Text has been moved to avoid fragmentation of sentences and paragraphs.
Here are the definitions of some uncommon words.
capitation Numbering or assessing by the head. Poll tax. Fee or payment of a uniform amount for each person.
imperatively Absolutely necessary; unavoidable; commanding.
justiciable Capable of being settled by law or by the action of a court:
munificent Very generous.
[End Transcriber's Notes]
HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES
Copyright, 1907, by Clinedinst. Washington, D. C. Theodore Roosevelt At his desk in the executive offices of the White House during his term as president.
HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES
FROM THE EARLIEST DISCOVERY OF AMERICA TO THE PRESENT TIME
BY E. BENJAMIN ANDREWS CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA FORMERLY PRESIDENT OF BROWN UNIVERSITY
With 650 Illustrations and Maps
NEW YORK CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 1912
COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
CHAPTER I. THE RISE OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT
Career of Theodore Roosevelt.
Temper and Method.
Railway, Steel and Steamship Combinations.
Ship Subsidy Bill.
Steel Strike of 1901.
Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902.
President Roosevelt Calls Conference for Its Settlement.
CHAPTER II. ROOSEVELT'S FIRST ADMINISTRATION
His Fine Equipment for the Office of President.
A Remarkable Cabinet.
Mr. Root's Work for Cuba and the Philippines.
For the Army.
The Diplomacy of John Hay.
Department of Commerce and Labor Created.
The Panama Canal Achievement.
Recognition of Panama.
The Galveston Flood.
Plan of City Government.
Cuba an Independent Republic.
The Philippines under United States Rule.
The Baltimore Fire.
The St. Louis Exposition.
CHAPTER III. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1904
President Roosevelt Renominated.
Nominations of the Democratic Convention.
Of the Conventions of the Populist, Socialist and Prohibitionist Parties.
Character of the Campaign.
Charges Made against the Republicans.
President Roosevelt's Reply to Judge Parker's Statements.
Results of the Election.
CHAPTER IV. AMERICA AND THE CHINESE OPEN DOOR
Aggressive Policy of President Roosevelt.
Secretary Hay Continued in Office.
William H. Taft Made Secretary of War.
Trade of America and European Nations with China.
Secretary Hay's Request for Equal Trade Rights in China for All Nations.
The Boxer Rebellion.
Portion of China's Indemnity Cancelled by Congress.
Chinese Students in America.
Russia's Influence in China.
New Commercial Treaty between United States and China.
Opening of Manchurian Ports to All Nations.
Secretary Hay and Chinese Neutrality during the Russo-Japanese War.
Effects of too Strict Interpretation of Chinese Exclusion Act.
President Roosevelt's Instructions to Immigration Officials.
CHAPTER V. INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION.
Progress Made in Settlement of International Difficulties by Arbitration.
First Meeting of the Hague Peace Conference.
Work of the Conference.
Chief Features of a Permanent International Court of Arbitration.
Advantages of Such Court.
Convened for the First Time in 1901.
The Pious Fund Case.
The Venezuela Case.
Mr. Carnegie's Gift for a "Palace of Peace."
Peace Congresses Held in the United States in 1904.
The Nations Invited by President Roosevelt to a Second Hague Conference.
Work of Second Conference.
Number of Treaties Concluded between the Nations.
CHAPTER VI. THE UNITED STATES AND LATIN-AMERICA
Interest in South American Republics.
Meeting of Pan-American Congress in Washington.
In City of Mexico.
Comparison of Foreign Commerce of South American States with European Countries and with the United States.
Progress of South American States.
The Third Pan-American Congress, at Rio Janeiro Bureau of Pan-American Republics Founded.
New Interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine.
The Santo Domingo Situation.
Its Adjustment by President Roosevelt.
CHAPTER VII. CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Waste of Nation's Resources.
Establishment of a Division of Forestry.
Mariposa Forest Reservation.
Preservation of Niagara Falls.
Inland Waterways Commission Appointed by President Roosevelt.
Conference on Conservation Held at the White House.
First National Conservation Commission.
The National Conservation Association Formed.
First North American Conservation Congress, called by President Roosevelt.
Irrigation and the Reclamation Act.
The Roosevelt Dam.
The Shoshone Dam.
The Truckee-Carson Canal.
Proceeds from Sales of Public Lands.
Reclamation of the Swamp Lands.
The Mississippi Basin.
The Lakes to the Gulf Deep Waterways Association.
Projects Submitted by the Inland Waterways Commission.
Appropriation for Enlargement of Erie Canal.
CHAPTER VIII. DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW SOUTH
Splendid Natural Gifts of the South.
Its Water Power Facilities.
Wealth of Minerals and Forests, Coal and Iron.
Waste of Forest Lands.
Wonderful Economic Advancement.
Mr. Rockefeller's Gift.
Improved Methods of Agriculture.
Methods of Financing the Plantation System.
Cultivation of Hay and Corn.
The New Social Life.
Bright Prospect for the Future.
CHAPTER IX. PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S SECOND ADMINISTRATION
Exposition at Portland, Oregon, Commemorating Lewis and Clark Expedition.
Interstate Commerce Commission.
Provisions of Interstate Commerce Laws.
Pure Food and Drugs Law.
Investigation of Meat-Packing Methods.
The Earthquake in San Francisco.
Rebuilding of the City.
CHAPTER X. THE FINANCIAL PANIC OF 1907
Popular Explanations of Its Cause.
The Real Causes.
Insolvency of Knickerbocker Trust Company.
Lack of Confidence in Financial Institutions.
Aid from the United States Treasury's Surplus Fund.
Enormous Amounts Paid Out to Depositors.
Radical Steps Taken by Bankers.
"Emergency Currency" Issued.
Strengthening of the New York Stock Exchange.
Gold from Foreign Countries.
Sale of Panama Bonds and Notes.
Discussions Concerning Financial System.
The Aldrich-Vreeland Act.
CHAPTER XI. IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION
Great Increase in Immigration.
Change in Its Character.
Gain in Percentage from Southern Europe over that from Northern Europe.
Reasons Why These Foreigners Emigrate to America.
The Immigration Act of 1907.
And Its Effect.
The Emigration of Italians.
Slavs in the United States.
The Question of Oriental Immigration.
Dangers of Increasing Immigration.
Foreign Colonies in Chicago and Other Cities.
Increase in Criminality.
The Chief Problem.
Emigration of United States Farmers to Canada.
CHAPTER XII. NOTABLE SUPREME COURT DECISIONS
The Northern Securities Company Case.
The Alonzo Bailey Case.
Case of Loewe vs. Lawler, or the Danbury Hatters Case.
The Standard Oil Case.
The Case of the American Tobacco Company.
CHAPTER XIII. PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S SECOND ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED
President Roosevelt's Advocacy of a Larger and More Efficient Navy.
Rear-Admiral Evans's Effective Work.
Cruise of the Atlantic Fleet.
Unusual Honors Tendered by Brazil and Other Countries Visited by the Fleet.
Purchase and Settlement of Oklahoma Territory.
Indian System of Government.
Oklahoma and Indian Territory Admitted to the Union.
Exclusion of Japanese Students in San Francisco and President Roosevelt's Prompt Action.
Child-Labor in the United States.
The Beveridge-Parsons Bill.
New Uses of Electricity.
Wireless Telegraphy, Air-Ships and Submarine Boats.
Business and Political Reforms.
Advances in Educational Work.
Notable Gifts of Mr. Carnegie and Mr. Rockefeller.
CHAPTER XIV. THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN OF 1908
The Republican Convention.
William H. Taft Nominated for President.
Other Candidates for Nomination.
James S. Sherman Nominated for Vice-President.
The Democratic Convention.
And Its Nominations.
Platforms of Both Parties.
The Socialist Convention and Platform.
Convention of the Prohibition Party and Its Platform.
Lack of Campaign "Issues."
Personal Fitness of the Candidates.
Fear of the Power of Great Corporations.
Efficiency of President Roosevelt's Administration.
Results of the Election.
CHAPTER XV. THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT TAFT
Inauguration of President Taft.
Increase of Salaries of Principal Executive Officers.
Commander Peary's Expedition.
Dr. Cook's Claims.
State Constitutions of Arizona and New Mexico Formed.
President Taft's Disapproval of Them.
New Mexico Admitted to the Union.
Population and Products of Arizona.
Of New Mexico.
Tests and Records Made by Aviators.
The Federal Publicity Law.
President Taft's Recommendation Concerning Classified Service.
His Advance Position on International Arbitration.
CHAPTER XVI. THE THIRTEENTH CENSUS, 1910
Permanent Census Bureau Established.
Work of the Enumerators.
Special Attention Given to Character of Questions.
Enormous Labor of Tabulation and Classification.
Cost of Census.
Population of United States and Territorial Possessions.
Comparisons of Population with That of Previous Decade.
Rapid Growth of Cities.
Westward Advance of Centre of Population.
Emigration to Canada.
Farms of the United States.
Value of Foreign Commerce.
CHAPTER XVII. THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT
Government by the People.
Attitude Toward Senator La Follette, the First Progressive.
Number of Progressives in Senate.
Laws Annulled by Courts.
National Progressive Republican League Formed.
The Payne-Aldrich Bill Passed.
Criticism of the Cotton Schedule.
Of the Wool Schedule.
The "Maximum and Minimum" Clause.
Democratic Revision of the Tariff.
Farmers' Free List Bill.
Reciprocity with Canada.
President Taft and the Progressive Movement.
I. CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
II. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
III. THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
IV. PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES
V. STATES ADMITTED INTO THE UNION
VI. AREA OF THE UNITED STATES
VII. POPULATION OF CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES BY DECADES, 1790—1910
VIII. APPROXIMATE POPULATION UNDER THE AMERICAN FLAG, 1910.
IX. POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES, 1910, 1900, 1890
X. NUMBER OF MEMBERS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AFTER EACH APPORTIONMENT
XI. POPULATION LIVING IN URBAN AND RURAL TERRITORY 1890-1900.
XII. TWENTY-FIVE LARGEST CITIES FROM 1880 to 1910.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
THEODORE ROOSEVELT AT HIS DESK IN THE EXECUTIVE OFFICES OF THE WHITE HOUSE DURING HIS TERM AS PRESIDENT. (Copyright, 1907, Clinedinst, Washington).
THEODORE ROOSEVELT. (From a copyrighted photograph by Pach Bros., New York).
THEODORE ROOSEVELT, AS LIEUT.-COLONEL OF THE "ROUGH RIDERS."
COLLIS P. HUNTINGTON.
JAMES J. HILL. (Copyright, 1902, by Pach Bros., N. Y.).
E. H. HARRIMAN.
JOHN W. GATES.
ANDREW CARNEGIE. (Copyright, 1902, by Rockwood, N. Y.).
J. PIERPONT MORGAN. (Copyright, 1901, by Pach Bros., N. Y.).
COL. CLEMENTS. GEN. GOBIN COMMANDING TROOPS SENT TO SHENANDOAH IN THE COAL STRIKE OF 1902.
COAL STRIKE AT SHENANDOAH, PA., 1902. A STRIKERS' PICKET.
THE COAL STRIKE ARBITRATORS CHOSEN BY THE PRESIDENT. (Copyright, 1902, by George Grantham Bain).
JOHN HAY, SECRETARY OF STATE. (Copyright, 1904, by Pach Bros., N. Y.).
ELIHU ROOT, SECRETARY OF WAR. (Copyright, 1903, by Clinedinst, Washington).
GEORGE B. CORTELYOU, SECRETARY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR. (Photograph by Rice).
THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION, TAKEN MARCH 22,1904.
THE AMERICAN ISTHMUS, SHOWING ROUTES INVESTIGATED FOR A SHIP-CANAL.
M. BUNAU-VARILLA, MINISTER FROM PANAMA. (Photograph by Clinedinst).
GREAT HEAPS OF WRECKAGE PILED HIGH BY THE GALVESTON DISASTER. (Copyright, 1900, by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y.).
THE BOULEVARD AND SEA-WALL, GALVESTON. BUILT AFTER THE FLOOD. (Photograph by H. H. Morris).
TOMASO ESTRADA Y PALMA, FIRST PRESIDENT OF CUBA, IN THE PALACE, HAVANA. (Copyright, 1902, by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y.).
LOWERING THE STARS AND STRIPES ON THE PALACE, MAY 20, 1902, FOR THE FLAG OF THE CUBAN REPUBLIC. (Copyright, 1901, by Underwood & Underwood).
GOV. WILLIAM H. TAFT.
THE BALTIMORE FIRE. (Lombard and Calvert Streets, showing Continental and Equitable Buildings).
THE BALTIMORE FIRE. (Hopkins Place and German Street, looking east).
OPENING DAY AT THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION. PRESIDENT D. K. FRANCIS DELIVERING THE OPENING ADDRESS. (Copyright, 1904, by William H. Rau, Philadelphia).
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION. THE VARIED INDUSTRIES BUILDING.
CHARLES W. FAIRBANKS, VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.
THE REPUBLICAN CONVENTION AT CHICAGO, 1904.
WILLIAM R. HEARST.
THE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION AT ST. LOUIS, 1904.
ALTON B. PARKER.
INAUGURATION OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT, MARCH 4, 1905. (Photograph by Clinedinst, Washington, D. C.).
COUNT VON WALDERSEE, ESCORTED BY OFFICERS OF THE ALLIED ARMIES BETWEEN LINES OF U. S. TROOPS TOWARD THE SACRED GATE, PEKING. (Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N, Y.).
AMERICAN FLAG RAISED OVER BATTERED REMNANTS OF SOUTH GATE IMMEDIATELY AFTER CITY'S CAPTURE. BATTLE OF TIEN-TSIN CHINA. (Copyright, 1901, by Underwood & Underwood).
ARRIVAL OF CHINAMEN AT MALONE, N. Y., FROM CANADA, ACCOMPANIED BY OFFICIALS.
THE HOUSE IN THE WOODS, THE HAGUE, HOLLAND, WHERE THE FIRST PEACE CONFERENCE WAS HELD.
PRESIDENT CASTRO OF VENEZUELA.
THE NEW PEACE PALACE, THE HAGUE, HOLLAND.
RUSSIAN AND JAPANESE PEACE ENVOYS IN SESSION AT PORTSMOUTH, N. H.
BUILDING WHERE THE SECOND PEACE CONFERENCE WAS HELD, THE HAGUE, HOLLAND.
FIRST SESSION OF THE SECOND PEACE CONFERENCE, THE HAGUE, HOLLAND.
FEDERAL PALACE, WHERE THE SECOND PAN-AMERICAN CONGRESS WAS HELD IN THE CITY OF MEXICO. (Courtesy of the Pan-American Union).
MONROE PALACE, WHERE THE THIRD PAN-AMERICAN CONFERENCE WAS HELD IN RIO DE JANEIRO. (Courtesy of the Pan-American Union).
ARRIVAL OF SECRETARY ROOT AT RIO DE JANEIRO. (Courtesy of the Pan-American Union).
THE BUREAU OF THE PAN-AMERICAN REPUBLICS. (Photograph by Clinedinst).
GRIZZLY GIANT, MARIPOSA GROVE, CALIFORNIA, WITH A SQUAD OF CAVALRY AT ITS BASE.
BIG TREE "WAWONA," SHOWING THE RELATIVE SIZE OF OTHER CONIFERS COMPARED WITH BIG TREES. MARIPOSA GROVE.
THE PRESIDENT, GOVERNORS, AND OTHER LEADING MEN AT THE NATIONAL RESOURCES CONFERENCE, AT THE WHITE HOUSE, MAY 13 TO 15, 1908. (Copyright by Underwood & Underwood).
GIFFORD PINCHOT, PRESIDENT OF THE CONSERVATION COMMISSION.
ROOSEVELT DAM FROM THE ROAD.
SHOSHONE DAM, WYOMING. HIGHEST DAM IN THE WORLD. HEIGHT, 328.4 FEET.
SHOSHONE PROJECT. WYOMING PARK WAGON ROAD, SHOWING WONDERFUL TUNNELLING WORK ON THE NEW WAGON ROAD FROM CODY, WYO., TO THE NATIONAL PARK VIA THE SHOSHONE DAM. (Photograph by Clinedinst).
TRUCKEE-CARSON RECLAMATION PROJECT. DIVERSION DAM AND GATES AT HEADING OF MAIN CANAL.
INLAND WATERWAYS COMMISSION.
THE PORT OF NEW ORLEANS. (Copyright, 1900, by Detroit Photographic Co.).
JAMES WILSON, SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE.
A FIELD OF COTTON.
BALES OF COTTON READY FOR SHIPMENT. COTTON-PRESS YARD, NEW ORLEANS.
LOADING COTTON ON THE LEVEE, NEW ORLEANS.
THE PRICE-CAMPBELL COTTON-PICKING MACHINE, WHICH DOES THE WORK OF FIFTY PERSONS.
THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPOSITION, PORTLAND, ORE. GENERAL VIEW ACROSS THE LAGOON.
THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPOSITION, PORTLAND, ORE. THE GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS ACROSS THE LAGOON.
DR. HARVEY W. WILEY, MANY YEARS CHIEF OF THE U. S. BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY. (Copyright by Clinedinst, Washington).
U. S. GOVERNMENT INSPECTION OF A PACKING-HOUSE.
EARTHQUAKE AT SAN FRANCISCO, APRIL 18, 1906. UPHEAVAL OF SIDEWALK AT EIGHTEENTH AND CAPP STREETS.
BURNING OF SAN FRANCISCO FOLLOWING THE EARTHQUAKE.
SHOWING DESTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE AND FIRE IN SAN FRANCISCO.
REFUGEES IN GOLDEN GATE PARK, SAN FRANCISCO.
THE JAMESTOWN EXPOSITION—MANUFACTURES AND LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING—FROM THE AUDITORIUM. (Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y.).
THE PANIC OF 1907. RUN ON THE KNICKERBOCKER TRUST COMPANY, 34TH STREET AND FIFTH AVENUE.
THE PANIC OF 1907. UPTOWN BRANCH OF THE KNICKERBOCKER TRUST COMPANY, 125TH STREET.
THE PANIC OF 1907. RUN ON THE COLONIAL TRUST COMPANY. LINE OF DEPOSITORS IN ANN STREET WAITING THEIR TURN.
THE PANIC OF 1907. RUN ON THE LINCOLN TRUST COMPANY, FIFTH AVENUE ENTRANCE.
THE PANIC OF 1907. WALL STREET, IN FRONT OF THE SUB-TREASURY BUILDING, WHEN THE RUN ON THE TRUST COMPANY OF AMERICA WAS AT ITS HEIGHT.
THE PANIC OF 1907. RUN ON THE STATE BANK, GRAND STREET, NEW YORK.
EMIGRANTS BOUND FOR AMERICA.
ENTRANCE TO EMIGRANT STATION OR "MODEL TOWN" IN HAMBURG. BUILT FOR EMIGRANTS WAITING TO SAIL.
ONE OF SEVERAL CHURCHES BUILT FOR EMIGRANTS OF VARIOUS FAITHS IN THE STATION OR "MODEL TOWN" OF THE HAMBURG-AMERICAN COMPANY, FOR USE WHILE WAITING TO SAIL.
U. S. IMMIGRANT STATION, ELLIS ISLAND, N. Y.
GROUPS OF IMMIGRANTS UPON THEIR ARRIVAL AT ELLIS ISLAND.
GROUP OF COSSACK IMMIGRANTS CONSIDERED DESIRABLE AND QUALIFIED TO ENTER.
SWEDISH IMMIGRANT FAMILY CONSIDERED DESIRABLE AND QUALIFIED TO ENTER.
JUSTICES OF THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT WHO ACTED UPON THE CASES OF THE STANDARD OIL AND AMERICAN TOBACCO COMPANIES. (Copyright by Clinedinst, Washington).
CHIEF JUSTICE MELVILLE W. FULLER. (Photograph copyright by Clinedinst, Washington).
REAR-ADMIRAL ROBLEY D. EVANS. (Copyright, 1908, by Harris & Ewing).
THE ATLANTIC FLEET STARTING ON ITS JOURNEY ROUND THE WORLD, DECEMBER, 1907. (Copyright, 1907, by Underwood & Underwood).
REAR-ADMIRAL CHARLES S. SPERRY.
COTTON-MILL OPERATIVES SO SMALL THAT IN ORDER TO REACH THEIR WORK THEY HAVE TO STAND UPON THE MACHINERY.
THE SPINNING-ROOM OVERSEER AND HIS FLOCK IN A MISSISSIPPI COTTON-MILL.
ELECTRIC TRAIN, LONG ISLAND R. R.
GUGLIELMO MARCONI AND HIS WIRELESS TELEGRAPH.
MARCONI TRANSATLANTIC STATION AT SOUTH WELLFLEET, CAPE COD, MASS.
THE "ARROW" GETTING UNDER WAY. (Courtesy of Scientific American).
BALDWIN'S AIRSHIP "ARROW" AT A HEIGHT OF 600 FEET OVER THE EXPOSITION PALACES, ST. LOUIS, OCTOBER 25, 1904.
CARNEGIE FREE PUBLIC LIBRARIES.
JOSEPH G. CANNON. (Copyright by Clinedinst, Washington).
JAMES S. SHERMAN, NOMINATED FOR VICE-PRESIDENT. (Photograph by C. M. Bell, Washington).
WILLIAM H. TAFT ON HIS TRIP, STUMPING FOR THE NOMINATION.
MR. TAFT FORMALLY ACCEPTING THE REPUBLICAN NOMINATION FOR THE PRESIDENCY, ON THE VERANDA OF THE RESIDENCE OF HIS BROTHER, MR. CHARLES P. TAFT, OF CINCINNATI, OHIO. (Copyright, 1908, by Young & Carl, Cincinnati, Ohio).
PRESIDENT WILLIAM H. TAFT AND GOVERNOR HUGHES ON THE REVIEWING STAND AT THE INAUGURATION, MARCH 4,1909. (Copyright by Clinedinst, Washington).
PRESIDENT TAFT AND CABINET, 1909. (Copyright, 1909, by Brown Bros., N. Y.).
THE ALASKA-YUKON-PACIFIC EXPOSITION, SEATTLE. THE PALACE OF FINE ARTS.
THE HUDSON-FULTON CELEBRATION. THE CLERMONT PROCEEDING UP THE HUDSON RIVER UNDER HER OWN STEAM.
COMMANDER PEARY'S SHIP, THE ROOSEVELT.
COMMANDER ROBERT E. PEARY, AND THREE OF HIS ESKIMO DOGS, ON THE ROOSEVELT.
DR. F. A. COOK ON HIS ARRIVAL IN NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 21, 1909. (Photograph by Brown Bros., N. Y.).
PRESIDENT TAFT SIGNING THE PROCLAMATION MAKING ARIZONA THE FORTY-EIGHTH STATE OF THE UNION, AT THE WHITE HOUSE, FEBRUARY 14, 1912. (Copyright by Clinedinst, Washington).
PRESIDENT TAFT SIGNING THE PROCLAMATION MAKING NEW MEXICO A STATE, JANUARY 6, 1912. (Photograph, copyright, by Clinedinst, Washington).
CHARLES K. HAMILTON RACING AN AUTOMOBILE ON THE BEACH AT GALVESTON, TEXAS. (From a photograph by H. H. Morris).
WILBUR AND ORVILLE WRIGHT, AND THE LATE KING EDWARD OF ENGLAND. (Photograph by Brown Bros., N. Y.).
WILBUR WRIGHT IN HIS AEROPLANE AT PAU, FRANCE, WITH KING ALFONSO OF SPAIN.
HARRY K. ATWOOD WITH LIEUT. FICKLE FLYING OVER GOVERNOR'S ISLAND, N. Y., AFTER COMPLETING HIS LIGHT FROM ST. LOUIS TO NEW YORK.
E. DANA DURAND, DIRECTOR OF THE CENSUS. (Copyright by Clinedinst, Washington).
CENTRE OF POPULATION AT EACH CENSUS.
ROBERT M. LA FOLLETTE. (Copyright by Harris & Ewing, Washington).
ALBERT J. BEVERIDGE, SENATOR FROM INDIANA. (Copyright by Clinedinst, Washington).
SENATOR NELSON W. ALDRICH. (Photograph by Clinedinst, Washington).
PROBLEMS OF THE NEW CENTURY
THE RISE OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT
Theodore Roosevelt was born in New York City, October 27, 1858. He was graduated from Harvard in 1880. At the age of twenty-three he entered the New York State Assembly, where he served six years with great credit. Two years he was a "cowboy" in Dakota. He was United States Civil Service Commissioner and President of the New York City Police Board. In 1897 he became Assistant Secretary of the Navy, holding this position long enough to indite the despatch which took Dewey to Manila. He then raised the first United States Volunteer Cavalry, commonly spoken of as "Rough Riders," and went to Cuba as their lieutenant-colonel. Gallantry at Las Guasimas made him their colonel, the first colonel, Leonard Wood, having received a brigadier-general's commission. Returning from the war, Colonel Roosevelt found himself, as by a magic metamorphosis, Governor of his State, fighting civic battles against growing corporate abuses. He urged compulsory publicity for the affairs of monopolistic combinations, and was prominently instrumental in the enactment of the New York Franchise Tax Law.
The party managers in the 1900 convention hoped by making him Vice-President to remove him from competition for the presidency in 1904. But the most unexpected of the many swift transitions in his career foiled their calculations and brought him in a moment to the summit of a citizen's ambition.
The new chief magistrate was no less honest, fearless, or public-spirited than the recent one; it only remained to be seen whether he were not less astute and cautious. Coming to the office as he did, he was absolutely unfettered, which, in one of so frank a temperament, might prove a danger. He was more popular with the people than with politicians. Though highly educated and used to the best associations, he was more approachable than any of his predecessors. At a public dinner which he attended, one round of cheers was given him as "the President of the United States" another as "Roosevelt," and a third as "Teddy." Had McKinley been in his place a corresponding variation would have been unthinkable.
From a copyrighted photograph by Pach Bros., N. Y. Theodore Roosevelt.
President Roosevelt's temper and method were in pointed contrast to McKinley's. Whereas McKinley seemed simply to hold the tiller, availing himself of currents that to the eye deviously, yet easily and inevitably, bore him to his objective, Roosevelt strenuously plied the oar, recking little of cross currents or head winds, if, indeed, he did not delight in them. Chauncey Depew aptly styled McKinley "a Western man with Eastern ideas." Roosevelt, "an Eastern man with Western ideas." This aspect of the new President's character gave him hold on both West and East. Roosevelt was the first President since William Henry Harrison to bring to his office the vigor and freshness of the frontier, as he was, anomalously, the first city-born or wealthy-born incumbent.
Theodore Roosevelt, as Lieut.-Colonel of the "Rough Riders."
The members of President McKinley's cabinet were invited to retain their portfolios, which they agreed to do. At the time, Roosevelt was reputed to be the foremost civil service reformer in the country. Politicians were soon made aware that the President regarded fitness for office as the first test. Unfortunately during the presidency of McKinley, some 8000 offices had been taken out of the competitive lists. During Roosevelt's first term, however, the list of offices placed under the merit system was greatly extended. Within the twenty-one years from the enactment of the first national civil service reform law wonders had been accomplished in that more than one-half of the 300,000 offices in the executive civil service were placed in the classified competitive service.
President Roosevelt stood for liberal reciprocity with Cuba, urging this, at first, with results disastrous to party harmony. He was vindicated by public opinion, but learned wisdom. Though believed to be favorable to a decided easing of custom-house levies, his administration soon frankly avowed itself unable to proceed further than high- protectionists would follow. The evidence of his tariff convictions won him strong support in the West, which was prepared to go greater lengths than he. In the congressional campaign of 1902, ex-Speaker Henderson, of Iowa, a stanch protectionist, withdrew from public life, as was supposed, rather than misrepresent himself by acceding to tariff reform or his constituents by opposing it.
Mr. Roosevelt signalized his accession by an effort to make the federal anti-trust law something more than a cumberer of the statute-book. His inaugural message and innumerable addresses of his boldly handled the whole trust evil and called for the regulation of capitalistic combinations in the interest of the public.
Appreciation of the President's attitude on these matters may be assisted by some notice of the then threatening vigor and universality of the movement toward industrial combination. Mr. Beck, Assistant Attorney-General of the United States, declared in 1892:
"Excessive capitalization of corporations, dishonest management by their executive officers, the destruction of the rights of the minority, the theft of public utilities, the subordination of public interests to private gain, the debauchery of our local legislatures and executive officers, and the corruption of the elective franchise, have resulted from the facility afforded by the law to corporations to concentrate the control of colossal wealth in the hands of a few men . . . . The question presses ever more importunately for decision whether these marvellous aggregations of capital can be subordinated to the very laws which created them."
Legislation in many States, the enactment of the Sherman anti-trust law by Congress, and the decision of the Supreme Court in the Trans-Missouri case rendered insecure trust agreements of the old type, in which constituent corporations surrendered the control of their affairs to trustees. But the current merely shifted to a different channel, the trust proper giving way to the giant corporation having the same aims, methods, and efficiency, while, as more legal, it was less vulnerable.
In the railway world, "community of interest" assumed the place of pooling agreements. The Union Pacific acquired large holdings from Collis P. Huntington's estate and controlled the Southern Pacific. The power behind the Southern Railway got control of nearly all the other Southern railways, including the Atlantic Coast Line, the Plant System, and at last even the Louisville and Nashville. The New York Central dominated the other Vanderbilt roads. The Pennsylvania secured decisive amounts of Baltimore and Ohio stock, as well as weighty interests in the Chesapeake and Ohio and the Norfolk and Western, and so on.
Collis P. Huntington.
Great banking establishments, foremost among them the house of J. P. Morgan & Co., took to financing these schemes. Morgan re-organized the Northern Pacific, and it would forthwith have pooled issues with the Great Northern but for opposition by the State of Minnesota. James J. Hill was master of the Great Northern, and confidence existed between him and Morgan.
They wished a secure outlet for the products of the Northwest, also access to Chicago over a line of their own. After a survey of the field the promoters selected as the most available for the latter office the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy. Purchase of shares in this corporation was quietly begun. Soon the Burlington road was apparently in hand. Prices rose.
Copyright. 1902. by Pach Bros., N. Y. James J. Hill.
The Union Pacific control perceived in the aggression of the two northern lines a menace to its northwestern and Pacific coast connections. The Union Pacific leader, E. H. Harriman, resorted to an unexpected coup. He attempted to purchase the Northern Pacific, Burlington and all. A mysterious demand, set Northern Pacific shares soaring. The stock reached $1,000 a share and none was obtainable. Panic arose; bankers and brokers faced ruin.
The two sides now declared a truce. The Northern Securities Company was created, with a capital approaching a billion dollars, to take over the Burlington, Northern Pacific, and Great Northern stocks.
E. H. Harriman.
The States of Minnesota and Washington, unable in their own courts to thwart this plan, sought the intervention of the United States Supreme Court. Their suit was vain till the Administration came to the rescue. At the instance of the Attorney-General, an injunction issued from the high court named forbidding the Securities Company to receive the control of the roads, and the holders of the railroad stocks involved to give it over. It was observed, however, that at the very time of the above proceedings the Southern Railways' power obtained control of the Louisville and Nashville without jar or judicial obstruction.
While general, the process of confederation was specially conspicuous in the iron and steel trade. In rapid succession the National Steel Company, the American Sheet Steel Company, and the American Tin Plate Company were each made up of numerous smaller plants. Each of these corporations, with a capital from $12,000,000 to $40,000,000, owned the mines, the ships, and the railways for hauling its products, the mills for manufacturing, and the agencies for sale. Through the efforts of John W. Gates numerous wire and nail works were combined into the American Steel and Wire Company. The Federal Steel Company, the American Bridge Company, the Republic Iron and Steel Company, huge and complete, were dictators each in its field.
John W. Gates.
The Carnegie Steel Company long remained independent. Determined not to enter a "combine," Andrew Carnegie sought to fortify his position. He obtained a fleet of ships upon the lakes, purchased mines, undertook to construct tube works at Conneaut, Ohio, and planned for railroads. A battle of the giants, with loss and possible ruin for one side or the other, impended. Carnegie was finally willing to sell. Hence, the United States Steel Corporation capitalized for a billion dollars. Carnegie and his partners were said to receive about $300,000,000 in bonds of the new corporation, while the other trusts and the promoters absorbed the stock for their properties and services. The underwriting syndicate probably realized $25,000,000.
Copyright. 1902, by Rockwood. N. Y. Andrew Carnegie.
The trust creators extended their operations abroad. In 1901 J. Pierpont Morgan and associates acquired the Leyland line of Atlantic steamships. British nerves had not recovered tone when a steamship combination, embracing not only American and British but also German lines and ship-building firms at Belfast and on the Clyde was announced. Of the great Atlantic companies, only the Cunard line remained independent. Parliamentary and ministerial assurances of governmental attention only emphasized the strength of the association.
Copyright, 1901. by Pach Bros., N. Y: J. Pierpont Morgan.
One effect of this organization at home was to place the Ship Subsidy Bill, which passed the Senate in 1901, for the time, at least, on the table. The sentiment of the country, especially of the Middle West, would not permit the payment of public money to a concern commercially able to defy Britannia on the sea.
The Yankee Peril confronted Londoners when they saw American capital securing control of their proposed underground transit system. At their tables they beheld the output of food trusts. One of these, the so-called Beef Trust, called down upon itself in 1902 domestic as well as foreign anathema.
The failure of the corn crop in 1900, together with a scarcity of cattle, tended to raise the price of beef. In 1902 outcry became emphatic. Advance in meat values drew forcibly to view the control held by six slaughtering concerns acting in unison.
The President ordered an investigation, and, as a result, proceedings under the Sherman Act to restrain the great packers from continuing their alleged combination. A temporary injunction was granted. The slow machinery of chancery bade fair to work out a decree, but long before it was on record, alert spirits among the packing firms evolved a new plan not obnoxious to decrees, but effective for union.
If the public suffered from these phalanxed industries while they ran smoothly, it endured peculiar evils from the periodical conflicts between the capital and the labor engaged in them.
The Steel Strike of 1901 was a conflict over the unionizing of certain hitherto non-union plants of the United States Steel Corporation. It resulted in defeat for the strikers and in the disunionizing of plants.
Col. Clements. Gen. Gobin, commanding troops sent to Shenandoah in the coal strike of 1902.
This strike had no such consequences for the consuming public as attended the anthracite coal strike of 1902, which was more bitterly fought in that it was a conflict over wages. The standard of living had been lowered in one of the coal-fields by the introduction of cheap foreign labor. Now the same process threatened the other coal-field.
A strike ordered by the United Mine Workers began May 12, 1902, when one hundred and forty-seven thousand miners went out. Though the record was marred at places, they behaved well and retained to a large degree public sympathy. When the price of anthracite rose from about $5 a ton to $28 and $30, the parts of the country using hard coal were threatened with a fuel famine and had begun to realize it. For the five months ending October 12th, the strike was estimated to have cost over $126,000,000. The operators stubbornly refused to arbitrate or to recognize the union, and the miners, with equal constancy, held their ranks intact.
Coal strike at Shenandoah, Pa., 1902. A strikers' picket.
Copyright, 1902, by George Grantham Bain. The coal strike arbitrators chosen by the President. Carroll D. Wright, Recorder; T. H. Watkins, General J. M. Wilson, Judge Gray, Presiding Officer; E, W. Parker, E. E. Clark. and Bishop Spalding.
The problem of protecting the public pressed for solution as never before. The only suggestion at first discussed was arbitration. Enforced arbitration could not be effected in the absence of contract without infringing the workingman's right to labor or to decline to do so; in other words, without reducing him, in case of adverse decision by arbitration, to a condition of involuntary servitude. It looked as though no solution would be reached unless State or nation should condemn and acquire ample portions of the mining lands to be worked under its own auspices and in a just manner. This course was suggested, but nearly all deemed it dangerously radical; nor was it as yet likely to be adopted by Congress or by the Pennsylvania legislature, should these powers be called to deal with the problem.
On October 3 President Roosevelt called the coal operators and President Mitchell of the United Mine Workers to a conference at the White House, urging them to agree. His effort, at first seeming unsuccessful, was much criticised, but very few failed to praise it when, a few days later, it was found to have succeeded completely. An able and impartial commission, satisfactory to both sides, was appointed by the President to act as arbitrator, both miners and operators agreeing to abide its decrees. The miners, the four hundred thousand women and children dependent on them, the poor beginning to suffer from cold, indeed the whole nation, including, no doubt, the operators, felt relief.
"How much better," said the young President, once, addressing a fashionable assembly, "boldly to attempt remedying a bad situation than to sit quietly in one's retreat, sigh, and think how good it would be if the situation could be remedied!"
ROOSEVELT'S FIRST ADMINISTRATION, 1901-1905
The sentiment noted at the end of the last chapter seemed to be the motive of Mr. Roosevelt's public life. Not only was he better informed on the whole than almost any President who had sat in the chair before, but he was a good lawyer, familiar with national and general history and awake to all contemporary doings, questions, and interests south, west, east, and abroad. He was also more a man of action and affairs than any of his predecessors. He had, in a very high degree, alertness, energy, courage, initiative, dispatch. Physically as well as mentally vigorous, he read much, heard all who could usefully inform him, apprehended easily, decided quickly, and toiled like Hercules. He was just and catholic in spirit, appreciating whatever was good in any section of the country or class of people. He respected precedent but was not its slave. Rather than walk always in ruts with never a jolt, he preferred some risks of tumbling over hummocks. Few public men of any age or country have more fully met Aristotle's test of a statesman: "ability to see facts as they exist and to do the things needing to be done."
Copyright. l904. by Pach Bros., N. Y. John Hay, Secretary of State. [Died July 1, 1905.]
He had able aids; pre-eminent among these were John Hay, Secretary of State, and Elihu Root, Secretary of War. Each was, to say the least, the peer of his greatest predecessors in his office. It was mainly to Mr. Root that we were indebted for starting the Cubans prosperously as an independent nation. His service for the Philippines so far as it went was not less distinguished; and he effected vitally important reorganization and reform in the war office.
A well co-ordinated plan was developed whereby army officers were given advanced training in the various branches of military science as in the European countries. Neither the President nor Secretary Root advocated a large standing army, but they both strove to bring the army "to the very highest point of efficiency of any army in the civilized world." The ability of Secretary Root to inaugurate reforms in a department which when he became its head was overridden by tradition, was well expressed by President Roosevelt as follows: "Elihu Root is the ablest man I have known in our governmental service. I will go further. He is the greatest man that has appeared in the public life of any country, in any position, on either side of the ocean in my time."
Copyright. 1903. by Clinedinst, Washington. Elihu Root, Secretary of War. [Secretary of State, July 1905.]
Under Secretary Hay our State Department attained unprecedented prestige, due in part to the higher position among the nations now accorded us. This result itself Mr. Hay had done much to achieve; and he passed hardly a month in his office without making some further addition to the renown and influence of his country. If the United States has—which may be doubted—raised up diplomatists with Mr. Hay's mastery of international law and practice and his art and skill in conducting delicate negotiations, we have probably never had his equal in diplomatic initiative, or in the thorough preparation and presentation of cases. He did not meet occasions merely but made them, not arbitrarily but for the world's good. Settling the Alaskan boundary favorably to the United States at every point save one, crumbling with the single stroke of his Pauncefote treaty that Clayton-Bulwer rock on which Evarts, Blaine, and Frelinghuysen in turn had tried dynamite in vain, were deeds seldom matched in statecraft.
By an act of Congress, in 1903, a new member was added to the President's cabinet in the person of the Secretary of the Department of Commerce and Labor. George B. Cortelyou was the first man appointed to that office. Two bureaus, those of corporations and of manufactures, were created for the department. The other bureaus, such as the Bureau of Statistics, Bureau of Standards of Weights and Measures and Coast and Geodetic Survey, were transferred from the other departments. The place of this new department was defined by the President in the following: "to aid in strengthening our domestic and foreign markets, in perfecting our transportation facilities, in building up our merchant marine, in preventing the entrance of undesirable immigrants, in improving commercial and industrial conditions, and in bringing together on common ground those necessary partners in industrial progress—capital and labor."
Photograph by Rice. George B. Cortelyou, Secretary of the Department of Commerce and Labor.
Among the problems engaging President Roosevelt none was of wider interest than the construction of an Atlantic-Pacific canal. A commission of nine, Rear-Admiral Walker its head, had been set by President McKinley to find the best route. It began investigation in the summer of 1899, visiting Paris to examine the claims of the French Panama Company, and also Nicaragua and Panama. It surveyed, platted, took borings, and made a minute and valuable report upon the work which each of the proposed canals would require.
The Isthmian Canal Commission, taken March 22, 1904. 1. Col. Frank J. Hecker. 2. William Barclay Parsons. 3. Wm. H. Burr. 4. C. E. Grunsky. 5. Ad. J. G. Walker. 6. B. M. Harrod. 7. Gen. Geo. W. Davis.
The most practicable routes were Nicaragua and Panama. The Nicaragua way was between three and four times the longer—183 miles to 49; 38 hours from ocean to ocean as against 12. The Panama way was straighter, had less elevation at its summit, and required fewer locks. Congress finally decided to construct a high level lock-canal. The cost of keeping up and operating a Panama canal was estimated at six-tenths that of one across Nicaragua. Harbor expenses and facilities would be nearly the same for both lines. The time required for construction, probably nine or ten years, would be a trifle the less at Nicaragua. Control works, to keep always the proper depth of water in the canal, could be more easily maintained at Panama.
Panama political and commercial complications were serious. The isthmus was Colombia territory, and, since October, 1899, a civil war had been raging in that republic. Its financial condition was desperate. Two hundred million inconvertible paper pesos had depreciated to the value of two cents each in gold, yet were legal tender for all obligations. In such a country, especially as war was in progress, the only government able to maintain itself was despotic. Civil troubles were intensified by dissension between Catholics and Protestants. Revolution accompanied any change in administration.
Under Ferdinand de Lesseps, creator of the Suez Canal, the French company had performed extensive excavations at Panama. The New Panama Canal Company of France held certain concessions from the Colombian government. The value of its assets was $109,000,000 at most. If we dug at Nicaragua these would be worth little. Besides, a Nicaragua canal completed, some $6,000,000 of stock owned by the French company in the Panama railroad would dwindle in value.
The validity of the French company's rights was questioned. Its agreement to work some each year had not been kept. Its charter was to expire in October, 1904, but, for 5,000,000 francs, the Colombia President granted a six-year extension. Even with this the French franchise would revert to Colombia in 1910. Colombia wished delay. The United States transcontinental railroads did not want a canal, as it would divert from them heavy, bulky, and imperishable freight. They therefore joined Colombia in seeking delay, playing off the Nicaragua plan against the Panama, hoping to defeat both.
Late in 1901, newspapers in the United States began urging the purchase from Colombia of a land belt across the isthmus to be United States territory. Our Senate, December 16, 1901, by a vote of 72 to 6, ratified the Hay-Pauncefote treaty with Great Britain, in which it was agreed that we should build a canal, allowing all other nations to use it. Meantime, spite of the fact that the Walker commission had recommended Nicaragua route, public sentiment began to favor Panama. Even the Walker commission changed to this view.
The Spooner act of Congress, approved June 28, 1902, authorized the President to build an isthmian canal. The Panama properties and franchises were to be bought if he could get good title and also obtain the fee of a right of way from Colombia; otherwise he must pierce Nicaragua. The act provided for all necessary funds. The French company's claims were investigated, pronounced valid, and in due time acquired by the United States.
The American Isthmus, showing routes investigated for a ship-canal. Solid Lines—Routes investigated by the Isthmian Canal Commission. Dashed Lines—Routes investigated by others.
Effort to secure from Colombia the required territorial rights was made in the proposed Hay-Herran treaty, ratified by our Senate, 73 against 5, March 17, 1903, under which we were to pay Colombia, besides an annual rental $10,000,000 for the lease of a belt six miles wide from sea to sea. August 17, 1903, the Colombian Senate rejected this treaty, and, October 18, the government of that country proposed another, involving the payment by us of $25,000,000 instead of $10,000,000. If we offered this, would not the price rise to $30,000,000 or more?
Papers in the United States argued for a revolution in Panama. The isthmus, it was urged, was in time nearer to Washington than to Bogota. All Panama interests centred in the canal. Should Nicaragua get the canal, Colon and Panama would be deserted. Both places owed their peace to the presence of our navy. On the principle that treaties concerning territory run with the territory, ignoring changes of sovereignty, our time-honored obligation to keep peace on the isthmus, bound us, if Panama set up for herself, to protect her even against Colombia. England would concur. English ships would use the canal more than ours. Great Britain, risking and spending nothing, would gain incalculably. France, too, would acquiesce. The Frenchmen got some $40,000,000 if the canal crossed Panama but lost everything if it passed to Nicaragua. Other European nations wished the canal built and felt that now was the accepted time. Latin-American States alone showed sympathy with Colombia.
Photograph by Clinedinst. M. Bunau-Varilla, Minister from Panama.
Revolution took place. On the afternoon of November 3, 1903, the Panama city council declared that city independent of Colombia. Colon followed. A provisional Panama government was organized. November 6 we recognized Panama as an independent State. November 7 she appointed M. Bunau-Varilla her diplomatic agent at Washington. November 13 he was, as such, formally received by President Roosevelt. November 18 Secretary Hay and M. Bunau-Varilla signed a treaty whose first article read: "The United States guarantees and will maintain the independence of the Republic of Panama." Articles II and III gave us, in effect, sovereignty over a ten-mile wide canal zone between the oceans. This treaty was ratified by Panama December 2, and by our Senate February 23, 1904. November 16, 1903, Colombia protested to Great Britain against our action, and, November 28, offered us a canal concession free if we would permit her to subjugate Panama.
Both at home and abroad the administration was charged with sharp practice for its Panama coup, and the case made out by critics was prima facie strong—less, indeed, on its legal than on its ethical and prudential side. We had allowed ourselves to profit by Colombia's distress, encouraged secession in federal republics like our own, and rendered ourselves and our Monroe doctrine objects of dread throughout Central and South America. Still, Colombia had been so stiff and greedy and the settlement was in the main so happy, that censure soon subsided. All the powerful nations speedily followed our example and recognized Panama's independence.
Copyright, 1900. by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y: Great heaps of wreckage piled high by the Galveston disaster.
In September, 1900, the city of Galveston was visited by one of the greatest disasters known in American history. A fierce storm swept the waters of the gulf over the island on which Galveston is situated, destroying property aggregating many millions of dollars and causing the loss of 6,000 lives out of the total population of 37,000. For a time it seemed that the site of the city would have to be abandoned, for the highest land on which buildings stood was but a few feet above the highest waves. It was determined, however, to build a stone wall three miles in length which should be massive enough to protect the city from any similar attack. Its top, which is five feet thick, is three feet above the highest point reached by the water. The bottom of the wall is sixteen feet thick. This wall, which is built concave toward the gulf, is protected by earth and stone filled in for two hundred feet, thus providing a driveway thirty feet wide with walks on either side, beautified with trees and shrubs.
Photograph by H. H. Morris. The boulevard and sea-wall, Galveston. Built after the flood.
The management of public affairs during the rebuilding of the city was entrusted to a committee of experts. So efficiently and economically was the administration of the government, that the Galveston Plan, commonly spoken of as the Commission Plan, soon became a model for municipal organization. A modification of this plan was soon put into operation at Des Moines, Iowa. This plan consists of government by five salaried persons, one of them acting as mayor. This body performs both legislative and executive duties, each member being in charge of a department of the city government. The arguments in favor of this type of government are: (1) Responsibility is easily located; (2) a few men receive such salaries that they may be expected to give their whole time to the duties of their offices; (3) more civic interest will be aroused. All officers are subject to removal at any time by vote of a certain proportion of the people.
The Cuban government was organized in the spring of 1902. On May 20 of that year, Governor-General Wood for the United States turned over the government house at Havana to President Tomaso Estrada y Palma.
The ceremonies attending the transfer were impressive. A letter from President Roosevelt addressed to the President and the Congress of the Republic of Cuba was handed to President Palma. This declared the occupation of Cuba by the United States to be at an end and tendered the sincere friendship and good wishes of this country. At noon General Wood hauled down the American flag, which had floated above the Governor's palace at Havana, and assisted General Gomez in raising to the breeze the red triangle with central silver star and three blue and two white stripes constituting the flag of the new republic. All of the foreign ships in the harbor likewise ran up the Cuban flag in honor of the occasion. Forty-five shots, one for each State in the Union, were fired as the stars and stripes were lowered from Morro Castle and the other fortresses. The American troops saluted the new emblem, fired twenty-one guns in honor of the new nation, and then embarked for the United States. Thus was kept to the letter—a noble example of public faith—the promise we made when invading Cuba, that we would not acquire territory.
Copyright, 1902, by Underwood &Underwood, N.Y. Tomaso Estrada y Palma, First President of Cuba, in the palace, Havana.
Copyright. 1902, by Underwood & Underwood. Lowering the Stars and Stripes on the palace, May 20, 1902, for the flag of the Cuban Republic.
Those who prophesied a short life for the new republic and a reign of fraud and corruption were mistaken. During the first year economy became the rule in the administration of all branches of the public service, the government was self supporting, and a balance accumulated in the treasury. Moreover, the reforms inaugurated by Americans continued. Some 3,400 teachers were employed in the island and 120,000 pupils were in constant attendance upon the schools. In all parts of the island the effects of American rule were visible. Ten million dollars had been expended in sanitation reforms and the cleansing of Havana and the other cities. Industrial schools for orphan boys and girls were begun and hospitals and asylums for the sick, helpless, and insane were reestablished. By 1901 a railroad, with branch lines, was constructed between Santiago and Havana, thus giving the whole island excellent transportation facilities.
Cuba could not gain prosperity at a bound. Whereas the island should, under natural conditions, have had $30,000,000 to $40,000,000 due her from foreign countries in 1902, she was $50,000,000 in debt. Her manufactures were insignificant. It was estimated that, in the year named, $80,000,000 of American money was invested in Cuba. The main enterprises were railroads, sugar and tobacco plantations, mines, and fruit farms.
Free commercial intercourse with Spain no longer existing, Cuban sugar and tobacco producers sought markets in the United States, leading to the "reciprocity" conflict touched upon in Chapter XIII, Vol. V. During 1902 a reciprocity treaty was negotiated and promptly ratified in Cuba. Our Senate amended it and returned it to Cuba for reconsideration. Brought hither again, it was passed by our Senate in December, 1903. President Roosevelt signed it December 17, declaring its provisions effective in ten days.
The Philippine Commission (Chapter XV, Vol. V), four Americans and three islanders, at first enacted laws by the authority of the President as Commander-in-Chief. After the Congressional Act of July 1, 1902, the formula ran: "By authority of the United States be it enacted by the Philippine Commission." The government was pronouncedly civil both in nature and in spirit, the natives being gradually placated, and only an occasional outbreak demanding the presence of troops. Schools were established, the English language and American ideas of government and business introduced. No promise of Philippine independence was given, yet the tenor of our whole policy toward the Filipinos, of official utterances and of public sentiment relating to them, was to the effect that we should never look upon any of the islands as a crown colony.
Gov. William H. Taft [Secretary of War, 1905.]
The same interests that forbade Cuban reciprocity opposed tariff concessions to the Philippines. A 25 per cent reduction from the Dingley rates was the best that Congress would grant, though the commission besought one of at least 75 per cent. For a time our behavior in this too much resembled English and Spanish dealings with colonies centuries ago. The United States acquired from the Philippine religious orders 422,337 acres of land, three-fifths of it highly cultivated and thickly inhabited, for $7,239,000. In all, the government owned about 61,000,000 out of the perhaps 70,000,000 acres of land in the islands. Of the government lands, 40,000,000 acres were forest.
The law of July 1, 1902, to supplement the commission, provided for a native assembly of not more than 100 members or less than 50, with annual sessions of 90 days. Municipal autonomy was allowed and became common. An efficient constabulary was established, also a Philippine mint and coinage system on a gold basis. Careful exploitation of the agricultural, mineral, and other resources of the islands was provided for, as well as an increasing number of public improvements in the interest of order, health, and cleanliness. To promote investment in the Philippine public works, 4 per cent bonds were issued, guaranteed by the United States.
The Baltimore fire. Lombard and Calvert Streets, Showing Continental and Equitable Buildings.
Preparatory to forming the Philippine Assembly the commission took a census of the islands. In 1905 the population returned from 342 islands was 7,635,426. Of this number only about 9 per cent were wild tribes, though more than half the entire population could neither read nor write in any language. Of the 370,000 pupils in the newly established schools, or double the number in attendance two years previously, one in nine on the average had some understanding of English. Twelve thousand adults were in the night schools, chiefly engaged in acquiring the English language.
The Baltimore fire. Hopkins Place and German Street, looking east.
In February, 1904, a fire broke out in the heart of the city of Baltimore. Some 1,337 structures were either entirely destroyed or rendered unfit for occupancy. The loss in buildings and other property destroyed was about $75,000,000. With a few exceptions, the financial district of the city was burned. For a time it was feared that the losses would be so great that restoration could not be made, but new plans were projected which included broader streets and better buildings. Instead of a decrease in the number of business concerns, there was an increase through the entrance of firms from the outside.
Copyright,1904. William H. Rau, Philadelphia. Opening Day at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. President D. K. Francis delivering the opening address.
The Varied Industries Building. THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION.
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis was opened April 30, 1904, and continued for seven months. It commemorated the acquisition of the Louisiana territory which was consummated April 30, 1803, marking one of the greatest events in American history. Out of this area had been carved thirteen States and two territories wherein over 17,000,000 people were making their homes.
The design for the exposition represented the work of ten of the most distinguished architects of the country. The buildings, grouped in perfect taste, mostly of noble style, had 128 acres of floor space, far beyond that at the disposal of any preceding fair. The grounds also were unprecedentedly ample and beautifully diversified, containing about 1,200 acres. The total attendance, 18,741,073, fell short of that at Chicago in 1893 by over 8,000,000.
The general plan of the exposition was intended to symbolize the history of the Louisiana territory representing the successive occupants of the soil—the wild animals; the Indians; the discoverers; the explorers; the hunters; the trappers, and the pioneers. The aim was to make it one vast educational object lesson. To that end there were extensive exhibits from thirty States and from the chief cities of work done in the primary and secondary schools and in the universities and colleges of the country. This feature culminated in the International Congress of Arts and Sciences. Over 100 of the leading scholars from England, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Japan, the United States, and a number of other countries made addresses and took part in the various discussions. All the fields of human knowledge were represented by these specialists.
One feature of this exposition was unique: it represented to an unprecedented extent processes in lieu of products or in addition to them. Every day at almost every point something was literally doing, going on. Machinery whizzed, mines were operated, artists were at work, experts showed their craft; Indians, Filipinos, the blind, deaf, and dumb were taught.
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1904
The Republican convention met at Chicago, June 21, and on June 23 nominated Theodore Roosevelt for President. President Roosevelt's nomination was a certainty from the beginning. This action was demanded by the rank and file of Republicans, for his achievements were popular. Among the problems which he had helped to solve were those growing out of the war with Spain; settlement of the anthracite coal strike; creation of the Department of Commerce and Labor; and the investigation and prosecution of dishonesty in the post-office department.
Charles W. Fairbanks, Vice-President of the United States.
Plans for the convention had all been matured in advance with the exception of the selection of a candidate for Vice-President. By the time the convention assembled the opinion was general that for geographical reasons some one from Indiana should be named for this office. Charles Warren Fairbanks, a leading lawyer in Indianapolis, who was serving his second term in the United States Senate, was nominated without any real opposition. He had served as a member of the Joint High Commission to adjust international questions of moment between the United States and Great Britain. Grover Cleveland and William Jennings Bryan had declared they would not be candidates for the presidency and the Democratic party was in a dilemma. Both the conservative and the radical elements of the party declared they would write the platform and name the candidates. Alton Brooks Parker, Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals of New York, who was supported by Grover Cleveland, came gradually into prominence as the candidate of the conservatives and William Randolph Hearst of the radicals.
The Republican convention at Chicago, 1904.
The chief contest came in the Democratic convention of New York. There Judge Parker was supported by David B. Hill, ex-United States senator, and August Belmont, a New York banker. In consequence it was declared by the opposition that Judge Parker was the candidate of the trusts, Wall Street magnates, and a class of politicians of which Hill was the type. This view was taken by Bryan. In spite of the opposition of Tammany leaders and the Hearst faction, twice as many Parker as Hearst delegates were chosen.
William R. Hearst.
In the convention, which met at St. Louis, July 9, Judge Parker received 658 votes for President on the first ballot, Hearst received 200, and there were a few scattering votes. The requisite two-thirds came to Parker before the result of the ballot was announced. Henry G. Davis, of West Virginia, was named for the office of Vice-President.
He had served two terms in the United States Senate, had declined the office of Post-Master General under President Cleveland, was very wealthy, and noted for his philanthropy.
Bryan demanded that the platform should be silent on the question of the money standard, but Parker declined the nomination unless it should be understood that he would maintain the gold standard, and his declaration was endorsed by the convention.
There were no distinguishing issues between the two leading parties. The money question had disappeared and both parties were outspoken in their declarations against trusts and combinations of capital.
The Populist party, in a convention made up of delegates from one-half the States, nominated Thomas E. Watson, of Georgia, and Thomas H. Tubbles, of Nebraska, for President and Vice-President, respectively. There were two Socialist conventions: one, that of the Social Democratic party, nominated Eugene V. Debs, of Indiana, for President, and the Socialist Labor party named Charles H. Corregan, of New York, for the same office. The nominees of the Prohibitionist party were Silas C. Swallow, of Pennsylvania, for President, and George W. Carroll, of Texas, for Vice-President.
The Democratic convention at St. Louis, 1904.
The campaign was noteworthy on account of the apathy which was very general. Heated discussions so characteristic of previous political contests were seldom heard, and arguments were addressed to the intelligence of voters rather than to passion and prejudice.
It has been called a reading rather than a speaking campaign. The leading Republican document was a pamphlet containing two notable addresses. One of these was delivered by John Hay at Jackson, Mich., on the occasion of the celebration of the semi-centennial of the founding of the Republican party. He attributed to that party the success in the conduct of public affairs since 1860, and praised President Roosevelt as a man and great administrator. The other speech was similar in content, and was delivered by Elihu Root as temporary chairman of the Republican convention.
Alton B. Parker.
Toward the close of the campaign, the charge was made that the Republicans were endeavoring to win through a wholesale purchase of votes. It was asserted that George B. Cortelyou, manager of the campaign, having obtained secrets of the conduct of some of the great corporations, was using that knowledge to force them to contribute to the Republican fund. A second charge proclaimed that the administration had changed its attitude toward certain corporations and that the magnates of Wall Street, having decided to elect Roosevelt, were contributing generously to the Republican campaign fund. Shortly before the day for the election, Judge Parker in a series of speeches announced his belief in these reports. President Roosevelt declared that no proof for the statements could be produced, and ended as follows: "The statements made by Mr. Parker are unqualifiedly and atrociously false. As Mr. Cortelyou has said to me more than once during this campaign, if elected I shall go into the presidency unhampered by any pledge, promise, or understanding of any kind, sort or description, save my promise, made openly to the American people, that so far as in my power lies I shall see to it that every man has a square deal, no less and no more." In his reply, Judge Parker reiterated the charge, but gave no concrete instances of money having been obtained from corporations.
Photograph by Clinedinst, Washington, D. C. Inauguration of President Roosevelt, March 4. 1905.
Out of a total vote of 13,544,705, Roosevelt received 7,630,893 votes, or 2,524,244 more than his leading competitor. His majority was 1,717,081. Debs received 397,308 votes; Swallow, 258,039; Watson, 114,306; Corregan, 32,516. Thirty-three States gave Roosevelt majorities and twelve Southern States returned majorities for Parker. In the electoral college Roosevelt received 336 votes and Parker 140. A surprising feature of the election was the large number of independent votes cast, as shown by the fact that Minnesota, Massachusetts, Missouri, and Montana, while giving majorities for the Republican candidates, elected Democratic governors, and in several other States a similar tendency was manifest in the divergence between the vote for the national candidates and local candidates.
AMERICA AND THE CHINESE OPEN DOOR
The aggressive policy of President Roosevelt continued throughout the four years succeeding March 4, 1905, when he again took the oath of office as President. In his suggested reforms he continued to be a real leader of the people. John Hay, who for seven years had so efficiently performed his duties as Secretary of State, was continued in that office. William H. Taft, after his return from the Philippine Islands, where he had held the office of first civil governor, succeeded Elihu Root as Secretary of War.
The United States, having become a world power after the war with Spain, assumed leadership in the adjustment of Chinese problems. At the close of the century American manufacturers had built up in China a market for their cotton goods which they desired to extend. At the same time strife arose among some of the European nations for trade advantages in that empire. Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Italy were demanding for their citizens concessions, leases, franchises, and special trade privileges in various parts of that country. Gradually, spheres of influence covering certain regions were acquired and it seemed probable that China would be partitioned among the European Powers as Africa had been in the previous decade. This would be a blow to American export trade. Now the acquisition of the Philippine Islands gave us a vantage point from which we could consistently exert influence in Oriental affairs. In September, 1899, John Hay addressed a note to the European Powers interested, asking recognition of the policy of the "open door," which means that no power should exclude the citizens of other nations from equal trade rights, within its sphere of influence, in China. Without winning complete acceptance from all the nations, the justice of this policy was, in the main, approved.
Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N.Y. Count Von Waldersee escorted by officers of the allied armies between lines of U. S. troops toward the Sacred Gate, Peking.
During the following year came the Boxer Rebellion in which there were massacres of Europeans and Americans. When the foreign legations were besieged in Peking, United States troops took part in the expedition which marched to their relief. Seizure of Chinese territory, as indemnity, might have followed, but Secretary Hay brought the influence of this country to bear in securing guarantees of the territorial integrity of China and equal trade rights in its ports.
Friendly relations between the Chinese Empire and the United States were still further strengthened by the liberal attitude of our government relative to the indemnity growing out of the Boxer uprising. The total amount which China had obligated itself to pay the governments, societies, and private individuals was $333,000,000. Of this sum, $24,400,778 was allotted to the United States. As a mark of friendship for China, Congress upon the recommendation of President Roosevelt, 1907, cancelled the obligation of China to pay that part of the stipulated indemnity in excess of $11,655,492, or an amount adequate to cover the actual amount of the claims. This generous conduct prompted the Chinese government to devote the funds thus remitted to the sending of Chinese students to this country for their education. About one hundred of these students have entered our schools and colleges each year since 1907. American institutions will, as a consequence, have a great influence on the progressive development of China.
For some time Russia had been extending her influence over the Chinese tributary province of Manchuria. In 1903 negotiations for a new commercial treaty were begun between China and the United States. There were numerous delays on account of an agreement relative to opening the Manchurian ports. For a time it seemed probable that the American demand that her trading rights should be restored in Manchuria would bring on serious complications with Russia. Upon the completion of the treaty, however, the request was renewed and China acquiesced by opening the ports of Mukden and Ta Tung Kao to the ships of all nations. At the same time Russia agreed that she would in no way oppose this action.
Copyright 1901, by Underwood & Underwood. American flag raised over battered remnants of South Gate immediately after city's capture. Battle of Tien-Tsin, China.
At the outbreak of the war between Japan and Russia, in 1904, Secretary Hay took another step toward maintaining the administrative entity of the Chinese Empire. At the suggestion of Germany he addressed a note to the powers which had taken part in the treaty of Peking, asking them to pledge themselves to limit the area of the war; keep China from becoming involved, and use their best endeavors to prevent the violation of Chinese interests by either belligerent, provided China should maintain absolute neutrality. These proposals were agreed to by the signatory nations, and both Russia and Japan promised to respect Chinese neutrality.
Meantime a new national spirit had been developing rapidly in China and a greater sensitiveness was manifest toward the treatment of Chinese outside the empire. The strict interpretation of the Chinese Exclusion act had caused many Chinese entering the ports of the United States unwarranted hardships. A crisis was reached in 1905.
Arrival of Chinamen at Malone, N. Y., from Canada, accompanied by officials.
According to the rules adopted by the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, neither the immigration acts nor the Chinese exclusion acts apply to a Chinese person born in the United States. Under the laws, all Chinese laborers, both skilled and unskilled, are prohibited from entering the United States, but this prohibition does not extend to merchants, teachers, students, and travellers who are to be granted all the rights, privileges, and exemptions accorded the citizens of any other nation. In spite of these rulings, Ju Toy, who claimed to have been born in the United States, was deported. Three Chinamen, with their sister, who had been studying in the English schools came to Boston. Notwithstanding they had a letter from Mr. Choate, former United States ambassador to Great Britain, they were not allowed to land with other passengers, and were otherwise humiliated by the formalities to which they were subjected. Men of influence throughout the Chinese Empire were aroused and a circular was issued, in May, 1905, which was widely disseminated in the chief cities, calling for agreement not to buy any more American goods. Newspapers urged students to leave schools where American teachers were employed or American text-books or supplies were used. At this juncture President Roosevelt was appealed to by the American members of the Chinese Educational Association. Acting with his accustomed vigor, he issued instructions to the Secretary of Commerce and Labor to send a letter to all immigration officials, instructing them that "any discourtesy shown to Chinese persons by any officials of the Government will be the cause for immediate dismissal from the service." In his message to Congress he declared that it was Chinese laborers alone who are undesirable, and that other Chinamen—students, professional men, merchants—should be encouraged to come to the United States. "We have no right," he wrote, "to claim the open door in China unless we do equity to the Chinese."
Great progress was made during the nineteenth century toward the settlement of differences between nations through arbitration. The United States was a party to 50 out of the total number of 120 arbitration treaties. Questions settled in this manner, such as boundary, damages inflicted by war or civil disturbances and injuries to commerce, would formerly have led to war. Twenty of these cases have been between the United States and Great Britain, and a settlement was effected when, at times, it seemed as if war could not be averted.
The work of the Hague Peace Conference, which met May 18, 1899, constituted a fitting close to the efforts which were put forth during the century to bring about conciliation through arbitration. The conference assembled in response to an invitation issued by the Czar of Russia "on behalf of disarmament and the permanent peace of the world." One hundred and ten delegates were present, representing twenty-six different powers of which the United States was one. The delegates were divided into three commissions, each having separate subjects for consideration.
The House in the Woods, The Hague, Holland, where the first Peace Conference was held.
The first commission adopted unanimously the resolution that "the limitation of the military charges which so oppress the world is greatly to be desired," but agreed that this could not now be accomplished through an international compact.
In the second commission a revision of the Declaration of Brussels concerning the rules of war was made. It was agreed by the entire conference that a new convention for this purpose should be called, and that the protection offered by the Red Cross, as agreed upon in the Geneva convention, should also be extended to naval warfare.
The proposition expressing the desire that international conflicts might in the future be settled through arbitration was considered by the third commission. Said ex-President Harrison: "The greatest achievement of the Hague conference was the establishment of an absolutely impartial judicial tribunal." Some of the chief features of this permanent court of arbitration were as follows: (1) Each nation which agreed to the plan was to appoint, within three months, four persons of recognized competency in international law, who were to serve for six years as members of the International Court; (2) an International Bureau was established at The Hague for the purpose of carrying on all intercourse between the signatory powers relative to the meetings of the court and to serve also as the recording office, for the court; (3) nations in dispute may select from the list of names appointed as above, and submitted to them by the bureau, those persons whom they desire to act as arbitrators; (4) the meetings of the court are to be held at The Hague unless some other place is stipulated by the nations in the controversy.
The permanent International Court of Arbitration was declared to be organized and ready for operation by April, 1901. At that time there were seventy-two judges appointed by twenty-two of the signatory powers, It is readily seen that the advantages of such a court are that unprejudiced arbitrators are selected, rules of procedure are defined, and decisions rendered are more liable to be accepted in future cases and thus a code of law will be formed, So many cases have been submitted to this tribunal that it has been said that a government which will not now try arbitration before resorting to arms is no longer considered respectable. This court was convened for the first time May 18, 1901.
The first case coming before the tribunal—the Pious Fund Case—was presented by the United States and Mexico, September 15, 1902. Up to 1846 the Mexican government had paid annual interest on some property administered by it but belonging to the Catholic church. Part of it was situated in what is now California. After 1848, when this California estate came under United States jurisdiction, Mexico refused to pay that part of the church outside of Mexico its share. This difference between our Government and Mexico the Hague Tribunal took up.
Agreeably to chapter 3, title 4, of the agreement, each party named two arbitrators, and the latter, acting together, an umpire. In case of an equality of votes a third power, designated by agreement of the parties, was to select the umpire. The arbitrators chosen were M. de Martens, of the Orthodox Greek church; Sir Edward Fry, an English Protestant; M. Asser, a Jew, and M. Savornin-Loman, a Dutch Protestant. Decision was reached within the prescribed thirty days and announced October 14, 1902. It favored the United States contention, giving its proportion of the Mexican payments to the Catholic church in California.
President Castro of Venezuela.
A second case, involving issues of war and peace, arose from the action of Great Britain and Germany against Venezuela in the winter of 1902-1903. Subjects of these as well as of other powers had claims against Venezuela. That country was in financial straits and its creditors pressed. December 9, 1902, British and German war-ships sunk or seized some Venezuelan vessels; next day they landed marines at La Guayra, who took possession of the custom house; the 14th they bombarded and demolished a fort at Puerto Cabello. Through the good offices of the United States the matter of debts was referred to the Hague Tribunal. The German claims were decided by two representatives of Germany and two of Venezuela, or, if they disagreed, by an umpire whom the United States selected. So with the other claims. The tribunal fixed the order in which Venezuela should pay the different countries, and the United States was charged with overseeing the payments, a percentage of Venezuelan customs receipts being reserved for that purpose.
In 1903 Andrew Carnegie donated $1,500,000 for the purpose of erecting a "palace of peace," the permanent head-quarters of this court. The deed of trust states: "The establishment of a permanent Court of Arbitration by the treaty of the 29th of July, 1899, is the most important step forward, of a world-wide humanitarian character, that has ever been taken by the joint powers, as it must ultimately banish war, and further, being of opinion that the cause of peace will greatly benefit by the erection of a court house and library for the permanent Court of Arbitration," etc.
The new Peace Palace, The Hague, Holland.
The site of this building, which will be ready for occupancy in 1912, is near The Hague. Its exterior will resemble some of the old city walls to be seen in Holland. The various governments which were parties to the treaty have contributed materials for the completion of the interior and objects of art for decoration. The United States presented a large marble group of statuary called "Peace Through Justice."
Two notable congresses were held in the United States during the year 1904, for the purpose of promoting the peace of the world. The Inter-Parliamentary Union held a meeting, the twelfth in its history, in connection with the World's Fair at St. Louis. This organization was founded at Paris in 1888 by thirty members of the French Chamber of Deputies and ten members of the British Parliament, for the purpose of promoting the cause of peace and arbitration. Scoffed at from the beginning, the Union continued to grow until it included parliamentary delegates from every European country having a constitutional form of government.
The meeting of the Union at St. Louis was the first to be held in the United States, for this country took no part in the organization until 1903. Russia and Turkey, having no parliaments, are not represented in the meetings of the Union. It is a noteworthy fact however that the Czar sent an official representative to the meeting in 1896 and that it was due to his report of that meeting, more than to any other cause, that the Czar invited the nations to send representatives to The Hague in 1898.
Russian and Japanese Peace Envoys in session at Portsmouth, N. H.
In the congress at St. Louis, representatives from the deliberative bodies of fifteen nations were present. Among these delegates were some of the well-known public men from Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands, the United States, and various other countries. They were practical men and not dreamers.
Two important resolutions resulted from the gathering. One of these called upon the powers to intervene and put an end to the war between Russia and Japan. The other invited the President of the United States to call a second peace congress, similar to the Hague conference. The resolution, addressed to President Roosevelt, stated that there were a number of questions left unsettled from the first Hague conference and that new problems had arisen since that time which demanded readjustment, such as the use of wireless telegraphy in the time of war.
On October 3 of the same year an international peace congress was held in Boston. Numerous congresses of this nature have been held from time to time since the meeting of the first one in London in 1843. Since the year 1888, when a congress was held in Paris, an international peace congress has met each year with the exception of 1895, the year of the Boer war, and in 1898 and 1899, on account of the Spanish-American war. The first of these congresses in America was held in conjunction with the Columbian Exposition at Chicago, 1893. There were in attendance at Boston distinguished statesmen, clergymen, scholars, and professional men, and a number of noted women, representing the many peace and arbitration societies in Great Britain, Germany, Austria, and numerous other countries.
On the Sunday before the opening of the congress, special services were held in many of the Boston churches and the peace movement was discussed by distinguished preachers from Europe and America. In the deliberative sessions, which were held in Faneuil Hall, the Old South Meeting House, and other places, the first session being opened by an address by Secretary of State John Hay, the following topics, among others, were discussed: the work and influence of the Hague Tribunal; the reduction of the armaments of the nations; education and the peace sentiment. But here, as in every previous congress, the two topics to receive primary consideration have been arbitration and disarmament. At all times there has been the urgent appeal to the nations to abandon the brutality and injustice of war and to adopt the humane and just methods of peace.