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As in the Latin-1 text, Greek has been transliterated and placed between marks. Hebrew text is similarly marked. E: and O: (always capitalized) represent Eta and Omega. e: at the end of some names represents dieresis (separate syllable). [ae] or [Ae] represents the "ae" or "AE" ligature. a or o with tilde has been silently unpacked to am, an, on, om.
Typographical errors are listed at the end of the text. Side/footnote labels in lower-case ([a] [b]...) are original; labels supplied by the transcriber are capitalized ([A] [B]...).]
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THE ENGLISH EXPERIENCE
Its Record in Early Printed Books Published in Facsimile
Da Capo Press Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Ltd. Amsterdam 1969 New York
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The publishers acknowledge their gratitude to the Curators of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, for their permission to reproduce the Library's copy.
S.T.C. No.5577 Collation: A-Z (4o.), Aa-Cc (4o.)
Published in 1969 by Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Ltd., O. Z. Voorburgwal 85, Amsterdam & Da Capo Press : a division of Plenum Publishing Corporation :
227 West 17th Street, New York. 10011 Printed in The Netherlands
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The Strife of Loue in a Dreame.
At London, Printed for Simon Waterson, and are to be sold at his shop, in S. Paules Church- yard, at Cheape-gate.
TO THE THRISE HO- NOVRABLE AND EVER LY- VING VERTVES OF SYR PHILLIP SYDNEY KNIGHT; AND TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE AND OTHERS WHAT- SOEVER, WHO LIVING LOVED HIM, AND BEING DEAD GIVE HIM HIS DVE.
To the Right Honourable Robert Deuorax, Earle of Essex and Ewe, Viscount Hereford, and Bourghchier, Lorde Ferrers of Chartley, Bourghchier and Louaine, Maister of the Queenes Maie- sties Horse, and Knight of the most noble order of the Garter: Is wished, the perfection of all happinesse, and tryumphant felicitie in this life, and in the worlde to come.
When I had determined (Right honorable) to dedicate this Booke, to the euerlyuing vertues of that matchlesse Knight Syr Phillip Sydney; me thought that I could not finde out a more Noble personage then your selfe, and more fit, to patronize, shield, and defende my dutie to the deade, then your Honour, whose greatnes is such, and vertues of that power, as who so commendeth them, deserueth not to be accounted a flatterer, but he that doth not the same, may be thought an euill willer. Hovv your Honor vvill accept hereof, I make no doubt, because that curtesie attendeth vpon true nobilitie; but my humble request is, that your Honor may not thinke of me (by the tytle of the Booke, and some part of the discourse) as if I vvere amorous, and did speake according to my ovvne passions, for I beeing restrained of my liberty, and helde in the graue of obliuion, where I still as yet remaine, oppressed with Melancholie, and wearied vvith deeper studies, I vvas glad to beguile the time with these conceits, anothomising in them, the vanitie of this life, and vncertaintie of the delights therof, in the Dreame of Poliphilus; Which if it shall please your Honor at conuenient leysure to looke ouer, pardoning what you finde amisse, and weighing my good will, I shall thinke my selfe most happy.
And thus I humbly take my leaue, vntill that I may present your Honour, with a matter more fitting the same.
Your Honors deuoted,
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Anonymi elegia ad Lec- torem.
Candide _Poliphilum_ narrantem somnia Lector auscultes, summo somnia missa polo, Non operam perdes, non h[ae]c audisse pigebit, tam varijs mirum rebus abundat opus. Si grauis & tetricus contemnis erotica, rerum nosce precor seriem tam bene dispositam. Abnuis? ac saltem stylus & noua lingua novusq; sermo grauis, sophia, se rogat aspicias. Id quoq; sirenuis, geometrica cerne vetusta plurima milliacis disce referta notis. Hic sunt Pyramides, therm[ae], ingentesq; Colossi, ac Obeliscorum forma vetusta patet. Hic diuersa basis fulget, vari[ae]que column[ae] illarumq; arcus, Zophora, epistilia, Et capita atq; trabes, et cum quadrante coron[ae] symmetria, & quicquid tecta superba facit. Hic regum cernes exculta palatia, cultus Nympharum, fontes, egregiasque epulas. Hinc bicolor chorea est latronum, expressaque tota in Laberintheis vita hominum tenebris. Hinc lege de triplici qu[ae] maiestate tonantis dicat, & in portis egerit ipse tribus._ Polia _qua fuerit forma, quam culta, tryumphos inde Iouis specta quatuor [ae]thereos. H[ae]c pr[ae]ter varios affectus narrat amoris, atque opera & quantum s[ae]uiat ille Deus._
Faultes escaped in the printing.
[Transcriber's Note: The corrections listed here have been made in the text. In many cases the printed form is different from that shown under "faults"; these original forms are given in [brackets].]
- - - Fol. page. line. faults. correction. 1. 2 38 I begin of the I began the 4. 2 8 member. members. 6. 1 12 troake, trunke, 6. 2 3 assured, azur'd. 7. 1 33 fiing, [fying] flying. 10 1 23 Laborinth, Laborinths. [laborinth] 10 2 20 Palia. Polia. 11 1 2 foote, fowre. 11 1 29 cariec, [carreic] carrier. [carreic] 11 2 3 backs, [backes] backe. 12 1 11 pecee, [peeee] peece. 13 1 3 adolestency, adolescency. [adolestencie] 13 1 5 soliature. foliature. 14 1 29 stone, sonne. 19 2 12 soliature, foliature. 19 2 25 briganine, brigandine. [bryganine] 19 2 39 all. off. - - -
- - - Fol. page. line. faultes. correction. 21 1 38 subuaging, suruaighing [sub-/vaging at line break] 21 2 2 sardins, [Sardins] sardius. 22 1 7 vanubraces, vaumbraces. [Vanubraces] 22 1 12 coronie, [Coromie] coronice. 22 2 18 Daphus, Daphne. 22 1 28 chanifered, chamfered. 22 1 30 contract, contrast. 22 2 29 Aehanthis. Achanthis. [Aehanthus] 23 1 12 hapies, [Hapies] Harpies. 23 1 15 fishen, fishie. 23 2 4 did Anaglipts, did y^e Anaglipts 23 2 5 Briapis, Briaxes. 24 2 22 Andraene, Andracine. [Andraeme] 24 2 32 bel flowred bell flowre. fox gloue, [bell flowered Foxgloue] 26 2 2 menifis, memphis. [Meniphis] 26 2 34 which my, which with my 28 2 8 vastus, [vastues] vastnes. - - -
Poliphili hypnerotomachia, Wherein he sheweth, that all humaine and worldlie things are but a dreame, and but as vanitie it selfe. In the setting foorth whereof many things are figured worthie of remembrance.
The Author beginneth his Hypnerotomachia, to set downe the hower and time when in his sleepe it seemed to him that hee was in a quiet solitarie desart, and vninhabited plaine, and from thence afterward how he entered vnaduisedly before he was aware, with great feare, into a darke obscure and vnfrequented wood.
The discription of the morning.
What houre as Phoebus[a] issuing foorth, did bewtifie with brightnesse the forhead of Leucothea[b], and appearing out of the Occean waues, not fully shewing his turning wheeles, that had beene hung vp, but speedily with his swift horses Pyrous & Eous[c], hastning his course, and giuing a tincture to the Spiders webbes, among the greene leaues and tender prickles of the Vermilion Roses, in the pursuite whereof he shewed himselfe most swift & glistering, now vpon the neuer resting and still moouing waues, he crysped vp his irradient heyres.
[Sidenote a: Ph[ae]bus the Sunne.]
[Sidenote b: Leucothea the morning.]
[Sidenote c: Pyr & Eo, the horses of the Sunne.]
Vppon whose vprising, euen at that instant, the vnhorned Moone dismounted hir selfe, losing from hir Chariot hir two horses, the one white and the other browne, and drewe to the Horrison[d] different from the Hemisphere[e] from whence she came.
[Sidenote d: Horison a circle deuiding the halfe speare of the firmament from the other halfe which we doe not see.]
[Sidenote e: Hemispere is halfe the compasse of the visible heauen.]
And when as the mountaines and hilles were beautifull, and the northeast winds had left of to make barraine with the sharpnesse of their blasts, the tender sprigs to disquiet the moouing reedes, the fenny Bulrush, and weake Cyprus, to torment the foulding Vines, to trouble the bending Willowe, and to breake downe the brittle Firre bowghes, vnder the hornes of the lasciuious Bull, as they do in winter.
At that very houre, as the diuers coulered flowers and greene meades, at the comming of the sunne of Hypperion[f] feare not his burning heate, being bedued and sprinkled with the Christalline teares of the sweete morning, when as the Halcyons[g] vpon the leuell waues of the stil, calme, and quiet flowing seas, do build their nests in sight of the sandie shore, whereas the sorrowfull Ero, with scalding sighes did behold the dolorous and vngrate departure of hir swimming Leander[h].
[Sidenote f: Hyperion the Sunne.]
[Sidenote g: Halcyons are certaine byrds which building near the shore vpon the waues there will be no storme vntill the young be hatched.]
[Sidenote h: Leander a young man of Abydos, who in swimming ouer Hellespont (a narow sea) by Byzantium, which parteth Europ from Asia) to Sestus, was in the sight of his louer Ero of Sestus drowned, which she seeing, threw hir self down into the sea, and died with him.]
I lying vpon my bed, an oportune and meet freend to a wearie body, no creature accompaning me in my chamber, besides the attender vppon my body, and vsuall night lights, who after that she had vsed diuers speeches, to the end shee might comfort me, hauing vnderstood before of me, the originall cause of my hollow and deepe sighes, she indeuored hir best to moderate, if at least she might, that, my perturbed and pittifull estate. But when she sawe that I was desirous of sleepe, she tooke leaue to depart.
Then I being left alone to the high cogitations of loue, hauing passed ouer a long and tedious night without sleepe, through my barren fortune, and aduerse constellation, altogether vncomforted and sorrowfull, by means of my vntimely and not prosperous loue, weeping, I recounted from point to point, what a thing vnequall loue is: and how fitly one may loue that dooth not loue: and what defence there may bee made against the vnaccustomed, yet dayly assaults of loue: for a naked soule altogether vnarmed, the seditious strife, especially being intestine: a fresh still setting vpon with vnstable and new thoughts.
In this sort brought to so miserable an estate, and for a long while plunged in a deepe poole of bitter sorrowes, at length my wandring sences being wearie to feede still vpon vnsauorie and fayned pleasure, but directly and without deceit, vppon the rare diuine obiect: whose reuerende Idea is deeply imprinted within me, and liueth ingrauen in the secret of my heart, from which proceedeth this so great and vncessant a strife, continually renuing my cruell torments without intermission. I began the conditions of those miserable louers, who for their mistresses pleasures desire their owne deaths, and in their best delights do think themselues most vnhappie, feeding their framed passions not otherwise then with fithfull imaginations. And then as a weary bodye after a sore labour, so I, somewhat in outward shew qualified, in the payne of my sorrowfull thoughts, and hauing incloystered and shut vp the course of my distilling teares: whose drops had watered my pale cheekes, thorow amorous griefe, desired some needfull rest.
At length my moyst eyes being closed within their bloudshotten and reddish liddes, presently betwixt a bitter life and a sweet death, I was in them inuaded and ouercome, with a heauie sleepe, who with my minde and watchfull spirits, were no pertakers of so high an operation.
Me thought that I was in a large, plaine, and champion place, all greene and diuersly spotted with many sorted flowerrs, wherby it seemed passingly adorned. In which by reason of the milde and gentle ayre, there was a still quyet whisht: Inso much that my attentiue eares did heare no noyse, neither did any framed speech peirce into them, but with the gratious beames of the sunne, the sliding time passed.
In which place with a fearefull admiration, looking about me, I sayd thus to my selfe. Heere appeareth no humaine creature to my sight, nor syluan beast, flying bird, countrey house, field tent, or shepheards cote: neyther vpon the gras could I perceiue feeding eyther flock of sheep, or heard of cattell, or rustike herdman with Oten pipe making pastorall melodie, but onely taking the benefit of the place, and quietnesse of the plaine, which assured mee to be without feare, I directed my course still forward, regarding on eyther side the tender leaues and thick grasse, which rested vnstirred, without the beholding of any motion.
At length my ignorant sleepes, brought me into a thick wood, whereinto being a pritty way entred, I could not tell how to get out of it. Wherevpon, a soddaine feare inuaded my hart, and diffused it selfe into euery ioynt, so that my couler began to waxe pale, and the rather by reason that I was alone, and vnarmed, and could not finde any track or path, eyther to direct me forward, or lead me back againe. But a darke wood of thicke bushes, sharpe thornes, tall ashes haled of the Viper, towgh Elmes beloued of the fruitfull vines, harde Ebony, strong Okes, soft Beeche, and browne Hasils, who intertaining one anothers branches, with a naturall goodwill opposed themselues, to resist the entrance of the gratious sunne shine, with the greene couerture of their innumerable leaues. And in this sort I found my selfe in a fresh shadowe, a coole ayre, and a solytarie thicket.
VVherevpon my reason perswaded me to beleeue, that this vast wood, was onely a receptacle for sauage and hurtfull beasts, as the tusked Bore, the furious and bloudthirstie Beare, the hissing serpent, and inuading VVoolfe, against which I was vnprouided to make resistance, but rayther as a praye sent amongst them, miserablie to haue my flesh and bones rent and gnawne in peeces.
And thus forecasting the woorst that might follow, I was resolued not to abide there, but to seeke to get out, that I might the better eschew such suspected occurrents, and taking my selfe to my feete, I wandred now this way, now that way, sometime to the right hand, sometime to the left: nowe forwarde, then backe againe, not knowing how to goe among the thicke bowghes and tearing thornes, bearing vpon my face: rending my clothes, and houlding me sometimes hanging in them, whereby my hast in getting foorth was much hyndered. In this vnaccustomed labour: and without any helpe but onely the keeping of the sunne still vpon one side, to direct mee streight forwarde: I grewe extreamely hoate and faynte, not knowing what to doe, but onely in a wearye body, to conteine a minde distraught through troublesome thoughts, breathing out hollow and deepe sighes, desiring helpe of the pittifull Cretensian Ariadne, who for the destroying of hir monstrous brother the Mynotaur[A] gaue vnto the deceitfull Theseus a clew of thred, to conduct him foorth of the intricate laborinth, that I also by some such meanes might be deliuered out of this obscure wood.
[Sidenote A: Minotaurus a monster in Creete, born of Pasiphae which being inclosed in the laborinth fed on mans flesh, whome Theseus slew and got out of the laborinth by a clew of thred giuen by Ariadne king Minoes daughter, after wife to Theseus, who did forsake hir, and left hir in a disinhabited Ile, notwithstanding that she had saued his life.]
Poliphilus being thus distempered in this daungerous and obscure wood, at length getteth foorth, and being come to a faire Riuer, indeuoring to rest himselfe and coole his heate, he heard a most delightful harmonie, which made him forget to drinke, and followe after the voice, which brought him to a woorse perplexitie.
Feare and desire of freedome thus occupying my sences, my vnderstanding was blinded, neyther did I knowe whether it were better for mee eyther to wishe for hated death, or in so dreadfull a place to hope for desired life. Thus euery way discontent, I did indeuour, with all force and diligence to get foorth, wherin the more I did striue the more I found my selfe intangled, and so infeebled with wearinesse, that on euery side I feared, when some cruell beast should come and deuoure me, or els vnawares to tumble downe into some deepe pit or hollow place.
Wherefore more trembling then in mustulent Autume be the yealow coulored leaue, hauing left their moisture, being thorowlye searched with the furious north winde, I lifted vp my hart to God, desiring as Achemenides being afraide of the horrible Cyclops rather to be slaine by the hands of Aeneas his enemie, rather then to suffer so odious a death.
And my deuoute prayer, sincerely vnited to a contrite heart, powring out a fountaine of teares with a stedfast beliefe to be deliuered. I found my selfe in a short space gotten at libertie, like a new day crept out of a darke and tempestuous night. My eyes before vsed to such obumbrated darkenes, could scarse abide to behould the light, thorow watery sadnes. Neuerthelesse glad I was to see the light: as one set at libertie, that had beene chayned vp in a deepe dungeon and obscure darkenesse. Verye thirstie I was, my clothes torne, my face and hands scratched and netteled, and withall so extreamely set on heate, as the fresh ayre seemed to doe me more hurt then good, neither did it any waye ease my body, desirous to keepe his new recouered scope and libertie.
And after that I had a little rowsed vp my mynde, and sommoned together my sences in some better sort: I sought a meanes to quench my inordinate thyrst, procured and increased through innumerable sighes, and extreame labour of body. Thus casting my eyes with a diligent regarde about the plaine, to finde some Fountaine whereat I might refresh my selfe: a pleasant spring or head of water, did offer it selfe vnto me, with a great vayne boyling vp, about the which did growe diuers sweet hearbes and water flowers, and from the same did flowe a cleare and chrystalline current streame, which deuided into diuers branches, ran thorow the desart wood, with a turning and winding body, receyuing into it other little channels, vnlading themselues.
In whose courses the stones lift vp by nature, and trunkes of trees denyed any longer by their roots to be vpholden, did cause a stopping hinderance to their current and whuzing fall, which still augmented by other vndissonant torrents, from high and fertlesse mountaines in the plaine, shewed a beautifull brightnes and soft passing course, to the which short windedly comming, by meanes of my fearefull flight. I did see a little obscure light, thorow the tops of the high trees, somewhat deuiding themselues ouer the water, and with the rest of their bodyes and branches, as it were seperating the heauens from my lifted vp eyes. A horrible place to be in, vnaccompanyed of any creature.
And suddainly hearing the fall of trees, through the force of a whyrlewinde, & noise of the broken bowghes, with a redoubled and hoarse sound a farre of, and yet brought to the eccho of the water thorow the thick wood, I grew into a new astonishment.
And at this instant thus terrified and afflycted, and yet without any receiued hurt, being vpon my knees bowed downe, and inclosing the hollownesse of my hand, therewith determined to make me a necessary drinking vessel: I had no sooner put the same into the water, offring to my mouth the long desired moysture, thereby to refrygerate and coole the extreame heate of my burning heart, which at that time would haue beene more acceptable vnto me, then eyther Hypanis and Ganges be to the Indians, Tigris or Euphrates to the Armenians, or Xeylus to the Aethiopian nation, or to the Egyptians his innundation, inbybing theyr burnt and rosted mould, or yet the riuer Po to the Ligurians.
Euen then also it fell so out, that I had no sooner taken water into the palme of my hand, offering the same to my open mouth, ready to receiue it: I heard a doricall songe, wherewith I was as greatly delighted, as if I had heard the Thracian Thamiras, which thorough my eares presented it selfe to my vnquiet heart, with so sweete and delectable a deliuerie, with a voyce not terrestriall, with so great a harmonie and incredible a fayning shrilnesse, and vnusuall proportion, as is possible to bee imagined by no tounge sufficiently to be commended. The sweetnes whereof so greatly delighted me, as thereby I was rauished of my remembrance, and my vnderstanding so taken from me, as I let fall my desired water thorough the loosned ioynts of my feeble hands.
And then euen as a birde, which through the sweetnes of the call forgetteth to remember the Fowlers deceit, so I letting slip that which nature stood in need of, hastened my selfe back with all speed, towarde that attractiue melodie, which the more I coasted, the further it seemed still from me, sometime heere, sometimes there, and still as I shifted places, so the same also chaunged with a delectable voyce and heauenly consent. Thus vainly running vp and downe, I knew not after what, I grew more wearie, faint, and drye, and so feeble, that my legges could but with great paine, vphould my distempered body. And my grieued spirits vnabled long to support the same, what with the feare that I had bin in, what with extreame thirst, what with long and wilesome trauell, and what with doubting the worst that might insue. Thus hote, faint, and drye: I knew not what to do but euen to procure rest for my weary members. I marueled first at this straunge accedent, and was amazed at this inhumane harmonye, but most of all in that I was in a straunge contry, and vninhabited, being onelye fertill and beawtyfull to behould, besydes that I greatly sorrowed for the losse of the fayer ryuer which I had so greatly labored to finde out, and now so lightly and carelesly to haue lost the benefit thereof. In this sort I was houlden in an intrycate minde of doubts, at length ouercome withall kinde of greefes, my whole bodye trembling and languishinge vnder a broade and mightye Oke full of Acornes, standing in the middest of a spatious and large green meade, extending forth his thicke and leauie armes to make a coole shadowe, vnder whose bodye breathing I rested my selfe vppon the deawye hearbes, and lying vppon my left syde I drewe my breath in the freshe ayre more shortly betwixt my drye and wrinckled lips, then the weary running heart, pinched in the haunche and struck in the brest, not able any longer to beare vp his weighty head, or sustaine his body vpon his bowing knees, but dying prostrates himselfe. And lying thus in such an agonie, I thought vpon the strifes of weake fortune, and the inchauntments of the malicious Cyrces, as if I had by hir charmes and quadranguled plaints, been bereaued of my sences. In these such so great & exceeding doubts: O hi me where might I there among so many dyuerse and sundry sorts of hearbes, finde the Mercurial Moli[A] with his blacke roote, for my helpe and remedie. Againe me thought that it was not so with me. What then? euen a hard appoyntment to delay my desired death. And thus remayning in these pernitious thoughts, my strength debylitated: I looked for no other helpe, but to drawe and receiue fresh ayre into that brest, which panted with a small remainder of vytall warmnesse, taking into my hands halfe aliue, as my last refuge, the moyst and bedewed leaues, preserued in the coole shadow of the greene Oke: putting the same to my pale and drye lippes, with a greedy desire in licking of them to satisfie my distempred mouth with theyr moisture, wishing for such a wel as Hypsipyle[a] shewed the Grecians: Fearing least that vnawares as I had russled in the wood I were bitten with the serpent Dipsa[b] my thirst was so vnsupportable. Then renuing my oulde cogitations: as I lay vnder this mightie Oke: I was oppressed with emynent sleepe ouer all my members: where againe I dreamed in this sorte.
[Sidenote A: Moly an herb greatly commended of Homer, and thought to be souereigne against inchauntments of moderne authors altogether vnknowne.]
[Sidenote a: Hypsipile was daughter to Thaos king of Lemnos, who alone when all women of that Iland had slaine their husbands & kinsmen, saued hir father: she also shewed the Grecians the fountaine Langia in the wood of Nemea in Achaia where Hercules slue a lion.]
[Sidenote b: Dipsa a kind of snakes that Lucan mentioneth, whose byting procureth extreame drynes or thirste.]
Poliphilus sheweth, that he thought he did sleep againe, and in his dreame thas he was in a Vallie, inuironed with mountaines and hilles, the end whereof was shut vp in a maruellous sort, with a mightie pyramides worthie of admiration: vpon the top whereof was a high obeliske, which with great pleasure hee beheld, and diligently discribeth.
Gotten foorth of this fearefull and thick wood, and forgetting the forementioned places by this sweete sleepe, occasioned by my wearie members nowe layde along: mee thought that I was in a new more delectable place, far excelling the former, which consisted not of fertles mountaines and craggie winding rockes, contayning wide caues, but being a delicate valley, in the which did rise a small mounting of no great height, sprinkled heare and there with young Okes, Ashes, Palme trees broadleaued, Aesculies,[a] Holme, Chestnut, Sugerchist, Poplars, wilde Oliue, and Oppies disposed some hyer then other, according to the mounting or fall of the place, in the plaine whereof was an other kinde of thicket of medicinable simples like little young trees, as the flowering Genista[b] enuironed with diuers green hearbs, Tetrifolie, Sheere grasse, hunnisuckle, the musked Angelica, Crowfoot Elapium and Rugwoort, with other profitable and vnknowne hearbes and flowers heare and there diuerslie disposed. A little beyond in the same valley, I founde a sandie or grauelly plaine, yet bespotted with greene tuffes, in which place grew a faire Palme tree with his leaues like the Culter of a plowe, and abounding with sweet and pleasant fruite, some set high, some lowe, some in a meane, some in the very top, an elect and chosen signe of victorie. Neither in this place was there any habitation or creature whatsoeuer. Thus walking solitarily betwixt the trees, growing distantly one from another, I perswaded my selfe, that to this no earthly situation was comparable: in which thought I soddainely espied vpon my left hand, an hungrie and carniuorous Woolfe, gaping vpon me with open mouthe.
[Sidenote a: Aesculus is a tree bearing both greater fruite and broder leaues then the Oke.]
[Sidenote b: Gemista beareth a cod and yellowe flower, vines are bound therewith. Elaphium is like to Angelica, but not in smell, the hart thereon rubbeth his head when it is veluet.]
At the sight whereof immediatly, my hayre stood right vp, and I would haue cryed out, but could not: and presently the Woolfe ranne away: wherevpon returning to my selfe, and casting my eyes towards the wooddie mountaines, which seemed to ioyne themselues together, beeing looked vnto a farre off, I sawe the forme of a tower of an incredible heygth, with a spyre vnperfectlie appearing, all being of very auncient forme and workemanship.
And drawing neare vnto this building, I beheld the gratious mountaines before a farre of seeming small, by comming neerer and neerer, by little and little, to lift vp themselues more and more, at the first seeming to mee that they had ioyned together with the building which was an inclosure or end of the valley betwixt mountaine and mountaine: which thing I thought worthy the noting, and without further delay I addressed my selfe more neerer therevnto. And by how much the more I approximated the same, by so much the more the excellencie of the woorke shewed it selfe, increasing my desire to behould the same. For there appeared no longer a substance of vnknowne forme, but a rare Obelisk vpon a vast frame and stonie foundation, the heigth whereof without comparison did exceed the toppes of the sidelying mountaynes, although I thought that they had beene the renowmed Olympus[a], the famous Caucasus[b], and not inferior to Cyllenus[c].
[Sidenote a: Olimpus a hil in Greece between Macedonie and Thesalie, so high, that of the Poets it is sometime taken for heauen.]
[Sidenote b: Caucasus a mightie hill in Asia which parteth India from Scythia.]
[Sidenote c: Cillenus a hill of Arcadia, where Iupiter begat Mercurie vpon Maia.]
To this sollitarie place thus desiredlye comming, with vnspeakeable delight, at pleasure I behelde the straunge manner of the arte, the hugenesse of the frame, and the woonderfull excellencie of the woorkmanship. Maruelling and considering the compasse and largenesse of this broken and decayed obiect, made of the pure glistering marble of Paros[d]. The squared stones ioyned togither without anye cement, and the pointed quadrangulate corner stones streightlye fitted and smoothlye pullished, the edges whereof were of an exquisite vermellion coulour, as is possible to bee deuised: and so iust set, as betwixt the ioynts, euen the enemie to the woorke (if euer there were anye) could not deuise to hide the point of the smallest spanish needle vsed of the best workewomen. And there in this so noble a piece of worke, I found a proportioned substance to euery shape and likenesse that can be thought vpon and called to remembrance, partly decayed, and some still whole remaining, with pillers small vpon great, with their excellent heads of an exact and most perfect closing, crowned battelments, embost caruings, bearing forth like embroderie, arched beames, mightie mettaline images, ouerthrowne and broken in sunder, the trunke of their exact and perfect members, appearing hollow of brasse. Skyffes, small boates and vessels of Numidian stone and Porphyr, and diuers couloured marble. Great lauers condites, and other infinite fragments of notable woorkmanship, far different and inferiour from that they were, in their perfection, but now brought back as it were to their first vnshapelines, being fallen and cast downe, some heere, some there, vpon the earth from the which they were taken. Among the broken and decayed places, wherof great sundrie wall weeds and hearbes, especially the vnshaking Anagyre, the Lentise of both kindes, beares foote, dogges head, Gladen greene, spotted Iuie, Centarie, and diuers suchlike. And in the myldered places of broken walles grew Howslike, and the hanging Cymbalaria bryers, and pricking brambles, among the which crept Swifts and Lyzarts which I sawe crawling among the ouergrowne stones, which at the first sight in this silent and solitarie place, made me to be warily afraid of them. On euery side there lay fallen downe smoothe round pieces of serpent spotted Marble, purple and red diuerse couloured. Fragments of strange histories, Panglyphic and Hemygliphic[E] compendiously caracterized, shewing the excellencie thereof, vndoubtedly accusing our age, that the perfection of such an art is forgotten.
[Sidenote d: Paros is one of the 35. Isles called Cyclades and Sporades, in the sea Aegeum which deuideth Europ from Asia.]
[Sidenote E: Panglyphic be wholy carued from the head to the foote in all members. Hemigliphic apeare but halfe.]
Then comming to the myddle fronture of the great and excellent woorke, I sawe one sole large and marueylous porche worthy of great estimation, proportioned according to the huge quantitie of the rest of the whole work, which was placed betwixt and continued in building from the one and the other of the mountaines hare lipped, and aboue arched, whose space betwixt as I doe coniecture was in measure sixe furlongs, and twelue paces. The top of which mountaines were perpendicularly equall eyther of them touching the azur'd skey. At the sight whereof I imagined with my selfe and deuised to thinke with what yron instruments, with what labour of mens hands, and number of workmen, such a piece of woorke could bee by great strength framed, with much paine layde together, and a long time in finishing. There then this woonderfull frame willingly as it were ioyned hands and vnited it selfe with the one and the other mightie mountaines, by meanes whereof, the foresaid valley there had an end, that no man could go further forward or backe againe, but to enter in by this broade, large, and wide open porche.
Vpon this massie frame and mightie woorkmanship, which I take to be in heigth from the roofe or top to the foote, fiue parts of a furlong, was placed a high and woonderfull Pyramides, after the fashion of a square poynted Diamond, and such incredible workemanship that could neuer be deuised and erected, without inestimable charge, great helpe, and long time. So that I thought the excellencie thereof vnthought vpon, to bee a myrrour, the sight whereof was able to dasell any humaine eyes, and quaile the rest of the spirituall sences. VVhat shall I say more? for so far as the reache of my capacitie will afoorde me leaue, in this sort I briefely describe the same.
Euery side or quarter of this foure squared frame, wherevpon the foote of the Pyramides did stand, did extend themselues in length six furlongs[A], which in compasse about euery side [ae]quilatered of like bredth, dooth multiplie to 24 furlongs. Then lifting vp the lynes on high from the foure corners, so much as euerye corner is distant in length from another, meeting in the top, so as the Perpendicular line may fall iust vpon the center of the Dyagon, stretching from both corners of the plynts or square foote, iust and conueniently ioyned together doe make a perfect pyramidall figure. VVhich immence and woonderfull forme, with a maruelous and exquise Symmetrie and due proportion mounting vp laboursomly foote by foote, conteyned 1410. degrees or steppes, taking away 10. degrees to make vp the head and gracilament of the Pyramides in whose place was set a huge Cube or foure square stone of forme like a dye, sound and firme of a monstrous thicknesse and incredible weight to bee carryed so high. And of the same stone of Paros as were the steps: which cube and square stone was the Basis and foote set vnder the Obilisk, which I haue in hand to describe.
[Sidenote A: A furlong is 16. pole euery pole being 16 foote.]
This mightie big stone sharpe topt, sliding downe the extream part from corner to corner, flat sided by the Diameter, was fower paces, at euery equall distant corner, whereof was the foote of a harpie of moulten mettall, their steales and clawes armed. Firmlye and stronglie set in with led, in euery corner of the Cube, or foure square head of the Pyramides, meeting together ouer the Diagonike line. Of proportioned thicknesse in heigth two paces. Which thus closing and mette together, made the socket of the great Obelisk: which Socket was beautified with leaues, fruites and flowers, of shining cast mettall, and of conuenient bignesse. VVherevpon the weight of the Obelisk was borne. The breadth whereof was two paces, and seauen in heigth, artificiously sharping of the stone of Thebais called Pyrus. Vpon the smooth plains whereof, pure and bright shining as a looking glasse, were moste excellently cut Aegiptian Hyerogliphs.
Vpon the pointe of which Obelisk, with great arte and diligence, was fastned a copper base, in the which also there was a turning deuise infixed: whervpon did stand the shape of a beautifull nimph framed of the aforesayd matter, able to amaze the continuall diligent behoulder. Of such a proportion as the common stature might be considered and perfectly seene, notwithstanding the exceeding heigth thereof in the ayre. Besides the greatnesse of the figure or image: it was a woonder to thinke how such a weight should bee carryed and set in such a place and so high. Couered with a habite blowne abroad with the winde, and shewing parte of the naked substance of the legges and thighes: with two wings growing out from the shoulder blades, and spred abroad as if shee were readye to flye, turning hir fayre face and sweete regarding countenance towardes hir wings. The tresses of hir haire flying abroade the vpper part or crowne naked and bare. In hir right hand she held from hir sight a copie or horne stuft full of many good things, stopped vp, and the mouth downewarde, hir left hand fastned and harde holden to hir naked brest. This Image and stature was with euery blast of wind turned, and mooued about with such a noyse and tinkling in the hollownes of the metaline deuise: as if the mynte of the Queene of England had being going there. And when the foote of the phane or Image in turning about, did rub and grinde vpon the copper base, fixed vpon the pointe of the Obeliske, it gaue such a sound, as if the tower bell of Saint Iohns Colledge in the famous Vniuersitie of Cambridge had beene rung: or that in the pompeous Batches of the mightie Hadrian: or that in the fift Pyramides standing vpon foure. This Obeliske in my iudgement was such, as neyther that in the Vaticane in Alexandria or Babilon, may bee equally compared vnto it, but rather esteemed far inferiour. It conteined in it such a heape of woonders, as I could not without great astonishment looke vpon it. As also consider the hugenesse of the worke, the excessiue sumptuousnesse, the straunge inuention, the rare performance, and exquisite diligence of the woorkeman. With what art inuented? with what power, humaine force, and incredible meanes, enuying (if I may speake it) the workmanship of the heauens, such and so mightie weights should be transported and carryed into the skyes? with what Cranes, winding beames, Trocles, round pullies, Capres bearing out deuices, and Poliplasies, and drawing frames, and roped tryces, therein being vnskilfull, I slip it ouer with silence.
And heere on the other side followeth the figure.
Let vs returne then to the huge Pyramides, standing vpon a strong and sound plynth or foure square foote, fourteene paces in heigth, and in length sixe furlongs, which was the foundation and bottom of the weightie pyramides, which I perswaded my selfe was not brought from any other place, but euen with plaine labour and workemanship hewen out of the selfe same mountaines, and reduced to this figure and proportion in his owne proper place.
Which great quadrant and square woorke, ioyned not fast to the collaterate and sidelying rockes, but was betwixt spaced and seperated on eyther sides tenne paces. Vpon the right hand as I went of the aforesaid plynth or square sheame, there was most perfectly carued the vyperous head of the fearefull Medusa, in a most furious and rigorous forme to looke vpon, and as it were yelling out: with terrible eyes cauernate, and hollow skowling vnder ther ouerhanging browes with a wrympled and forrowed forehead and gaping wide open mouth, which being hollowed with a dyrect waye from the Catill, and vppon stone by a mediane lyne perpendicular to the center of the far shewing Pyramides, made a large enterance and comming vnto it, at which opening mouth, compassed with fowlded haires of vnrepartable curiousnes artificiall cunning and costly woorkmanshyppe the assending the turning stayers shewed them selues, and instead of tresses of haire platted with laces, I saw fearefull vypers and winding serpents growing out from the scalpe of the monstrous head confusedly twysting together and hissing, so liuely portrayed and set foorth, that they made me afrayde to behould them. In their eyes were placed most shining stones, in such sort, as if I had not beene perswaded and knowne that they were stones indeed, I durst not haue drawne neere them.
And the aforesayde entrie cut out of the firme stone, led to the scale and compassing passage in the center, with winding steps tending to the highest parte of the stately Pyramides, and opening vpon the outside of the catill or cube: vpon the which the shining obeliske was founded. And among the rest of such notable partes that I beheld, me thought that this deuise was woorth the noting, because the artifitious and most cunning architect with an exquisite and perspicuous inuention, had made to the stayres certaine loopes or small windowes, imbracing the bountifull beames of the sunne correspondently on three parts, the lower, the middle, and supreame: The lower taking light from the higher, and the higher from the catabasse or lower with their opposite reflexions shewing a maruellous faire light, they were so fitly disposed by the calculate rule of the artificious Mathematrician, to the Orientall Meridionall and Occidentall partes of the ayre, that euery houre of the day the sunne shined in, and gaue light to the whole scale, the same loopes or windolets in diuerse places symmetrially and definitely dispersed and set.
To the aforesaid entrance thorow the open mouth of Medusa, I came by a long gallorie to a salying scale or downe going staire opening at the foot and pauement of the building vpon my right hand against one of the collaterall and side-lying mountaines, betwixt which there was out of the stone and open space cut out of tenne paces vp, into the which I ascended boldely without resistance, and being come to the beginning of the staire in the aforesaid mouth by innumerable steppes and degrees, not without great wearines and disinesse of head, by often turning about, I came to so incredible a height, that my eies would not suffer me to looke downe to the ground insomuch, that me thought that euery thing below vpon the plaine had lost his shape, and seemed vnperfect. In the opening and comming out of this circulate and turning assence many pillars of fused and molten mettall were aptly disposed and surely fixed: the inter-space betwixt euery one and other one foote, and in height halfe a pase, railed and ioyned togither aboue with a battelled coronet al along the said pillar, and of the same metall compassing about the opening of the staire, lest that any comming foorth vnawares should fall downe headlong, For the immesurable height thereof woulde cause a giddines in the head, and bring a staggering to the feete: vpon the plaine of the obeliske there was infixed a table of brasse fastened and soldered in about the height of a man, with an ancient inscription in Latine, Greeke, and Arabike, by the which I plainely vnderstoode that the same was dedicated to the Sunne, and the measure of the work wholy set downe and described, the name of the Architector noted on the obeliske in Greek letters.
LICHA SOLIBIKOS LIOODOMOS O:RTHOSEN ME Lichas Libiicus architectus me erexit. Lichas a Libian architector set me vp.
Let vs returne and come backe to the consideration of the But and tessell or square, subiect and vphoulder of the Pyramides in the fronte and foreside whereof I beheld ingrauen a Gigantomachie and combate betwixt Giauntes, the onely enemie to vitall breath, surpassinglie well cut, with the quick motions and liuelie agilities of their large and tall bodyes, vnpossible to be rightlye described, the artificiall handling thereof, as it were enuying the woorke of nature itselfe, as if theyr eyes and feete had mooued together, and coasted from one part to an other, with an expedite passage and swift course. In such sorte seemed they vpon theyr strong and mightie horsses, some being cast downe, other stumbling and falling: many wounded and hurt, yeelding vp their desired liues: some troden downe and mischieued vnder the feete of the fierce and vnrestrained horsses. Other casting off their armour wrastling and togging one with another: some headlong with their heeles vpwarde, falling and not come to the ground from off their horsses. Other some lying vpon the earth, houlding vp their sheilds and Targets, offended with the one hand, and defended with the other. Many with their shimitaries and curtilaxes, some with long swordes two handed after the auncient Persian manner, others with diuers deadly and strange fashioned mortall weapons: some wearing habergions and helmets, with diuers deuises vpon their crests: others naked and vnarmed, leaping and rushing in among the thickest, thereby shewing theyr haughtie, inuincible, and vndaunted courages, resolute for death. Some with fearefull countenances crying out, other shewing obstinate and furious visages, although they were assured to dye, strongly abiding the proofe of their paine, and the cutting in sunder of their fatall thread, others slaine before them, with diuers vncothe and straunge warlike and deadly instruments. Shewing their strong members, their swelling muskels standing out, offering to the sight and eyes of tbe behoulder, the dutie of theyr bones, and the hollownesse in the places, where theyr strong sinewes be strayned. Their conflict and combate seemed so fearefull, bloudie, deadly, cruell, and horrible: as if Mars himselfe had beene fighting with Porphirion and Alcion who made a noyse lyke the braying of Asses.
This catagliphic imagerie, did exceed a naturall and common stature and proportion of men, carued in priuie white marble, the ground thereof as black as iet, a perfect foile to beautifie and set forth with pale Christaline and siluer crolley, of innumerable huge bodyes, their last indeuours, their present actions, the fashion of their armor, the diuersitie of their deaths, & vncertaine & doubtful victorie. The discharge of my vndertaken discription whereof, prooueth maymed and lame, by reason that my vnderstanding is wearie, my memorie confused with varietie, and my sight dimmed with continuall gasing, that my senses will not aford me rightly, and as their dewe, fitly to manifest part, much lesse to describe at large the whole manner of their curious Lythoglyphi.
After this I became to cast with my selfe, what should mooue and cause such a pride & burning desire in any man, to fetch from far, and gather together so mightie stones with so great trauell: With what carriage, who were the conueyers and porters, with what manner of wheeles, and rowling deuises, and vpholding supporters, so great large and innumerable a sort of stones should be brought thither, and of what matter theyr cement that ioyned and held them together, was made the heygth of the Obelisk and statelinesse of the Pyramides, exceeding the imagined conceit of Dimocrates proposed to Alexander the great, about a worke to be performed vpon the hill Athos. For the strangenes of the Egiptian building might giue place to this. The famous laborinths were far inferior, Lemnos is not to be rehearsed the Theaters of old time were in comparison but warriners lodges, ney ther did the famous Nausoley come any thing neere. Which certainly maketh me absolutely perswaded, that he which wrote the seauen woonders of the world, neuer heard of this: neyther in any age hath their been seene or imagined the like, no not the sepulcher of Ninus.
Lastly I woondered what foundation and arches were able to vphold so monstrous a weight, whether the pyllars were hexagons or tetragons, and what varietie of columnes, and what number might serue, and after what sorte proportionately disposed and set. For the better vnderstanding and more perfect knowledge wherof, I conueyghed my selfe in at the open & spacious porche and enterance, within the which was an obscure and vast hollownes: which porche, together with the proud and stately buylding (things worthy of memorie) shall in some sorte be descrybed as followeth.
Poliphilus, after the discription of the huge Pyramides and Obeliske, discourseth of maruelous woorkes in this Chapter, namely of a horsse of Colos. of an Oliphant, but especially of a most rare and straunge Porche.
Rightlye and lawfullye may I haue leaue to write, that in the whole world there was neuer such an other, so pompeous, glorious, and magnificent a peece of worke, by mans eyes seene or crediblie reported. The woonderfull excellencie and rare straungenesse whereof, as I beheld what with delight, and what with admiration, my sences were so captiuated and tyed therevnto, that no other solace or pleasure, did eyther occurre or take place in my swift flying thought.
But that when I applyed my sences to consider, and addressed my eyes with diligent obseruation, curiouslie to ouerlooke euerie perticular part of this sweete composed obiect, and most rare and goodly imagerie and virgin like bodyes, without cracke or flawe, with a long drawne breath, and somewhat opening my mouth, I set a deepe sighe. In so much as my amorous and sounding breathing, by reason of the thicknesse of the ayre in this solytarie and lone place, gaue an eccho, and did put me in minde of my Angelike and extreame desired Polia.
O hi me that so small or anye intermission should cause that hir louely and celestiall Idea and shape was not still imprinted in my minde, and continued a dayly companion, in whose brest my life is resolued to abide, and rest as vnder the protection of a most sure and approoued shield and safe defence.
And by this way I was brought to a place where were diuers and sundrie excellent sorts of auncient deuises and woorkemanships: first of all, I beheld a most fayre porche, past all sence to describe (for the incredible curiousnes thereof, as euer was built or deuised) and the rather for that our mother toung and vulgar speeche, may not afford apt and peculiar words, for such a piece of artificall worke.
Before this gorgeous and glorious porche, you shall vnderstand that in the open ayre there was a fowre square court of thirtie paces by his Diameter, paued with pure fine marble, poynted fowre square, wrought checkerwise of diuers fashions, and sundrie best fitting coulours: but in many places, by meanes of the ruine of the auncient walke, and olde pillers, broken in peeces and ouergrowne.
And in the vtmost partes of the aforesaide court, to the right hand, and the left, towards the mountaines, there was two straight rowes of pillars, with a space betwixt for the interiect Areostile,[A] as the quantities of both columnes required, the first course or order of setting the pyllars, beginning on both sides equall to the Lymbus or extreame part of the fronte of the porche, the space betwixt pyllars and pillars XV. paces. Of which collumnes or great pillars, some and the greatest parte or number were whole. With their capitels or heads, wrought with a waued shell worke, and cyllerie or draperie, their corners bearing out and inanulated or turned in like a curled locke of hayre, or the vpper head of a base Viall aboue the pinnes, which straine the stringes of the instrument to a musicall concord; with their subiect Astragals, writhing and hanging heere and there, making the capitall thrise so big as the bottom thereof of the columne, wherevpon was placed the Epistile or streight beame, the greatest part decayed, and many columnes widowed and depriued of their Capitels, buryed in ruine both Astragals and shafts of the columnes and their bases or feete.
[Sidenote A: A columne consisteth of his Capitell that is the head. Astragalus that is the subiect of the capitell next the columne. Hypotrachelie the shaft of the columne. And Hypothesis, that is the foote whereon the Columne standeth, exceeding the bignes of the columne.]
Fast ioyning to which order or set rowes of pillars, there grew ould plaine trees, wylde Oliues, Pine apple, and pricking brambles. I coniectured that it was made for to ride horses in, to trot and gallop, the ring, to manage, carrier, and coruet in, or els some open gallerie, couered close ouer head, vnder propt with pillers, and of a large widenesse to walke drie in, and to take a temperate ayre in, not too subtile.
Aboue in this great Court paued as aforesayd, in the passage towardes the Porche, some tenne paces, I beheld a prodigious winged vaughting horse, of moulten brasse, of an exceeding bignesse, his wings fanning out. His hooues standing vpon a smooth plaine base or frame, fiue foote brode, and nine feete in length, in heigth proportionable to the bredth and length: with his head at libertie and vnbrideled: hauing his two small eares, the one standing forward, and the other drawne back, with a long waued maine, falling from his crest on the contrarye side: vpon whose backe diuers young youthes assayed to ride, but not one was able to sit stedfast, by reason of his swiftnesse and high bounding, from whom some were fallen downe, lying wide open to the ayre, some groueling, other falling headlong, betwixt the horsse and the earth, the rest in vaine houlding by the hayre of his maine, some forceing to get vp vpon him, and others indeuoring to recouer themselues from vnder his feete.
Vpon the vpper part of the frame and base, there was infixed and fastned with lead, a footing or thick crust, of the same mettall that the horse was, and vpon the which he stoode, and those that were ouerthrowne did lye, somewhat shorter and narrower then the base or subiect frame, the whole masse or composition cast of a peece and of the same mettall, maruelouslie founded. Lastlye you could not perceiue that any were contented with his rowghnes, as appeared by their framed countenances, shewing a discontent which they could not vtter being sencelesse images, not differing otherwayes thorough the excellent conning of the craftisman from liuing creatures, and by his surpassing imitation of nature.
Peryllus there might go put vp his pypes, and blush with his deuised Bull, and Hiram the Iewe must heere giue place, or what founders els soeuer.
The P[ae]gma base or subiect for this metaline machine to stand vpon, was of one solyde peece of marble (of fit and conuenient breadth, heighth, and length, for that purpose accordinglye proportioned) full of streaming vaines, sondry coulered, and diuerslye spotted, maruelous pleasant to the eye, in infinite commixtures, confusedly disposed.
Vpon the brest or formost part, and end of the marble base, that was opposite against the porch, there was a garland of greene marble, like the leaues of bitter Alisander, commixt with dead leaues of Maydenweede, of a hayre coulour, within the which there was a smoothe round, pure, white stone, wherein was ingrauen these capitall Romaine letters.
At the hinder end in like sort was a garland of deadly Woolfwoort, with this inscription, Equus inf[ae]licitatis. And vpon the right side there was ingrauen certaine figures, shapes, and representments of men and women dauncing together, byformed or faced, the formost smiling, the hynmost weeping:[A] and dauncing in a ring, with theyr armes spred abrode, and hanfasted man, with man and woman with woman. One arme of the man vnder that of the woman, and the other aboue, and thus closing together, and houlding by the hands, they floung about one after another, that alwayes still in one place, a smyling countenance incountered a foregoing sad. Their number was seauen and seauen, so perfectly and sweetely counterfeited with liuelie motions, their vestures whisking vp and flying abroad, that the workman could not be accused of any imperfection, but that one had not a liuely voyce to expresse their mirth, and the other brinish teares to manifest their sorrow: the said daunce was in fashion of two Semicircles, with a seperating partition put betwixt.
[Sidenote A: None liue in this world in that pleasure, but they haue also their sorowes in time.]
Vnder which Hemiall figure, there was inscript this worde TEMPVS. On the contrary side I beheld many of greene adolescency of like proportion to the former, and in suchlike compasse or space, the grounds of both beautified and set foorth with an exquisite foliature or woorke of leaues and flowers, this companie was plucking and gathering of the flowers of sundrye hearbes, and tender bushing stalkes and braunches; and with them diuers faire Nimphes pleasantly deuising, and sportinglie snatching away their gathered flowers,[A] and in such sort as abouesaid vnder the figure were ingrauen certaine capitall letters, to shew this one word AMISSIO, conteyning the ninth part to the Diameter or the quadrature.
[Sidenote A: Gift vainely bestowed, in time wantonlie spent, is a great losse, & breedeth repentance.]
At the first sight hereof I was amased and astonished, but with better regard & great delight curiously reouerlooking the huge founded Machine the shape and forme of a horse made by humane industry and skill most commendable, for that euery member without defect had his perfect harmonie, and euery limme his desired proportion, I straight called to remembrance the vnfortunate horse of Scian.
And thus helde still to beholde the same artificiall mysterie, an other spectacle and obiect no lesse worthy to be looked vpon than the former, offered it selfe to my sight, which was a mighty Elephant, whereunto with a desirous intent I speedely hyed me to approch and come neere.
In which meane while on an other side I heard a mournefull noise and humane groaning, as proceeding from a sicke body euen vnto death: whereat I stoode still at the first, my haires standing right vp, but presently without further stay, I addressed my steppes towards the place from whence I heard this wofull noyse and dolefull lament, forcing my selfe vp vppon a heape of ruinated, broken and downe-fallen marbles. Thus willingly going forward, I came to a vast and wonderfull large Colose, the feete thereof bare, and their soles hollowe, and the legges as if their flesh had beene wasted, consumed and fallen away. From thence with horror I came to looke vpon the head, where I did coniecture and imagine, that the ayre and winde getting in and comming foorth of his wide open mouth, and the hollow pipes of his throat, by a diuine inuention did cause this moderated noise and timed groanes: it lay with the face vpward all of molten mettal, like a man of middle age, and his head lifted vp as with a pillowe, with a resemblance of one that were sicke, breathing out at his mouth, sighes and groanes gaping, his length was three score paces. By the haires of his beard you might mount vp to his breast, and by the rent and torne peeces of the same to his stil lamenting mouth, which groningly remained wide open and empty, by the which, prouoked by the spurre of curious desire, I went downe by diuers degrees into his throat, from thence to his stomacke, and so foorth by secret wayes, and by little and little to all the seuerall partes of his inward bowelles, Oh wonderfull conceit. And euery part of mans body hauing vpon it written his proper appellation in three ideomes Chaldee, Greeke and Latine, that you might know the intrailes, sinews, bones, veines, muscles and the inclosed flesh, and what disease is bred there: the cause thereof, the cure and remedy, Vnto which inglomerated and winding heape of bowelles, there was a conuenient comming vnto and entrance in: with small loope-holes and wickets in sundry places diuersly disposed, yeelding thorough them a sufficient light to beholde the seuerall partes of the artificiall anothomie, not wanting any member that is found in a naturall body.
When I came to the heart, did see and reade how Loue at his first entrance begetteth sorow, and in continuaunce sendeth out sighes, and where Loue doth most greeuously offend: wherewithall I was mooued to renew my passion, sending out from the botome of my heart deepe set and groaning sighs inuocating and calling out vpon Polia, in such sort as that the whole Colose and Machine of brasse did resound, striking me into a horrible feare: an exquisite Arte beyond all capacity, for a man to frame his like not being an Anotomy indeede.
Oh the excellency of passed wittes, and perfect golden age when Vertue did striue with Fortune, leauing onely behind him for an heritage to this our world, blinde, ignorant, and grudging desire of worldly pelfe.
Vpon the other side I perceiued of like bignes to the former Colose, the vpper part of a womans head some deale bare, and the rest buried with the decayed ruines, as I thought, of such like workmanship as the other, and being forbidden by incomposite and disordered heapes of decayed and fallen downe stones, to view the same I returned to another former obiect, which was (and not farre distant from the horse straight forward) a huge Elephant of more blacke stone than the Obsidium, powdered ouer with small spottes of golde and glimces of siluer, as thicke as dust glistering in the sonne. The extreame hardnes whereof the better did shew his cleere shining brightnes, so as euery proper obiect therein did represent it selfe, excepte in that parte where the mettall did beare a contrary colour. Vpon his large backe was set a saddle or furniture of brasse, with two gyrthes going vnder his large belly, betwixt the which two being streight buckled vp with buckles of the same stone, there was inter-set a quadrangle correspondent to the breadth of the Obeliske placed vpon the saddle, and so iustly set, as no perpendicular line would fall on either side the diameter. Vpon three parts or sides of the foure square Obelisk, were ingrauen Egiptian caracters. The beast so exactly and cunningly proportioned, as inuention could deuise, and art performe. The aforesaid saddle and furniture set foorth and beautified with studdes hanging iewels, stories, and deuises, and houlding vp as it were a mightie Obeliske of greene couloured stone of Lacedemonia, vpon the euen square, two paces broad, and seauen in height, to the sharpe pointe thereof, waxing smaller and smaller, vpon which pointe there was fixte a Trigon or rounde Ball of a shinyng and glystering substance.
This huge beast stood streight vpon all foure, of an exquisite woorkmanship vpon the plaine leuell, and vpper part of the base, hewen and cunningly fashioned, beeing of Porphyr stone. With two large and long teeth, of puer white stone, and cleare appact, and fastned. And to the fore gyrth on eyther side was buckled a riche and gorgeous poiterell, beautified with diuers ornaments and varietie of Iewels, the subiect whereof was of the same substance of the saddle: vppon the middest whereof was grauen in Latine Cerebrum est in capite. And in like manner brought about the out sides of his neck to the foretop of his large and big head, it was there fastned together with an artificiall knot: from the which a curious ornament and verie notable, of Gouldsmithes worke, hung downe, ouer spredding his spacious face: the same ornament being twise so long as broade, bordered about, in the table whereof I beheld certaine letters, Ionic and Arabic, in this sorte.
His deuouring trunke rested not vpon the leuel of the base, but some deale hanging downe, turned vppe againe towardes his face. His rigged large ears like a Fox-hounde flappingly pendent, whose vast stature was little lesse, then a verye naturall Olyphant. And in the about compasse, and long sides of the base, were ingrauen certaine Hierogliphs, or Egiptian caracters. Being decently and orderlye pullished, with a requisite rebatement, Lataster gule thore orbicle, Astragals or Neptrules, with a turned down Syme at the foote of the base, and turned vp aloft with writhin trachils and denticles, agreeable and fit to the due proportion of so large a substance, in length 12. paces, in breadth fiue, and in heigth three, the superficiall and outward part, whereof was hewen in forme of a hemicycle.
In the hynder parte of which base and stone, wherevpon this mightie beast did stande, I founde an assending place of seauen steps, to mount vp to the plaine superficies of the base wherevpon the Olyphant did stand. And in the reserued quadrangle perpendicularly streight vnder the aforesaid brasen saddle, there was cut out and made a little doore and hollowed entrance, a woonderfull woorke in so hard a substance, with certaine steppes of brasse, in manner of stayres, by the which a conuenient going vp into the body of the Olephant was offered me.
At the sight whereof I extreamely desired to see the whole deuise & so going in, I assended vp to the heigth of the base wherevppon the cauernate, hollow, vast, large and predigious monster did stand, except that same part of the Obelisk, which was conteyned within the voyde body of the beast, and so passing to the base. Leauing towards both sides of the Olyphant so much space as might serue for any man to passe, eyther towarde the head or hynder haunches.
And within from the bending downe of the chine or backe of the beast, there hunge by chaynes of copper an euerlasting lampe and incalcerate light, thorough the which in this hinder parte I sawe an auncient sepulcher of the same stone, with the perfect shape of a man naked, of all natural parts. Hauing vpon his head a crowne of black stone as iet: his teeth eyes and nayles siluered and standing vpon a sepulcher couered like an arke, of scale woorke, and other exquisite lyneaments, poynting with a goulden scepter, and holding forward his arme to giue direction to the former part.
On his left side he held a shield in fashion like to the keele of a ship, or the bone of a horse head, wherevppon was inscript in Hebrew, Attic, and Latine letters, this sentence that is placed on the other side with the figure.
At which vncoth and straunge sight I stood not a little amased and somewhat doubtfull what to imagine, turning my eyes to the contrarie part, I sawe in like sorte an other, as before burning light, and passing thorough betwixt the side of the beast, and the therein inclosed part of the Obelisk, I came towards the forepart of the Olyphant, where in like manner I found such an other fashioned sepulcher as the former, with a stature or image standing therevpon as the other, sauing that it was a Queene, who lyfting vp hir right arme with hir formost finger, poynted towards that part behinde hir shoulders, and with the other shee helde a little table fast in hir hand, in which was written in three languages this epygram.
This noueltie worthie to be manifested, and secret riddle often to be read ouer, was not knowen to me, so as I rested doubtfull what the interpretation of this sophisme should signify, not daring to trie the conclusion. But stricken with feare in this dark vnlightsome place, notwithstanding the dimme burning lampe, I was more desirous to beholde and peruse that triumphant porch and gate as more lawfull to remaine there than other-where. Whereupon without more adoe, I determined to leaue this place vntill another time, that I might more quietly at lesure looke vpon the same, and to prepare my selfe to beholde the woonderfull worke of the gate: and thus descending downe I issued foorth of the vnbowelled monster, an inuention past imagination, and an excessiue labour and bolde attempt to euacuate such a hard substance ouer that other stones be, the workemanship within as curious as that without. Lastly, returned cleane downe, I beheld in the Porphire laste along the sides notably insculpt and grauen these hierogliphies.
First, the horned scalpe of an oxe, with two tooles of husbandry fastned to the hornes.
An altar standing vpon goates feete, with a burning fire aloft, on the foreside whereof there was also an eie, and a vulture.
After that a bason and an ewre.
A spindle ful of twind, an old vessel fashioned with the mouth stopped and tied fast.
A sole and an eye in the bale thereof and two branches trauersed one of Oliue, an other of Palme tree.
An Anchor and a Goose.
An olde lampe, and a hand holding of it.
An ore of ancient forme with a fruitefull Oliue branch fastned to the handle.
Two grapling yrons or hookes.
A Dolphin and an Arke close shut.
These hierogliphies were passing well cut on this manner.
Which ancient maner of writing, as I take it, is thus to be vnderstoode.
Ex labore Deo natur[ae] sacrifica liberaliter paulatim reduces animum Deo subiectum. Firmam custodiam vit[ae] tu[ae], misericorditer gubernando tenebit, incolumemque seruabit.
Letting passe this most excellent rare, strange, and secret deuise and worke: Let vs returne againe to the prodigious horse, whose head was leane and little, of a small proportion and yet fitting the body, which seemed continually staring, fieerce and impatient, the flesh in his muscles trembling and quaking, in such sort as that hee seemed rather aliue than a fained imitation, with this Greeke worde in his face GENEA. There were also other great peeces and fragments of diuers and sundry lineaments among the broken and decayed ruines, which I looked not on, still running and sliding, time giuing me onely leaue to consider and peruse these foure rare wonders, the porch or gate, the horse, the Colose, and the Elephant.
Oh reuerend arthists of times past, what despite hath gotten the vpper hand of your cunning that the same is buried with you, and none left for vs to inherite in this age,
At length being come to this ancient porch, a worke woorthie the looking vpon maruellously composed by exquisite rules, and by art notably beautified, with diuers and sundry sorts of cuttings, which did inflame a desire in me to vnderstand and finde out the lineaments and practise of the architect. I beganne after this maner, making a square from the two collumnes on either side in a perfect sort, in the which I tooke the due proportion of the whole porch.
A tetragon figure A. B. C. D. diuided by three lines straight, and three ouerthwart equally distant one from an other will make sixeteene quadrats, then adde to the figure halfe as much more in like proportion, diuiding the adiunct you shall finde foure and twenty squares. This figure shall serue of credycels to make the inlepturgie and briefe demonstration that followeth.
Draw then in the first fygure A. B. C. D. two diagons, make also in the same two lines, and straight downe, and the other ouerthwart, which make foure quadrats mutually intersect,
Then in the voide ouer the Isopleures make foure mediane prickes, drawing lines from one to another, and they wil make the Rhombas.
When I had drawne this figure after this manner I straightway mused with my selfe, what reason should mooue many of our woorkemen in these dayes eyther to thinke well of themselues, or take the art of building in hand, not knowing what it is? Making such grosse faults in churches and great mens houses, defaming arte, and so ignorant, that they seeme as though they could not consider what nature hir selfe dooth teach vs in behoulding of hir woorkes.
And what parte soeuer is not agreeable with his principle, is foule and naught. For take away order and rule, and what thing can any man make, eyther beautifull to the eye, or of commendable proportion and durable: then it must needes follow, that the cause of such inconuenient errors doth proceed from ignorance, and hath his beginning from illiterature. And this notwithstanding, that although the perfection of this arte dooth not varie, & fall from his rectitude, yet the discreet and cunning architect to grace the obiect, to the behoulders: may lawfullye eyther with adiection or deminution, beautifie his worke, keeping whole the sollid part, with his vniuersall composition.
I call that solid which is the bodye of the frame, which is the principall intent, inuention, fore setting downe, and symmetrie, or dew proportion of the building without any additions, rightlye examined, and perfectly composed, which will manifest the skill of the workeman, and the same afterwardes to adorne and beautifie, which adiuncts is an easie matter. Wherein is also to be considered, the dew ordering and placing of euery thing, and not to set a crowne vpon the feete, but vpon the head, and so oualing and denticulating, and other cuttings of sundrye sorts in their seuerall and best fitting places, the chiefe inuention and disposing whereof, resteth in the rare and cunning architect, but the labour and woorking therof to the vulgar and common sort of mannalistsand seruants to the architect, who if he will do well, he must in no wise be subiect to auarice.
And besides his skil he must be honest, no pratler full of words, but courteous, gentle, bening, tractable, patient, mery & pleasant, full of new deuises, a curious searcher into all artes, and well aduised in his proceeding, least with rashnes he comit a fault or absurditie in his worke, and heereof thus much shall suffice.
After that Poliphylus had at large made a demonstration of the dew proportion of the Gate, hee proceedeth to describe the ornaments thereof, and their excellencie.
I hauing beene somewhat prolix and tedious in my former purpose, it may be that it hath bred some offence, to such as dayly indeuour to occupie theyr sences in the pleasaunt discourses of loue. But it wyll also prooue no whit displeasant, if with a lyttle patience, they restraine to glutte themselues with the walowish sweetnes of deceyueable delightes, and trye the taste of a contrarye vyand.
And for as much as the affections of men are naturally variable and different one from an other: vpon this occasion I may bee excused. For although that bread sometime denyed and kept backe from the hungrie body, may cause a hard conceit, yet when it is eftsoones offered vnto him, the mallice is forgotten, and the gift very gratefully receyued.
Nowe hauing in some sorte spoken of the right vse of architecturie, and the direct waye and meanes by order and rule, to finde out, the set downe deuise, and solyde bodye or grounde of the woorke, with facilitie that beeing found out, the architector may vse sundrye deuisions in diuerse perfections, not vnlike vnto a cunning Musition, who hauing deuised his plaine grounde in right measure, with full strokes, afterwarde wyll proportion the same into deuisions, by cromatycall and delyghtfull minims crotchets, and quauers, curiously reporting vpon his plaine song. Euen so after inuention, the principall and speciall rule, for an Architector is a quadrature, the same deuided into smales the harmonie and sweete consent of the building, setteth foorth it selfe, and the conuenient adiunctes, agreeable to theyr principall.
In all which this porche was most excellent, both for the rare inuention and woonderfull composition thereof, and the strange additions to beautifie the same, in such sorte so exquysite, so fitly placed, and so curiouslie cut and ingrauen, as the smallest part thereof could not bee accused of anye fault, but the woorkman commended for the perfection of his skill.
First vpon my right hande belowe, I beheld a stilypode or square stone, like an aulter vnder the bases of the columnes, which hauing vpon the vpper parte a conuenient and meet coronice, and accordingly imbowed, the bottome and lowest part in like manner was fashioned, so as the quadrate and aforesayd stilypode, was no broder then long, but a right quadrangule. Which aulter (as I may tearme it) sidelong about, wrought with leaues, hollowed vnder with a gulaterie, and wrapt ouer wirh the same foliature and leafe worke, hemming in the smooth face or table of the Stilypode of shining white alliblaster, polished and plaine, the outward part of the quadrangule, equilaterally compassing about the same, wherevpon with a woonderfull curiousnes was ingrauen a man neere his myddle-age, of a churlish and swarffie countenance, with an vnshaply beard, thick, and turning into his chyn, by the towghnesse of the hard skinne, and vneasie growing out of the hayre.
He sat vpon a stone with an aporne of a Goates skinne, the hinder parts compassing his waste, and tyed behynde with a knotte, and the neck part, with the hayrie side next him, hung downe betwixt his legges. Before him in the interstice of these grose and tumorus calfes, there was an anuill fastned vpon a knottie peece of a tree, wherevpon he was fashoning of a brigandine or habergion of burning mettall, houlding vp his Hammer, and as it were striking vpon his worke.
And there before him was a most noble woman, hauing two fethered wings set vpon hir delicate and tender shoulders, houlding hir sonne an infante naked, which sate with his little hyppes vpon the large and goodly proportioned thighes of the faire goddesse his mother, and playing with hir, as she held him vp, and putting his feete vpon a stone, as it had beene a little hill, with a fornace in a hollow hole, wherin was an extreame whote burning fire.
This Ladye had hir fayre tresses curiouslie dressed vpon hyr broad and highe forhead, and in like sorte compassing about with abundance, hir head in so rare and delicate a sort, that I marueyled why the Blacksmithes that were there busie at theyr worke, left not off to looke still vpon so beautifull an obiect. There was also fast by, of like excellent woorkemanship, a knight of fierce countenance,[A] hauing vpon hym an armour of brasse, with the head of Medusa vpon the curate or brest plate, and all the rest exquisitely wrought and beautified, with a bandilier ouerthwart his broad and strong brest, houlding with hys brawny arme a halfe Pike, and raysing vp the poynte thereof, and bearing vpon his head a high crested helmet, the other arme shadowed and not seene by reason of the former figure: There was also a young man in silke clothing, behynde the Smith, whome I could not perceiue but from the brest vpwarde, ouer the declyning head of the forenamed Smith. Thys rehearsed hystorie, for the better and sweeter pleasing to the eye, the workeman had graced in this sort. The playne grounde that was hollowe and smoothe in euery cutting out of a limme or body, vpon the table of the stylipode, was like vnto red coroll and shyning, which made such a reflection vpon the naked bodyes, and theyr members betwixt them, and compassing them about, that they seemed lyke a Carnation Rose couler.
[Sidenote A: Mars.]
Vpon the left side of the doore in the like aulter or stylipode vpon the table thereof, there was ingrauen a yoong man of seemly countenance,[A] wherein appeared great celerity: he sate vpon a square seate adorned with an ancient manner of caruing, hauing vpon his legge a paire of half buskens, open from the calfe of the legge to the ancle, from whence grew out on either ancle a wing, and to whome the aforesaide goddes with a heauenlye shape, her brests touching together and growne out round and firme without shaking, with her large flankes conformable to the rest of hir proportion before mentioned with a sweet countenance offered yoong and tender sonne ready to be taught: the yong man bowing himselfe curteously downe to the childe, who stoode before him vppon his pretty little feete, receiuing from his tutor three arrowes, which in such sort were deliuered as one might easelye coniecture and gather after what manner they were to be vsed: the goddesse his mother holding the empty quiuer and bowe vnbent, and at the feete of this instructor lay his vypered caduce.
[Sidenote A: Mercurie.]
There also I saw a squier or armour-bearer and a woman with a helmet vpon her head carying a troph[ae] or signe of victorie vpon a speare after this manner.[A] An ancient coate-armor hung vp, and vpon the top thereof or creast, a spheare vpon two wings, and betwixt both wings this note or saying, Nihil firmum, Nothing permanent: she was apparelled in a thin garment carried abroad with the wind, and her breasts bare.
[Sidenote A: Amor mi troua di tutto disarmato.]
The two straight pillars of Porphyre of seuen diameters vpon either of the aforenamed stilipodes and square aultars did stretch vpward of a pumish or tawnie colour, the out sides shining cleere and smoothly pollished, chamfered, and chanelled with foure and twenty rebaternents or channels in euery collumne betwixt the nextruls or cordels.
Of these the third part was round, and the reason of their cutting in such sort (that is two parts chamfered, & the third round) as I thought was this: the frame or temple was dedicated to both sexes, that is, to a god and a goddesse, or to the mother and the son, or to the husband and the wife, or the father and the daughter, and such like. And therefore the expert and cunning workemen in elder time for the feminine sex, did vse more chamfering and channelling and double varietie then for the masculine, because of their slippery and vnconstant nature.
The cause of so much rebating was to shew that this was the temple of a goddesse, for chamfering dooth set foorth the plytes of feminine apparell, vpon the which they placed a chapter with prependent folding, like vnto plyted and curled haire, and feminine dressing, and sometimes in stead of a chapter a woman's head with crisped haire.
These notable and faire collumnes aforesaide did rise vp in length vpon their vnderset bases of brasse with their Thores and Cymbies[A] wrought with a foliature of oke leaues and acornes winding about their chapters standing vpon their subiect Plynths.
[Sidenote A: Thores and Cymbies be the outward parts of a chapter or head of a pillar sticking out further than the pillar wrything and turning in, wrought with leaues, the worke is called of caruers & painters draperie and celerie.]
The Chapters of the same substance of their bases, with requisite meete and conuenient proportion aunswerable to the harmonie of the whole worke. Such as Callimachus the chiefe caruer to Calathus the sonne of Iupiter did neuer performe or come neere in the erected sepulcher of the Corinthian Virgin, beautified with draperie of double Achanthis.
The Plynthes whereon the chapters did stand wrought with winding and turning workes, and in the middest, decorated with a Lillie, the bowle garnished with two rowes of viii. leaues of Achanthus, after the Romaine and Corinthian maner, out of which leaues came little small stalkes, closing together in the middest of the boule, shewing foorth a fayre and sweet composed Lyllie in the hollowing of the Abac or Plynth, from the which the tender stalkes did turne round together, vnder the compasse of the square Abac, much after the woorke that Agrippa caused to bee made, in the porche of his woonderfull Pantheon.
Let vs come now to the lymet and lowest parte of the doore, for entrance, which was of a great large and harde stone, powdered with sundry sorted spottes, white, black, and of a clay couler, and diuers other mixtures: vppon this stood the streight cheekes and sides of the doore, with an interstitious aspect, inwardly carued with as great cunning as the rest. Without any signe of eyther hookes or hinges, below or aboue.
The arche of which doore compassing like a halfe cyrcle, was wrought curiouslye and imbowed, and as it were bounde about with laces like beads of brasse, some round, and some like Eglantine berries of a reddish couler, hanging downe after an auncient manner, and foulded and turned in among the tender stalkes.
The closing together and bracing of which hemicycle or arch, worthie of admiration, of a rare and subtile deuise, and exquisite polyture, did thus obiect and present it selfe to my sight.
There I beheld in a hard and most black stone, an eagle displayed, and bearing out of the bignesse of a naturall eagle, which had louingly seazed and taken in hir foote a sweete babe in the swadling cloutes,[A] nicely, carefully, and gently houlding the same, least that hir strong, sharpe, and hooking pounces, should by anye meanes pierce thorough the tender skynne of the young infant.
[Sidenote A: The Eagle of Iupiter that carryed Ganimed.]
Hir feete were fixed about the rising vp chist of the childe, whome she had made bare from the nauell vpwarde and downeward so as the naked hippes might be seene betwixt the fethered thighes of the Eagle. This little infant and most beautifull babe (worthie and meete for him that he was seazed for) by his countenance shewed as if he had beene afraide of his fortune.
And thus lying in the foote of the Eagle, he stretched both his armes abroade, and with his little fat hands tooke fast hould vpon the remigiall bones[A] of the Eagles pinions displayed, as aforesaid. And clasping his swelling prittie legges and feete, about hir suruaighing spreding traine, which laye behinde the rising vppe of the arche.
[Sidenote A: The bones next the qack in the wing, whiche in a hawke excelleth all proportions of other birds.]