How Girls Can Help Their Country
Sir Robert Baden-Powell's Handbook
Transcriber's note: Italics are signified by underscores, _, and bold is signified by tildes, ~, around the words. In one spot in the text V is used to describe a V with a line above it and V signifies a V with a line below it.
Part I. PAGE
HOW TO BEGIN 4
QUALIFICATIONS FOR GRADES AND RANK 25
BADGES AND AWARDS 29
TESTS FOR MERIT BADGES 31
HOME LIFE 106
FIRST AID 124
LIST OF BOOKS TO READ 142
Copies of this book may be obtained from Girl Scout National Headquarters, 527 Fifth Avenue, City of New York; price 30 cents, postpaid.
PATRONESSES OF GIRL SCOUTS.
MRS. PHILIP BROWN New York " ARTHUR CHOATE " " " POWERS FARR " " " SNOWDON MARSHALL " " " HENRY PARISH, JR. " " " THEODORE PRICE " " " DOUGLAS ROBINSON " " " SAMUEL VAN DUSEN " " " LEONARD WOOD " " " WM. J. BOARDMAN Washington, D. C. " ALBERT BURLESON " " " " JAS. MARION JOHNSTON " " " " JOSEPH R. LAMAR " " " " RICHARD G. LAY " " " " OSCAR UNDERWOOD " " " " JOHN VAN RENSSELAER " " " " EDWARD DOUGLAS WHITE " " " " H. C. GREENE Boston, Mass. MISS KATHERINE LORING " " " LOUISA LORING " " MRS. RONALD LYMAN " " " HENRY PARKMAN " " " WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM " " " LAWRENCE ROTCH " " " WILLIAM W. VAUGHAN " " " BARRETT WENDELL " " " ROGER WOLCOTT " " " WILLIAM RUFFIN COX Richmond, Va. " HUNTER MCGUIRE " " " GEO. HYDE CLARK Cooperstown, N. Y. " HERBERT BARRY Orange, N. J. " THOMAS EDISON " " " " PHILIP MCK. GARRISON " " " " GEORGE MERCK " " " " B. PALMER AXSON Savannah, Ga. " GEORGE J. BALDWIN " " MISS ELIZABETH BECKWITH " " MRS. ROCKWELL S. BRANK " " " W. W. GORDON " " " LOUIS W. HASKELL " " MISS HORTENSE ORCUTT " " " NINA PAPE " " MRS. FREDERICK F. REESE " " " SAMUEL DRURY St. Paul's School, Concord, N. H. " ORTON BROWN Berlin, N. H. " FREDERICK FRELINGHUYSEN Newark, N. J. " WAYNE PARKER " " " " DOUGLAS GORMAN Baltimore, Md. MISS MANLY " " MRS. JAS. HOUSTOUN JOHNSTON Birmingham, Ala. " WILLIAM S. LOVELL " " " ROBERT C. ALSTON " " " JOHN B. GORDON Atlanta, Ga. " CLELAND KINLOCH NELSON " " " JOHN M. SLATON " " " CARTER HARRISON Chicago, Ill. " HERBERT HAVEMEYER " " " CYRUS MCCORMICK, SENIOR " " MISS SKINNER " " " FREDERICA SKINNER " " MRS. MARK WILLING " " " CHARLES G. WASHBURN Worcester, Mass. MISS KATHERINE HUTCHINSON Philadelphia, Pa. MRS. ROBERT LESLIE " " " JOHN MARKOE " " " ALFONSO MUNOZ " " MISS ANNE THOMPSON " " MRS. CHARLES DOBNEY Cincinnati, Ohio " JAMES PERKINS " " MISS JOSEPHINE SIMRALL " " MRS. ROBERT TAFT, JUNIOR " " " MAX HIRSCH " " " G. S. RAFTER Washington, D. C.
HISTORY OF GIRL SCOUTS
Girl Scouts, like Boy Scouts, are found all over the world. When Sir Robert Baden-Powell formed the first troops of Boy Scouts, six thousand girls enrolled themselves, but, as Sir Robert's project did not include the admission of girls, he asked his sister, Miss Baden-Powell, to found a similar organization for girls, based on the Boy Scout laws, with activities and occupations properly adapted for girls. She then founded the Girl Guide organization.
In America, in March, 1912, the first patrols of Girl Guides were enrolled by Juliette Low, in Savannah, Georgia. In 1913, the National Headquarters were established by her in Washington, D. C., and Miss Edith Johnston became the National Secretary. The name Girl Guides was then changed to Girl Scouts because the object of the organization is to promote the ten Scout Laws: TRUTH, LOYALTY, HELPFULNESS, FRIENDLINESS, COURTESY, KINDNESS, OBEDIENCE, CHEERFULNESS, PURITY, and THRIFT.
The movement then grew and spread in a remarkable way. The success of the movement is due, in a great measure, to the work of the National Secretary, Miss Cora Neal, who built up the organization during the most difficult years of its existence. In 1916, Headquarters were removed from Washington to New York, and the machinery for unifying the national work of the organization is now placed on an efficient basis.
The training of Girl Scouts is set forth in the Handbook, written by Lieut.-General Sir Robert Baden-Powell and Miss Baden-Powell.
Juliette Low obtained the rights of their book and, with the help of committees and experts from all parts of America, adapted it to the use of the Girl Scouts of the United States. It is impossible to train Girl Scouts without the Handbook.
In 1915, a Convention of Girl Scout leaders from most of the large cities was held and a National Council was formed, composed of delegates from the cities or communities where more than one hundred Girl Scouts were enrolled.
This National Council met in Washington, D. C., on June 10, 1915, and put the management of the business of the National Organization in the hands of an Executive Committee, composed of:
A President. A Secretary or Executive Officer. A Treasurer. A Vice-President. Chief Commissioner. Six or more members of the National Council.
The Duties of the Executive Committee are:
(1) To grant charters to the Local Councils of Girl Scouts. (2) To manufacture and copyright the badges. (3) To select uniforms and other equipment.
At every annual meeting of the National Council there is an election of the Executive Committee. This committee has the power to cancel a charter.
The National Headquarters has a staff of officers to do the work of the organization, holding their positions at the pleasure of the Executive Board. The National Secretary is appointed by the President and holds office at the pleasure of the President.
Each city or locality has a Local Council of twelve or more members, according to the size of the community. These local Councils are under the direction of the National Council and obtain their charters from Headquarters. Where one hundred or more Girl Scouts have been enrolled, the Local Council has the right to send one representative to the National Council for the annual meeting.
The salute is three fingers raised, the little finger held down by the thumb.
Handshake with the left hand while the right hand is raised in half salute—that is three fingers raised and held on the line with the shoulder. This is the salute given between one Girl Scout and another, and the full salute is when the fingers are raised to the temple on a level with the brow. This is given to officers and to the United States flag. (In saluting, the hand is always held upright, never in a horizontal position.)
HOW TO BEGIN
It is not intended that Girl Scouts should necessarily form a new club separated from all others. Girls who belong to any kind of existing organization, such as school clubs or Y. W. C. A.'s may also undertake, in addition to their other work or play, the Girl Scouts' training and games, especially on Saturdays and Sundays.
It is not meant that girls should play or work on Sunday, but that they may take walks where they can carry on a study of plants and animals.
Groups or bands of girls not already belonging to any club may be organized directly as a Girl Scout Patrol or Troop.
How to Start a Patrol
Eight girls in any town, school, or settlement may join together to form a Patrol. They should have a Captain who must be at least twenty-one years old. The Captain selects a Lieutenant, or second in command, and the girls elect a Patrol leader. The girls should be from ten to seventeen years of age. It is best if all the girls in each Patrol are about the same age. A less number than eight girls can begin the movement, but eight girls are required to form a Patrol. A girl may not become a Lieutenant until she has reached the age of eighteen, or a Captain until she is twenty-one. In Europe, Girl Scout Patrols are sometimes formed by grown women who wish to carry out the Girl Scout program of preparedness. Members of such Patrols are called Senior Scouts. Senior Scouts make the three promises and accept the Scout law. They are enrolled as Scouts but do not meet regularly in the same manner as girls' Troops. They are organized in classes to learn first aid, signalling, marksmanship, or any other subject of the Girl Scout program of training. Senior Scouts may well practice what they learn in such classes by teaching, for one or two months, Patrols of younger Girl Scouts. Thus they improve their command of what they have learned, and serve as an example to the younger Scouts, stimulating their interest in being prepared and especially in the subject taught.
The First Meeting
At the first meeting, the Scout Captain, who has previously studied the plan, principles, and object of the Girl Scout organization, explains the laws, promises, and obligations of the Girl Scouts to the members who are to form the troops. The names and addresses of the girls are recorded, the day set for the regular meeting, and the length of time for each meeting determined. Fifteen minutes may be spent on knot-tying, the Scout Captain first explaining the parts of the knot, and the requirements for knot-tying. Three-quarters of an hour to an hour should be spent on recreation out of doors.
The second, third, and fourth meetings should be spent in learning the requirements for the Tenderfoot tests. Each meeting should open with the formation of the troop in rank, by patrols, facing the Scout Captain. The first salute should be given to the Scout Captain, followed by the pledge to the flag, and inspection of the troop by the captain. After inspection the troop should break ranks and hold a short business meeting. Elections may be held at the second or third meeting for the patrol leader, corporal, secretary, treasurer, and any other officers the members of the troop may desire. The Scout Captain should instruct the troop how to conduct a business meeting, and explain the nomination and election of officers. Weekly dues may be determined, and some decision had on the disposition of the funds. After the business meeting, the work or the tests should be studied, and the proper time spent on recreation. Every meeting should have a formal closing as well as a regular opening. For the closing, the troop should line up as for the opening routine, and give the good-bye salute. A definite time should be decided upon for the examination for Tenderfoot Scout, and the examination held at that time. Every Girl Scout who passes her examination is then ready to be enrolled and to make the Girl Scout Promise.
Girl Scout's Promise
Each girl must promise on her honor to try to do three things:
1. To do my duty to God and to my country.
2. To help other people at all times.
3. To obey the laws of the Scouts.
She learns the salute and the secret sign of the Scouts.
The Girl Scout Motto Is
These laws are for the guidance of Captains, and the girls, although they learn the Law, are not allowed to make the promise to keep the Law until the Captain considers they are capable of living up to its spirit.
THE GIRL SCOUT LAWS
1. A Girl Scout's Honor Is to be Trusted
If a Scout says, "on my honor it is so," that means that what she says is as true as if she had taken a most solemn oath.
2. A Girl Scout Is Loyal
to the President, to her country, and to her officers; to her father, to her mother, and to her employers. She remains true to them through thick and thin. In the face of the greatest difficulties and calamities her loyalty must remain untarnished.
3. A Girl Scout's Duty Is to be Useful and to Help Others
She is to do her duty before anything else even if she gives up her own pleasure, safety, or comfort. When in doubt as to which of two things to do she must think, "Which is my duty?" which means, "Which is the best for other people?" and do that at once. She must be prepared at any time to save life or help the injured. She should do at least one good turn to someone every day.
4. A Girl Scout Is a Friend to All, and a Sister to Every Other Girl Scout.
Thus if a Scout meets another Scout, even though a stranger to her, she may speak to her, and help her in any way she can, either to carry out the duty she is then doing or by giving her food, or as far as possible anything she may want. Like Kim a Scout should be a "Little friend to all the world."
5. A Girl Scout Is Courteous
That is, she is polite to all. She must not take any reward for being helpful or courteous.
6. A Girl Scout Keeps Herself Pure
in thought, word, and deed.
7. A Girl Scout Is a Friend to Animals
She should save them as far as possible from pain and should not kill even the smallest unnecessarily. They are all God's creatures.
8. A Girl Scout Obeys Orders
Under all circumstances, when she gets an order she must obey it cheerfully and readily, not in a slow, sullen manner. Scouts never grumble, whine, or frown.
9. A Girl Scout Is Cheerful
under all circumstances.
Scouts never grumble at hardships, nor whine at each other, nor frown when put out.
A Scout goes about with a smile and singing. It cheers her and cheers other people, especially in time of danger.
10. A Girl Scout Is Thrifty
This means, that a Scout avoids all useless waste of every kind; she is careful about saving every penny she can put into the bank so that she may have a surplus in time of need. She sees that food is not wasted, and that her clothing is cared for properly. The Girl Scout does not waste time. She realizes that time is the most precious thing any one of us has. The Girl Scout's time is spent either in useful occupations or in wholesome recreation, and she tries to balance these two harmoniously.
A Great Law of Life
One of the most fundamental laws of life is that, in the natural course of things, the influence of women over men is vastly greater than that of men over one another.
This is what gives to girls and women a peculiar power and responsibility, for no Girl Scout or other honorable woman—whether old or young—could use her influence as a woman excepting to strengthen the characters and to support the honor of the men and boys with whom she comes in contact.
Kipling, in Kim, says that there are two kinds of women,—one kind that builds men up, and the other that pulls men down; and there is no doubt as to where a Girl Scout should stand.
This great law is nothing to make a girl feel proud or superior to men; but, on the contrary, the understanding of it should make her humble and watchful to be faithful to her trust. Many a boy has been strengthened in his character and his whole life made happier by the brave refusal of a girl to do wrong; while the opposite weakness has been the cause of endless misery and wretchedness.
To gain and always retain the power to be a true woman friend to the men who belong in her own sphere of life is not always an easy matter for a girl, for she cannot do it unless she keeps a watch over her own faults and weaknesses so that the best of her is always in control. You can not fight for the right in the life of another unless you are first fighting for the right in your own life.
The chief difficulty in acquiring this happy and cheerful dignity comes from the desire to be admired, which is a tendency inborn in the great majority of women. It stands in the way of their greatest strength and usefulness, because it takes away their real independence and keeps them thinking about themselves instead of about others. It is a form of bondage which makes them vain and self-conscious and renders impossible the truest and happiest companionship between men and women friends.
"Be prepared," therefore, to do a true woman's full duty to her men by never allowing the desire for admiration to rule your actions, words, or thoughts. Our country needs women who are prepared.
Prepared for what?
To do their duty.
Have you ever stopped to think that your most constant companion throughout life will be yourself? You will always have this body, this mind, and this spirit that you call "I," but this body, this mind, this spirit are constantly growing and changing, and it is quite possible for the owner to direct this growth and change. In order to live well, in order to possess the joy of life, and to be helpful to others, a Scout needs to apply her motto "Be prepared" to herself. Strength and beauty should be hers in body, mind, and spirit.
The body responds very readily to proper care and attention. In fact one may have the kind of body that she wishes, if a beginning is made in youth, and a plan persistently followed. The joyful exercise of vigorous outdoor games gives the finest type of training to the body, and at the same time the player enjoys the fun. To be happy and merry has a good effect itself on the body, while being angry or morose actually saturates the body with slow poisons. The body and mind are very closely related. Things that are good for one are good for the other. A girl who develops a strong agile body, at the same time improves her brain. A girl with weak, flabby muscles cannot have the strength of character that goes with normal physical power. It has been said, that "health is the vital principle of bliss, and exercise of health."
To make others happy is the Scout's first wish. When you come home from work or school turn your thoughts to those you love at home and try to see what you can do to lighten their burdens or cheer them. It is not beyond the power of a girl to make home peaceful and happy. Perhaps there are little ones to think of. They are quick to copy and every good action and kind word of yours may have an effect on them through their whole lives.
DO A GOOD TURN to some one every day. That is one of the Scout laws. Tie a knot that you will have to untie every night, and before you go to sleep think of the good turn you did that day—if you find you have forgotten, or that the opportunity has not arisen that day, do two next day to make up for it. By your Scout's oath you know you are in honor bound to try to do this. It need be only a small thing. Help some one across the street or show him the way to the place he wishes to go. Aid a person overburdened with packages, or pick one up that has dropped. Any little thing of this sort will count.
"'Tis today we make tomorrow." One of our wisest men has said that each one of us is a bundle of habits. We are so made that once we perform any act, that particular thing is ever afterward easier to do. We tend to do the things we have already done. By selecting the right things to do and always doing them, we actually are making our destiny. Each one of us has her character made by her habits. Habits are repeated acts, and we may choose what our habits should be by choosing our acts. As Scouts we choose to be happy, loyal, helpful girls. As we practice the Scout laws they become a part of us.
Girl Scouts have often been complimented for their modest bearing. One does not hear them talk about what they have done, or what they are going to do. They just do the thing and say nothing about it. They go about their business or pleasure quietly and gently, and never draw attention to themselves unnecessarily by behaving noisily and talking or laughing loudly in public. They should be particularly careful of this when in the company of boys or men. Girls and boys should be comrades and should never do anything to lose the respect of older men and women.
Girls of good feeling should be especially careful to be modest in dress and deportment on social occasions. Unfortunately many girls who are perfectly innocent and unconscious, cause comment and are the cause of improper feelings being aroused among their companions. Girls should not risk, by their manner of dress or method of dancing, bringing temptation to others. It is easily possible for a girl to exert an excellent influence upon her friends by setting a proper example.
Wherever you go you will have the choice of good or bad reading, and as reading has such a lasting effect on the mind, you should try to read only good things. If you find that you are tempted by reading rubbish, it is easy to stop doing so. Once you know what your fault is you can fight it squarely. Ruskin says, "All your faults are gaining on you every hour that you do not fight them."
The thing is, when there is danger before you, don't stop and think about it,—the more you look at it the less you will like it,—but take the plunge and go boldly in at it, and it will not be half as bad as it looked, when you are once in it. This is the way to deal with any difficulty in life. If you have a job, or if any trouble arises which seems too difficult to meet, don't shirk it—just smile, and try and think out a way by which you may get successfully through with it. Read in AEsop's Fables how the old man advised his son that it was easy to break a bundle of rods, but only if you took them one at a time.
More women are engaged in housekeeping than in all the other professions and employments combined. This is a difficult profession and requires knowledge and training, if good results are to be secured. Housekeepers need to have a plan, and especially a budget of expenses. One of the chief duties of housekeeping consists in seeing that there be no waste of any kind. The efficient housekeeper prevents a waste of food, of light, fuel, and of every other item. The wise individual gives special care to preventing a waste of time on the part of herself and others. The real orderly Girl Scout has a place for everything and keeps everything in its place. She has a time for performing each of her duties and does it at that time.
It seems easy to learn how to spend money, but it is an art to learn how best to spend. Scouts gain experience by being allowed to purchase for the company, also by keeping the accounts, and they should always keep their own accounts neatly. We have to keep accounts when we grow up, and it is well to get into the way of measuring our expenditure from the first. You will remember that one of the Scout laws is to BE THRIFTY. The girl who begins making money young will go on making it as she grows older. It may be difficult at first, but it will come easier later on, especially if you earn money by hard work. If you try to make it only by easy means you are bound to lose after a time. Any number of poor girls have become rich, but in nearly every case it was because they meant to do so from the first. They worked for it and put every penny that could be spared into a savings account. The history of the majority of the world's greatest millionaires is that they began life without a dollar. To become a first-class Scout a girl must have a certain amount in the savings bank before she can have the honor of receiving her badge. By saving only two cents a week at least a dollar a year is saved.
"Stick to it" the thrush sings. One of the worst weaknesses of many people is that they do not have the perseverance to stick to what they have to do. They are always wanting to change. Whatever you take up, do it with all your might, and stick to it. Besides the professions of nursing, teaching, stenography and type-writing, and clerking, there are many less crowded employments, such as hair-dressing, making flowers, coloring photographs, assisting dentists, and gardening. There are many occupations for women, but before any new employment can be taken up one must begin while young to make plans and begin collecting information. "Luck is like a street car; the only way to get it is to look out for every chance and seize it—run at it and jump on; don't sit down and wait for it to pass. Opportunity is a street car which has few stopping places."
CHOOSE A CAREER: "Be prepared" for what is going to happen to you in the future. Try to master one trade so that you will be independent. Being punctual is a most important thing. This counts for a great deal in filling any kind of position.
In the early days of human development, centuries ago, the chief training men had was gained from fishing, hunting, and the other activities of savage life in the woods. This is a very valuable kind of training which city people miss. This knowledge of the woods, of animals and their habits, and of all the other phases of nature necessary for life in the open is called "Wood-craft." It is possible to train ourselves to be observant of nature and to develop a keenness of sight and hearing that are very valuable. It is a part of the duty of Scouts to see and appreciate the beauties of nature, and not be blind to them as so many people are.
Try to see everything. Consider it almost a disgrace if, when with others, they see anything big or small, high or low, near or far, that you fail to discover. See it first if you can.
Well educated women can make a good income by taking up translating, library work, architecture, and many professions which formerly have been open only to men. In Russia, a municipal fire brigade has been commanded by a young woman. The medical profession offers a great opportunity to women. Nursing is more easily learned, and is of the greatest advantage at the same time, for every woman is a better wife and mother for having been a nurse first. Even so long ago as the first century women devoted their lives to the medical profession, as Zenais, a relative of St. Paul, Leonilla, and Hildegarde of Mont Rupert. Later, Nicerate, in 404, studied medicine and practiced with great ability. Fifty years ago no woman could become a doctor. Now it is within the power of any intelligent girl, through study and perseverance, to enter the medical profession, and even to rise to distinction and to honorable celebrity. Mme. Curie has done such wonderful work in chemistry, that the Academy of Paris has long debated whether she should not be made an academician for her discoveries in connection with polonium and radium.
Each one of us has her own destiny in her control, and has her own personal problems in life to settle. Thus, we all need all the knowledge and wisdom that we can secure. Each one of us should be a student, ever growing in power of thought and in usefulness to others. Too many people think that education consists in memorizing all kinds of information exactly as it is put down in the books. What each one of us really needs is to have a mind that can think definitely and intelligently upon all the problems presented in life. It is possible for us to train our minds for this kind of useful and independent thought. In the first place we should select subjects for study that are of real interest because they bear upon some problem that concerns us. Whenever we begin to read a book, or undertake any topic of study, it should be done with a definite purpose in mind. Propose to yourself some question that you expect to be answered by this book, or by this subject. Do not be satisfied with the statement of one author, but also find out what other authors say, and what some of your friends think upon this question. When you have done this, try to arrange the different thoughts and statements according to a plan. Pick out the largest truth in the whole matter and arrange other statements or thoughts as they are related to this central one. Making an outline of a book is an excellent plan. Do not commit yourself entirely to the author's point of view, if it does not agree with your own. Each one of us has a distinct individuality and is entitled to his own views, to a certain extent. However, we should keep our minds open, ready to accept new truths as they are brought to our attention. Science and knowledge are constantly advancing, and what we believe now, we may find, some years hence, to be only a part of the truth. Thus, it is not necessary to memorize lessons and subjects until after we have thought out what the real meaning is, and arranged the whole subject on a definite plan. Then, we will usually find that we know the topic without having to memorize it formally. Finally we should try to put to use the ideas we have gained. The real value of ideas lies in making them serve us. When you have actually put into practice some bit of knowledge, you may then feel that it really belongs to you.
In our work and study we need to learn to devote our whole attention to one thing,—to do this one thing with all the power that we have. Too many of us form a habit of dividing our attention, trying to carry two things in mind at the same time. This is a weakness that interferes with our success. If we are truly interested, we should put our whole attention upon the one matter and develop power of concentration.
To make what has been said about study clearer, let us use an illustration. Suppose one of our Girl Scouts is fond of gardening. The family has no garden, and there is a vacant space in the yard that could be used for this purpose. She begins the reading of one of the farmers' bulletins on this subject, and has in mind, all the time, making a garden of her own. This object of making her own garden is her guide in the study. She wishes to learn what plants are best suited to her plot, which ones will give her the best return for the kind of soil that she has, and so, as she reads, she chooses for herself from the ideas that are presented. The whole subject is arranged in her own mind around her own plan of making a garden. After reading this bulletin she is likely to consult her friends who know anything about this subject, and to read other articles. Finally she puts into practice the notions she has gathered, and finds through actual trial whether they succeed or not. If she is successful in growing flowers and vegetables, the ideas have been put to a very practical and beneficial use. This girl will know a great deal more about gardening than if she merely read the book.
You belong to the great United States of America, one of the great world powers for enlightenment and liberty. It did not just grow as circumstances chanced to form it. It is the work of your forefathers who spent brains and blood to complete it. Even when brothers fought they fought with the wrath of conviction, and when menaced by a foreign foe they swung into line shoulder to shoulder with no thought but for their country.
In all that you do think of your country first. We are all twigs in the same fagot, and every little girl goes to make up some part or parcel of our great whole nation.
This Organization is Non-Sectarian and Non-Political
Any girl over ten years old may become a Girl Scout and she may belong to other organizations at the same time.
She first ranks as Tenderfoot or third-class Girl Scout, then, after one month, she becomes, after passing certain tests, a second-class Girl Scout, and finally attains the rank of first-class Girl Scout.
After she has reached the age of eighteen, a girl can become a lieutenant, and when she is twenty-one years old she may become a captain if she has passed the first-class examinations. Girl Scouts' patrols in Europe are sometimes formed by grown-up women, who wish to carry out the Girl Scout program of preparedness, and these are called Senior Scouts.
Tenderfoot Second Class First Class
Officers of the Local Organization
A Commissioner. The duties of a Commissioner are:
To inspect companies and patrols and advise how to conduct them according to the principles found in the Handbook.
To secure the harmonious co-operation of all the captains in the district.
To be the authority for recommending the issue or the denial of captains' certificates before they are sent to Headquarters.
To foster the movement generally throughout the district. (Where there is no Secretary, the Commissioner must organize the examinations for Merit Badges.)
To forward the semi-annual reports to Headquarters.
A Secretary. The duty of a Secretary is to be the local executive officer.
She shall have charge of Headquarters and other property of the local organization.
She shall have a general supervision of the captains and instruct new captains in their duties.
She shall keep a record of all the troops, the names and addresses of the captains and the councilors of Girl Scouts, and such other information in regard to them as may be necessary for her work. She shall receive all the applications for Girl Scout captains' certificates and send these applications to Headquarters. Where a local council exists, all applications must be approved by the local council.
She shall render a report at the regular meetings of the local board of councilors on the condition and progress of the Girl Scouts.
She shall notify all the members of the annual, regular, and special meetings.
She shall attend all the public meetings connected with the organization.
A Treasurer. The duties of a Treasurer:
She shall keep an itemized account of all receipts and disbursements in a book, and present a written report at the regular meeting of the board of councilors.
She shall pay only those bills that have been signed by the Commissioner and Secretary.
She shall make an annual report and produce the vouchers which shall be submitted to an auditor at least one week before the annual meeting.
All the local organization's funds shall pass through her hands.
A Captain. The duties of a Captain:
The captain has the power to enroll Scouts and to recommend them to the local committee for badges and medals. She also has the power to release a Scout from her promise, and to withdraw her badges at any time, and to discharge her. A Scout who considers herself unjustly treated may appeal to the local council. Their decision shall be final.
The captain must apply to National Headquarters for an official certificate. Her application must be accompanied by the names of two prominent citizens, and in places where a local council is established her application must be sent through the local council or court of honor and be endorsed by one member of the council.
The qualifications for a captain shall be:
A general knowledge of the Handbook for Girl Scouts.
A full appreciation of the religious and moral aim underlying the practical instruction of the entire scheme of training.
Personal standing and character such as will insure a good moral influence over the girls, and sufficient steadfastness of purpose to carry out the work with energy and perseverance.
Age not less than twenty-one years.
A captain is assumed to have passed the first-class Scout Test. She wears the all-round cords, if she prefers to do so, instead of putting on all the separate badges as the girls do.
Captains may join the Red Cross or any other organization or club.
Officers' certificates must be returned if the officer resigns or if the certificate is cancelled, as these are the property of the President.
The duties of a lieutenant are the same as those of a captain in the absence of the captain. She is chosen by the captain to work with her, and must be over eighteen years of age. Lieutenants may wear captains' badges after passing the first-class test.
A Patrol Leader is selected in each patrol by the girls themselves (or, if the girls desire it, by the captain). She holds her office for six months or a year. The girls are apt to select the right girl for the place.
The patrol leader must be what her name implies, "A Leader," for she stands next to the captain and lieutenant, and takes either place in their absence. The patrol must not look upon her as a "Boss." This feeling must not enter into the patrol affairs at all, but the girls must remember that they have put her there, and they must do all they can to uphold her and support her in the work. If she is the right sort of girl no such feeling will arise. If a patrol leader gives an order that a Girl Scout does not like or think fair, the Scout must obey the order, but later on she may talk it over with her patrol leader. If, still, she is dissatisfied, she may go to her captain, who must decide the matter. If the patrol leader is not a good officer, the captain may reduce her to Scout rank and have another election.
The patrol leader appoints one of her girls as a Corporal, who takes her place when she is absent, and assists her in keeping the patrol leader's books.
The duties of the patrol leader are to call the roll and keep a record of attendance of her patrol.
The patrol leader keeps a record of the dues. Patrol leaders' registers may be obtained at Headquarters.
The patrol leader is responsible for leaving the club room in perfect order. She may have her corporal assist her in tidying up, or she may choose some girls to help her.
Each patrol selects its own secretary or scribe.
The duties of a secretary: To keep a record of what is done at the meetings; to receive and answer letters.
Patrol Nurse. The duty of a patrol nurse is to take care of any accidents to the girls during a hike or a picnic. She should possess a first-aid kit.
QUALIFICATIONS FOR THE THREE GRADES OF GIRL SCOUTS
A Tenderfoot (Badge, a Brooch) must be ten years old.
Before making the Scout Promise, she must know:
How to tie four of the following knots: reef, sheet-bend, clove hitch, bowline, fisherman's, and sheep-shank (see p. 68).
The name of the Governor of the State and of the Mayor of the city.
The History of the Flag, and how to fly it (see p. 135).
The ten Scout Laws.
A Second-Class Girl Scout (Badge, worn on left arm) must have had one month's service as Third-Class Scout. She must pass the following tests:
Must have made a drawing of, or cut out and made in cloth or on paper, the Flag of the United States.
Know how to cook one simple dish, such as potatoes or a quarter of a pound of meat.
Lay a fire in stove, or light a fire in the open with two matches.
Make a bed properly, and know how to make an invalid's bed.
Know her own measurements (see cards at Headquarters for details of measurement).
Must know the eight points of the compass (see compass, p. 71).
Must know what to do in case of fire (see p. 125).
Must know remedy for poison ivy and what to do to prevent frost-bite (see pp. 134 and 135).
Must know health habits (page 96).
Must know how to work a button-hole, or knit or crochet, sew a seam and hem a garment.
Must know Morse alphabet or semaphore alphabet.
A First-Class Scout (Badge, sewn on left sleeve above elbow, which entitles the wearer to go in for all-round cords) must have gained a Second-Class Badge.
Must know how to set a table properly for breakfast, dinner, and supper.
Bring a shirt-waist or skirt sewn by herself or equivalent needlework.
Be able to describe how to get a specified place and walk one mile in twenty minutes.
Must be able to dress and bathe a child two years old or younger (see p. 122).
Be able to pass an examination upon the first three chapters of the woman's edition of the American Red Cross Abridged Text-Book in First Aid.
Must have knowledge of signaling and of semaphore code or International alphabet (p. 75), writing 32 letters per minute.
Must have 50 cents in savings bank earned by herself.
Must produce a girl trained by herself in tests, Tenderfoot Class.
Know how to distinguish and name ten trees, ten wild flowers, ten wild animals, ten wild birds.
Must know simple laws of sanitation, health and ventilation (pp. 111 to 115).
Swim fifty yards in her clothes or show a list of twelve satisfactory good turns.
Show points of compass without a compass.
Must give correctly the Scouts' secret passwords.
The subjects for proficiency badges may be undertaken after a girl becomes a Second-Class Girl Scout, and the interest in her work is thus continuous. The badges for proficiency are registered and are issued only by Headquarters.
Ceremony of Investiture of Scouts
The ceremonial for a Tenderfoot to be invested as a Scout should be a serious and earnest function. The captain calls "Fall in." The patrol is formed in a horseshoe, with captain and lieutenant in the gap, and the American flag spread out. The Tenderfoot, with her patrol leader (who will already have taught her tests and knots), stands just inside the circle, opposite the captain. "Salute." All salute her. The lieutenant holds the staff and hat, shoulder-knot and badge, and neckerchief of the Tenderfoot. When ordered to come forward by the captain, the patrol leader brings the Tenderfoot to the center. The captain then asks: "Do you know what your honor means?"
The Tenderfoot replies: "Yes, it means that I can be trusted to be truthful and honest"—(or words to that effect).
Captain: "Can I trust you on your honor to be loyal to God and the country, to help other people at all times, and to obey the Scout Law?"
The Tenderfoot then makes the half salute, and so do the whole company, whilst she says: "I promise, on my honor to be loyal to God and my country, to help other people at all times, and to obey the Scout Law."
The captain then says: "I trust you, on your honor, to keep this promise."
Whilst the recruit is making her promises aloud, all the Scouts remember their own promises, and vow anew to keep them.
The captain orders: "Invest."
The patrol leader then steps out, gives the Tenderfoot her staff, and puts her hat, neckerchief, and knot on her.
She then marches up the line to the captain, who pins on her trefoil badge, and explains that it is her Scout's "life." If, for misbehavior, her trefoil or life has to be taken from her, she becomes a dead Scout for the time the captain orders—a day or a week—and is in disgrace. The badge may be worn at all times, but the uniform is worn only when the patrol meets.
The new Scout is then initiated into the mysteries of secret passwords Be Prepared (said backwards). The captain orders: "To your patrol—quick march."
The whole patrol salute and shoulder staves; the new Scout and her patrol leader march back to their places.
These badges being the registered designs of the Corps, do not belong to the girls who have passed the tests.
The equipment does not belong to the girl except by special permission.
Any person wearing Girl Scouts' badges without permission is liable to be prosecuted according to law, and may incur a penalty. Offenses, such as people who are not enrolled saluting, outsiders wearing Girl Scouts' badges, or "Monkey" patrols wearing Girl Scouts' uniforms, must be dealt with by trial at a Court of Honor to determine the forfeit or penalties to be imposed on the culprits.
Captains have the power to dismiss a Scout, and the badge and the buttons of her uniform must then be returned.
BADGES AND AWARDS
The Girl Scout badge is a clover leaf, the three leaves representing the Girl Scout promises: (1) To do her duty to God and her country. (2) To help other people at all times. (3) To obey the Scout law.
When to Wear the Badge
A girl asked me what were the occasions on which she might wear her badge, thinking it was not for everyday use. The reply was, "You may wear your badge any day and any hour when you are doing what you think is right. It is only when you are doing wrong that you must take it off; as you would not then be keeping your Scout promises. Thus you should either take off the badge, or stop doing what you think is wrong."
The "Thanks" Badge
The "Thanks" badge may be given to any one to whom a Girl Scout owes gratitude. Every Girl Scout throughout the whole world when she sees the thanks badge, recognizes that the person who wears it is a friend and it is her duty to salute and ask if she can be of service to the wearer of the badge.
The approval of National Headquarters must be obtained before a thanks badge is presented to any one.
Medals for Meritorious Deeds
These medals are granted only by Headquarters, or by the President on special recommendation from the captain, who should send in a full account with written evidence from two witnesses of the case.
These are worn on the right breast, and are awarded as follows:
The Bronze Cross. (Red Ribbon.) Presented as the highest possible award for gallantry, this medal may be won only when the claimant has shown special heroism or has faced extraordinary risk of life in saving life.
The Silver Cross (Blue Ribbon) is given for gallantry, with considerable risk to herself.
The Badge of Merit (Gilt Wreath. White Ribbon), for a Scout who does her duty exceptionally well, though without grave risks to herself, or for specially good work in recruiting on behalf of the Girl Scout movement, or for especially good record at school for one year in attendance and lessons is awarded when full records of such deeds accompany the claim.
How to Become a "Golden Eaglet"
To secure this honor a Girl Scout must win fourteen of the following badges: Ambulance, Clerk, Cook, Child-nurse, Dairy-maid, Matron, Musician, Needlewoman, Naturalist, Sick-nurse, Pathfinder, Pioneer, Signaler, Swimmer, Athletics, Health or Civics.
In examining for tests one of the Court of Honor should, if possible, be present.
The Local Committee should be satisfied, through the recommendation of the girls' captain, that the tests were satisfactorily performed.
TESTS FOR MERIT BADGES
A girl must become a Second Class Scout before she is eligible for the proficiency tests. Merit badges are issued to those who show proficiency in the various subjects listed in this chapter. These badges are registered at Headquarters and are issued from no other source.
The purpose of the various tests is to secure continuity of work and interest on the part of the girls.
The girl who wins one of these merit badges has her interest stimulated and gains a certain knowledge of the subject. It is not to be understood that the knowledge required to obtain a badge is sufficient to qualify one to earn a living in that branch of industry.
Merit Badges 1. Ambulance. (Maltese Red Cross.)
To obtain a badge for First Aid or Ambulance a Girl Scout must have knowledge of the Sylvester or Schaefer methods of resuscitation in cases of drowning.
Must pass examination on first three chapters of Woman's Edition of Red Cross Abridged Text Book on First Aid.
Treatment and bandaging the injured (p. 131).
How to stop bleeding (p. 133).
How to apply a tourniquet (p. 134).
Treatment of ivy poison (p. 134).
Treatment of snake-bite (p. 59).
Treatment of frost-bite (p. 135).
How to remove cinder from eye (p. 124).
2. Artist. (Palette.)
To obtain an artist's badge a Girl Scout must draw or paint in oils or water colors from nature; or model in clay or plasticine or modeling wax from plaster casts or from life; or describe the process of etching, half-tone engraving, color printing or lithographing; or
Arts and Crafts:
Carve in wood; work in metals; do cabinet work.
3. Athletics. (Indian Clubs.)
To obtain this badge a Scout must:
1. Write a 500-word article on value of Athletics to girls, giving proper method of dressing and naming activities most beneficial.
2. Be a member of a gymnasium class of supervised athletics or a member of an active team for field work.
3. Understand the rules of basket ball, volley ball, long ball, tether ball, tennis and captain ball.
4. Must be able to float, swim, dive and undress in water.
5. Know and be able to teach twenty popular games.
4. Attendance. (Annual.) (Badge, Silver Star.)
Must complete one year of regular attendance.
5. Automobiling. (A Wheel.)
1. Must pass an examination equal to that required to obtain a permit or license to operate an automobile in her community.
2. Know how to start a motor and be able to do it and be able to explain necessary precautions.
3. Know how to extinguish burning oil or gasoline.
4. Comply with such requirements as are imposed by body conducting the test for licensing drivers.
6. Aviation. (Monoplane.)
To obtain a merit badge for aviation, a Scout must:
1. Have a knowledge of the theory of the aeroplane, helicopter, and ornithopter, and of the spherical and dirigible balloon.
2. Have made a working model of any type of heavier than air machine, that will fly at least twenty-five yards; and have built a box kite that will fly.
3. Have a knowledge of the types and makes of engines used for aeroplanes, of the best known makes of aeroplanes, and of feats performed or of records made by famous aviators.
4. Have a knowledge of names of famous airships (dirigibles) and some of their records.
5. Understand the difference between aviation and aerostation, and know the types of apparatus which come under these two heads.
7. Bird Study. (Bird.)
To secure this badge a Scout must:
1. Give list of 30 well known wild birds of United States.
2. State game bird laws of her State.
3. Give list of 30 wild birds personally observed and identified in the open.
4. Give list of 10 wild birds sold as cage birds.
5. Name 10 birds that destroy rats and mice.
6. Give list of 25 birds of value to farmers and fruit growers in the destruction of insect pests on crops and trees.
7. Give name and location of 2 large bird refuges, explain the reason for their establishment and the birds they protect.
8. Tell what the Audubon Society is and how it endeavors to conserve the birds of beautiful plumage.
9. What an aigret is, how obtained, and from what bird. (Land Birds and Water Birds, C. A. Reed.) (The Department of Agriculture has a number of bulletins on birds. See list.)
10. What methods to attract birds winter and summer.
8. Boatswain. (Anchor.)
To obtain a badge for seamanship a Girl Scout must:
1. Be able to tie six knots.
2. Be able to row, pole, scull, or steer a boat.
3. Land a boat and make fast.
4. State directions by sun and stars.
5. Swim 50 yards with clothes and shoes on.
6. Box the compass and have a knowledge of tides.
7. Know rules of the road for steamers and power boats, also lights for boats underway. See Pilot Rules, Gov. Ptg. Office, Washington, D. C.
9. Child-Nurse. (Green Cross.)
To obtain this badge a Girl Scout must:
1. Take care of a child for two hours each day for a month, or care for a baby for one hour a day for a month.
2. Know how to bathe and dress a baby.
(Examination should be made with infant present, if possible.)
3. Should understand care of children, have elementary knowledge as to their food, clothing, etc.
4. Know three kindergarten games and describe treatment of simple ailments.
5. Be able to make poultices, and do patching and darning.
6. Know how to test bath heat and use of thermometer; count the pulse (p. 123).
10. Clerk. (Pen and Paper.)
1. Must have legible handwriting; ability to typewrite; a knowledge of spelling and punctuation; a library hand; or, as an alternative, write in shorthand from dictation at twenty words a minute as a minimum.
2. Ability to write a letter from memory on a subject given verbally five minutes previously.
3. Knowledge of simple bookkeeping and arithmetic.
4. Keep complete account of personal receipts and expenditure for six months, or household accounts for three months.
11. Civics. (Eight-point Star.)
To obtain this badge a Scout must:
1. Be able to recite the preamble to the Constitution.
2. Be able to state the chief requirements of citizenship of a voter, in her state, territory or district.
3. Be able to outline the principal points in the naturalization laws in the United States.
4. Know how a president is elected and installed in office, also method of electing vice-president, senators, representatives, giving the term of office and salary of each.
5. Be able to name the officers of the President's Cabinet and their portfolios.
6. The number of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, the method of their appointment and the term of office.
7. Know how the Governor of her state, the lieutenant-governor, senators and representatives are elected and their term of office. Also explain the government of the District of Columbia and give the method of filling the offices.
8. Know the principal officers in her town or city and how elected and the term of office.
9. Know the various city departments, and their duties, such as fire, police, board of health, charities and education.
10. Be able to name and give location of public buildings and points of interest in her city or town.
11. Tell the history and object of the Declaration of Independence.
12. Cook. (Gridiron.)
1. Must know how to wash up, wait on table, light a fire, lay a table for four, and hand dishes correctly at table.
2. Clean and dress fowl.
3. Clean a fish.
4. How to make a cook place in the open.
5. Make tea, coffee or cocoa, mix dough and make bread in oven and state approximately cost of each dish.
6. Know how to make up a dish out of what was left over from the meals of the day before.
7. Know the order in which a full course dinner is served.
8. Know how to cook two kinds of meat.
9. Boil or bake two kinds of vegetables successfully.
10. How to make two salads.
11. How to make a preserve of berries or fruit, or how to can them.
12. Estimate cost of food per day for one week.
13. Invalid Cooking. (A palm leaf.)
1. How to make gruel, barley water, milk toast, oyster or clam soup, beef tea, chicken jelly.
14. Cyclist. (A Wheel.)
1. Own a bicycle.
2. Be able to mend a tire.
3. Pledge herself to give the services of her bicycle to the government in case of need.
4. If she ceases to own a bicycle, she must return the badge.
5. Read a map properly.
6. Know how to make reports if sent out scouting on a road.
15. Dairy. (Sickle.)
1. Know how to test cow's milk with Babcock Test (p. 119).
2. To make butter.
3. How to milk.
4. Know how to do general dairy work, such as cleaning pans, etc., sterilizing utensils.
5. Know how to feed, kill, and dress poultry.
6. Test five cows for ten days each with Babcock Test and make proper reports.
16. Electricity. (Lightning.)
To obtain a merit badge for Electricity, a Scout must:
1. Illustrate the experiment by which the laws of electrical attraction and repulsion are shown.
2. Understand the difference between a direct and an alternating current, and show uses to which each is adapted. Give a method of determining which kind flows in a given circuit.
3. Make a simple electro-magnet.
4. Have an elementary knowledge of the construction of simple battery cells, and of the working of electric bells and telephones.
5. Be able to replace fuses and to properly splice, solder, and tape rubber-covered wires.
6. Demonstrate how to rescue a person in contact with a live electrical wire, and have a knowledge of the method of resuscitation of a person insensible from shock.
17. Farmer. (Sun.)
1. Incubating chickens, feeding and rearing chickens under hens.
2. Storing eggs (p. 116).
3. Knowledge of bees.
4. Swarming, hiving and use of artificial combs.
5. Care of pigs.
6. How to cure hams (p. 120).
7. Know how to pasteurize milk (page 116).
18. Gardening. (A Trowel.)
1. Participate in the home and school garden work of her community.
2. Plan, make and care for either a back-yard garden, or a window garden for one season.
3. Give plan of her work, the flowers or vegetables planted, the size and cost of her plot and the profit gained therefrom.
4. She must also supervise or directly care for the home lawns, flower beds; attend to the watering, the mowing of the grass, keeping yards free from waste paper and rubbish, to the clipping of shrubbery and hedges.
This test is open to scouts already in the Girls' Garden and Canning Clubs throughout the country and a duplicate of their reports, sent in for their season's work, to the state agricultural agents, or agricultural colleges, in co-operation with the Department of Agriculture of the United States, may be submitted as their test material for this badge.
Farmers' Bulletins, 218, 185, 195.
19. Personal Health. (Dumb-bells.)
To obtain a badge for personal health, a Scout must:
1. Eat no sweets, candy, or cake between meals for three months.
2. Drink nothing but water, chocolate, or cocoa for a year.
3. Walk a mile daily for three months.
4. Sleep with open window.
5. Take a bath daily for a year, or sponge bath.
6. Write a statement of the care of the teeth, and show that her teeth are in good condition as a result of proper care.
7. Tell the difference in effect of a cold bath and a hot bath.
8. Describe the effect of lack of sleep and improper nourishment on the growing girl.
9. Tell how to care for the feet on a march.
10. Describe a good healthful game and state its merits.
11. Tell the dangers of specialization and over-training in the various forms of athletics, and the advantages of an all-around development.
12. Give five rules of health which if followed will keep a girl healthy (page 96).
20. Public Health. (U. S. A. Flag.)
1. Write an article, not over 500 words, about the country-wide campaign against the housefly, and why, giving the diseases it transmits and make a diagram showing how the fly carries diseases, typhoid, tuberculosis and malaria. (See Public Health Service Bulletins on these subjects.)
(Also see page 117.)
2. Tell how to cleanse and purify a house after the presence of contagious disease.
3. State the laws of her community for reporting contagious disease.
4. Tell how a city should protect its supplies of milk, meat and exposed foods.
5. Tell how these articles should be cared for in the home. (See Farmers' Bulletin—"Care of Food in the Home.") (Also see pages 115 and 116.)
6. Tell how her community cares for its garbage.
7. State rules for keeping Girl Scout camp sanitary—disposal of garbage, rubbish, etc.
21. Horsemanship. (Spur.)
1. Demonstrate riding at a walk, trot and gallop.
2. Know how to saddle and bridle a horse correctly, and how to groom a horse properly.
3. Know how to harness correctly in a single or double harness, and how to drive.
4. Know how to tether and hobble and when to give feed and drink.
5. State lighting up time, city law.
6. How to stop run-away horse (page 135).
22. Home-Nursing. (Red Cross, Green Ring.)
1. Must pass tests recommended by American Red Cross Text Book and Elementary Hygiene and Home Care of the Sick, by Jane A. Delaro, Department of the American Red Cross. These tests may be had from Headquarters, upon request.
2. Know how to make invalid's bed.
3. Know how to take temperature; how to count pulse and respirations.
4. Know how to prepare six dishes of food suitable to give an invalid.
23. Housekeeper. (Crossed Keys.)
1. Tell how a house should be planned to give efficiency in housework.
2. Know how to use a vacuum cleaner, how to stain and polish hardwood floors, how to clean wire window screens, how to put away furs and flannels, how to clean glass, kitchen utensils, brass and sinks.
Know three different cuts of meat and prices of each.
Know season for chief fruits and vegetables, fish and game.
Know how flour, sugar, rice, cereals and vegetables are sold; whether by packages, pound, or bulk, quarts, etc.
4. Tell how to choose furniture.
5. Make a list of table and kitchen utensils, dishes for dining-room and glasses necessary for a family of four people.
6. How to make a fireless cooker, small refrigerator and window box for winter use.
7. Prepare a budget showing proper per cent of income to be used for food, shelter, clothing, savings, etc.
24. Interpreter. (Clasped Hands.)
1. Be able to carry on a simple conversation in any other language than her own.
2. Write a letter in a foreign language.
3. Read or translate a passage from a book or newspaper in French, German, Italian, or in any other language than her own.
25. Laundress. (Flatiron.)
1. Know how to wash and iron a garment, clear starch and how to do up a blouse.
2. Press a skirt and coat.
3. Know how to use soap and starch, how to soften hard water, and how to use a wringer or mangle.
26. Marksmanship. (Rifles.)
1. Pass tests in judging distances, 300 to 600 yards and in miniature rifle shooting, any position, twenty rounds at 15 or 25 yards, 80 out of 100.
2. Know how to load pistol, how to fire and aim or use it.
3. Or be proficient in fencing or archery.
27. Music. (Harp.)
1. Know how to play a musical instrument. Be able to do sight reading. Have a knowledge of note signs and terms.
2. Name two master composers and two of their greatest works.
3. Be able to name all of the 25 instruments in the orchestra in their proper order.
4. Never play rag time music, except for dancing.
Or, as an alternative:
1. Have a knowledge of singing. Have a pleasing voice.
2. Know two Scout songs and be able to sing them, or lead the Scout Troop in singing.
3. Be able to do sight reading.
4. Have a knowledge of note signs and terms.
Or, as an alternative:
1. Sound correctly on a Bugle the customary army calls of the United States.
28. Naturalist. (Flower.)
1. Make a collection of fifty species of wild flowers, ferns and grasses and correctly name them. Or,
1. Fifty colored drawings of wild flowers, ferns or grasses drawn by herself.
2. Twelve sketches or photographs of animal life.
29. Needlewoman. (Scissors.)
1. Know how to cut and fit. How to sew by hand and by machine.
2. Know how to knit, embroider or crochet.
3. Bring two garments cut out by herself; sew on hooks and eyes and buttons. Make a button-hole.
4. Produce satisfactory examples of darning and patching.
30. Pathfinder. (Hand.)
1. Know the topography of the city, all the public buildings, public schools, and monuments.
2. Know how to use the fire alarm.
3. In the country know the country lanes and roads and by-paths, so as to be able to direct and guide people at any time in finding their way.
4. Know the distance to four neighboring towns and how to get to these towns.
5. Draw a map of the neighborhood with roads leading to cities and towns.
6. Be able to state the points of the compass by stars or the sun, using watch as compass when sun is invisible.
31. Pioneer. (Axes.)
1. Tie six knots. Make a camp kitchen.
2. Build a shack suitable for three occupants.
32. Photography. (Camera.)
1. Know use of lens, construction of camera, effect of light on sensitive films and the action of developers.
2. Be able to show knowledge of several printing processes.
3. Produce 12 photos of scout activities, half indoor and half outdoors, taken, developed and printed by herself, also 3 pictures of either birds, animals, or fish in their natural haunts, 3 portraits and 3 landscapes.
33. Scribe. (Open Book.)
1. Must present a certificate from teacher of her school, showing a year's record of excellence in scholarship, attendance and deportment.
2. Describe in an article, not to exceed a thousand words, how a newspaper is made; its different departments, the functions of its staff; how the local news is gathered; how the news of the world is gathered and disseminated.
3. Define briefly a news item.
4. Define briefly an editorial.
5. Define briefly a special story.
6. Tell how printer's ink is made.
7. Tell how paper is made.
8. Describe evolution of typesetting from hand composition to machine composition.
9. Write 12 news articles (preferably one a month), not to exceed 500 words each, on events that come within the observation of the Scout that are not public news, as for instance, school athletic events, entertainments of Scouts, church or school, neighborhood incidents.
10. Write a special story on some phase of scout-craft, a hike, or camping experience, etc.
Or, as an alternative:
Write a good poem.
Write a good story.
Know principal American authors of prose and verse in the past and present century.
34. Signaling. (Two Flags.)
1. Send and receive a message in two of the following systems of signaling: Semaphore, Morse. Not fewer than twenty-four letters a minute.
2. Receive signals by sound, whistle, bugle or buzzer.
3. Or general service (International Morse Code).
35. Swimmer. (Life-buoy.)
1. Swim fifty yards in clothes, skirt and boots.
2. Demonstrate diving.
3. Artificial respiration.
4. Flinging a life-line.
5. Flinging a life-buoy.
6. Saving the drowning.
Requirements for examination must be sent to parents of candidate for approval. Approval must also be obtained from the family physician or some other doctor.
36. Telegraphy. (Telegraph Pole.)
1. Be able to read and send a message in Morse and in Continental Code, twenty letters per minute, or must obtain a certificate for wireless telegraphy. (These certificates are awarded by Government instructors.) (See p. 77.)
GAMES AND ATHLETICS FOR GIRLS
The finest type of physical vigor is developed from playing vigorous outdoor games. This applies to girls as well as to boys. Games have the great advantage over drills and gymnastics that they are worth while for the fun alone. Play is a necessary and natural activity for every individual. Unless each one of us gives the proper share of her time to wholesome forms of recreation, she cannot be cheerful and happy, and thus she cannot influence those around her toward greater happiness. Each one of us should so plan each day that we shall spend at least one hour playing vigorous games outdoors. The younger girls should use the whole afternoon for play and recreation. No girl can become a normal woman without having had her share of joyful and active play.
Girls nowadays are playing more and more, and growing stronger and more athletic. As a result they have better health and greater beauty. No beauty parlor can produce the perfect complexion and bright eyes which nature gives to the out-of-doors girl.
There are certain cautions which girls should use in practicing games and athletics. After they are twelve or thirteen, they should avoid sports like high or broad jumping, which cause a heavy jar upon landing. Girls should not compete in long distance running, or in games which call for violent and long-continued exertion. Basket-ball may easily be too severe if played according to boys' rules or for long halves. In such games there should be a gradual preparation for the competition. An examination of the heart by a physician is very desirable, before this type of game is played. Girls frequently overdo rope-skipping. No girl should jump more than fifty times in succession. Excessively keen competition under trying conditions frequently has a bad effect upon girls of a nervous temperament. Of course, girls should rest and not take part in active games when they are physically incapacitated. There are, however, a wide variety of games and sports in which girls may find both pleasure and profit. The ideal type of exercise for girls is found in swimming, walking and similar activities in which the exertion is not excessively violent, and which call for long-continued or repeated efforts. Girls excel in endurance in such sports.
Team games are especially valuable for girls as they need the moral discipline of learning to efface themselves as individuals and to play as a member of the team. That is, they learn to cooperate. Among the team games suitable for girls are: field hockey, soccer, baseball played with a soft ball and basket-ball.
Among athletic events that may be used for girls, are: short sprints, usually not over fifty yards, throwing balls for distance, relay races and balancing competitions.
Walking is a delightful sport when done at a good pace, in the country. All girls are fond of rope-skipping and skating.
Novelty competitions, in wide variety, may easily be invented to amuse a group of Scouts. The following will suggest many other variations: A short walking match, heel and toe. The distance may vary from twenty to one hundred yards or more. The same competition may be conducted going backward.
Have all the girls take a prone position, face downward, hands and feet in a specified position. On a signal, get up and run to the finishing line. The usual signal is "On your marks," "Get set," "Go." There should be no movement whatever until the final signal "Go." Have the players hop backward or forward in a race. Various combinations of these will readily suggest themselves.
Two or more teams of girls may find much fun in simple passing games. Arrange the teams in line, either seated or standing. Have them pass such an object as a bean bag, ball or stick in a specified way. For instance, if the girls are seated, one behind the other, the bean bag may be passed backward over the right shoulder with one hand, around the back of the last girl, and forward over the left shoulder. The game starts with the bag on the ground in front of the leader, and is finished when the leader replaces it there, after it has passed through the hands of each girl on the team. Be careful to see that there are the same number of girls on each team, and that the lines occupy, when arranged, the same space on the ground. Next let the players pass the bag backward overhead with both hands, and forward in any manner they like.
The following variation will introduce an additional feature that makes the game all the livelier. Let the object be passed back to the last player who then runs forward and takes the place of the leading player, every player in that line moving back one position as this player runs to the front of the line. This is continued until the captain or leader has gone through every place in the line and run back to the front. The team whose captain gets to the front first, wins the game.
Another stage of this game may be played by stretching a cord or rope across in front of the two lines, eight or ten feet high. As each player advances, the bag or ball must be thrown over the rope from the near to the far side, caught, and then thrown back. Any player failing to catch the object must make the throw over again. After she returns to the head of the line, the object is passed back to the last player in the same manner, and the game continues until the captain or leading player has passed through every position in the line, and come back to the front.
A similar game may be played with a basket-ball and basket-ball goals, each girl being required to shoot a goal at one or both ends of the basket-ball court. In the woods or in camp a ring or hoop may be substituted for the basket-ball goal.
Hundreds of such simple games are found in the books on games listed in the Handbook. A few of the more useful and popular games are described below.
Twenty-four or more players form a circle of pairs with space enough between the players (who stand closely one behind the other, facing the center of the circle) to allow the runners to turn and run in all directions. Two players on the outside of the circle and at a distance from each other begin the game. One of these is called the "tagger," the other is "It." She tries to tag "It" before she can secure a place in front of any of the pairs forming the circle. If she succeeds, roles are changed, the player who has been tagged then becomes the "tagger" and the former "tagger" tries to secure a place in front of some pair. But whenever the runner (the player pursued) has succeeded in getting in front of a pair before being tagged, then the hindmost (the last or third, in the respective rank) must take to her heels and seek to evade the unsuccessful "tagger" who now turns her attention to the new runner. In trying to evade a tagger the successive players may run in any direction, either left or right, outside the circle, but not pass in front of any one rank to another rank in such a manner as to induce wrong starts. A hindmost player may also form in front of his own rank, making the second player in such rank hindmost or "third." The play is always directed against the third or last of a rank, two players being the number limited to each place.
(When classes of players in the beginning are too large the circle may be formed by rows or ranks of threes, instead of twos or pairs.)
Expert players may form several circles and run from circle to circle, two pairs playing simultaneously. The above play may be varied in a number of ways.
Day and Night
The players divide into two parties, form in two lines, back to back, about three paces apart. One of the lines is named the "Day Party" the other the "Night Party." The leader has a disk painted black on one side and white on the other. (A coin may be used instead of the disk.) In front of each party is a goal. The leader throws the disk into the air. If the disk alights with the white side up the leader calls "Day." The "Day Party" then rushes toward its goal and the "Night Party" pursues, tagging as many players of the "Day Party" as possible. These they take back to their own line. The disk is thrown again, and the party whose side turns up starts for their goal as before. The game continues in this way until all the players on one of the sides are lost.
One of the players is chosen as the "Sculptor" and she arranges the other players in different positions and attitudes as statues. No player dares move or speak, for as soon as she does the sculptor punishes her by beating her with a knotted handkerchief or towel (the sack-beetle). After having arranged the players to suit her fancy the sculptor leaves the playground, saying: "The sculptor is not at home." No sooner is she gone than the statues come to life, sing, dance, jump and play havoc in general. On the return of the sculptor she counts, "One, two, three," and any player who is not in her former posture at "Three" receives a beating with the knotted handkerchief from the sculptor. Should the sculptor punish the wrong statue all the players rush at her with knotted handkerchiefs and drive her to a goal previously decided upon, and the game is resumed with some other player as sculptor.
Any player who is chased may be relieved by any other player running between her and the one trying to tag her. The latter must then run after the player who ran between, till she in turn is relieved.
Of any even number of players, half form a circle, while the other half stand inside the ring, facing outward. The players in the center dodge the ball, which, while in play, is thrown by any of those forming the circle. Those who are hit with the ball take their places among those around the circle, and have an equal chance at those remaining in the center. One is put out at a time. This is kept up until no one is left, in the circle, after which the players exchange places, that is, those who were in the circle now form around the circle, and vice versa.
Place twenty or thirty small articles on a tray or table, or the floor, and cover with a cloth—different kinds of buttons, pencils, corks, nuts, string, knives, or other such small things. Make a list and have a column opposite for each player's name. Uncover for just one minute and then take each player by herself and check off the articles she can remember. The winner is the one who remembers the most.
Players run quickly to a certain bill-board or shop window where an umpire is posted to time them a minute for their observation. They then run back to head-quarters and report all they can remember of the advertisements on bill-board or objects in shop window.
Scout Meets Scout
Patrols of Scouts are to approach each other from a distance. The first to give the signal that the other is in sight wins. In this game it is not fair to disguise but hiding the approach in any way is admissible. You can climb a tree, ride in any vehicle, or hide behind some slowly moving or stationary object. But be sure to keep in touch with the one who is to give the signal.
It is best that others should not know the Scouts' secret passwords, so one is given at a time in this book for those that can search best.
may be indoors or out. A very good one is for two or three players to act as if they wanted some special thing that is in sight. The first who discovers what this is then selects some other players to act with her.
Relate the plot of some simple play, after which assign a part to each of several to act out. Let them confer for a short time and then act it. This develops many fine talents and is one of the most useful games for the memory, expression, and imagination.
A Scout always shakes hands when she loses a game and congratulates the winner.
INVENTORY GAME. Let each girl go into a room for half a minute and when she comes out let her make a list of what she has seen. Then compare lists to find who has seen the most.
TESTING NOSES. This is easiest with the competitors blindfolded. Let them smell different things and tell what they are. Also the objects may be placed in bags but this means much more work.
CHASING AN OWL. Another good stalking game is chasing the owl. This is done in thick woods where one Scout represents the owl hooting at intervals and then moving to one side for a distance. Each pursuer when seen is called out of the game and the owl, if a real good one, may get safely back to her stump.
TURKEY AND WILDCAT is played by the turkey blindfolded "going to roost" in some place where there are plenty of twigs or dry leaves to crack and rustle. At the first sound the turkey jumps. If not then in reach of the wildcat she is safe and another wildcat has a chance. This is sometimes very laughable for the turkey being blindfolded may jump right on the wildcat.
FAR AND NEAR. On any walk, preferably in patrol formation, let each keep a list of things seen such as birds, flowers, different kinds of trees, insects, vehicles, tracks, or other "sign." Score up in points at the end of the walk on return to the club rooms.
The Palm Spring
Stand at a little distance from a wall with your face toward it and leaning forward until you are able to place the palm of your hand quite flat on the wall; you must then take a spring from the hand and recover your upright position without moving either of your feet. It is better to practice it first with the feet at a little distance only from the wall, increasing the space as you gradually attain greater proficiency in the exercise.
Put a basket-ball between your feet in such a manner that it is held between your ankles and the inner side of the feet; then kick up backward with both your feet and in this manner try to jerk the ball over your head, catching it when it comes down.
Two players face each other, feet planted firmly, full stride position apart, right hands grasped. Each player tries to displace the other player. One foot moved displaces a player.
Sitting Toe Wrestle
Two players sit on a mat facing each other, knees bent perpendicularly, toes touching opponent's. Pass stick under knees and clasp your hands in front of knees. When the signal is given, attempt to get your toes under opponent's toes and upset her.
(An excellent list of games to be used while in camp will be found on page 440 of Games for the Home, School, and Gymnasium, by Jessie H. Bancroft. See, also, additional books listed under this topic in the Handbook.)
It is advisable that Patrols or Companies should have some place of their own at which to camp. Some small plot of woodland is easily secured near most any of our cities. At the beaches it is frequently impossible to secure the privacy desirable. The seaside is not easily fenced in. If you own your camping ground all desirable sanitary conditions can be looked after and buildings of a more or less permanent nature erected. Even a "brush house" in a spot which you are allowed to use exclusively is better than having to hunt a place every time you want to camp out. "Gypsying" from place to place is unadvisable.
When you have your own camp, too, much better chances for study will be found possible. You will have your own trees, flowers, and birds to notice and care for, and a record of them is valuable even in a very limited space. Think of the beautiful work of White—The Natural History of Selborne.
Name your camp by all means. Long ago we formed the habit of naming all our camps using by preference the name of the first bird seen there. Now we use the Seminole name. So we have our "Ostata" and "Tashkoka." Some of the names are too hard, though, for civilized tongues. "Mooganaga" for instance, might hurt somebody's mouth when she tries to pronounce it.
When going into camp never forget matches. When leaving camp I used to put all my spare matches into a dry empty bottle, cork it tight, and hide it. After many years I have found my matches as good as "new" where I had hidden them. By rubbing two sticks together one can make a fire without matches.
Camping out is one of my hobbies. Walks and picnics are all very well as far as they go, but to get the full benefit of actual contact with Nature it is absolutely necessary to camp out. That does not mean sleeping on wet bare ground but just living comfortably out of doors, where every breath of heaven can reach you and all wild things are in easy reach. A camp can be easily planned within daily reach of many of our large cities but should be far enough to escape city sounds and smells. It is not a camp, however, if it is where a stream of strangers can pass by at any time of the day or night within sight and hearing.
Water is a supreme requisite at any camp. Water to swim in may be dispensed with in extreme cases, but you can't carry your water with you and have a comfortable time. I have been where I had to do it so I know how it is. Also I have had to dig water out of the ground. That is not an easy operation so be sure and camp near a well or spring. Wood, too, you will want and it must be dry. Don't try to cook with fat pine. It's all right to kindle with but not for cooking. Your bacon fried over it will be as fine eating as a porous plaster. Fry your potatoes. If you must roast them dig a hole in the ashes and cover them deep. Then go away and forget them. Let some one else come along and cook all sorts of things on top of them. When you come back rake them out of the ashes and astonish every one.
Be sure your cooking fire is not too big. You must be able to get up to it comfortably close without scorching your face. Start a small fire and feed it as required with small dry twigs. Cooking over an outdoor fire is a fine art and has to be studied carefully. It should be called almost a post-graduate course in the camp studies. Of course the regular camp-fire can be made as big and smoky as you like. Smoke is fine to watch but not to breathe. Even the mosquitoes dislike it.
Roughing it is all very fine to talk about, but it is best to make your camp as comfortable as possible. The ground is good to sleep upon but not stones and sticks. It's really astonishing how big a stick, no longer than your finger, can grow in one night. Take my word for it and don't try it. It won't pay. A hammock is my preference but a cot is about as good. On a pinch twigs and grass are not to be despised. Moss is apt to be moist but there is no possible objection to clean dry sand.
Be sure not to let your fire get away from you and spread. Besides the damage to trees and fences that it may do it is impossible to tell what suffering it may cause to animal life. So, be very careful.
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To prevent forest fires Congress passed the law approved May 5, 1900, which—
Forbids setting fire to the woods, and Forbids leaving any fires unextinguished.
When you leave your camp clean up. Fragments of food—not pickles—can be put up somewhere for the birds. At some of our camps we have regular places to feed the birds and they get to know what time to come there. Here in the woods my wrens have established for themselves the hour of sunrise, and it is partly to escape their scolding for neglect that I get up with the sun. Mrs. Jenny scolds furiously but for actual singing she can beat any bird in the woods.
Perhaps you notice that we have said nothing about snakes. Now it is really a very rare thing to see a snake in the woods. You have to look very carefully to find them, for they seem to be about the most timid of all creatures. So far as danger from poisonous snakes is concerned you are in much more danger from the driver of a dray than from a snake. Take our word for it, snakes are much more afraid of you than you are of them. Give them the least little bit of a chance and they will be out of the way before you can see them. A gorged snake—that is one that has just taken a full meal—may be sluggish but in a majority of cases he will crawl away and hide in some secure place till the process of digestion is over. Do not go near a tub if you are afraid of water for you can get drowned in it about as easy as you can get bitten by a snake in the woods and to wind up the subject, not one-tenth of the people who get snake bitten, die from it. A very few do die but most of them die from the bad treatment they receive afterwards. The "deadly auto" will not get out of your way but all snakes will.