380; iii. 7. See Rutland

Albemarle, George Monk, Duke of (see Monk), vi. 193

Albemarle, Stephen, Count of, i. 192

Alberoni, Cardinal, vii. 186-188

Albigenses, ii. 7, 35

Albinus, friend of Baeda, i. 94

Alcwine, letters of, i. 4

Alderman of a gild, i. 299

Aldfrith, king of Northumbria, i. 91

Aldgate, Priory of Holy Trinity at, i. 223

Alencon, William the Conqueror's vengeance on, i. 179; reduced by Henry V., iii. 33

Alencon, Francis, Duke of. See Anjou

Alexander III., Pope, i. 235

Alexander I., Czar of Russia, viii. 164, 180, 198, 202

Alexander III., king of Scots, ii. 135

Alfred of Beverley, i. 246

Alfune founds St. Giles', Cripplegate, i. 223

Algiers bombarded by Blake, vi. 116

Allen, Dr. William, iv. 307, 310, 353, 354; his Defense of the English Catholics, 354

Alleyn, Joseph, vi. 223

Alliance, Grand, vii. 49; its success, 79, 80, 88; breaks up, 89; the second, 107; Triple, vi. 249; vii. 185

Almanza, battle of, vii. 134

Alva, Ferdinand Alvarez, Duke of, iv. 225, 257, 258, 298, 300, 335

Amboise, conspiracy of, iv. 175; edict of, 217

America, early settlements in, iv. 329, 330, 345; Puritan emigration to, v. 308-314, 319, 320; English colonies in, vii. 236; their progress, 237; slavery in, ib.; education in, 238; their political condition, 239, 240; relations with England, 241, 243, 244; strife with the French, 249; Pitt's policy in, 266; relations with England after the Seven Years' War, 280-283; Bute's policy towards, 310, 311; Grenville's, 320, 321, 326; English and American theories of their relation to England, 320-325; renewed attempt at taxation of, viii. 3, 4, 14; war with England, 22-26, 32; French settlements in, vii. 232, 242, 243; ceded to England, 307; Spanish conquests in, iv. 329, 330; English trade with, vii. 216; United States of, declare their independence, viii. 24; alliance with France, 28; peace with England, 41; importance of their independence, 42-44; increase of their carrying trade through the Continental System, 177; embargo on trade with Europe, 182; pass an Act of Non-Intercourse with England and France, 183; repeal it, 184; cease intercourse with Great Britain, 192; war with England, 198, 203-205

Amherst, General, vii. 266, 267, 269

Amiens, Mise of, ii. 68; Peace of, viii. 167

Ancrum Moor, battle of, iv. 29

Anderida (Pevensey) destroyed by Saxons, i. 34

Andre, Bernard, his Life of Henry VII., iii. 83

Andredsweald, the, i. 33; attacked by northmen, 116

Andrewes, Lancelot, Bishop of Winchester, v. 267

Aneurin, ii. 49, 53

Angeln, i. 9

Anglesea conquered by Eadwine, i. 63; reduced by an English fleet, ii. 109; English routed in, 120

Angouleme taken by Henry of Derby, ii. 234; regained by John of Normandy, ib.

Angoumois restored to Edward III., ii. 266; won by Du Guesclin, 287

Angus, Archibald Douglas, sixth (or ninth) Earl of, iii. 231; iv. 22, 29, 52

Anhalt, Christian, Duke of, v. 177

Anjou, documents for early history of, i. 7; counts of, 208-213; conquered by Philip Augustus, 269; cession of, ii. 63

Anjou, Francis, Duke of, iv. 313, 316, 336-338, 348

Anjou, Henry, Duke of, iv. 297, 298. See Henry III., king of France

Anjou, Rene, Duke of, iii. 61

Anlaf, the sea-king, i. 120

Annales Angliae et Scotiae, i. 274

Annales Cambriae, i. 7

Anne, daughter of James, Duke of York, vi. 309; vii. 28; forsakes her father, 42; relations with the Churchills, 109-111; Queen, 112; her "Bounty," 123; resistance to the Whigs, 133; temper and policy, 135, 136; breaks with the Duchess of Marlborough, 138; threat to the Electress Sophia, 144; dismisses Oxford, 145; dies, 146

Anne of Bohemia, wife of Richard II., ii. 348, 367

Anne of Cleves, wife of Henry VIII., iii. 351; iv. 17

Anselm, St., i. 193-196; Archbishop of Canterbury, 196; struggle with William Rufus, ib., 197; recalled, 199; crowns Matilda, 200; supports Henry I., 201

Antonio, Don, claimant of Portugal, iv. 367

Antwerp, its trade with England, iv. 257; refugees from, 305, 324; sacked, 310; surrenders to Parma, 349

Appeal, Court of, i. 256

Appeals to the Pope, ii. 222; protest of Edward III. against, 274; forbidden, iii. 302; from Scotland, Edward I.'s claim to, ii. 140

Appellant, the Lords, ii. 353, 354, 371

Aquitaine, Henry Fitz-Empress's relations with, i. 226, 233; revolts against Richard I., 263; secured by Eleanor for John, 268; submits to Philip Augustus, 270; Edward III. does homage for, ii. 209; granted him in full sovereignty, 266; change in its attitude towards the English king, 280; relations with Spain, 282; rejects the hearth-tax, 285; its barons appeal to France, ib.; regained by France, 287, 288; granted by Richard II. to John of Gaunt, 369. See Guienne

Archangel, discovery of, iv. 283

Archers, the English, ii. 241, 242; iii. 31

Architecture under Edward I., ii. 105, 106; domestic, its developement under Elizabeth, iv. 285-287

Arcola, battle of, viii. 123

Arcot seized by Clive, vii. 235

Argyle, Archibald Campbell, fourth Earl of, iv. 114

Argyle, Archibald Campbell, fifth Earl of, iv. 223, 230, 245, 260

Argyle, Archibald Campbell, eighth Earl and first Marquis of (see Lorne), v. 341; his relations with Charles I., 363, 364; defeated at Inverlochy, vi. 38; restored to power, 63; proclaims Charles II. king, 71; death, 181; vii. 8

Argyle, Archibald Campbell, ninth Earl of, vii. 8, 9

Argyle, John Campbell, second Duke of, vii. 146, 183

Aristotle, Edmund Rich lectures on, i. 288, 293

Arkwright, Richard, viii. 60

Arles, kingdom of, i. 262

Arlington, Henry Bennet, Earl of (see Bennet), Secretary of State, vi. 245; policy in Triple Alliance, 248, 250; Charles's confidant in the Treaty of Dover, 258; dismissed, 281

Arlotta, mother of William the Conqueror, i. 157

Armada, the Spanish, its gathering, iv. 344; sails, 356; off the Lizard, 357; its force, 360; reaches Calais, 361; its flight, 362; ruin, 363; its results, 364, 365; the second, v. 60

Armagnac, Bernard, Count of, iii. 16, 17

Arminians, the, v. 114, 266

Arms, Assize of, i. 257

Army, the English, its double character, ii. 240; the feudal, its composition, ii. 239; raised by the Parliament against Charles I., vi. 1; of the Associated Counties, 8, 13, 18; the New Model, 35-37; its character and policy, 50-52; seizes the king, 53; its "Humble Representation," ib., 54; marches on London, ib.; negotiates with the Parliament, 54; with the king, 55; enters London, 56; resolves to bring Charles to account, 61; invades Scotland, 62; demands justice on the king, 64; struggle with the Parliament, 65, 66; mutiny in, 75; petitions for a new Parliament, 87; struggle with the Rump, 89; recalls the Rump, 149; drives it out again, 150; relations with Monk, 150, 151; its dissolution, 153; Charles II.'s, 182, 183; vii. 4; increased by James II., 11; Catholic officers in, 14, 15; Parliament's control over it established, vii. 61; reduced under William III., 97; increased again, 105, 107

Army Plot, v. 359, 360

Arnold, General, viii. 23

Arran, James Hamilton, second Earl of, iv. 26, 199

Arras, treaties of, iii. 56, 120, 170

Arteveldt, Jacques van, ii. 227, 233

Arteveldt, Philip van, ii. 349

Arthur, leader of the Britons, i. 34; legends of, 246, 247; ii. 57

Arthur of Britanny, i. 247, 260, 268

Arthur, son of Henry VII., iii. 186, 187

Articles of Religion, 1536, iii. 333, 337, 338; Five, iv. 156; Forty-two, 59, 160; Six, iii. 346; repealed, iv. 48; Thirty-nine, 59, 216; magistrates and public officers compelled to subscribe to, 273; subscription of ministers to, v. 156; Three (Whitgift's), iv. 341, 342; v. 115, 116

Articles, Lords of the, iv. 228

Artillery, first instance known of its use in field warfare, ii. 237; results of its introduction, iii. 95, 96

Arundel, Thomas, Bishop of Ely, ii. 352; Archbishop of Canterbury, 367, 370, 371, 373; persecuting tendencies, iii. 4; urges Richard II.'s death, 7; prevents confiscation of Church property, 15, 21; removed from the chancellorship, 25; convicts Lord Cobham of heresy, 27

Arundel, Richard Fitz-Alan, fourth Earl of, ii. 353, 367, 370, 371

Arundel, Henry Fitz-Alan, twelfth Earl of, iv. 173, 267, 268

Arundel, Thomas Howard, fourteenth Earl of, v. 248

Arundell of Wardour, Henry, third Lord, vi. 256, 296; vii. 20

Ascham, Roger, iv. 134, 135

Ashdown, battle of, i. 105

Ashley, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Lord (see Cooper), vi. 194; opposes the Act of Uniformity, 208; character, 216, 217; policy, 218, 219; Chancellor of the Exchequer, 245; change in his attitude on the question of toleration, 252; advises a dissolution, 253; schemes of toleration, 259; attitude towards war with Holland, 260. See Shaftesbury

Assandun, battle of, i. 143

Assembly, the French National, viii. 86

Asser, i. 5, 113

Assize of Arms, i. 257; of Clarendon, 238; of the Forest, 267; of Northampton, 255

Astley, Sir Jacob, vi. 42

Aston, Sir Arthur, vi. 76

Athelney, AElfred at, i. 106; abbey at, 114

Athenree, battle of, ii. 376

Athlone captured by the English, iii. 329

Atterbury, Francis, Bishop of Rochester, vii. 167

Audley, James Touchet, Lord, iii. 74

Aughrim, battle of, vii. 73

Augsburg, conference at, iv. 21; treaty of, vii. 27

Augustine, St., Archbishop of Canterbury, i. 57-59

Austerlitz, battle of, viii. 173

Australia, vii. 278

Austria, Charles, Archduke of, iv. 193, 195

Austria, Don John of, iv. 310-312

Auxerre, battle near, iii. 39

Avaux, Count of, vii. 59

Avesbury, Robert of, ii. 177

Avignon, the Popes at, ii. 216, 217, 221, 224

Avowal, the, v. 268

Avranches taken by Henry V., iii. 33

Axholme, the Disinherited at, ii. 84, 85

Aylesford, battle of, i. 33

Aylmer, John, iv. 119

Ayrshire, rising in, vi. 62

Babington, Anthony, iv. 351, 352

Bacon, Francis, v. 46-55; his political career, 222-224; last years, 225; Life of Henry VII., iii. 83

Bacon, Sir Nicholas, iv. 152

Bacon, Roger, i. 293; ii. 14-19; his Opus Majus, 19-21

Badajoz stormed, viii. 199

Badbury, battle of, i. 34

Badby, Thomas, iii. 22

Badlesmere, Lady, ii. 195

Baeda, i. 91-95; his History, 4, 94

Baillie's Letters, v. 73

Bale, Bishop of Ossory, iv. 63, 109, 119, 128, 129

Ball, John, ii. 268, 269, 318, 319, 336

Balliol, Edward, acknowledged as king of Scots at the English court, ii. 204; seizes the crown, 210; driven out, 211; restored, 212; withdraws to England, 213, 214; resigns, 253

Balliol, John, claimant of the Scottish crown, ii. 136; king, 138; resists Edward's claim to receive appeals, 140; alliance with France, 160; defies Edward, 161; surrenders, ib.; released and goes to France, 170

Balmerino, Arthur Elphinston, sixth Lord, vii. 230

Bamborough founded by Ida, i. 52; attacked by Penda, 71

Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, iv. 341; v. 156, 165

Bank of England founded, vii. 86; suspends specie payments, viii. 126

Bankers, foreign, in England, under Edward I., ii. 106, 107; expelled, 189

Bannockburn, battle of, ii. 192, 193

Bantry Bay, battle in, vii. 68

Baptists, rise of the, vi. 28

Barbour, John, ii. 177

Barbury Hill, battle of, i. 37

Bardolf, Thomas, Lord, iii. 18, 19

Bards, the Welsh, ii. 53, 56; iii. 11

Barebones, Praise-God, vi. 95

"Bargemen" of Oxford, i. 308

Barham Down, muster at, i. 333; ii. 74

Barillon, French ambassador in England, vi. 298

Barlow, Bishop of St. David's, iii. 336

Barnes, Robert, iii. 262

Barnet, battle of, iii. 142

Barnwell, Annals of, i. 174, 273

Barons, their struggle with William I., i. 188-190; with William Rufus, 191, 192; with Henry I., 201, 202; misdoings under Stephen, 220, 221; Henry II.'s dealings with, 233; change in their attitude towards crown and people, 325; relations with John, 332, 338, 339, 343; alliance with the Welsh against him, ii. 55; meeting at St. Edmund's, i. 344; at Brackley, 346; rise in arms, ib., 347; confer with John at Runnymede, 347; excommunicated by Innocent III., 354; call Lewis of France to their aid, 355; feudal party among, ii. 4, 5; refuse an aid to the Pope, 27; refuse subsidies to Henry III., 34, 35; their plan of reform, 37, 38; league against Henry III., 59, 60; expel the foreigners, 62; their rule, ib., 63; divisions among, 64; rise in arms, 67; submit to arbitration, 68; victory at Lewes, 70, 71; position after the war, 114; relations with Edward I., 115-117; decrease in numbers, 146, 147; struggle with Edward I., 164-166; relations with Edward II., 184, 190; under Edward III., relations with the crown, 293; with the Church, 294; their decline, iii. 94-96; effect of the French war on, 103, 104; new race of, under Henry VIII., iv. 13, 41; the northern, plot against Elizabeth, iv. 266, 267; rise, 268; defeated, 269; "greater" and "lesser," ii. 145; of the Exchequer, i. 206; of London, 319

Barrier, the Dutch, vii. 102, 182

Barrow, Isaac, vi. 167

Bartholomew's Day, St., the English, vi. 209; the French, iv. 299

Basing House, siege of, vi. 42

Basle, treaty of, viii. 111

Bassano, battle of, viii. 123

Basset, Philip, ii. 66

Basset, Thomas, i. 345

Bastille, capture of the, viii. 83

Bastwick, John, v. 329

Bates's case, v. 161

Bath, the thegns of Wessex submit to Swein at, i. 143

Bath, Henry de, ii. 33

Battle Abbey, i. 164

Bauge, battle of, iii. 36

Bautzen, battle of, viii. 201

Bavaria, Maximilian, Duke of, v. 177, 219

Bavaria, Maximilian Emmanuel, Elector of, vii. 101, 102

Bavaria, Joseph, Electoral Prince of, vii. 92, 94

Baxter, Richard, his address to Richard Cromwell, vi. 147; his eminence as controversialist and pastor, 210; his account of the expelled clergy, 222; supports a scheme of comprehension, 252; refuses the Indulgence, vii. 22; his Autobiography, vi. 157

Bayeux surrendered to Henry V., iii. 33; northmen of, i. 155, 156

Baylen, surrender of French troops at, viii. 186

Bayonne submits to Charles VII., iii. 69

Beachy Head, battle of, vii. 75

Beaton, Cardinal, iv. 24, 33, 34

Beauchamp, Edward Seymour Lord, v. 66, 121

Beaufort, Edmund, Earl of Dorset, iii. 59; Regent of France, 60. See Somerset

Beaufort, Henry, Bishop of Winchester, chancellor, iii. 25, 43; struggle with Humphrey of Gloucester, 44; Cardinal and Legate, ib.; supports Bedford, 55; retires, 59

Beaufort, John. See Somerset

Beaufort, Margaret, iii. 165, 166, 172

Beaujeu, Anne of, iii. 170, 171

Beaumont, Henry I.'s palace of, at Oxford, i. 284, 307

Bec, school of, i. 159

Beckford, Alderman, vii. 256

Bedford reduced by Eadward the Elder, i. 119; castle of, besieged by Hubert de Burgh, ii. 5

Bedford, John, Duke of, iii. 38; regent of France, 39; alliance with Burgundy, ib.; victories in France, ib., 40; difficulties, 44, 45; rule in Normandy, 55; death, 56

Bedford, John Russell, first Earl of, iv. 47. See Russell

Bedford, Francis Russell, fourth Earl of, v. 358

Bedford, William Russell, fifth Earl of, vi. 1

Bedford, John Russell, fourth Duke of, vii. 242, 315, 317; viii. 4, 16

Bedloe, William, vi. 297

Beket, Gilbert, i. 225, 303

Beket, Thomas, i. 225; agent of Archbishop Theobald, 226; chancellor, 232; Archbishop of Canterbury, 235; rejects Constitutions of Clarendon, 236; at council of Northampton, 237; flight, ib.; struggle with Henry II., 239; returns to England, 240; murdered, 241; canonized, ib.; Henry's penance at his shrine, 255; his shrine desecrated, iii. 344

Belesme, Robert of, i. 201, 202; ii. 47

Bellahoe, battle of, iii. 329

Bellasys, John, first Lord, vi. 256, 296; vii. 20

Bellingham, Sir Edward, iv. 110

Bellingham, John, viii. 196

Benedict XII., Pope, ii. 218, 219

Benedict Biscop, i. 79, 91, 92

"Benedict of Peterborough," i. 174, 244

"Benevolences" under Edward IV., iii. 152; declared illegal, 168; levied again, 171, 177; extension under Wolsey, 244, 251; resisted, 251, 252; again demanded, iv. 34; demanded by James I., v. 197, 198, 229; by Charles I., 253

Bengal, Clive's successes in, vii. 261

Bennet, Henry, vi. 221. See Arlington

Bensington, battle of, i. 98

Bentham, Jeremy, viii. 195

Beorn, nephew of Earl Godwine, i. 150, 151

Beornwulf, king of Mercia, i. 102

Beowulf, Song of, i. 24-26

Bergerac taken by Henry of Derby, ii. 234

Berkeley Castle, Edward II. murdered in, ii. 200

Berkley, Sir Robert, v. 331, 351

Berlin Decree, Napoleon's, viii. 176

Bernicia conquered by the English, i. 52; by Eadwine, 62; recalls the line of AEthelfrith, 66; struggle against Penda, 71, 72

Bernicians conquer Deira, i. 52, 53

Bertha of Paris, wife of AEthelberht of Kent, i. 57

Berwick stormed by Edward I., ii. 160, 161; Parliament at, 162; captured by Bruce, 194; by Edward III., ii. 211, 212; its peculiar political position, 212; recaptured by the Scots, 259, 263; Pacification at, v. 337

Berwick, James FitzJames, Duke of, vii. 119, 134

Beverley, peasant revolt at, ii. 324

Bible, Wyclif's translation of, ii. 178, 343; Tyndale's, iii. 259-261; its circulation forbidden, 290; Coverdale's, 334, 335; misuse of, 344; its popularity, v. 82; literary influence, 83, 84; social influence, 84, 85; religious influence, 85; the Geneva, iv. 128; forbidden, v. 296

"Bible-men," iii. 96

Bidassoa, battle on the, viii. 202

Bigod, Hugh, first Earl of Norfolk, i. 254

Bigod, Roger, second Earl of Norfolk, i. 343

Bigod, Roger, fourth Earl of Norfolk, ii. 45

Bigod, Roger, fifth Earl of Norfolk, ii. 164-166

Bigod, Hugh, Justiciar, ii. 60, 64, 66

Bigorre restored to Edward III., ii. 266

Billericay, villagers of, resist Richard II., ii. 332

Bilney, Thomas, iii. 262

Birinus, St., bishop in Wessex, i. 71

Birmingham, its rise, vii. 196

Bishoprics, new, erected under Henry VIII., iv. 13

Bishops excluded from State offices, ii. 302; denounce Oldcastle and the Lollards, iii. 27; mode of appointment, 307, 308; position under Henry VIII., 308; under Edward VI., ib., iv. 60; proposal to exclude them from the House of Lords, v. 354, 355, 371; excluded, 377; restored, vi. 204; position under the Georges, vii. 171, 172; the Seven, 30, 31; in Scotland, their position under Knox, v. 137; abolished, 140; restored, 143, 166, 167

"Bishops' War," the, v. 341-343

Black Book, the, of 1536, iii. 310

Black Death, the, ii. 252-254, 266, 288; its social results, 254, 255

Blackfriars, Council at, ii. 339; trial of Henry VIII.'s divorce at, iii. 276; first public theatre at, v. 22

Blacklow Hill, Gaveston beheaded on, ii. 190

Blake, Robert, his defence of Taunton, vi. 78; commands the fleet against Rupert, ib.; fights with Tromp and Ruyter, 86, 88; bombards Algiers, 116; victory at Santa Cruz, 124; outrage on his corpse, 201

Blanchard, Alan, iii. 33, 34

Blanche of Bourbon, wife of Pedro of Castille, ii. 282

Blanche-Taque, ford of, ii. 236

Blenheim, battle of, vii. 120-122

Blois, Charles of, claimant of Britanny, ii. 233, 248

Blondel, De Reductione Normanniae, ii. 179

"Bloody Circuit," the, vii. 10, 11

Bloreheath, battle of, iii. 74

Blount, Sir Thomas, ii. 200

Bluecher, Marshal, viii. 207, 210

Boat, an Old English, found in Sleswick, i. 27, 28

"Boatmen" of London, i. 308

Bohemia, Protestant rising in, v. 216-219

Bohun, Henry de, first Earl of Hereford, i. 343

Bohun, Humfrey de, third Earl of Hereford, ii. 164, 166

Bohun, Henry de, ii. 192

Boleyn, Anne, iii. 267, 270, 273, 288; marries Henry VIII., 303; crowned, ib.; beheaded, 323

Boleyn, George, iii. 267

Boleyn, Sir Thomas, iii. 267, 268. See Wiltshire

Bolinbroke, Roger, iii. 58

Bolingbroke, Henry St. John, Viscount (see St. John), vii. 140; his scheme of a treaty of commerce, 142; rivalry with Harley, 143; his Schism Bill, ib.; appoints Jacobites to office, 145; flies to the Pretender, 168; becomes his Secretary of State, 183; returns to England, 204; withdraws again, ib.

Bologna, University of, i. 282

Bombay ceded to England, vi. 192; vii. 232

Boniface, St., letters of, i. 4

Boniface VIII., Pope, ii. 163, 170, 217, 224

Boniface of Savoy, Archbishop of Canterbury, ii. 32, 72

Bonner, Bishop of London, iv. 74, 89, 95, 97; sets up Bibles in St. Paul's, v. 82

Bordeaux, Parliament of Gascony at, ii. 285; Richard II. born at, 306; surrenders to Charles VII., iii. 68, 71

Born, Bertrand de, i. 263

Borodino, battle of, viii. 200

Boroughbridge, battle of, ii. 195

Boroughs, their developement after Norman Conquest, i. 177; "farm" of, ii. 152; representation in Parliament, 73, 121, 152-154; reluctance to attend, 155; restriction of franchise in, iii. 99-101; new, created under the Tudors, iv. 234, 235; change in character of their representatives, 234, 235; qualification of members for, 235; the Five, i. 117, 120. See Towns

Borough-moot, the, i. 296

Boscawen, Admiral, vii. 266

Boston, outrage of barons on merchants at, ii. 116

Boston (Massachusetts), its foundation, v. 310, 311; occupied by British troops, viii. 14; tea-riots at, 17, 18; siege of, 22, 23

Bosworth Field, battle of, iii. 172

Bothwell, James Hepburn, Earl of, iv. 226, 229; plots against Darnley, 242, 243; contrives his death, 244; charged with murder, ib.; marries Mary, 245; flies, 246

Boulogne captured by Henry VIII., iv. 30; restored to France, 33, 57; Napoleon's camp at, viii. 170, 171

Bourbon, Cardinal of, iv. 348, 369, 372

Bourbon, Charles, Duke of, iii. 246, 247, 269

Bouvines, battle of, i. 342; besieged by Flemings, ii. 234

Bow, the English, ii. 241, 242

Boxley, miraculous rood at, iii. 343

Boyle, Robert, vi. 166

Boyne, battle of the, vii. 71

"Boys," the, vii. 204, 226, 249

Brabant, John III., Duke of, ii. 227, 244

Brabant, John IV., Duke of, iii. 42, 43, 45

Brackley, barons meet at, i. 346

Braddock, General, vii. 245

Bradford on Avon, battle of, i. 87

Bradford, John, iv. 132

Bradshaw, John, vi. 66, 91, 101; outrage on his corpse, 201

Bradwardine, Thomas, ii. 276

Bramber, Sir Nicholas, ii. 353

Bramham Moor, battle of, iii. 19

Brandywine, battle of, viii. 25

Braose, William de, i. 332

Breaute, Faukes de, ii. 4, 5

Brecknock stormed by AEthelflaed, i. 118; Mortimer routed at, ii. 88

Breda, Declaration of, vi. 152; Treaty of, 241, 243, 247

Breitenfeld, battle of, v. 275

Bremen, quarrel about, vii. 188, 189

Brentford captured by Prince Rupert, vi. 3

Breslau, treaty of, vii. 223

Brest held by England, ii. 316; restored to Britanny, 368

Bretigny, peace of, ii. 266

Brewer or Briwere, William, i. 345; ii. 6

Breze, Pierre de, iii. 121

Bribery, parliamentary, its beginnings, vi. 285, 300

Brice's day, St., massacre of, i. 141

Bridgeman, Sir Orlando, vi. 184

Bridgewater, John Egerton, first Earl of, v. 305

Bridgewater, Francis Egerton, third Duke of, viii. 55

Brigham, treaty of, ii. 135

Brihtnoth, ealdorman of East-Anglia, i. 139

Brindley, James, viii. 55, 56

Bristol, its slave-trade, i. 250; surrender to Henry of Lancaster, iii. 18; Protestant martyrs at, iv. 96; trade with Ireland, 282; surrender to Rupert, vi. 12; to the Parliament, 41; prosperity under Walpole, vii. 196

Bristol, George Digby, second Earl of, vi. 221

Britain, its condition under the Romans, i. 29, 30; legions withdrawn from, 31; attacked by Picts, Scots and Saxons, ib.; becomes England, 39, 138; English conquest of, its peculiar character, 39-44; authorities for, 3

Britain, Great, United Kingdom of, vii. 128

Britanny submits to William the Conqueror, i. 158; war of succession in, ii. 233, 248; coast harried by an English fleet, iii. 16; relations with France and England, 166, 171, 179, 180

Britanny, Anne of, iii. 179, 180

Britanny, John, Duke of, ii. 315

Britons defeated by Jutes in Kent, i. 33; their stubborn resistance, 40-42; alliance with Penda, 66; of Cumbria, defeated by AEthelfrith, 60, 61; by Ecgfrith, 87; of Strathclyde, their struggle with AEthelfrith, 60; submit to Eadward the Elder, 119

Broc, Ranulf de, i. 241

Broglie, General, vii. 264

Brooke, Robert Greville, second Lord, v. 320, 354; vi. 7

Brooklyn, battle of, viii. 24

Brothers of the Pen, iii. 154

Brown, Robert, v. 117

Brown, William, martyr under Mary, iv. 95

Browne, Archbishop of Dublin, iii. 341, 342; iv. 62, 63

Browne, William, his Pastorals, v. 304

Brownists, v. 117, 308

Bruce, David, ii. 206; king of Scotland, 210; driven out, 211, 212; goes to France, 213; returns, 214, 229; prisoner, 243; released, 263; dies, 286

Bruce, Edward, ii. 376

Bruce, Robert, claimant of Scotland, ii. 136

Bruce, Robert (Earl of Carrick), ii. 161, 170

Bruce, Robert, grandson of the claimant, ii. 172; kills Comyn of Badenoch, 173; crowned, ib.; put to flight, 174; character and adventures, 183, 184; his successes, 191-194; disabled by leprosy, 204; acknowledged as king by England, 206; dies, 210

Bruges, negotiations at, ii. 303; gild of St. John at, iii. 154; Caxton at, 155

Brunanburh, battle of, i. 120

Brune, General, viii. 140

Brunswick, Charles William, Duke of, viii. 101

Brunswick, Ferdinand, Prince of, vii. 263, 264, 302

Brut, Chronicle of the, Caxton's edition of, iii. 157

Brut y Tywysogion, i. 7

Brynglas, battle of, iii. 11, 13

Buchan, Isabel, Countess of, ii. 173

Buchan, constable of, iii. 39

Buchanan, George, v. 124

Buckingham, Henry Stafford, Duke of, iii. 163, 164, 166-168

Buckingham, Edward Stafford, Duke of, iii. 242

Buckingham, George Villiers, first Duke of (see Villiers), v. 208; relations with Bacon, 222, 225; goes with Charles to Madrid, 232; returns, 233; his mastery over James, 235; policy, 236-238; relations with Charles I., 244; failure of his plans, 247; impeached, 250; urges the forced loan, 255; expedition to La Rochelle, 259; slain, 265

Buckingham, George Villiers, second Duke of, vi. 163, 165; in Cabal ministry, 245, 253; negotiations with Lewis, 258; dismissed, 281; committed to the Tower, 288

Bulmer, Lady, iii. 325

Bungay, Friar, iii. 97

Bunker's Hill, battle of, viii. 22

Bunyan, John, v. 103, 104; vi. 262-265; his Pilgrim's Progress, 265-267; refuses the Indulgence, vii. 22

Buonaparte, Jerome, viii. 185

Buonaparte, Joseph, viii. 185, 186, 200

Buonaparte, Louis, viii. 185

Buonaparte, Napoleon, viii. 109, 113; campaign in Italy, 122, 123, 125; marches on Vienna, 125; designs on India, 131; conquers Malta and Egypt, 132; campaign in Syria, 141; victory at Aboukir, ib.; First Consul, 142; victory at Marengo, ib.; his policy and aims, 146, 147, 158, 168-170. See Napoleon

Burdett, Sir Francis, viii. 195

Burford, battle of, i. 96

Burgh, Hubert de, ii. 2-5, 29, 30

Burgh-upon-Sands, Edward I. dies at, ii. 174

"Burghers," i. 315

Burgos, siege of, viii. 200

Burgoyne, General, viii. 25, 26

Burgundy, Philip I., Duke of, ii. 265

Burgundy, Philip II., Duke of, ii. 286; iii. 5, 6, 12, 14

Burgundy, Philip III., Duke of, alliance with Henry V., iii. 35; relations with Brabant, 42, 43, 45; withdraws his troops from siege of Orleans, 46; sells Jeanne d'Arc to the English, 53; joins Charles VII., 56, 122; cedes Picardy to Lewis XI., 122; mediates between Lewis and Edward, ib.; dies, 130

Burgundy, John, Duke of, iii. 16, 17; relations with England and France, 23, 24, 32; assassinated, 35

Burgundy, Charles the Bold, Duke of. See Charles

Burgundy, Mary of, iii. 146, 147, 150, 151, 170

"Burh," the old English, i. 294

Burke, Edmund, vii. 332-337; supports the Declaratory Act, 338; attacks the Chatham ministry, 341; his scheme for reform of the constituencies, viii. 10; his proposals for conciliating America rejected, 20; his bill of Economical Reform, 64, 76; refuses office under Shelburne, 65; attitude towards the French Revolution, 87, 89; share in the impeachment of Hastings, 90; Reflections, ib.; quarrel with Fox, 92, 93; Appeal from the new to the old Whigs, 93; supports the government against France, 104; Letters on a Regicide Peace, 116; death, 126

Burleigh, William Cecil, Lord (see Cecil), iv. 352; protests against expulsion of Puritan clergy, 342; his tract on The Execution of Justice, 5; his ill-will to Spenser, v. 12; death, 63

Burley, Sir Simon, ii. 353

Burnet, Gilbert, vi. 169; bishop of Salisbury, vii. 65; his History of his own Time, vi. 157

Burns, Robert, viii. 46

Burton, Annals of, i. 273

Burton, John, v. 329

Burton, Thomas, his Diary, v. 37

Busaco, battle of, viii. 190

Bute, John Stuart, third Earl of, vii. 302, 303; Prime Minister, 306; policy towards America, 310, 311; fall, 314

Butler, Joseph, vi. 169

Butler, Samuel, vi. 162

Butler, the king's, origin of his office, i. 132

Buttington, battle of, i. 117

Byng, Admiral, vii. 248

Byron, Commodore, vii. 277

"Cabal," the, vi. 246, 303

Cabinet, the, its origin, vi. 303

Cabot, Sebastian, iii. 189; iv. 283, 330

Cade, John, iii. 64-67

Cadiz, Drake's expedition to, iv. 355; English descents on, v. 60, 247; blockaded by an English fleet, vii. 223

Cadwallon, king of the Britons, i. 66, 67

Caedmon, i. 77, 78

Caen sacked by Edward III., ii. 235; stormed by Henry V., iii. 33; university at, 55

Caermarthen besieged by Owen Glyndwr, iii. 14

Caernarvon, castle built at, ii. 121

Cahors, bankers of, ii. 107, 130

Calabria, John, Duke of, iii. 126

Calais besieged by Edward III., ii. 243; surrenders, 244; the six burgesses, 245-247; ceded to Edward, 266; threatened by the French, iii. 69, 70; Warwick repulsed from, 135; won by Guise, iv. 108; restored to France, 158

Calamy, Edmund, v. 354; vi. 157

Calcutta, its origin, vii. 232; the Black Hole of, 261

Calvin, John, iv. 119, 123, 126

Calvinism, system of, iv. 123-126; its political tendency, 171; in Scotland, accepted by Parliament, 187; its establishment sanctioned by Mary Stuart, 245; its growth in England, v. 86-89. See Presbyterianism

Calvinists, German, their position after Peace of Passau, v. 176, 177; Scotch, suppress Catholicism by force, iv. 218

Cambray occupied by Philip VI. of France, ii. 219; besieged by Edward III., 220, 228; negotiations at, iv. 145; League of, iii. 206; treaty of, 234

Cambridge, University of, its charters burnt by townsfolk, ii. 324; the New Learning at, iii. 201; Erasmus at, ib., 212, 213; resistance to benevolences at, 251; Lutherans at, 262; forced to approve Henry VIII.'s divorce, 292; foreign Protestants at, iv. 51; James II.'s dealings with, vii. 24

Cambridge, Edmund, first Earl of, ii. 287. See York

Cambridge, Richard, second Earl of, iii. 30, 56, 57

Cambridge, Richard, third Earl of. See York

Camden, Charles Pratt, first Lord, vii. 340; viii. 15

Camden, John Jeffreys Pratt, second Earl, viii. 120.

Camden, William, v. 4; his Life of Elizabeth, iv. 3.

Campeggio, Cardinal, iii. 272, 274, 277

Camperdown, battle of, viii. 127

Campian, Edmund, iv. 318, 320

Campo Formio, treaty of, viii. 125

Camulodunum (Colchester) reduced by East Saxons, i. 35

Canada, French settlement in, vii. 242; Montcalm in, 244; conquered by the English, 269; ceded to England, 307; attacked by America, viii. 23, 203, 204; self-government granted to, 92

Canals, introduction of, viii. 55, 56

Canning, George, viii. 71; Foreign Secretary, 180; his dealings with Denmark, ib.; Orders in Council, 181; supports rising in Spain, 186, 187; quarrel with Castlereagh, 188, 189; resigns, 189; presses for Catholic emancipation, 195

Canons of 1604, v. 156; Scotch, of 1636, 327

Canterbury, i. 57; archbishopric founded at, 59; becomes ecclesiastical centre of England, 83; sacked by northmen, 142; Theodore's school at, 92; historians of, 243; gild of Thanes at, 299; Walloon refugees at, iv. 51; Protestant martyrs in, 96; Church of Huguenots at, 306

Cape of Good Hope ceded to England, viii. 112

Capel, Arthur, first Lord, vi. 72

Capel, Sir Henry, vi. 301

Capuchins, Order of, founded, iv. 101

Caradoc of Lancarvan, i. 7

Caraffa, Cardinal, iv. 31, 100, 101. See Paul IV.

Carcassonne sacked by the Black Prince, ii. 260

Cardigan, Norman conquest of, ii. 48; royal garrisons driven from, 55

Carew, Sir Peter, iv. 82

Carham, battle at, i. 146

Carisbrook Castle, Charles I. prisoner at, vi. 59

Carlisle becomes English, i. 87; granted to see of Lindisfarne, 88; ceded to David of Scotland, 217; invested by the Scots, ii. 160; Mary Stuart at, iv. 261

Carlisle, Merks, deposed Bishop of, iii. 8

Carlisle, Charles Howard, first Earl of, vi. 280

Carlos, Don, son of Philip II. of Spain, iv. 213, 221

Carlowitz, treaty of, vii. 97

Carnot, Lazare, viii. 122

Carolina, Colony of, vi. 259; vii. 236

Caroline of Anspach, wife of George II., vii. 200, 203

Carpenter, General, vii. 183

Carr, Robert. See Rochester, Somerset

Carteret, John, second Lord, vii. 222, 223. See Granville

Carthagena, Vernon's defeat at, vii. 221

Cartwright, Thomas, iv. 294-296, 342; v. 58, 117

Carucage, i. 350

Casale seized by Lewis XIV., vi. 335

Cashel, synod at, i. 253

Cassel, battles of, ii. 216; vi. 289

Cassano, battle of, viii. 139

Castille, Constance of, second wife of John of Gaunt, ii. 287, 302

Castillon, Talbot defeated at, iii. 71

Castlebar, battle of, viii. 130

Castlemaine, Barbara Palmer, Countess of, vi. 221, 272; vii. 108. See Cleveland.

Castlereagh, Robert Stewart, Viscount, arranges the union with Ireland, viii. 153; quarrel with Canning, 188, 189; Foreign Secretary, 197

Cateau-Cambresis, treaty of, iv. 155, 158, 159, 171

Catesby, Robert, v. 157, 158.

Catharine of Aragon marries Arthur Tudor, iii. 186, 187; betrothed to Henry, 187, 188; marries him, 207; opposes the divorce, 269, 270, 276; banished from the palace, 298; her marriage annulled by Convocation, 303; confirmed by Pope and Cardinals, 304

Catharine of Braganza, wife of Charles II., vi. 192

Catharine of France, wife of Henry V., iii. 24, 35, 165

Catharine of Medicis, queen-regent of France, iv. 188; her policy towards the Huguenots, 206-208; treaty with them, 216, 217; with England, 219; meeting with Alva, 225; negotiates with Elizabeth, 297; unites with the Guises against the Huguenots, 299; resumes her policy of toleration, 301

Catharine II., Empress of Russia viii. 84, 85, 95

Catholics, English, their position under Elizabeth, iv. 149, 195, 196; forbidden to join in Common Prayer, 214; fined for recusancy, ib.; attitude towards Mary Stuart, 220; their scheme for the succession, ib., 221; plot against Elizabeth, 266, 267; rise, 268; defeated, 269; attitude towards the Bull of Deposition, 270; persecution of, 308, 309, 319-322; new plots, 350; Philip's and Allen's hopes of, 354; their loyalty, 358, 359; materials for their history, 5; James I. gives them relief, v. 150; begins to persecute them, 156, 157; their plots, 157-159; position under Charles II., vi. 185, 186, 220, 291, 293; excluded from Parliament, 297; admitted to office, etc., by James II., vii. 14, 15; included in his Declaration of Indulgence, 22; position under Walpole, 198; projects for their emancipation, viii. 179, 195, 196; Confederate, v. 366; vi. 15, 16; Irish, Charles I.'s and Wentworth's dealings with, v. 364; their condition in eighteenth century, viii. 33, 34, 117; plans for their emancipation, 119, 120, 152-155

Catinat, Marshal, vii. 75

Cavaliers, v. 372

Cavendish, William, Lord, head of the Country party, vi. 272; takes office, 300; opposes the Exclusion Bill, 308; resigns, 315. See Devonshire.

Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, iii. 83

Caxton, William, iii. 155-162

Ceadda or Chad, St., i. 73

Ceawlin, king of Wessex, i. 56

Cecil, Richard, viii. 47

Cecil, Robert, his rivalry with Essex, v. 63; treasurer, 172, 173; proposes the "great contract," 179; arranges the marriage of Princess Elizabeth, 210; dies, 185, 211

Cecil, William, iv. 139-141; his political standpoint, 141-143, 150; advises Elizabeth to announce her accession to the Pope, 155; his share in her Scottish policy, 173, 176, 259; policy in Ireland, 240; demands a Protestant alliance and the surrender of Mary, 263; dealings with Norfolk, 266, 274. See Burleigh

Cedd, brother of Ceadda, i. 74

Centwine, king of Wessex, i. 89

Cenwealh, king of Wessex, i. 87

Cenwulf, king of Mercia, i. 98, 101

Ceolfrid, founder of Jarrow, i. 91

Ceolred, king of Mercia, i. 90

Ceolwulf, king of Northumbria, i. 91

Ceorl, the English, i. 11

Cerdic, king of the West Saxons, i. 34, 49

Ceylon acquired by England, viii. 112

Chad, St. See Ceadda

Chalgrove Field, fight at, vi. 10

Chalus, Richard I. slain at, i. 267

Champeaux, William of, i. 285

Chancellor, Richard, iv. 282

Chancellor, the, i. 206; his equitable jurisdiction, 256; ii. 112, 113; right of appointing, claimed for Great Council, ii. 38; made responsible to Permanent Council, 61; his woolsack, 226; of an university, i. 291, 292

Chancery, Court of, ii. 113

Chandos, Sir John, ii. 249

Chapel, the Royal, clerks of, i. 206

Chapman, George, v. 3, 42

Charford, battle of, i. 34

Charles (I.), son of James I., schemes for his marriage, v. 211-214, 227, 230; goes to Madrid, 231, 232; returns, 233; his character, 234; marriage, 238, 241; king, 242; his policy, 243-245; quarrel with Parliament of 1625, 246, 247; with Parliament of 1626, 249, 250, 253; demands a benevolence, 253; levies a forced loan, 254; dismisses Crewe, ib.; relations with France, 256-258; with the Parliament of 1628, 260-263; defends Buckingham, 264; rejects the Avowal, 269; dissolves Parliament again, 270, 272; his plans of personal government, 273; peace policy, 274, 275; relations with Gustavus Adolphus, 275, 276; financial measures, 276-280; grants a charter to Massachusetts, 311; position in 1635, 315, 316; consults the judges about ship-money, 323; dealings with Scotland, 325-328, 330-334; gathers an army, 337; pacification with the Scots, ib.; summons Wentworth home, 338; relations with Richelieu, ib., 339; negotiates with the Scots, 342; summons Parliament again, 343; relations with Montrose, 359; assents to Strafford's attainder, 361; to perpetuation of the Parliament, 362; goes to Scotland, 363; his promises to the Irish, 364; returns to London, 367; attempt to seize the five members, 373-375; withdraws from London, 376; levies forces by commissions of array, 377; shut out from Hull, 378; goes to York, ib.; raises his standard at Nottingham, vi. 2; goes to Shrewsbury, ib.; defeated at Edgehill, 3; goes to Oxford, ib.; besieges Gloucester, 13; negotiations in Ireland, 15, 16; successes in 1644, 22; marches on London, 23; defeated at Newbury, 24; returns to Oxford, ib.; negotiates with the Parliament, 38; storms Leicester and relieves Chester, ib.; routed at Naseby, 40, 41; treaty with the Irish, 42; goes to the Scotch camp, 46; refuses the Parliament's terms, 48; given up to it by the Scots, 49; seized by the army, 53; negotiates with the army, 55-57; escapes, 58; recaptured, 59; negotiates with parliament and the Scots, ib., 63; again seized by the army, 65; trial, 67; death, 68; authorities for his reign, v. 72

Charles II. recognized by Holland as king of England, vi. 70; proclaimed in Scotland, 71; invited to Ireland, ib.; his experiences in Scotland, 82; crowned at Scone, ib.; invades England, 83; defeated at Worcester, 84; flies to France, ib.; issues a declaration from Breda, 152; returns to England, ib.; his scientific tastes, 165; character, 173-177; policy, 177-180; forms an army, 182, 183; his position in England, 184; ecclesiastical aims, 185, 186; foreign relations, 187, 192; marriage, 192; first ministry, 193; dealings with the regicides, 195; relations with Clarendon, 213-215, 221; issues a Declaration of Indulgence, 219; policy in Holland, 228, 229; refuses to dissolve Parliament, 241, 254; banishes Clarendon, 243; his new ministry, 245; attitude towards toleration, 252, 259; project for establishing Catholicism, 256; treaties with Lewis, 257, 258; issues second Declaration of Indulgence, 262; withdraws it, 273; relations with Shaftesbury, 275; makes peace with the Dutch, 281; makes another treaty with Lewis, 287; negotiations with Lewis, 291; position after peace of Nimeguen, ib., 293; attitude during the Popish plot. 297; plan for the succession of James, 307; struggle with Shaftesbury, 311-313, 321; recalls James, 315; resists the Exclusion, 321; dissolves the Parliament, 322; turns again to France, ib., 323; action in 1681, 323, 324; persecutes Nonconformists, recalls James, and arrests Monmouth, 335; his triumph, vii. 1; policy in his last years, 2; dealings with the towns, 3; increases his Guards, 4; sickness, ib.; death, 5; authorities for his reign, vi. 157, 158

Charles IV., emperor, ii. 236, 348

Charles (V.), son of Philip of Austria, iii. 208; relations with England and France, 232, 233; king of Spain, 234; treaties with Francis I., ib.; emperor, 240; visits England, 241; betrothed to Mary, 242; war with Francis, ib.; league with Henry VIII. and the Pope, 243; successes in Italy, 244, 248, 250; treachery to Henry and Wolsey, 248, 249; new alliance with Henry, 250; expels Luther, 254; marriage, 266; relations with Lutherans, 275; proposes alliance with France against Henry, 336; his religious policy, iv. 18, 19; proposes a general council, 20; defeated in Hungary and Algiers, 24; attacked by Francis, ib.; alliance with Henry, 27; failure of his plans of reunion, 30-32; treaty with France, 32; attacks the League of Schmalkald, 36; victory at Muhlberg, 50; policy towards Protestants, 51; persecutes them, 58; ruin of his plans, 65; treaty with Lutherans, ib.; relations with Mary Tudor, 79, 80; abdicates, 98

Charles III., king of Spain, vii. 126, 131; emperor (Charles VI.) 142, 199, 200, 220

Charles VII., emperor, vii. 223, 225

Charles IV., king of France, ii. 197, 198, 208

Charles (V.) of France, duke of Normandy, ii. 264, 265; king, 281, 282, 285, 288

Charles VI., king of France, iii. 5, 26, 35, 39

Charles (VII.), Dauphin, iii. 26, 39, 46, 48; crowned, 52; received in Paris, 56; Le Mans surrendered to, 62; regains Normandy, ib.; conquers Guienne, 68, 69

Charles VIII., king of France, iii. 170; annexes Britanny, 179, 180; treaty with Henry VIII., 180; invades Italy, 186, 206

Charles IX., king of France, iv. 188, 298, 299, 301

Charles the Bad, king of Navarre, ii. 258, 259

Charles II., king of Spain, vii. 90, 98

Charles IV., king of Spain, viii. 185

Charles XII., king of Sweden, vii. 183, 188, 189

Charles the Bald, king of the West Franks, i. 209.

Charles the Simple, king of the West Franks, i. 155

Charles of Blois. See Blois

Charles the Bold, Count of Charolais, iii. 122, 125, 127, 128; duke of Burgundy, 130; league with Edward, ib.; marries Margaret of York, 131; negotiates with the Lancastrians, 140; helps Edward, 141; attacks Lewis again, 145; his German possessions, 146; alliance with the emperor, ib., 147; with England, 148; besieges Neuss, ib., 149; slain, 150

Charlestown, capture of, viii. 32

Charmouth, battle of, i. 103

Charter of Henry I., i. 198, 340, 341; of Stephen, 216; the Great, 348-352; provisions for its execution, 353; annulled by the Pope, 354; reissued under Henry III., ii. 1, 3; Langton's care for, 6; confirmed by Henry, ib., 34; Archbishop Peckham's appeal to, 118; confirmed by Edward I., 165, 166, 170; of the Forest, 165, 166, 170

Charter-house, the, in London, ii. 253; its martyrs, iii. 320; v. 77

Chateau-Gaillard, i. 265, 266

Chatillon, Coligni, Cardinal of, iv. 207

Chatham, William Pitt, first earl of (see Pitt), vii. 340, 341; withdraws from public life, viii. 3; from the ministry, 6; proposes reform of the House of Commons, 9; strives to avert war with America, 20, 26; recalled to office, 29; death, 30

Chaucer, Geoffrey, his early life, ii. 358, 359; early poems, 359-361; offices, person, temper, 362, 363; home at Westminster, 366; Canterbury Tales, 361, 363-366; Caxton's edition of, iii. 157

Chauntries, suppression of, iv. 34, 54

Cheke, Sir John, iv. 134

Cherbourg, Henry of Lancaster at, ii. 259, 260; held by England, 316; surrendered to Navarre, 368; to Charles VII., iii. 62

Cheshire, royalist rising in, vi. 150

Chester, march of the West Saxons on, i. 38, 56; conquered by AEthelfrith, 60, 61; by William, 169; raid of Llewelyn ap Gruffydd on, ii. 85; blockade of, vi. 38

Chester, Ranulf, earl of, i. 345, 347; ii. 5

Chesterfield, defeat of the Disinherited at, ii. 87

Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, fourth earl of, vii. 170, 203, 226, 249

"Chevy Chase," iii. 182

Chichester, Stephen Berksted, Bishop of, ii. 71

Chichester, Adam Moleyns, Bishop of, murdered, iii. 63

Chichester, Sir Arthur, v. 287, 288

Child, Sir Josiah, vi. 169

Chili conquered by Spain, iv. 329

Chillingworth, William, vi. 134-137

Chinon, Henry II. dies at, i. 258; Charles VII. and Jeanne d'Arc at, iii. 48

Chippenham, northmen at, i. 106

Chippewa, battle of, viii. 204

Chivalry, influence of, ii. 94

Chotusitz, battle of, vii. 223

"Christian Brethren," iii. 262

Christianity brought to England, i. 57; progress in Kent, Essex, and East Anglia, 59; reaction against, 65; its struggle with heathenism, ib., 66, 70-73

Christina, sister of Eadgar the AEtheling, i. 199

Chronica Angliae, ii. 177

Chronicle, the English, i. 3-6, 115, 173, 203, 221, 278

Chronicle of Queen Jane, iv. 3

Chronicon Scotorum, i. 8

Church, English, its foundation, i. 57-59; organized by Theodore, 81-84; its parish system, 84; share in resistance to the Danes, 145; William the Conqueror's dealings with, 187, 188; the Red King's, 193; decline of its political influence, 222; revival during the anarchy, 224; Henry II.'s dealings with, 235-237, 253; relation of universities to, 292; condition in early thirteenth century, ii. 7, 8; its political teaching, 23; beginnings of resistance to the Papacy, 27; Edward I.'s policy towards, 118, 119; papal demands on its revenues, etc., 222, 223; under Edward III., relations with the Papacy, 273-275; its wealth, 294; despoiled by Pope and King, 296; threatened in Parliament, 301; proposals to confiscate its property, iii. 15, 21; condition during Wars of the Roses, 96, 97; reform of, demanded by Parliament, 290; Henry VIII.'s dealings with, 296, 297, 301, 302; Thomas Cromwell's dealings with, 295, 310-312; spoliation of, under Henry VIII., iv. 13; condition at Cromwell's fall, 14, 15; spoliation under Edward VI., 66; demands for restoration of its property, 102, 103; Hooker's influence on, v. 113; Puritan demands for its reform, 118; the Long Parliament's dealings with, 352-355; Oliver Cromwell's dealings with, vi. 111; settlement after the Restoration, 199, 208-210; James II.'s dealings with, vii. 18, 19, 24; effects of the Revolution on, 63-66; condition under the Georges, 169-172; revival in, 205-211; viii. 46; Irish, its missionary zeal, i. 68, 69; later character, i. 80; relations with the English Church, 250; English and Irish divisions, iii. 338, 339; accepts the King's Supremacy, 339, 340; rejects religious change, 341; condition under Elizabeth, iv. 314, 315; Roman, its revival under Paul IV., iv. 99; position at the accession of Pius V., 249; of Scotland, Presbyterian. See Kirk

Churchill, Arabella, vii. 107, 108

Churchill, John, vii. 107-109; his victory at Sedgemoor, 11, 109; deserts James II., 42. See Marlborough.

Cinque Ports support party of Montfort, ii. 70, 85, 86; their commerce, iv. 279; Flemish exiles in, 305, 323; mariners of, their victory off Dover, ii. 3; their fights with the French, 141, 142; iii. 7

Cissa, king of the South Saxons, i. 34

Cistercians settle in England, i. 222; their wool, 350; ii. 107

Ciudad Rodrigo stormed, viii. 199

Clair-on-Epte, treaty of, i. 155

Clare submits to the English, iii. 329

Clare, Richard, first Earl of, ii. 48

Clare, Richard, sixth Earl of, i. 343

Clare, Richard of (Strongbow), i. 252

Clarence, George, Duke of, intrigues with Warwick, iii. 133; marries his daughter, 134; revolts, ib., 135; relations with Edward and Warwick, 137, 138, 141, 142; impeachment and death, 163

Clarence, Lionel, Duke of, ii. 264, 293, 302

Clarence, Thomas, Duke of, iii. 24, 26, 36

Clarendon, Assize of, i. 238; Constitutions of, 235; Council of, ib.

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, first Earl of (see Hyde), vi. 193; Lord Chancellor, ib., 205; his political theory, 205-207; his foreign policy, 213-215; relations with Charles II., 221; advises a dissolution, 241; banished, 243; his History of the Rebellion, v. 72; Life, vi. 157

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, second Earl of, vii. 20, 76

Clark, John, iii. 262

Clarkson, Thomas, viii. 48

Clement IV., Pope, ii. 18

Clement V., Pope, ii. 172

Clement VI., Pope, ii. 229, 236

Clement VII., Pope, iii. 249; prisoner, 269; escapes, 272; dealings with Henry VIII.'s divorce, 271, 272, 274, 275, 277, 278; threatens Henry with excommunication, 302; annuls Cranmer's proceedings, 304; refuses to hold a Council, iv. 20

Clement VIII., Pope, iv. 372

Clement, Jacques, iv. 368

Clergy, their privileges, i. 234; attacked by Henry II., 235-237; papal demands on, ii. 27, 28, 42, 222; relations with Edward I., 118, 120, 163; summoned to Parliament, 157; cease to attend, 158; strife of regular and secular, 295; bondage to Pope and king, ib., 296; decay of their moral influence, 296, 297; excluded from state offices, 302; attacked by John of Gaunt and Wyclif, 308; decline of their influence, iii. 96, 97; Wolsey's struggle with, 246; Thomas Cromwell's policy towards, 295; charged with breach of Praemunire, 296; submission, 297; their enslavement, 301, 302, 311, 312; allowed to marry, iv. 49; their five articles of 1559, 156, 157; Elizabeth's dealings with, 161, 162; their position and character in her reign, 302-304; growth of Puritanism among, 340; v. 89, 90; required to subscribe all the Articles, 156; struggle with James II., vii. 18, 19, 24, 30; condition under the Georges, 171, 172; character in the eighteenth century, viii. 47; Puritan, expelled, iv. 342; v. 156; Laud's dealings with, 295-297; their final expulsion, vi. 209; its results, 210-213; their sufferings, 222, 223

Cleveland, Barbara Palmer, duchess of (see Castlemaine), vi. 175

Cleves, quarrel about, v. 178

Clericis Laicos, bull, ii. 163

Clifford, Thomas, eighth Lord, iii. 74

Clifford, John, ninth Lord, iii. 78

Clifford, Sir Thomas (first Lord Clifford of Chudleigh), commissioner of the Treasury, vi. 245, 261; Lord Treasurer, 271; resigns, 274

Clinton, Sir Henry, viii. 32

Clive, Robert, vii. 233; seizes Arcot, 235; victory at Plassey, 261, 262

Clonmell stormed by Cromwell, vi. 79

Closter-Seven, Convention of, vii. 249, 262

Clydesdale, persecution of Catholics in, iv. 218

Cnihtenagild at Aldgate, i. 223, 299

Cnut, king of Denmark, i. 143; of England, 143-147

Cnut II., king of Denmark, i. 189

Coal, discovery of, viii. 56, 57

Coalition ministry, the, viii. 65-69

Cobham, Eleanor, iii. 43, 58, 97

Cobham, Edward Brooke, Lord, iii. 69

Cobham, John Oldcastle, Lord (see Oldcastle), iii. 20, 23, 26, 28

Coinage, new, under Edward I., ii. 119; debasement of, under Henry VIII., iv. 35; under Edward VI., 57, 66; reform of, under William III., vii. 89

Coggeshall, Ralph of, i. 174

Coke, Sir Edward, v. 202, 248, 263

Colchester (Camulodunum) reduced by East Saxons, i. 35; Protestant martyrs of, iv. 144; siege of, vi. 61; surrender, 64

Colchester, Thomas Beche, abbot of, hanged, iii. 350

Coleman, Edward, vi. 293, 295, 298

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, viii. 135

Colet, John, his theology, iii. 191, 192; lectures at Oxford, 192; Dean of St. Paul's, 197; founds school, 200; address to Convocation, 202, 203; charged with heresy, 203; protected by Warham and Henry, 204; protests against war, 210

Colepepper, Sir John, v. 375, 378

Colgan's Lives of Irish Saints, i. 8

Coligni, Admiral, iv. 209, 216, 299

Colman, bishop of Lindisfarne, i. 79, 80

Columba, St., i. 69; Adamnan's Life of, 8

Columban, St., i. 68

Commendation, system of, i. 133, 321

Commerce. See Trade

Commines, Philippe de, his comments on England, iii. 85, 107

Commission, Court of High, established, iv. 216; its new powers in 1583, 340; Laud's use of, v. 295; its civil jurisdiction abolished, 363; restored, vii. 18; dissolved, 39

Committee of Public Safety, vi. 1, 13; of the Two Kingdoms, 17

Commonalty, scheme for its representation, ii. 61, 73

Commons, the, summoned to Parliament, ii. 73, 153, 154; their right to share in all legislative action established, 196, 202; House of, fully constituted, 203; petitions against papal encroachments, 225; its advance under Edward III., 231, 232, 298; shrinks from meddling with administration, 299; increasing share in legislation, 301; resists John of Gaunt's demands, 303; its action in the Good Parliament, 305; in Parliament of 1377, 311, 312; struggle with Richard II., 370; demands confiscation of Church lands, iii. 15, 21; changes in its character during Wars of the Roses, 99; struggle with Wolsey, 245; petition to Henry, VIII., 290; first detailed account of its proceedings, iv. 5; opposes Northumberland's policy, 66; struggle with Elizabeth, 238, 239; advance under her, v. 56, 57; relations with James I., 154, 155, 160-163, 179-182; action in Parliament of 1621, 221, 222, 224, 225; in that of 1625, 245-247; in that of 1626, 250, 253; draws up the Petition of Right, 260; action in 1640, 340; resolves on the trial of Charles I., vi. 66; abolishes Monarchy, 68; sets up a Commonwealth, ib.; passes the Exclusion Bill, 319; rejects the Securities Bill, 320; impeaches Fitzharris, 323; its sovereignty, vii. 80; position under William, III., 81; relations with Marlborough, 123; the Whigs' management of, 176; proposals for its reform, viii. 9, 10, 63, 67, 75, 76, 195; adopts Catholic emancipation, viii. 196. See Parliament

Commonwealth established in England, vi. 68, 69; proclaimed in London, 73

"Commune," the, in towns, i. 318; ii. 69

Companies, trading, v. 161

Compiegne, Jeanne d'Arc taken prisoner at, iii. 53

"Complaint of the Commons of Kent," iii. 65, 66

Comprehension Bill, vii. 63

Compton, Bishop of London, vii. 18, 19, 28, 35

Compurgation, i. 239, 313

Comyn, John, regent of Scotland, ii. 170, 171

Comyn, John, of Badenoch, ii. 173

Conde, Louis I., Prince of, iv. 188, 209, 264, 267

Conde, Louis II., Prince of, vi. 190

Congregation, Lords of the, their relations with Mary of Guise, iv. 168; occupy Edinburgh, 169; relations with Elizabeth, 170-174; treaty with Francis and Mary, 176; rise against Mary, 245, 246

Congress, the first American, vii. 330; at Philadelphia, viii. 19, 20, 22

Connaught conquered by the English, iii. 329; Wentworth's dealings with, v. 364, 365

Connecticut, first settlement of, v. 319, 320; refuses to join in war against England, viii. 203

Conquereux, battle of, i. 212

Conservators of the Peace, ii. 123

Consilt, battle of, ii. 54

Constable, Sir Robert, iii. 325

Constable, the king's, origin of his office, i. 132

Constance of Britanny, i. 247, 260

Constantine, king of Scots, i. 119, 120

Constantinople captured by the Turks, iii. 189; English exiles at, i. 167

"Constitutional Clubs," viii. 95, 100

Constitutions of Clarendon, i. 235

Contades, General, vii. 264

Continental System, viii. 175, 176; its results, 177

Contract, the Great, v. 179

Convention of 1660, vi. 152; declares itself a Parliament, 194; of 1689, vii. 44-47; becomes a Parliament, 60; the Constituent, vi. 94-98; the French, viii. 101; Scottish, of 1659, vi. 150; of 1689, vii. 51. See Parliament

Convocation, provincial, of the clergy, ii. 158; its legislative power taken away, iii. 301, 307; of 1413, iii. 20; of 1512, Colet's address to, 202, 203; of 1531, 296, 297; of 1532, 301; of 1533, 303; of 1604, its canons, v. 156; of 1689, vii. 63; of Perth, ii. 171

Conway, castle built at, ii. 121; captured by Owen Glyndwr, iii. 10; recovered by Percy, 11

Cook, Captain, vii. 278

Cooper, Anthony Ashley, vi. 95; his early life, 215, 216; attacks Cromwell's memory, 148; advises the return of excluded members of the Rump, 151; Chancellor of the Exchequer, 194. See Ashley

Cope, Sir John, vii. 228

Copenhagen, battle of, viii. 163; bombardment of, 180

Copper, export of, from Cornwall, iv. 279

Copy-holders, i. 323

Corfe, Eadward the Martyr slain at, i. 139

Cormac's Glossary, i. 8

Cornwal, John, ii. 357

Cornwall conquered by Ecgberht, i. 102; Royalist rising in, vi. 5, 6; tin-mines in, i. 30; ii. 107; export of tin from, iv. 279; of copper, ib.; West Welsh of, become vassals of AEthelstan, i. 120

Cornwall, Henry, Earl of, i. 345

Cornwall, Richard, Earl of. See Richard

Cornwallis, Charles, second earl and first marquis, captures Charlestown, viii. 32; surrenders at York Town, ib.; Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 130, 138; victories in India, 131

Coronation-stone, the Scottish, ii. 162

Coroners, i. 264; ii. 149

Corresponding Society, viii. 106

Cortes, Hernan, iv. 329

Corunna, Drake's descent on, iv. 355; siege of, 367, 368; battle of, viii. 187

Cotentin, the, conquered by William Longsword, i. 155; ceded to Robert by Henry I., 201

Cotton, Bartholomew de, i. 274

Cotton, manufacture of, viii. 53, 59, 193

Council of Agitators, vi. 52; the Continual, ii. 114, 353; iii. 22, 23; the Great, i. 256, 351; changes in its character after Norman Conquest, ii. 144; its importance under Henry II., 144, 145; powers over taxation recognised by the Great Charter, 145; mode of summons to, 146; its composition under Henry III., ib.; claim to appoint ministers, 38; demands for reform, 45; its assembly regulated by Provisions of Oxford, 61; becomes Parliament, 156; the King's, i. 256; its later developements, ii. 112; criminal jurisdiction, iii. 178; position under the Tudors, v. 186, 187; set aside by James I., 187; character after the Restoration, vi. 303; reorganized by Temple, ib., 304; of Nine, ii. 275; of the North, v. 285, 363; of Officers, vi. 49, 52, 64, 65; its plan for a new Parliament, 74; forces Richard Cromwell to dissolve Parliament, 149; Permanent, of Fifteen, ii. 61; the Privy, i. 256; of State, under the Commonwealth, vi. 72; broken up, 91; new one formed, 94; new, named by the Convention, 99; its organization, 100

Councils, Church, their political results, i. 84, 224; Occasional, called by Edward III., ii. 292, 299; Provincial, of 1282, 120

Counties, restriction of franchise in, iii. 101, 102

County court (shire-court), preserved by William I., i. 185, 186; towns represented in, ii. 73; its composition and functions, 149; principle of representation in, ib., 150; election of knights of the shire in, 151, 152

Country Party, the, vi. 272, 298

Courcy, John de, ii. 374

Courtenay, Bishop of London, ii. 309; Archbishop of Canterbury, 339-341, 346

Coutras, battle of, iv. 355

Covenant, the Scottish, iv. 115, 116; renewed in 1638, v. 333; taken by the English Parliament, vi. 14, 16, 17; forced on the army, 50; taken by the Convention of 1660, 152; burnt in Westminster Hall, 204

Coventry, Parliament at, iii. 75; Mary Stuart imprisoned at, iv. 269

Coventry, Sir William, vi. 245, 272

Coverdale, Miles, iii. 334

Cowell, John, v. 169

Cowley, Abraham, vi. 165

Cowling Castle, headquarters of the Lollards, iii. 20, 27

Cowper, William, Lord Keeper, vii. 125; chancellor, 175

Cowper, William, poet, viii. 46

Cox, Richard, iv. 119

Crabbe, George, viii. 46

Craft-gilds, i. 316-318

Craggs, Secretary of State, vii. 192

Cranfield, Lord Treasurer, v. 229, 236

Cranmer, Thomas, iii. 272; supports the king's divorce, 291; proposes an appeal to the universities, ib.; Archbishop of Canterbury, 303; crowns Anne Boleyn, ib.; tenders the oath of allegiance to More, 318, 319; attitude towards Lutheranism, 336; opposes persecution, 346; drifts into Protestantism, iv. 48, 59, 127; welcomes foreign refugees, 51; his view of Episcopacy, 60; remonstrates against Edward's "plan" for the succession, 70; sent to the Tower, 75; tried for treason, ib.; his political position, 103, 104; share in the English Liturgy, 103; convicted of heresy, 104; death, 105; Strype's Life of, 3

Crecy, battle of, ii. 237-239

Cremona, battle of, vii. 118

Crepy, treaty of, iv. 32, 33

Creton's History of Richard II., ii. 179

Crewe, Chief Justice, v. 254

Crompton, Samuel, viii. 60

Cromwell, Henry, vi. 109

Cromwell, Oliver, his youth, v. 103; vi. 24, 25; alleged scheme of emigration, v. 320; share in Association of the Eastern Counties, vi. 8; at Marston Moor, 19, 22; quarrel with Manchester at Newbury, 24; his person, 25; regiment, 26; temper, 27; relations with Dissidents, 33, 36; his policy, 34; victory at Naseby, 40, 41; pleads for religious liberty, 44, 45; resigns his command, 53; rejoins the army, ib.; negotiates with the king, 57; opposes the ordinance against heresy, 60; besieges the royalists in Pembroke, 61, 162; victory at Preston, 62; marches into Scotland, ib.; charged with treason, 63; suppresses a revolt of the army, 75; campaign in Ireland, 76, 77, 79; returns, 79; Lord-General, ib.; invades Scotland, ib.; victory at Dunbar, 80; occupies Edinburgh, 82; victory at Worcester, 84; supports the demand for a new Parliament, 87; drives out the Rump, 90, 91; resigns his power to the Convention, 95; his political and social views, 97, 98; Protector, 100, 102; his administration, 103; quarrel with the Parliament of 1654, 102, 103, 105; his military despotism, 106-108; settlement of Scotland, 108, 109; of Ireland, 109, 110; of England, 111, 112; foreign policy, 114-117; struggle with Parliament of 1655, 119; the Crown offered to, ib., 120; refuses it, 121, 122; inaugurated as Protector, 122; successes abroad, 123, 124; failure at home, 125; his theory of the Christian State, 127, 128; failing health, 143; his "House of Lords," 144; dissolves the Parliament, 145; last illness, 146; death, 147; his corpse outraged, 201; authorities for his history, v. 73

Cromwell, Richard, vi. 147, 149

Cromwell, Thomas, his early life, iii. 282, 283; relations with Wolsey, 283-285; counsel to Henry about the divorce, 285; his policy, 294, 295; Lord Privy Seal, 304; Vicar-General, 306; dealings with the monasteries, 310, 311; with the clergy, 311, 312; his reign of terror, 312-315; temper, 315, 316; relations with the nobles, 321, 322; reform of religion, 333; Church policy in Ireland, 341, 342; orders removal of images, 343; dealings with Parliament, iv. 8, 9; last struggle, iii. 347-351; fall and death, 352; results of his policy, iv. 7-14

Crotoy relieved by Talbot, iii. 56

Crowland, i. 86; burnt by northmen, 104; Chronicle of, ii. 179, 180

Croys, the, iii. 122, 125

Crusades, their effect on learning, i. 282; of Richard I., 261; of Edward I., ii. 90; Henry IV.'s project of, iii. 25; Henry V.'s, 36, 38

Cuba conquered by England, vii. 307; restored to Spain, ib.

Cudworth, Ralph, vi. 169

Culloden, battle of, vii. 230

Cumberland, William, Duke of, vii. 227, 230, 248, 251

Cumberland, Henry Clifford, first Earl of, iii. 323

Cumberland, Henry Clifford, second Earl of, iv. 162

Cumberland, George Clifford, third Earl of, iv. 353, 358

Cumbria, British kingdom of, i. 60; conquered by Ecgfrith, 87; by Eadmund, 123; granted to Malcolm, king of Scots, ib.

Cup-thegn (butler), i. 132

"Customs" of the realm, i. 235

Customs duties, Edward I.'s, ii. 107, 164, 172, 189; granted to Edward IV. for life, 89, 152; new, imposed by James I., v. 172; granted to Charles I. for a year only, 246

Cuthbert, St., i. 74-76, 87, 88

Cuthwulf, king of the West Saxons, i. 37

Cynric, king of the West Saxons, i. 34, 49

Dacres, William, third Lord, iv. 162

Dacres, Leonard, iv. 269

Daegsastan, battle of, i. 60

Dalaber, Anthony, iii. 262

Dalrymple, John, Master of Stair, vii. 52, 53

Danby, Thomas Osborne, Earl of, Lord Treasurer, vi. 282; his policy, 282-286; duped by Charles, 287; his bill for the security of the Church, 288; foreign policy, 289, 290; impeached, 299; dismissed, 300; released from the Tower, vii. 2; warns William against James II., 28; signs the invitation to William, 35; prepares for a rising, 37; raises Yorkshire, 41; his policy in the Convention of 1689, 46; Lord President, 67

Danegeld, i. 186, 207, 216, 350; ii. 104

Danelaw, the, i. 107; its struggle with AElfred, 116, 117; subdued by Eadmund, 120; rises against Eadred, 123; final submission, ib., 124; Dunstan's policy towards, 137

Danes. See Northmen

Daniel, poet and historian, v. 4, 35

Darcy, Thomas, Lord (of Aston), iii. 323-325

Darien, colony of, vii. 89

Darnley, Henry Stuart, Lord, iv. 220, 221; marries Mary Stuart, 224; quarrels with her, 227; share in Rizzio's murder, 228; dissolves Parliament, 229; reconciled to Mary, ib.; plots against him, 242, 243; death, 244

Dartford, peasant revolt at, ii. 319

Dartmouth, Breton descent on, iii. 16; Warwick and Clarence land at, 138

Dartmouth, George Legge, first Lord, vii. 77

Daun, General, vii. 263, 302

Davenant, Sir William, v. 303

David I., king of Scots, i. 217; ii. 133; his Laws, ii. 171

David II., king of Scots. See Bruce

David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon, ii. 134, 136

David, brother of Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, ii. 119, 121

Davies, Sir John, v. 303

Davison, Secretary of State, iv. 352

Dean, Forest of, iron-mines in, i. 30

Deane, General, vi. 108

Debt, the National, vii. 87

"Defenders," viii. 119

Deira, kingdom of, i. 36; conquered by Bernicians, 52, 53; submits to Oswald, 67; to Penda, 71. See Northumbria

Dekker, Thomas, v. 42

Delaware, colony of, vii. 236

Denham, Sir John, vi. 325

Denmark, its monarchy founded, i. 128; relations with Sweden and Hanover, vii. 188, 189; joins leagues against England, viii. 162, 180; its fleet captured, 180, 181

Deorham, battle of, i. 38, 61

Derby, one of the Five Boroughs, i. 117; conquered by AEthelflaed, 118; Charles Edward at, vii. 228

Derby, Henry Plantagenet I., Earl of, ii. 234, 235, 243

Derby, Henry Plantagenet III., Earl of, ii. 353

Derby, Henry III. of Lancaster, Earl of. See Henry IV. (king).

Derby, Edward Stanley, third Earl of, iv. 267, 269

Derby, William Stanley, ninth Earl of, vii. 23

Derby, Earls of. See Ferrars.

Derbyshire, lead mines in, ii. 107

D'Erlon, General, viii. 208, 209

Dermod, king of Leinster, i. 251, 252

Derry, colonisation of, v. 289

Derwentwater, James Radcliffe, third Earl of, vii. 184

Desmond, Gerald Fitzmaurice (or Fitzgerald), fifteenth Earl of, iv. 315, 316

Desmond, James Fitzgerald, seventeenth Earl of, v. 62

Despenser, Hugh, justiciar, ii. 64, 66, 87

Despenser, Hugh, the elder, ii. 194, 198.

Despenser, Hugh, the younger, ii. 194, 195, 199

Dettingen, battle of, vii. 224

Devon rises against William. I., i. 168; against Somerset, iv. 55; secured by Prince Maurice for Charles I., vi. 13; rising in, under Monmouth, vii. 9

Devonshire, William Cavendish, fourth Earl of (see Cavendish), vii. 28; signs the invitation to William III., 35; prepares for a rising, 37; heads the rising in the Midlands, 41

Devonshire, Thomas Courtenay, fifth Earl of, iii. 69

Devonshire, Thomas Courtenay, sixth Earl of, ii. 80

Devon, Edward Courtenay, Earl of, iv. 78

D'Ewes, Sir Symonds, iv. 5; v. 72

D'Eyvill, John, ii. 84

Dieppe burnt by the English fleet, i. 333

Digby, Sir Everard, v. 159

Digby, Sir Kenelm, vi. 168

Digges, Sir Dudley, v. 251, 253

Dioceses, English, origin of their limits, i. 82, 83; organized by Theodore, 83

Directory, the French, viii. 113

"Disinherited," the, ii. 84, 86-89

"Dissidence," growth of, vi. 30-32

D'Oillis, the, i. 284

Domesday Book, i. 186

Domfront taken by Henry V., iii. 33

Dominic, St., ii. 9

Dominicans (Black Friars) come to England, ii. 11

Domremy, home of Jeanne d'Arc, iii. 46

Donne, John, v. 303

Dorset, risings in, i. 168; vii. 9

Dorset, John Beaufort, Marquis of (Earl of Somerset), iii. 7

Dorset, Thomas Grey, second Marquis of, iii. 209

Dorset, Thomas Sackville, first Earl of, v. 22

Dorset, Charles Sackville, sixth Earl of, vii. 23

Douay, English college at, iv. 307; Oxford refugees at, 317

Douglas, Archibald, fourth Earl of, iii. 13, 14, 39

Douglas, Sir Archibald, Regent of Scotland, ii. 211

Douglas, James, ii. 184, 204, 205, 210

Douglas, house of, their struggle with the Scot kings, iii. 184

Dover, tumult at, in 1051, i. 152; resists Lewis of France, 355; ii. 2; surrenders to Henry III., 83; treaty of, vi. 257

Dowdall, Archbishop of Armagh, iv. 62

D'Oysel, French ambassador in Scotland, iv. 173

Drake, Francis, his voyage round the world, iv. 333, 334; expedition to the Spanish Main, 349; to Cadiz and Corunna, 355; in the fleet against the Armada, 361, 362; expedition to Lisbon, 367

Drama, English, its beginnings, v. 20-22; developement under Elizabeth, 22-24; after the Restoration, vi. 163, 164

Drayton's Polyolbion, v. 35

Dreux captured by Henry V., iii. 36; battle of, iv. 210

Drogheda, massacre at, vi. 76, 77

Dryden, Sir Erasmus, vi. 325

Dryden, John, vi. 165, 324, 325; founder of the school of critical poets, 326; his tragedies, 327; comedies, 328, 329; Annus Mirabilis, 330; attitude in politics and religion, 331; Absalom and Ahitophel, 332-334; influence on literature, vii. 154-157

Dublin, sieges of, i. 252; vi. 76

Dublin, John Allen, Archbishop of, murdered, iii. 328

Dubois, the Abbe, vii. 187

Dudley, Lord Guildford, iv. 69, 75, 84

Dudley, Lord Robert, iv. 193. See Leicester

Dudley, Edmund, iii. 199

Dudo of St. Quentin, i. 6

Dumouriez, General, viii. 101, 107

Duncan, Admiral, viii. 127

Dundas, Henry, viii. 171

Dundee, John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount, vii. 51, 52

Dunes, battle of the, vi. 124

Dunkirk ceded to Cromwell, vi. 124; sold to France, 214; dismantled, vii. 142

Dunluce, ships of the Armada wrecked off, iv. 363

Dunning, John, Solicitor-General, viii. 15

Dunois, Count of, iii. 49, 50, 62

Dupleix, General, vii. 233-235

Duquesne, Fort, vii. 243, 245, 266

Duns Scotus, ii. 276

Dunstable, Annals of, i. 273

Dunstan, St., i. 120-123; his struggle with Eadwig, 136; Archbishop of Canterbury, 137; policy and rule, ib., 138; fall, 139; Lives of, 6

Durham, historians of, i. 243; King John at, 340

Durie, John, v. 138

Eadberht, king of Northumbria, i. 96, 97

Eadgar, King, i. 137, 138; his Law, 144

Eadgar, king of Scots, i. 197

Eadgar, the AEtheling, i. 154, 165, 168, 170, 197

Eadgyth, wife of Eadward the Confessor, i. 150, 165

Eadmer, i. 173, 243

Eadmund, St., king of East Anglia, i. 104

Eadmund (the Magnificent), King, i. 120, 122, 123

Eadmund Ironside, King, i. 143; his children, 144, 153

Eadred, King, i. 123, 136

Eadric, ealdorman of Mercia, i. 142-144

Eadward the Elder, King, i. 117-119, 305

Eadward the Martyr, King, i. 139

Eadward the Confessor, King, i, 149-153, 158, 160; his Laws, 150, 199, 340; Life of, 6

Eadwig, King, i. 136, 137

Eadwig, son of AEthelred II., i. 144

Eadwine, king of Northumbria, i. 62-64, 66

Eadwine, earl of Mercia, i. 160, 165, 167, 170

Eadwulf, earl of Northumbria, i. 146

Ealdorman, the, his office, i. 48, 49; becomes a delegate of the king, 131; rises again to independence, 134; replaced by the earl, 146

Ealdred, Archbishop of York, i. 166

Earl, the, i. 11, 50; superseded by the thegn, 51

Earldoms, the four great, i. 146; abolished, 185

Earls supersede ealdormen, i. 146

East Anglia, its conquest, i. 36; Christianity in, 59; subject to Mercia, 91; revolts, 102; conquered by the northmen, 104; bridled by Eadward the Elder, 117, 118; earldom of, 146; Protestant martyrs in, iv. 96

"Easterlings," i. 303

Eastern Counties, Association of the, vi. 8, 13

East India Company, iv. 284; vii. 63, 232

East-Saxons, their settlement, i. 35; conversion, 59

Ebbsfleet, i. 31, 32, 58

Ecclesiastical Courts separated from civil Courts, i. 188

Ecgberht, king of Wessex, i. 101-103

Ecgfrith, king of Northumbria, i. 86-89

Ecgwine, Bishop of Worcester, i. 86

Eddi's Life of Wilfrid, i. 4

Edgecote, battle of, iii. 134

Edgehill, battle of, vi. 3

Edinburgh founded, i. 63; seat of the Scot kings, 147; won by Bruce, ii. 191; burnt by the English, iv. 28; castle of, besieged by Henry IV., iii. 9; treaty of, iv. 176; riot at, against the new Liturgy, v. 328; the Covenant signed at, 333; rises against James VII., vii. 50; "James the Eighth" proclaimed at, 228

Edinburgh Review, the, viii. 195

Edington, battle of, i. 107

Edith. See Matilda

Edmund Rich, St., i. 287-289; Archbishop of Canterbury, ii. 33; obtains dismissal of Peter des Roches, ib.; dealings with Llewelyn ap Jorwerth, 58; retires to Pontigny, 42

Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, son of Henry III., ii. 59, 82, 87, 187, 188

Edmund, Earl of Woodstock, ii. 293

Edward (I.), son of Henry III., defeated by the Welsh, ii. 59; joins Earl Simon, 64, 65; rejoins Henry, 65; marches against Llewelyn, 67; surrenders Windsor, ib.; attempts to surprise London, 70; share in battle of Lewes, ib.; prisoner, 71; escapes, 75; seizes Gloucester, 76; defeats the younger Simon, ib.; meets Simon at Evesham, 77; attitude after the battle, 81; marches against Axholme, 85; negotiations for peace, ib.; captures Adam Gurdon, 87; effects off his influence, 89; goes on Crusade, 90; King, ib.; his motto, 41; his temper, 91-93; influence of chivalry on, 94, 95; spirit of legality, 96; moral temper, 97; military skill, ib., 98; political genius, 98, 99; constitutional aspect of his reign, 100, 101; first measures, 102, 103; progress of art and trade in his reign, 105-107; brings Llewelyn to submission, 108, 109; judicial reforms, 109-113; policy towards the barons, 116, 117; towards the Church, 118, 119; conquest of Wales, 119-121; legislation, 122-124; visit to Aquitaine, 123; expels the Jews, 131; relations with Scotland, 135-140; quarrel with France, 141, 142; summons Scotch barons to war in Guienne, 143; admits burgesses to Parliament, 154; his scheme for representation of clergy in Parliament, 157; storms Berwick, 160, 161; Scotland submits to, 161, 162; struggle with the clergy, 163; exactions from merchants, 164; quarrel with barons, 164, 165; goes to Flanders, 165; confirms the Charters, ib., 166, 170; truce with France, 168; victory at Falkirk, 169; treaty with France, 170; second conquest of Scotland, 171; his "New Custom," 172; absolved by the Pope from his oath to observe the Charters, ib.; his vow on the swan, 173, 174; death, 174

Edward (II.), son of Edward I., ii. 173, 174; character and policy, 184-186; marriage, 186; relations with Gaveston and the barons, 186-188; struggle with the Ordainers, 188-191; marches on Scotland, 191; defeated at Bannockburn, 192, 193; accepts the Ordinances, 194; campaign of 1319, ib.; relations with the Despensers, 194, 195; truce with Scotland, 196; relations with France, 197, 198; flies to Lundy Island, 198; deposed, 199, 200; murdered, 200; authorities for his reign, 177

Edward (III.) of Windsor, son of Edward II., ii. 198; proclaimed king, 199; arrests Mortimer, 207; relations with France, 208, 209; acknowledged as suzerain by Edward Balliol, 211; takes Berwick, ib.; receives Balliol's homage, 212; declares war on France, 213; number of his forces, 216; continental alliances, 216-219; Vicar-General of the Empire, 219; negotiations with France, ib.; besieges Cambray, 220; complains of papal exactions, 225; alliance with Flemish towns, 226, 227; besieges Tournay, 228; losses in Scotland, 229, 230; relations with Parliament, 230-233, 292, 299; supports John of Montfort in Britanny, 233; invades Normandy, 235; marches on Paris, ib.; victory at Crecy, 237-239; causes of his military success, 242, 243; besieges Calais, 243; his treatment of the six burgesses, 245-247; the imperial crown offered to, 248; his character, 249-251; founds the Order of the Garter, 252; rebuilds Windsor Castle, ib. alliance with Charles of Navarre, 258; with David Bruce, 263, 264; ravages France, 265; treaty with Burgundy, ib.; with the Regent of France, 266; forbids entry of Papal bulls, 273; policy in Spain, 287; truce with Charles V., 288; his evil rule, 290, 291; compromise with the Pope, 296; death, 311

Edward (IV.), Earl of March, iii. 75; victory at Mortimer's Cross, 78; King, 80; his finance, 89, 152; protection of trade, 106; his temper, 112, 116-118; relations with Lewis XI., 120, 121, 123, 124; marriage, 124; double-dealing with Lewis and Charles the Bold, 129, 130; league with Charles, 130; relations with Warwick, 131-135; driven out, 139; returns, 141; victory at Barnet, 142; marches against Margaret, 143; defeats her at Tewkesbury, 144, 145; new alliance with Charles against Lewis, 148; invades France, 149; makes peace with Lewis, 150; his rule, 151-153; death, 163

Edward V., King, iii. 163, 167; More's Life of, 83, 218

Edward (VI.), son of Henry VIII., born, iii. 326; scheme for his marriage, iv. 26; his temper, 67; "plan" for the succession, 69, 70; death, 70; Journal, 3; Hayward's Life of, ib.; his Grammar Schools, 62

Edward (the Black Prince) proposed as Count of Flanders, ii. 233; exploits at Crecy, 237, 238; ravages Guienne, 259, 260; campaign on the Loire, 260; victory at Poitiers, 261-263; invested with Aquitaine, 281; supports Pedro the Cruel, 283; victory at Navarete, 284; imposes hearth-tax on Aquitaine, ib.; summoned by France to answer the Gascon appeal, 285; storms Limoges, 286; marriage, 293; sickness, 286, 302; action in the Good Parliament, 305; death, 306

Edward, son of Henry VI., iii. 71, 137, 140, 145

Egypt conquered by Buonaparte, viii. 132; the French driven from, 165, 166

Eikon Basilike, vi. 72

Elba, Napoleon at, viii. 205

Eleanor of Castille, wife of Edward I., ii. 93

Eleanor of Poitou, wife of Henry II., i. 226; her claims on Toulouse, 233; turns against Henry, 254; imprisoned, 255; joins Richard in Sicily, 260; secures Aquitaine for John, 268; besieged at Mirebeau, ib.; dies, 270

Eleanor of Provence, wife of Henry III., ii. 32, 69, 72, 74

Eleanor, daughter of King John, ii. 36

Eliot, John, v. 195, 248, 249; attacks Buckingham, 249-252; sent to the Tower, 253; released, ib.; proposes a Remonstrance, 262; share in the Avowal, 268; death, 273

Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII., iv. 46; her classical scholarship, iii. 212; Thomas Seymour's attempt to marry her, iv. 56; sent to the Tower, 85, 136; Parliament refuses to oust her from the succession, 89; her person, 134; scholarship, ib., 135; relations with Mary, 136; Philip's policy towards, 137, 138; set free, 138; accession, 146; religious policy, 148-150, 152, 153; coronation, 153; refuses to marry Philip, 154; relations with Paul IV., 155, 156; her title acknowledged by Parliament, 156; restores the Prayer-Book, 158, 159; drops the title "Head of the Church," 160; dealings with the clergy, 161, 162; relations with Parker, 165, 166; with the Scotch Lords of the Congregation, 170, 172-175; treaty with Mary and Francis, 176; character, 177-181; statesmanship, 182-186; supports the Huguenots, 189; temporises with Pius IV., 192; refuses to send envoys to Trent, 193, 194; schemes for her marriage, 193, 195, 199; refuses a safe-conduct to Mary Stuart, 200; difficulties with Mary, 202-204; treaty with the Huguenots, 209, 210; with France, 219; her changes in the system of the monarchy, 232; policy in Ireland, 240; drift of her religious policy, 247, 248; difficulties with Mary and Alva, 257, 258; demands Mary's release, 259; refuses to recognize Murray's government, ib.; renews marriage negotiations with Austria, 260; negotiates for Mary's restoration, 262; her temporizing policy, 264; bull of deposition against her, 265, 270; her relations with England, 274, 275, 287-289; checks the "liberty of prophesying," 290; relations with Parliament, 292, 293; v. 56-58; resists Puritan pressure, iv. 293, 294; scheme for her marriage with Henry of Anjou, 297; expels the "water-beggars," 298; attitude towards the Netherlands, 300; persecutes the Catholics, 308, 309; alliance with the Netherlands, 311; scheme for her marriage with Francis of Anjou, 313, 316, 337, 338; dealings with the Catholics, 319, 320; relations with Drake, 334; confers new powers on the Ecclesiastical Commission, 340; refuses Protectorate of the Netherlands, 349; sends them aid, ib.; alliance with James VI., 350; plots against her, ib.; signs the death-warrant of Mary Stuart, 352; her victory over party disunion, 364, 365; sends an expedition to Portugal, 367; help to Henry IV., 371; league with France and the Netherlands, v. 60; her loneliness, 63; waning popularity, 64, 65; last days, 65, 66; death, 67; materials for her history, iv. 3-5

Elizabeth, Czarina of Russia, vii. 246, 306

Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV., iii. 133, 167, 168, 170, 171; marries Henry VII., 175

Elizabeth, daughter of James I., v. 210

Elizabeth Woodville. See Woodville

Elizabeth of France, wife of Philip II. of Spain, iv. 372

Ellandun, battle of, i. 102

Elliott, General, viii. 31, 41

Elmet conquered by Eadwine, i. 63

Elmham's Life of Henry V., ii. 179

Ely burnt by northmen, i. 104; Cnut at, 145; the AEtheling AElfred blinded at, 148; surrenders to William, 170; seized by the Disinherited, ii. 88

Emma of Normandy, wife of AEthelred II., i. 141, 156

"Emperor's men," the, i. 303

Empson, Sir Richard, iii. 199

Engla-land, i. 138

England, Old, i. 9

England, character of its settlement, i. 44-48; work of the northmen in, 129; first use of the name, 138; its peace under Cnut, 146; prosperity under Eadward and Harold, 153; effects of foreign rule on, 176-178, 278; fusion of Normans and English in, 200, 281; invaded by Robert of Normandy, 200, 201; civil war in, 219, 220; anarchy in, 220, 221; revival of national feeling in, 280, 281; Norman immigration to, 302; effects of loss of Normandy on, 325, 326; under Interdict, 330, 331; Friars arrive in, ii. 11; Provencals and Poitevins in, under Henry III. 32, 33; early finance, 103; relations with the Papacy, 26-28, 218, 219, 221-223, 225, 273-275, 303; social changes after the Black Death, 254, 255; social strife in, 266-268, 289, 316, 317; sufferings under Edward III., 290, 291; constitutional, its beginnings, 100; its freedom established, iii. 85; moral and intellectual decay during Wars of the Roses, 97, 98, 115; social condition in fifteenth century, 104-107; agricultural changes in, 107, 108; evictions and enclosures in, 109, 110; definition of its foreign policy, 128; intellectual progress under Edward IV., 153, 154; the New Learning in, 191-196, 201; relations with the Papacy under Henry VIII., 288, 289, 299, 300, 302; rejects Papal jurisdiction, 305; foreign Protestants in, iv. 51, 58, 59, 305; condition under Somerset, 54, 55; religious disorder in, 61; condition under Northumberland, 66; religious changes in, under Mary, 75; submits to Rome, 88, 89; effects of the Reformation on, 121, 122; attitude in Mary's later years, 134, 138, 139; condition at her death, 146, 147; religious chaos under Elizabeth, 162-165; becomes Protestant, 166, 167, 247, 248; its importance to the Papacy, 253, 254; parties in, 263; social condition under Elizabeth, 274-277, 283-287; religious condition, 289-291, 302-305; volunteers from, in the Netherlands, 324; unites against the Armada, 358; effect on, of the fight with Spain, 364; its maritime warfare with Spain, 370, 371; intellectual developement under Elizabeth, v. 1-11; condition at her death, 75, 76; growth of wealth and social advance, 77; rise of the squires, 78; growth of national spirit in, ib., 79; growth of the religious spirit in, 81; foreign rule of the Stuarts in, 148, 149; James I.'s proposal for its union with Scotland, 154; change in its attitude towards the crown, 171, 172, 183, 184; condition under Charles I., 280-282, 315, 316; declared a Commonwealth, vi. 68, 69; scheme of union with Holland, 81; with Scotland, 85; with Ireland, 86; war with Holland, ib., 88; condition under Cromwell and the major-generals, 106-108; progress of the Puritan ideal in, 125-128; scientific movement in, 131-133; Latitudinarians in, 133-137; modern, its beginnings, 160-161; intellectual progress after the Restoration, 163-171; union with Scotland and Ireland dissolved, 180; Restoration settlement of, 196-198; quarrel with the Dutch, 223, 224; war with Holland, 225-226, 238, 239, 261; attitude towards Lewis XIV., 228; its diplomacy under Charles II., 247, 248; declares war against Lewis XIV., vii. 49; alliance with Holland, 102, 104, 105; Union with Scotland, 127, 128; its European position after the Revolution, 147, 148; its European policy, 149-151; its intellectual influence, 151-153; character of political controversy in, 161; strength and weakness of public opinion in, 162-164; social condition under the Georges, 170, 171; alliance with France and Holland, 187; condition under Walpole, 195-198; alliance with France and Prussia, 199; quarrel with Spain for trade in America, 216, 217; declares war, 218; intercourse with India, 232; relations with America, 240, 241, 243, 244; treaty with Frederick II., 247, 248; war with France, 248, 249, 264; becomes a world-power, 274-277; annexations in the Pacific, 278, 279; its empire, 279; relations with America after the Seven Years' War, 280-283; results of the Revolution in, 286, 287; intellectual advance in the eighteenth century, 292, 293; war with Spain, 306; conquests in the West Indies, 307; its gains by the treaty of Paris, ib.; English and American theories of its relation to America, 321-325; growing influence of public opinion in, viii. 1, 2, 10, 11; war with America, 22-26, 32, 41; relations with Ireland, 33; position after the American war, 45; religious movement in, 46, 47; industrial progress, 53-60; growing influence of the trading class in, 61; its condition as compared to the rest of Europe, 80; alliance with Prussia and Holland, 85; attitude towards the French Revolution, 87, 88, 93-95; panic in, 103-106; war with France, 108, 109; its colonial acquisitions in 1795, 112; condition during the French war, 114; its dogged temper, 115, 116; effects of the war on its industry and trade, 157, 158; League of Neutrals against her, 159, 160; declares war against Buonaparte, 170; effects of the Continental System on its industry and trade, 177; condition during the French war, 192-195; war with America, 198, 203-205; last strife with Napoleon, 207-211. See English People

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