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Infantry Drill Regulations, United States Army, 1911 - Corrected to April 15, 1917 (Changes Nos. 1 to 19)
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Transcriber's note:

Nearly all of the italicized text in the original book is also in bold typeface. For ease of reading, bold typeface is not indicated in this e-book. Both bold and italics are indicated by underscores.



Infantry Drill Regulations

UNITED STATES ARMY

1911

CORRECTED TO APRIL 15, 1917 (Changes Nos. 1 to 19)

MILITARY PUBLISHING CO. 42 BROADWAY NEW YORK

WAR DEPARTMENT Document No. 394 OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF



WAR DEPARTMENT, OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF, Washington, August 19, 1911.

The following System of Drill Regulations for Infantry, prepared by a board of officers consisting of Lieut. Col. John F. Morrison, Infantry; Capt. Merch B. Stewart, Eighth Infantry; and Capt. Alfred W. Bjornstad, Twenty-eighth Infantry, is approved and is published for the information and government of the Regular Army and the Organized Militia of the United States. With a view to insure uniformity throughout the Army, all infantry drill formations not embraced in this system are prohibited, and those herein prescribed will be strictly observed.

By order of the Secretary of War:

LEONARD WOOD, Major General, Chief of Staff.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PART I—Drill. Paragraph.

1. Introduction 1-30 2. Orders, commands and signals 31-47 3. School of the soldier 48-100 4. School of the squad 101-158 5. School of the company 159-257 (a) Close order 167-198 (b) Extended order 199-231 (c) Fire 232-257 6. The battalion 258-326 (a) Close order 263-289 (b) Combat principles 290-326 7. The regiment 327-346 (a) Close order 333-341 (b) Combat principles 342-346 8. The brigade 347-349

PART II—Combat.

1. Introduction 350-357 2. Leadership 358-388 (a) General considerations 358-370 (b) Teamwork 371-377 (c) Orders 378-383 (d) Communication 384-388 3. Combat reconnaissance 389-399 4. Fire superiority 400-424 (a) Purpose and nature 400-401 (b) Fire direction and control 402-424 5. Deployment 425-441 6. Attack 442-488 (a) Deployment for attack 449-452 (b) Advancing the attack 453-457 (c) The fire attack 458-463 (d) The charge 464-475 (e) Pursuit 476-480 (f) Attack of fortifications 481-484 (g) Holding attack 485-488 7. Defense 489-519 (a) Positions and intrenchments 489-494 (b) Deployment for defense 495-510 (c) Counterattack 511-516 (d) Delaying action 517-519 8. Meeting engagements 520-530 9. Withdrawal from action 531-535 10. Miscellaneous 537-622 (a) Machine guns 537-546 (b) Ammunition supply 547-553 (c) Mounted scouts 554-557 (d) Night operations 558-568 (e) Infantry against Cavalry 569-574 (f) Infantry against Artillery 575-578 (g) Artillery supports 579-583 (h) Intrenchments 584-595 (i) Minor warfare 596-603 (j) Patrols 604-622

PART III—Marches and camps.

1. Marches 623-660 (a) Training and discipline 623-635 (b) Protection of the march 636-660 2. Camps 661-707 (a) Sanitation 661-677 (b) Protection of camp or bivouac 678-707

PART IV—Ceremonies and inspections.

1. Ceremonies 708-765 (a) Reviews 711-731 (b) Parades 732-735 (c) Escorts 736-744 2. Inspections 745-754 3. Muster 755-757 4. Honors and salutes 758-765

PART V.—Manuals.

1. The color 766-778 2. The band 779-781 3. Manual of the saber 782-791 4. Manual of tent pitching 792-803 5. Manual of the bugle 804-807 (a) Bugle calls. (b) Bugle signals.



INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS.

UNITED STATES ARMY, 1911.



DEFINITIONS.

Alignment: A straight line upon which several elements are formed, or are to be formed; or the dressing of several elements upon a straight line.

Base: The element on which a movement is regulated.

Battle sight: The position of the rear sight when the leaf is laid down.

Center: The middle point or element of a command.

Column: A formation in which the elements are placed one behind another.

Deploy: To extend the front. In general to change from column to line, or from close order to extended order.

Depth: The space from head to rear of any formation, including the leading and rear elements. The depth of a man is assumed to be 12 inches.

Distance: Space between elements in the direction of depth. Distance is measured from the back of the man in front to the breast of the man in rear. The distance between ranks is 40 inches in both line and column.

Element: A file, squad, platoon, company, or larger body, forming part of a still larger body.

File: Two men, the front-rank man and the corresponding man of the rear rank. The front-rank man is the file leader. A file which has no rear-rank man is a blank file. The term file applies also to a single man in a single-rank formation.

File closers: Such officers and noncommissioned officers of a company as are posted in rear of the line. For convenience, all men posted in the line of file closers.

Flank: The right or left of a command in line or in column; also the element on the right or left of the line.

Formation: Arrangement of the elements of a command. The placing of all fractions in their order in line, in column, or for battle.

Front: The space, in width, occupied by an element, either in line or in column. The front of a man is assumed to be 22 inches. Front also denotes the direction of the enemy.

Guide: An officer, noncommissioned officer, or private upon whom the command or elements thereof regulates its march.

Head: The leading element of a column.

Interval: Space between elements of the same line. The interval between men in ranks is 4 inches and is measured from elbow to elbow. Between companies, squads, etc., it is measured from the left elbow of the left man or guide of the group on the right, to the right elbow of the right man or guide of the group on the left.

Left: The left extremity or element of a body of troops.

Line: A formation in which the different elements are abreast of each other.

Order, close: The formation in which the units, in double rank, are arranged in line or in column with normal intervals and distances.

Order, extended: The formation in which the units are separated by intervals greater than in close order.

Pace: Thirty inches; the length of the full step in quick time.

Point of rest: The point at which a formation begins. Specifically, the point toward which units are aligned in successive movements.

Rank: A line of men placed side by side.

Right: The right extremity or element of a body of troops.



PART I.—DRILL.



INTRODUCTION.

1. Success in battle is the ultimate object of all military training; success may be looked for only when the training is intelligent and thorough.

2. Commanding officers are accountable for the proper training of their respective organizations within the limits prescribed by regulations and orders.

The excellence of an organization is judged by its field efficiency. The field efficiency of an organization depends primarily upon its effectiveness as a whole. Thoroughness and uniformity in the training of the units of an organization are indispensable to the efficiency of the whole; it is by such means alone that the requisite teamwork may be developed.

3. Simple movements and elastic formations are essential to correct training for battle.

4. The Drill Regulations are furnished as a guide. They provide the principles for training and for increasing the probability of success in battle.

In the interpretation of the regulations, the spirit must be sought. Quibbling over the minutiae of form is indicative of failure to grasp the spirit.

5. The principles of combat are considered in Part II of these regulations. They are treated in the various schools included in Part I only to the extent necessary to indicate the functions of the various commanders and the division of responsibility between them. The amplification necessary to a proper understanding of their application is to be sought in Part II.

6. The following important distinctions must be observed:

(a) Drills executed at attention and the ceremonies are disciplinary exercises designed to teach precise and soldierly movement, and to inculcate that prompt and subconscious obedience which is essential to proper military control. To this end, smartness and precision should be exacted in the execution of every detail. Such drills should be frequent, but short.

(b) The purpose of extended order drill is to teach the mechanism of deployment, of the firings, and, in general, of the employment of troops in combat. Such drills are in the nature of disciplinary exercises and should be frequent, thorough, and exact in order to habituate men to the firm control of their leaders. Extended order drill is executed at ease. The company is the largest unit which executes extended order drill.

(c) Field exercises are for instruction in the duties incident to campaign. Assumed situations are employed. Each exercise should conclude with a discussion, on the ground, of the exercise and principles involved.

(d) The combat exercise, a form of field exercise of the company, battalion, and larger units, consists of the application of tactical principles to assumed situations, employing in the execution the appropriate formations and movements of close and extended order.

Combat exercises must simulate, as far as possible, the battle conditions assumed. In order to familiarize both officers and men with such conditions, companies and battalions will frequently be consolidated to provide war-strength organizations. Officers and noncommissioned officers not required to complete the full quota of the units participating are assigned as observers or umpires.

The firing line can rarely be controlled by the voice alone; thorough training to insure the proper use of prescribed signals is necessary.

The exercise should be followed by a brief drill at attention in order to restore smartness and control.

7. In field exercises the enemy is said to be imaginary when his position and force are merely assumed; outlined when his position and force are indicated by a few men; represented when a body of troop acts as such.

General Rules for Drills and Formations.

8. When the preparatory command consists of more than one part, its elements are arranged as follows:

(1) For movements to be executed successively by the subdivisions or elements of an organization: (a) Description of the movement; (b) how executed, or on what element executed.

(2) For movements to be executed simultaneously by the subdivisions of an organization: (a) The designation of the subdivisions; (b) the movement to be executed.

9. Movements that may be executed toward either flank are explained as toward but one flank, it being necessary to substitute the word "left" for "right," and the reverse, to have the explanation of the corresponding movement toward the other flank. The commands are given for the execution of the movements toward either flank. The substitute word of the command is placed within parentheses.

10. Any movement may be executed either from the halt or when marching, unless otherwise prescribed. If at a halt, the command for movements involving marching need not be prefaced by forward, as 1. Column right (left), 2. MARCH.

11. Any movement not specially excepted may be executed in double time.

If at a halt, or if marching in quick time, the command double time precedes the command of execution.

12. In successive movements executed in double time the leading or base unit marches in quick time when not otherwise prescribed; the other units march in double time to their places in the formation ordered and then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit. If marching in double time, the command double time is omitted. The leading or base unit marches in quick time; the other units continue at double time to their places in the formation ordered and then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit.

13. To hasten the execution of a movement begun in quick time, the command: 1. Double time, 2. MARCH, is given. The leading or base unit continues to march in quick time, or remains at halt if already halted; the other units complete the execution of the movement in double time and then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit.

14. To stay the execution of a movement when marching, for the correction of errors, the command: 1. In place, 2. HALT, is given. All halt and stand fast, without changing the position of the pieces. To resume the movement the command: 1. Resume, 2. MARCH, is given.

15. To revoke a preparatory command, or, being at a halt, to begin anew a movement improperly begun, the command, AS YOU WERE, is given, at which the movement ceases and the former position is resumed.

16. Unless otherwise announced, the guide of a company or subdivision of a company in line is right; of a battalion in line or line of subdivisions or of a deployed line, center; of a rank in column of squads, toward the side of the guide of the company.

To march with guide other than as prescribed above, or to change the guide: Guide (right, left, or center).

In successive formations into line, the guide is toward the point of rest; in platoons or larger subdivisions it is so announced.

The announcement of the guide, when given in connection with a movement, follows the command of execution for that movement. Exception: 1. As skirmishers, guide right (left or center), 2. MARCH. (C.I.D.R., No. 2.)

17. The turn on the fixed pivot by subdivisions is used in all formations from line into column and the reverse.

The turn on the moving pivot is used by subdivisions of a column in executing changes of direction.

18. Partial changes of direction may be executed:

By interpolating in the preparatory command the word half, as Column half right (left), or Right (left) half turn. A change of direction of 45 deg. is executed.

By the command: INCLINE TO THE RIGHT (LEFT). The guide, or guiding element, moves in the indicated direction and the remainder of the command conforms. This movement effects slight changes of direction.

19. The designations line of platoons, line of companies, line of battalions, etc., refer to the formations in which the platoons, companies, battalions, etc., each in column of squads, are in line.

20. Full distance in column of subdivisions is such that in forming line to the right or left the subdivisions will have their proper intervals.

In column of subdivisions the guide of the leading subdivision is charged with the step and direction; the guides in rear preserve the trace, step, and distance.

21. In close order, all details, detachments, and other bodies of troops are habitually formed in double rank.

To insure uniformity of interval between files when falling in and in alignments, each man places the palm of the left hand upon the hip, fingers pointing downward. In the first case the hand is dropped by the side when the next man on the left has his interval; in the second case, at the command front.

22. The posts of officers, noncommissioned officers, special units (such as band or machine-gun company), etc., in the various formations of the company, battalion, or regiment, are shown in plates.

In all changes from one formation to another involving a change of post on the part of any of these, posts are promptly taken by the most convenient route as soon as practicable after the command of execution for the movement; officers and noncommissioned officers who have prescribed duties in connection with the movement ordered, take their new posts when such duties are completed.

As instructors, officers and noncommissioned officers go wherever their presence is necessary. As file closers it is their duty to rectify mistakes and insure steadiness and promptness in the ranks.

23. Except at ceremonies, the special units have no fixed places. They take places as directed; in the absence of directions, they conform as nearly as practicable to the plates, and in subsequent movements maintain their relative positions with respect to the flank or end of the command on which they were originally posted.

24. General, field, and staff officers are habitually mounted. The staff of an officer forms in single rank 3 paces in rear of him, the right of the rank extending 1 pace to the right of a point directly in rear of him. Members of the staff are arranged in order from right to left as follows: General staff officers, adjutant, aids, other staff officers, arranged in each classification in order of rank, the senior on the right. The flag of the general officer and the orderlies are 3 paces in rear of the staff, the flag on the right. When necessary to reduce the front of the staff and orderlies, each line executes twos right or fours right, as explained in the Cavalry Drill Regulations, and follows the commander.

When not otherwise prescribed, staff officers draw and return saber with their chief.

25. In making the about, an officer, mounted, habitually turns to the left.

When the commander faces to give commands, the staff, flag, and orderlies do not change position.

26. When making or receiving official reports, or on meeting out of doors, all officers will salute.

Military courtesy requires the junior to salute first, but when the salute is introductory to a report made at a military ceremony or formation, to the representative of a common superior (as, for example, to the adjutant, officer of the day, etc.), the officer making the report, whatever his rank, will salute first; the officer to whom the report is made will acknowledge by saluting that he has received and understood the report.

(C.I.D.R., Nos. 6 and 17.)

27. For ceremonies, all mounted enlisted men of a regiment or smaller unit, except those belonging to the machine-gun organizations, are consolidated into a detachment; the senior present commands if no officer is in charge. The detachment is formed as a platoon or squad of cavalry in line or column of fours; noncommissioned staff officers are on the right or in the leading ranks.

28. For ceremonies, such of the noncommissioned staff officers as are dismounted are formed 5 paces in rear of the color, in order of rank from right to left. In column of squads they march as file closers.

29. Other than for ceremonies, noncommissioned staff officers and orderlies accompany their immediate chiefs unless otherwise directed. If mounted, the noncommissioned staff officers are ordinarily posted on the right or at the head of the orderlies.

30. In all formations and movements a noncommissioned officer commanding a platoon or company carries his piece as the men do, if he is so armed, and takes the same post as an officer in like situation. When the command is formed in line for ceremonies, a noncommissioned officer commanding a company takes post on the right of the right guide after the company has been aligned.



ORDERS, COMMANDS, AND SIGNALS.

31. Commands only are employed in drill at attention. Otherwise either a command, signal, or order is employed, as best suits the occasion, or one may be used in conjunction with another.

32. Signals should be freely used in instruction, in order that officers and men may readily know them. In making arm signals the saber, rifle, or headdress may be held in the hand.

33. Officers and men fix their attention at the first word of command, the first note of the bugle or whistle, or the first motion of the signal. A signal includes both the preparatory command and the command of execution; the movement commences as soon as the signal is understood, unless otherwise prescribed.

34. Except in movements executed at attention, commanders or leaders of subdivisions repeat orders, commands, or signals whenever such repetition is deemed necessary to insure prompt and correct execution.

Officers, battalion noncommissioned staff officers, platoon leaders, guides, and musicians are equipped with whistles.

The major and his staff will use a whistle of distinctive tone; the captain and company musicians a second and distinctive whistle; the platoon leaders and guides a third distinctive whistle.

(C.I.D.R., No. 15.)

35. Prescribed signals are limited to such as are essential as a substitute for the voice under conditions which render the voice inadequate.

Before or during an engagement special signals may be agreed upon to facilitate the solution of such special difficulties as the particular situation is likely to develop, but it must be remembered that simplicity and certainty are indispensable qualities of a signal.

Orders.

36. In these regulations an order embraces instructions or directions given orally or in writing in terms suited to the particular occasion and not prescribed herein.

Orders are employed only when the commands prescribed herein do not sufficiently indicate the will of the commander.

Orders are more fully described in paragraphs 378 to 383, inclusive.

Commands.

37. In these regulations a command is the will of the commander expressed in the phraseology prescribed herein.

38. There are two kinds of commands:

The preparatory command, such as forward, indicates the movement that is to be executed.

The command of execution, such as MARCH, HALT, or ARMS, causes the execution.

Preparatory commands are distinguished by italics, those of execution by CAPITALS.

Where it is not mentioned in the text who gives the commands prescribed, they are to be given by the commander of the unit concerned.

The preparatory command should be given at such an interval of time before the command of execution as to admit of being properly understood: the command of execution should be given at the instant the movement is to commence.

The tone of command is animated, distinct, and of a loudness proportioned to the number of men for whom it is intended.

Each preparatory command is enunciated distinctly, with a rising inflection at the end, and in such manner that the command of execution may be more energetic.

The command of execution is firm in tone and brief.

39. Majors and commanders of units larger than a battalion repeat such commands of their superiors as are to be executed by their units, facing their units for that purpose. The battalion is the largest unit that executes a movement at the command of execution of its commander.

40. When giving commands to troops it is usually best to face toward them.

Indifference in giving commands must be avoided as it leads to laxity in execution. Commands should be given with spirit at all times.

Bugle Signals.

41. The authorized bugle signals are published in Part V of these regulations.

The following bugle signals may be used off the battle field, when not likely to convey information to the enemy:

Attention: Troops are brought to attention.

Attention to orders: Troops fix their attention.

Forward, march: Used also to execute quick time from double time.

Double time, march.

To the rear, march: In close order, execute squads right about.

Halt.

Assemble, march.

The following bugle signals may be used on the battle field:

Fix bayonets.

Charge.

Assemble, march.

These signals are used only when intended for the entire firing line; hence they can be authorized only by the commander of a unit (for example, a regiment or brigade) which occupies a distinct section of the battle field. Exception: Fix bayonet. (See par. 318.)

The following bugle signals are used in exceptional cases on the battle field. Their principal uses are in field exercises and practice firing.

Commence firing: Officers charged with fire direction and control open fire as soon as practicable. When given to a firing line, the signal is equivalent to fire at will.

Cease firing: All parts of the line execute cease firing at once.

These signals are not used by units smaller than a regiment, except when such unit is independent or detached from its regiment.

Whistle Signals.

42. Attention to orders. A short blast of the whistle. This signal is used on the march or in combat when necessary to fix the attention of troops, or of their commanders or leaders, preparatory to giving commands, orders, or signals.

When the firing line is firing, each squad leader suspends firing and fixes his attention at a short blast of his platoon leader's whistle. The platoon leader's subsequent commands or signals are repeated and enforced by the squad leader. If a squad leader's attention is attracted by a whistle other than that of his platoon leader, or if there are no orders or commands to convey to his squad he resumes firing at once.

Suspend firing. A long blast of the whistle.

All other whistle signals are prohibited.

(C.I.D.R., No. 15.)

Arm Signals.

43. The following arm signals are prescribed. In making signals either arm may be used. Officers who receive signals on the firing line "repeat back" at once to prevent misunderstanding.

Forward, march. Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten and hold the arm horizontally, thrusting it in direction of march.

This signal is also used to execute quick time from double time.

Halt. Carry the hand to the shoulder; thrust the hand upward and hold the arm vertically.

Double time, march. Carry the hand to the shoulder; rapidly thrust the hand upward the full extent of the arm several times.

Squads right, march. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it to a vertical position above the head and swing it several times between the vertical and horizontal positions.

Squads left, march. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it downward to the side and swing it several times between the downward and horizontal positions.

Squads right about, march (if in close order) or, To the rear, march (if in skirmish line). Extend the arm vertically above the head; carry it laterally downward to the side and swing it several times between the vertical and downward positions.

Change direction or Column right (left), march. The hand on the side toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried across the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal; then swing in a horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the new direction.

As skirmishers, march. Raise both arms laterally until horizontal.

As skirmishers, guide center, march. Raise both arms laterally until horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until vertical and return to the horizontal; repeat several times.

As skirmishers, guide right (left), march. Raise both arms laterally until horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide steadily in the horizontal position; swing the other upward until vertical and return it to the horizontal; repeat several times.

Assemble, march. Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and describe horizontal circles.

Range, or Change elevation. To announce range, extend the arm toward the leaders or men for whom the signal is intended, fist closed; by keeping the fist closed battle sight is indicated; by opening and closing the fist, expose thumb and fingers to a number equal to the hundreds of yards; to add 50 yards describe a short horizontal line with forefinger. To change elevation, indicate the amount of increase or decrease by fingers as above; point upward to indicate increase and downward to indicate decrease.

What range are you using? or What is the range? Extend the arms toward the person addressed, one hand open, palm to the front, resting on the other hand, fist closed.

Are you ready? or I am ready. Raise the hand, fingers extended and joined, palm toward the person addressed.

Commence firing. Move the arm extended in full length, hand palm down, several times through a horizontal arc in front of the body.

Fire faster. Execute rapidly the signal "Commence firing."

Fire slower. Execute slowly the signal "Commence firing."

To swing the cone of fire to the right, or left. Extend the arm in full length to the front, palm to the right (left); swing the arm to right (left), and point in the direction of the new target.

Fix bayonet. Simulate the movement of the right hand in "Fix bayonet" (par. 95).

Suspend firing. Raise and hold the forearm steadily in a horizontal position in front of the forehead, palm of the hand to the front.

Cease firing. Raise the forearm as in suspend firing and swing it up and down several times in front of the face.

Platoon. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; describe small circles with the hand. (See par. 44.)

Squad. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; swing the hand up and down from the wrist. (See par. 44.)

Rush. Same as double time. (C.I.D.R., Nos. 2 and 14.)

44. The signals platoon and squad are intended primarily for communication between the captain and his platoon leaders. The signal platoon or squad indicates that the platoon commander is to cause the signal which follows to be executed by platoon or squad.

Flag Signals.

45. The signal flags described below are carried by the company musicians in the field.

In a regiment in which it is impracticable to make the permanent battalion division alphabetically, the flags of a battalion are as shown; flags are assigned to the companies alphabetically, within their respective battalions, in the order given below.

First battalion: Company A. Red field, white square. Company B. Red field, blue square. Company C. Red field, white diagonals. Company D. Red field, blue diagonals.

Second battalion: Company E. White field, red square. Company F. White field, blue square. Company G. White field, red diagonals. Company H. White field, blue diagonals.

Third battalion: Company I. Blue field, red square. Company K. Blue field, white square. Company L. Blue field, red diagonals. Company M. Blue field, white diagonals.

46. In addition to their use in visual signaling, these flags serve to mark the assembly point of the company when disorganized by combat, and to mark the location of the company in bivouac and elsewhere, when such use is desirable.

47. (1) For communication between the firing line and the reserve or commander in the rear, the subjoined signals (Signal Corps codes) are prescribed and should be memorized. In transmission, their concealment from the enemy's view should be insured. In the absence of signal flags, the headdress or other substitute may be used.

- Letter of If signaled from the rear to If signaled from the firing alphabet. the firing line. line to the rear. - AM Ammunition going forward. Ammunition required. CCC Charge (mandatory at all times). Am about to charge if no instructions to the contrary. CF Cease firing. Cease firing. DT Double time or "rush". Double time or "rush". F Commence firing. Commence firing. FB Fix bayonets. Fix bayonets. FL Artillery fire is causing us Artillery fire is causing losses. us losses. G Move forward. Preparing to move forward. HHH Halt. Halt. K Negative. Negative. LT Left. Left. O What is the (R.N. etc.)? What is the (R.N. etc.)? (Ardois Interrogatory. Interrogatory. and semaphore only.) What is the (R.N. etc.)? What is the (R.N. etc.)? (All Interrogatory. Interrogatory. methods but ardois and semaphore.) P Affirmative. Affirmative. R Acknowledgment. Acknowledgment. RN Range. Range. RT Right. Right. SSS Support going forward. Support needed. SUF Suspend firing. Suspend firing. T Target. Target. -

(2) THE TWO-ARM SEMAPHORE CODE.

(See illustrations on pages following.)

(C.I.D.R., No. 13.)

TWO-ARM SEMAPHORE CODE.



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

48. The instructor explains briefly each movement, first executing it himself if practicable. He requires the recruits to take the proper positions unassisted and does not touch them for the purpose of correcting them, except when they are unable to correct themselves. He avoids keeping them too long at the same movement, although each should be understood before passing to another. He exacts by degrees the desired precision and uniformity.

49. In order that all may advance as rapidly as their abilities permit, the recruits are grouped according to proficiency as instruction progresses. Those who lack aptitude and quickness are separated from the others and placed under experienced drill masters.

INSTRUCTION WITHOUT ARMS.

50. For preliminary instruction a number of recruits, usually not exceeding three or four, are formed as a squad in single rank.

Position of the Soldier, or Attention.

51. Heels on the same line and as near each other as the conformation of the man permits.

Feet turned out equally and forming an angle of about 45 deg.

Knees straight without stiffness.

Hips level and drawn back slightly; body erect and resting equally on hips; chest lifted and arched; shoulders square and falling equally.

Arms and hands hanging naturally, thumb along the seam of the trousers.

Head erect and squarely to the front, chin drawn in so that the axis of the head and neck is vertical; eyes straight to the front.

Weight of the body resting equally upon the heels and balls of the feet.

The Rests.

52. Being at a halt, the commands are: FALL OUT; REST; AT EASE; and 1. Parade, 2. Rest.

At the command fall out, the men may leave the ranks, but are required to remain in the immediate vicinity. They resume their former places, at attention, at the command fall in.

At the command rest each man keeps one foot in place, but is not required to preserve silence or immobility.

At the command at ease each man keeps one foot in place and is required to preserve silence but not immobility.

53. 1. Parade, 2. REST. Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to the rear, left knee slightly bent; clasp the hands, without constraint, in front of the center of the body, fingers joined, left hand uppermost, left thumb clasped by the thumb and forefinger of the right hand; preserve silence and steadiness of position.

54. To resume the attention: 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION. The men take the position of the soldier.

Eyes Right or Left.

55. 1. Eyes, 2. RIGHT (LEFT), 3. FRONT.

At the command right, turn the head to the right oblique, eyes fixed on the line of eyes of the men in, or supposed to be in, the same rank. At the command front, turn the head and eyes to the front.

Facings.

56. To the flank: 1. Right (left), 2. FACE.

Raise slightly the left heel and right toe; face to the right, turning on the right heel, assisted by a slight pressure on the ball of the left foot; place the left foot by the side of the right. Left face is executed on the left heel in the corresponding manner.

Right (left) half face is executed similarly, facing 45 deg.

"To face in marching" and advance, turn on the ball of either foot and step off with the other foot in the new line of direction; to face in marching without gaining ground in the new direction, turn on the ball of either foot and mark time.

57. To the rear: 1. About, 2. FACE.

Carry the toe of the right foot about a half foot-length to the rear and slightly to the left of the left heel without changing the position of the left foot; face to the rear, turning to the right on the left heel and right toe; place the right heel by the side of the left.

Salute with the Hand.

58. 1. Hand, 2. SALUTE.

Raise the right hand smartly till the tip of the forefinger touches the lower part of the headdress or forehead above the right eye, thumb and fingers extended and joined, palm to the left, forearm inclined at about 45 deg., hand and wrist straight; at the same time look toward the person saluted. (TWO) Drop the arm smartly by the side.

For rules governing salutes, see "Honors and Salutes," paragraphs 758-765.

(C.I.D.R., Nos. 3, 6, and 18.)

STEPS AND MARCHINGS.

59. All steps and marchings executed from a halt, except right step, begin with the left foot.

60. The length of the full step in quick time is 30 inches, measured from heel to heel, and the cadence is at the rate of 120 steps per minute.

The length of the full step in double time is 36 inches; the cadence is at the rate of 180 steps per minute.

The instructor, when necessary, indicates the cadence of the step by calling one, two, three, four, or left, right, the instant the left and right foot, respectively, should be planted.

61. All steps and marchings and movements involving march are executed in quick time unless the squad be marching in double time, or double time be added to the command; in the latter case double time is added to the preparatory command. Example: 1. Squad right, double time, 2. MARCH (School of the Squad).

Quick Time.

62. Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH.

At the command forward, shift the weight of the body to the right leg, left knee straight.

At the command march, move the left foot smartly straight forward 30 inches from the right, sole near the ground, and plant it without shock; next, in like manner, advance the right foot and plant it as above; continue the march. The arms swing naturally.

63. Being at a halt, or in march in quick time, to march in double time: 1. Double time, 2. MARCH.

If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the body to the right leg. At the command march, raise the forearms, fingers closed, to a horizontal position along the waist line; take up an easy run with the step and cadence of double time, allowing a natural swinging motion to the arms.

If marching in quick time, at the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and then step off in double time.

64. To resume the quick time: 1. Quick time, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the other foot in double time; resume the quick time, dropping the hands by the sides.

To Mark Time.

65. Being in march: 1. Mark time, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the other foot; bring up the foot in rear and continue the cadence by alternately raising each foot about 2 inches and planting it on line with the other.

Being at a halt, at the command march, raise and plant the feet as described above.

The Half Step.

66. 1. Half step, 2. MARCH.

Take steps of 15 inches in quick time, 18 inches in double time.

67. Forward, half step, halt, and mark time may be executed one from the other in quick or double time.

To resume the full step from half step or mark time: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH.

Side Step.

68. Being at a halt or mark time: 1. Right (left) step, 2. MARCH.

Carry and plant the right foot 15 inches to the right; bring the left foot beside it and continue the movement in the cadence of quick time.

The side step is used for short distances only and is not executed in double time.

If at order arms, the side step is executed at trail without command.

Back Step.

69. Being at a halt or mark time: 1. Backward, 2. MARCH.

Take steps of 15 inches straight to the rear.

The back step is used for short distances only and is not executed in double time.

If at order arms, the back step is executed at trail without command.

To Halt.

70. To arrest the march in quick or double time: 1. Squad, 2. HALT.

At the command halt, given as either foot strikes the ground, plant the other foot as in marching; raise and place the first foot by the side of the other. If in double time, drop the hands by the sides.

To March by the Flank.

71. Being in march: 1. By the right (left) flank, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the left foot, then face to the right in marching and step off in the new direction with the right foot.

To March to the Rear.

72. Being in march: 1. To the rear, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the left foot; turn to the right about on the balls of both feet and immediately step off with the left foot.

If marching in double time, turn to the right about, taking four steps in place, keeping the cadence, and then step off with the left foot.

Change Step.

73. Being in march: 1. Change step, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the left foot; plant the toe of the right foot near the heel of the left and step off with the left foot.

The change on the right foot is similarly executed, the command march being given as the left foot strikes the ground.

MANUAL OF ARMS.

74. As soon as practicable the recruit is taught the use, nomenclature (Pl. I), and care of his rifle; when fair progress has been made in the instruction without arms, he is taught the manual of arms; instruction without arms and that with arms alternate.

75. The following rules govern the carrying of the piece:

First. The piece is not carried with cartridges in either the chamber or the magazine except when specifically ordered. When so loaded, or supposed to be loaded, it is habitually carried locked; that is, with the safety lock turned to the "safe." At all other times it is carried unlocked, with the trigger pulled.

Second. Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are immediately inspected at the commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS; 3. Order (Right shoulder, port), 4. ARMS.

A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal.

If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine they are removed and placed in the belt.

Third. The cut-off is kept turned "off" except when cartridges are actually used.

Fourth. The bayonet is not fixed except in bayonet exercise, on guard, or for combat.

Fifth. Fall in is executed with the piece at the order arms. Fall out, rest, and at ease are executed as without arms. On resuming attention the position of order arms is taken.

Sixth. If at the order, unless otherwise prescribed, the piece is brought to the right shoulder at the command march, the three motions corresponding with the first three steps. Movements may be executed at the trail by prefacing the preparatory command with the words at trail; as, 1. At trail, forward, 2. MARCH; the trail is taken at the command march.

When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking interval or distance, and assemblings are executed from the order, raise the piece to the trail while in motion and resume the order on halting.

Seventh. The piece is brought to the order on halting. The execution of the order begins when the halt is completed.

Eighth. A disengaged hand in double time is held as when without arms.

]

76. The following rules govern the execution of the manual of arms:

First. In all positions of the left hand at the balance (center of gravity, bayonet unfixed) the thumb clasps the piece; the sling is included in the grasp of the hand.

Second. In all positions of the piece "diagonally across the body" the position of the piece, left arm and hand are the same as in port arms.

Third. In resuming the order from any position in the manual, the motion next to the last concludes with the butt of the piece about 3 inches from the ground, barrel to the rear, the left hand above and near the right, steadying the piece, fingers extended and joined, forearm and wrist straight and inclining downward, all fingers of the right hand grasping the piece. To complete the order, lower the piece gently to the ground with the right hand, drop the left quickly by the side, and take the position of order arms.

Allowing the piece to drop through the right hand to the ground, or other similar abuse of the rifle to produce effect in executing the manual, is prohibited.

Fourth. The cadence of the motions is that of quick time; the recruits are first required to give their whole attention to the details of the motions, the cadence being gradually acquired as they become accustomed to handling their pieces. The instructor may require them to count aloud in cadence with the motions.

Fifth. The manual is taught at a halt and the movements are, for the purpose of instruction, divided into motions and executed in detail; in this case the command of execution determines the prompt execution of the first motion, and the commands, two, three, four, that of the other motions.

To execute the movements in detail, the instructor first cautions: By the numbers; all movements divided into motions are then executed as above explained until he cautions: Without the numbers; or commands movements other than those in the manual of arms.

Sixth. Whenever circumstances require, the regular positions of the manual of arms and the firings may be ordered without regard to the previous position of the piece.

Under exceptional conditions of weather or fatigue the rifle may be carried in any manner directed.

77. Position of order arms standing: The butt rests evenly on the ground, barrel to the rear, toe of the butt on a line with toe of, and touching, the right shoe, arms and hands hanging naturally, right hand holding the piece between the thumb and fingers.

78. Being at order arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS.

With the right hand carry the piece in front of the center of the body, barrel to the rear and vertical, grasp it with the left hand at the balance, forearm horizontal and resting against the body. (TWO) Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand.

79. Being at order arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS.

With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across the body, grasp it smartly with both hands; the right, palm down, at the small of the stock; the left, palm up, at the balance; barrel up, sloping to the left and crossing opposite the junction of the neck with the left shoulder; right forearm horizontal; left forearm resting against the body; the piece in a vertical plane parallel to the front.

80. Being at present arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS.

Carry the piece diagonally across the body and take the position of port arms.

81. Being at port arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS.

Carry the piece to a vertical position in front of the center of the body and take the position of present arms.

82. Being at present or port arms: 1. Order, 2. ARMS.

Let go with the right hand; lower and carry the piece to the right with the left hand; regrasp it with the right hand just above the lower band; let go with the left hand, and take the next to the last position in coming to the order. (TWO) Complete the order.

83. Being at order arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS.

With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across the body; carry the right hand quickly to the butt, embracing it, the heel between the first two fingers. (TWO) Without changing the grasp of the right hand, place the piece on the right shoulder, barrel up and inclined at an angle of about 45 deg. from the horizontal, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder, right elbow near the side, the piece in a vertical plane perpendicular to the front; carry the left hand, thumb and fingers extended and joined, to the small of the stock, tip of the forefinger touching the cocking piece, wrist straight and elbow down. (THREE) Drop the left hand by the side.

84. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Order, 2. ARMS.

Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally across the body, the right hand retaining the grasp of the butt. (TWO), (THREE) Execute order arms as described from port arms.

85. Being at port arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS.

Change the right hand to the butt. (TWO), (THREE) As in right shoulder arms from order arms.

86. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS.

Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally across the body, the right hand retaining its grasp of the butt. (TWO) Change the right hand to the small of the stock.

87. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS.

Execute port arms. (THREE) Execute present arms.

88. Being at present arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS.

Execute port arms. (TWO), (THREE), (FOUR) Execute right shoulder arms as from port arms.

89. Being at port arms: 1. Left shoulder, 2. ARMS.

Carry the piece with the right hand and place it on the left shoulder, barrel up, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder; at the same time grasp the butt with the left hand, heel between first and second fingers, thumb and fingers closed on the stock. (TWO) Drop the right hand by the side.

Being at left shoulder arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS.

Grasp the piece with the right hand at the small of the stock. (TWO) Carry the piece to the right with the right hand, regrasp it with the left, and take the position of port arms.

Left shoulder arms may be ordered directly from the order, right shoulder or present, or the reverse. At the command arms execute port arms and continue in cadence to the position ordered.

90. Being at order arms: 1. Parade, 2. REST.

Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to the rear, left knee slightly bent; carry the muzzle in front of the center of the body, barrel to the left; grasp the piece with the left hand just below the stacking swivel, and with the right hand below and against the left.

Being at parade rest: 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION.

Resume the order, the left hand quitting the piece opposite the right hip.

91. Being at order arms: 1. Trail, 2. ARMS.

Raise the piece, right arm slightly bent, and incline the muzzle forward so that the barrel makes an angle of about 30 deg. with the vertical.

When it can be done without danger or inconvenience to others, the piece may be grasped at the balance and the muzzle lowered until the piece is horizontal; a similar position in the left hand may be used.

92. Being at trail arms: 1. Order, 2. ARMS.

Lower the piece with the right hand and resume the order.

Rifle Salute.

93. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Rifle, 2. SALUTE.

Carry the left hand smartly to the small of the stock, forearm horizontal, palm of hand down, thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger touching end of cocking piece; look toward the person saluted. (TWO) Drop left hand by the side; turn head and eyes to the front. (C.I.D.R., No. 6.)

94. Being at order or trail arms: 1. Rifle, 2. SALUTE.

Carry the left hand smartly to the right side, palm of the hand down, thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger against piece near the muzzle; look toward the person saluted. (TWO) Drop the left hand by the side; turn the head and eyes to the front.

For rules governing salutes, see "Honors and Salutes" (pars. 758-765).

The Bayonet.

95. Being at order arms: 1. Fix, 2. BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest; grasp the bayonet with the right hand, back of hand toward the body; draw the bayonet from the scabbard and fix it on the barrel, glancing at the muzzle; resume the order.

If the bayonet is carried on the haversack: Draw the bayonet with the left hand and fix it in the most convenient manner.

96. Being at order arms: 1. Unfix, 2. BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest; grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, pressing the spring with the forefinger of the right hand; raise the bayonet until the handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle of the piece; drop the point to the left, back of the hand toward the body, and, glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing between the left arm and the body; regrasp the piece with the right hand and resume the order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the most convenient manner.

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the original position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity but not in cadence.

97. CHARGE BAYONET. Whether executed at halt or in motion, the bayonet is held toward the opponent as in the position of guard in the Manual for Bayonet Exercise.

Exercises for instruction in bayonet combat are prescribed in the Manual for Bayonet Exercise.

The Inspection.

98. Being at order arms: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS.

At the second command take the position of port arms. (TWO) Seize the bolt handle with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, turn the handle up, draw the bolt back, and glance at the chamber. Having found the chamber empty, or having emptied it, raise the head and eyes to the front.

99. Being at inspection arms: 1. Order (Right shoulder, port), 2. ARMS.

At the preparatory command push the bolt forward, turn the handle down, pull the trigger, and resume port arms. At the command arms, complete the movement ordered.

To Dismiss the Squad.

100. Being at halt: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Port, 4. ARMS, 5. DISMISSED.



SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD.

101. Soldiers are grouped into squads for purposes of instruction, discipline, control, and order.

102. The squad proper consists of a corporal and seven privates.

The movements in the School of the Squad are designed to make the squad a fixed unit and to facilitate the control and movement of the company. If the number of men grouped is more than 3 and less than 12, they are formed as a squad of 4 files, the excess above 8 being posted as file closers. If the number grouped is greater than 11, 2 or more squads are formed and the group is termed a platoon.

For the instruction of recruits, these rules may be modified.

103. The corporal is the squad leader, and when absent is replaced by a designated private. If no private is designated, the senior in length of service acts as leader.

The corporal, when in ranks, is posted as the left man in the front rank of the squad.

When the corporal leaves the ranks to lead his squad, his rear rank man steps into the front rank, and the file remains blank until the corporal returns to his place in ranks, when his rear rank man steps back into the rear rank.

104. In battle officers and sergeants endeavor to preserve the integrity of squads; they designate new leaders to replace those disabled, organize new squads when necessary, and see that every man is placed in a squad.

Men are taught the necessity of remaining with the squad to which they belong and, in case it be broken up or they become separated therefrom, to attach themselves to the nearest squad and platoon leaders, whether these be of their own or of another organization.

105. The squad executes the halt, rests, facings, steps and marchings, and the manual of arms as explained in the School of the Soldier.

To Form the Squad.

106. To form the squad the instructor places himself 3 paces in front of where the center is to be and commands: FALL IN.

The men assemble at attention, pieces at the order, and are arranged by the corporal in double rank, as nearly as practicable in order of height from right to left, each man dropping his left hand as soon as the man on his left has his interval. The rear rank forms with distance of 40 inches.

The instructor then commands: COUNT OFF.

At this command all except the right file execute eyes right, and beginning on the right, the men in each rank count one, two, three, four; each man turns his head and eyes to the front as he counts.

Pieces are then inspected.

Alignments.

107. To align the squad, the base file or files having been established: 1. Right (Left), 2. DRESS, 3. FRONT.

At the command dress all men place the left hand upon the hip (whether dressing to the right or left); each man, except the base file, when on or near the new line executes eyes right, and, taking steps of 2 or 3 inches, places himself so that his right arm rests lightly against the arm of the man on his right, and so that his eyes and shoulders are in line with those of the men on his right; the rear rank men cover in file.

The instructor verifies the alignment of both ranks from the right flank and orders up or back such men as may be in rear, or in advance, of the line; only the men designated move.

At the command front, given when the ranks are aligned, each man turns his head and eyes to the front and drops his left hand by his side.

In the first drills the basis of the alignment is established on, or parallel to, the front of the squad; afterwards, in oblique directions.

Whenever the position of the base file or files necessitates a considerable movement by the squad, such movement will be executed by marching to the front or oblique, to the flank or backward, as the case may be, without other command, and at the trail.

108. To preserve the alignment when marching: GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT).

The men preserve their intervals from the side of the guide, yielding to pressure from that side and resisting pressure from the opposite direction; they recover intervals, if lost, by gradually opening out or closing in; they recover alignment by slightly lengthening or shortening the step; the rear rank men cover their file leaders at 40 inches.

In double rank, the front-rank man on the right, or designated flank, conducts the march; when marching faced to the flank, the leading man of the front rank is the guide.

To Take Intervals and Distances.

109. Being in line at a halt: 1. Take interval, 2. To the right (left), 3. MARCH, 4. Squad, 5. HALT.

At the second command the rear-rank men march backward 4 steps and halt; at the command march all face to the right and the leading man of each rank steps off; the other men step off in succession, each following the preceding man at 4 paces, rear-rank men marching abreast of their file leaders.

At the command halt, given when all have their intervals, all halt and face to the front.

110. Being at intervals, to assemble the squad: 1. Assemble, to the right (left), 2. MARCH.

The front-rank man on the right stands fast, the rear-rank man on the right closes to 40 inches. The other men face to the right, close by the shortest line, and face to the front.

111. Being in line at a halt and having counted off: 1. Take distance, 2. MARCH, 3. Squad, 4. HALT.

At the command march No. 1 of the front rank moves straight to the front; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 of the front rank and Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the rear rank, in the order named, move straight to the front, each stepping off so as to follow the preceding man at 4 paces. The command halt is given when all have their distances.

In case more than one squad is in line, each squad executes the movement as above. The guide of each rank of numbers is right.

112. Being at distances, to assemble the squad: 1. Assemble, 2. MARCH.

No. 1 of the front rank stands fast; the other numbers move forward to their proper places in line.

To Stack and Take Arms.

113. Being in line at a halt: STACK ARMS.

Each even number of the front rank grasps his piece with the left hand at the upper band and rests the butt between his feet, barrel to the front, muzzle inclined slightly to the front and opposite the center of the interval on his right, the thumb and forefinger raising the stacking swivel; each even number of the rear rank then passes his piece, barrel to the rear, to his file leader, who grasps it between the bands with his right hand and throws the butt about 2 feet in advance of that of his own piece and opposite the right of the interval, the right hand slipping to the upper band, the thumb and forefinger raising the stacking swivel, which he engages with that of his own piece; each odd number of the front rank raises his piece with the right hand, carries it well forward, barrel to the front; the left hand, guiding the stacking swivel, engages the lower hook of the swivel of his own piece with the free hook of that of the even number of the rear rank; he then turns the barrel outward into the angle formed by the other two pieces and lowers the butt to the ground, to the right of and against the toe of his right shoe.

The stacks made, the loose pieces are laid on them by the even numbers of the front rank.

When each man has finished handling pieces, he takes the position of the soldier.

114. Being in line behind the stacks: TAKE ARMS.

The loose pieces are returned by the even numbers of the front rank; each even number of the front rank grasps his own piece with the left hand, the piece of his rear-rank man with his right hand, grasping both between the hands; each odd number of the front rank grasps his piece in the same way with the right hand, disengages it by raising the butt from the ground and then, turning the piece to the right, detaches it from the stack; each even number of the front rank disengages and detaches his piece by turning it to the left, and then passes the piece of his rear-rank man to him, and all resume the order.

115. Should any squad have Nos. 2 and 3 blank files, No. 1 rear rank takes the place of No. 2 rear rank in making and breaking the stack; the stacks made or broken, he resumes his post.

Pieces not used in making the stack are termed loose pieces.

Pieces are never stacked with the bayonet fixed.

The Oblique March.

116. For the instruction of recruits, the squad being in column or correctly aligned, the instructor causes the squad to face half right or half left, points out to the men their relative positions, and explains that these are to be maintained in the oblique march.

117. 1. Right (Left) oblique, 2. MARCH.

Each man steps off in a direction 45 deg. to the right of his original front. He preserves his relative position, keeping his shoulders parallel to those of the guide (the man on the right front of the line or column), and so regulates his steps that the ranks remain parallel to their original front.

At the command halt the men halt faced to the front.

To resume the original direction: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH.

The men half face to the left in marching and then move straight to the front.

If at half step or mark time while obliquing, the oblique march is resumed by the commands: 1. Oblique, 2. MARCH.

To Turn on Moving Pivot.

118. Being in line: 1. Right (Left) turn, 2. MARCH.

The movement is executed by each rank successively and on the same ground. At the second command, the pivot man of the front rank faces to the right in marching and takes the half step; the other men of the rank oblique to the right until opposite their places in line, then execute a second right oblique and take the half step on arriving abreast of the pivot man. All glance toward the marching flank while at half step and take the full step without command as the last man arrives on the line.

Right (Left) half turn is executed in a similar manner. The pivot man makes a half change of direction to the right and the other men make quarter changes in obliquing. (C.I.D.R., No. 2.)

To Turn on Fixed Pivot.

119. Being in line, to turn and march: 1. Squad right (left), 2. MARCH.

At the second command, the right flank man in the front rank faces to the right in marching and marks time; the other front rank men oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot, and mark time. In the rear rank the third man from the right, followed in column by the second and first, moves straight to the front until in rear of his front-rank man, when all face to the right in marching and mark time; the other number of the rear rank moves straight to the front four paces and places himself abreast of the man on his right. Men on the new line glance toward the marching flank while marking time and, as the last man arrives on the line, both ranks execute forward, march, without command.

120. Being in line, to turn and halt: 1. Squad right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Squad, 4. HALT.

The third command is given immediately after the second. The turn is executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph except that all men, on arriving on the new line, mark time until the fourth command is given, when all halt. The fourth command should be given as the last man arrives on the line.

121. Being in line, to turn about and march: 1. Squad right (left) about, 2. MARCH.

At the second command, the front rank twice executes squad right, initiating the second squad right when the man on the marching flank has arrived abreast of the rank. In the rear rank the third man from the right, followed by the second and first in column, moves straight to the front until on the prolongation of the line to be occupied by the rear rank; changes direction to the right; moves in the new direction until in rear of his front-rank man, when all face to the right in marching, mark time, and glance toward the marching flank. The fourth man marches on the left of the third to his new position; as he arrives on the line, both ranks execute forward, march, without command.

122. Being in line, to turn about and halt: 1. Squad right (left) about, 2. MARCH, 3. Squad, 4. HALT.

The third command is given immediately after the second. The turn is executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph except that all men, on arriving on the new line, mark time until the fourth command is given, when all halt. The fourth command should be given as the last man arrives on the line.

To Follow the Corporal.

123. Being assembled or deployed, to march the squad without unnecessary commands, the corporal places himself in front of it and commands: FOLLOW ME.

If in line or skirmish line, No. 2 of the front rank follows in the trace of the corporal at about 3 paces; the other men conform to the movements of No. 2, guiding on him and maintaining their relative positions.

If in column; the head of the column follows the corporal.

To Deploy as Skirmishers.

124. Being in any formation, assembled: 1. As skirmishers, 2. MARCH.

The corporal places himself in front of the squad, if not already there. Moving at a run, the men place themselves abreast of the corporal at half-pace intervals, Nos. 1 and 2 on his right, Nos. 3 and 4 on his left, rear-rank men on the right of their file leaders, extra men on the left of No. 4; all then conform to the corporal's gait.

When the squad is acting alone, skirmish line is similarly formed on No. 2 of the front rank, who stands fast or continues the march, as the case may be; the corporal places himself in front of the squad when advancing and in rear when halted.

When deployed as skirmishers, the men march at ease, pieces at the trail unless otherwise ordered.

The corporal is the guide when in the line; otherwise No. 2 front rank is the guide.

125. The normal interval between skirmishers is one-half pace, resulting practically in one man per yard of front. The front of a squad thus deployed as skirmishers is about 10 paces.

To Increase or Diminish Intervals.

126. If assembled, and it is desired to deploy at greater than the normal interval; or if deployed, and it is desired to increase or decrease the interval: 1. As skirmishers, (so many) paces, 2. MARCH.

Intervals are taken at the indicated number of paces. If already deployed, the men move by the flank toward or away from the guide.

The Assembly.

127. Being deployed: 1. Assemble, 2. MARCH.

The men move toward the corporal and form in their proper places.

If the corporal continues to advance, the men move in double time, form, and follow him.

The assembly while marching to the rear is not executed.

Kneeling and Lying Down.

128. If standing: KNEEL.

Half face to the right; carry the right toe about 1 foot to the left rear of the left heel; kneel on right knee, sitting as nearly as possible on the right heel; left forearm across left thigh; piece remains in position of order arms, right hand grasping it above the lower band.

129. If standing or kneeling: LIE DOWN.

Kneel, but with right knee against left heel; carry back the left foot and lie flat on the belly, inclining body about 35 deg. to the right; piece horizontal, barrel up, muzzle off the ground and pointed to the front; elbows on the ground; left hand at the balance, right hand grasping the small of the stock opposite the neck. This is the position of order arms, lying down.

130. If kneeling or lying down: RISE.

If kneeling, stand up, faced to the front, on the ground marked by the left heel.

If lying down, raise body on both knees; stand up, faced to the front, on the ground marked by the knees.

131. If lying down: KNEEL. Raise the body on both knees; take the position of kneel.

132. In double rank, the positions of kneeling and lying down are ordinarily used only for the better utilization of cover.

When deployed as skirmishers, a sitting position may be taken in lieu of the position kneeling.

LOADINGS AND FIRINGS.

133. The commands for loading and firing are the same whether standing, kneeling, or lying down. The firings are always executed at a halt.

When kneeling or lying down in double rank, the rear rank does not load, aim, or fire.

The instruction in firing will be preceded by a command for loading.

Loadings are executed in line and skirmish line only.

134. Pieces having been ordered loaded are kept loaded without command until the command unload, or inspection arms, fresh clips being inserted when the magazine is exhausted.

135. The aiming point or target is carefully pointed out. This may be done before or after announcing the sight setting. Both are indicated before giving the command for firing, but may be omitted when the target appears suddenly and is unmistakable; in such case battle sight is used if no sight setting is announced.

136. The target or aiming point having been designated and the sight setting announced, such designation or announcement need not be repeated until a change of either or both is necessary.

Troops are trained to continue their fire upon the aiming point or target designated, and at the sight setting announced, until a change is ordered.

137. If the men are not already in the position of load, that position is taken at the announcement of the sight setting; if the announcement is omitted, the position is taken at the first command for firing.

138. When deployed, the use of the sling as an aid to accurate firing is discretionary with each man.

To Load.

139. Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. With dummy (blank or ball) cartridges, 2. LOAD.

At the command load each front-rank man or skirmisher faces half right and carries the right foot to the right, about 1 foot, to such position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the body; raises, or lowers, the piece and drops it into the left hand at the balance, left thumb extended along the stock, muzzle at the height of the breast, and turns the cut-off up. With the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back, takes a loaded clip and inserts the end in the clip slots, places the thumb on the powder space of the top cartridge, the fingers extending around the piece and tips resting on the magazine floor plate; forces the cartridges into the magazine by pressing down with the thumb; without removing the clip, thrusts the bolt home, turning down the handle; turns the safety lock to the "safe" and carries the hand to the small of the stock. Each rear rank man moves to the right front, takes a similar position opposite the interval to the right of his front rank man, muzzle of the piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as nearly as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting the elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down, the left hand steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground.

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying down) are designated as that of load.

140. For instruction in loading: 1. Simulate, 2. LOAD.

Executed as above described except that the cut-off remains "off" and the handling of cartridges is simulated.

The recruits are first taught to simulate loading and firing; after a few lessons dummy cartridges may be used. Later, blank cartridges may be used.

141. The rifle may be used as a single loader by turning the magazine "off." The magazine may be filled in whole or in part while "off" or "on" by pressing cartridges singly down and back until they are in the proper place. The use of the rifle as a single loader is, however, to be regarded as exceptional.

To Unload.

142. UNLOAD.

Take the position of load, turn the safety lock up and move bolt alternately back and forward until all the cartridges are ejected. After the last cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed by first thrusting the bolt slightly forward to free it from the stud holding it in place when the chamber is open, pressing the follower down and back to engage it under the bolt and then thrusting the bolt home; the trigger is pulled. The cartridges are then picked up, cleaned, and returned to the belt and the piece is brought to the order.

To Set the Sight.

143. RANGE, ELEVEN HUNDRED (EIGHT-FIFTY, etc.), or BATTLE SIGHT.

The sight is set at the elevation indicated. The instructor explains and verifies sight settings.

To Fire by Volley.

144. 1. READY, 2. AIM, 3. Squad, 4. FIRE.

At the command ready turn the safety lock to the "ready;" at the command aim raise the piece with both hands and support the butt firmly against the hollow of the right shoulder, right thumb clasping the stock, barrel horizontal, left elbow well under the piece, right elbow as high as the shoulder; incline the head slightly forward and a little to the right, cheek against the stock, left eye closed, right eye looking through the notch of the rear sight so as to perceive the object aimed at, second joint of forefinger resting lightly against the front of the trigger and taking up the slack; top of front sight is carefully raised into, and held in, the line of sight.

Each rear-rank man aims through the interval to the right of his file leader and leans slightly forward to advance the muzzle of his piece beyond the front rank.

In aiming kneeling, the left elbow rests on the left knee, point of elbow in front of kneecap. In aiming sitting, the elbows are supported by the knees.

In aiming lying down, raise the piece with both hands; rest on both elbows and press the butt firmly against the right shoulder.

At the command fire press the finger against the trigger; fire without deranging the aim and without lowering or turning the piece; lower the piece in the position of Load and load. (C.I.D.R., No. 2.)

145. To continue the firing: 1. AIM, 2. Squad, 3. FIRE.

Each command is executed as previously explained. Load (from magazine) is executed by drawing back and thrusting home the bolt with the right hand, leaving the safety lock at the "ready."

To Fire at Will.

146. FIRE AT WILL.

Each man, independently of the others, comes to the ready, aims carefully and deliberately at the aiming point or target, fires, loads, and continues the firing until ordered to suspend or cease firing.

147. To increase (decrease) the rate of fire in progress the instructor shouts: FASTER (SLOWER).

Men are trained to fire at the rate of about three shots per minute at effective ranges and five or six at close ranges, devoting the minimum of time to loading and the maximum to deliberate aiming. To illustrate the necessity for deliberation, and to habituate men to combat conditions, small and comparatively indistinct targets are designated.

To Fire by Clip.

148. CLIP FIRE.

Executed in the same manner as fire at will, except that each man, after having exhausted the cartridges then in the piece, suspends firing.

To Suspend Firing.

149. The instructor blows a long blast of the whistle and repeats same, if necessary, or commands: SUSPEND FIRING.

Firing stops; pieces are held loaded and locked, in a position of readiness for instant resumption of firing, rear sights unchanged. The men continue to observe the target or aiming point, or the place at which the target disappeared, or at which it is expected to reappear.

This whistle signal may be used as a preliminary to cease firing.

To Cease Firing.

150. CEASE FIRING.

Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position of load, the cut-off turned down if firing from magazine, the cartridge is drawn or the empty shell is ejected, the trigger is pulled, sights are laid down, and the piece is brought to the order.

Cease firing is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of position or to steady the men.

(C.I.D.R., No. 7.)

151. Commands for suspending or ceasing fire may be given at any time after the preparatory command for firing whether the firing has actually commenced or not.

THE USE OF COVER.

152. The recruit should be given careful instruction in the individual use of cover.

It should be impressed upon him that, in taking advantage of natural cover, he must be able to tire easily and effectively upon the enemy; if advancing on an enemy, he must do so steadily and as rapidly as possible; he must conceal himself as much as possible while firing and while advancing. While setting his sight he should be under cover or lying prone.

153. To teach him to fire easily and effectively, at the same time concealing himself from the view of the enemy, he is practiced in simulated firing in the prone, sitting, kneeling, and crouching positions, from behind hillocks, trees, heaps of earth or rocks, from depressions, gullies, ditches, doorways, or windows. He is taught to fire around the right side of his concealment whenever possible, or, when this is not possible, to rise enough to fire over the top of his concealment.

When these details are understood, he is required to select cover with reference to an assumed enemy and to place himself behind it in proper position for firing.

154. The evil of remaining too long in one place, however good the concealment, should be explained. He should be taught to advance from cover to cover, selecting cover in advance before leaving his concealment.

It should be impressed upon him that a man running rapidly toward an enemy furnishes a poor target. He should be trained in springing from a prone position behind concealment, running at top speed to cover and throwing himself behind it. He should also be practiced in advancing from cover to cover by crawling, or by lying on the left side, rifle grasped in the right hand, and pushing himself forward with the right leg.

155. He should be taught that, when fired on while acting independently, he should drop to the ground, seek cover, and then endeavor to locate his enemy.

156. The instruction of the recruit in the use of cover is continued in the combat exercises of the company, but he must then be taught that the proper advance of the platoon or company and the effectiveness of its fire is of greater importance than the question of cover for individuals. He should also be taught that he may not move about or shift his position in the firing line except the better to see the target.

OBSERVATION.

157. The ability to use his eyes accurately is of great importance to the soldier. The recruit should be trained in observing his surrounding from positions and when on the march.

He should be practiced in pointing out and naming military features of the ground; in distinguishing between living beings; in counting distant groups of objects or beings; in recognizing colors and forms.

158. In the training of men in the mechanism of the firing line, they should be practiced in repeating to one another target and aiming point designations and in quickly locating and pointing out a designated target. They should be taught to distinguish, from a prone position, distant objects, particularly troops, both with the naked eye and with field glasses. Similarly, they should be trained in estimating distances.



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.

159. The captain is responsible for the theoretical and practical instruction of his officers and noncommissioned officers, not only in the duties of their respective grades, but in those of the next higher grades.

160. The company in line is formed in double rank with the men arranged, as far as practicable, according to height from right to left, the tallest on the right.

The original division into squads is effected by the command: COUNT OFF. The squads, successively from the right, count off as in the School of the Squad, corporals placing themselves as Nos. 4 of the front rank. If the left squad contains less than six men, it is either increased to that number by transfers from other squads or is broken up and its members assigned to other squads and posted in the line of file closers. These squad organizations are maintained, by transfers if necessary, until the company becomes so reduced in numbers as to necessitate a new division into squads. No squad will contain less than six men.

161. The company is further divided into two, three, or four platoons, each consisting of not less than two nor more than four squads. In garrison or ceremonies the strength of platoons may exceed four squads.

162. At the formation of the company the platoons or squads are numbered consecutively from right to left and these designations do not change.

For convenience in giving commands and for reference, the designations, right, center, left, when in line, and leading, center, rear, when in column, are applied to platoons or squads. These designations apply to the actual right, left, center, head, or rear, in whatever direction the company may be facing. The center squad is the middle or right middle squad of the company.

The designation "So-and-so's" squad or platoon may also be used.

163. Platoons are assigned to the lieutenants and noncommissioned officers, in order of rank, as follows: 1, right; 2, left; 3, center (right center); 4, left center.



The noncommissioned officers next in rank are assigned as guides, one to each platoon. If sergeants still remain, they are assigned to platoons as additional guides. When the platoon is deployed, its guide, or guides, accompany the platoon leader.

During battle, these assignments are not changed: vacancies are filled by noncommissioned officers of the platoon, or by the nearest available officers or noncommissioned officers arriving with reenforcing troops.

164. The first sergeant is never assigned as a guide. When not commanding a platoon, he is posted as a file closer opposite the third file from the outer flank of the first platoon; and when the company is deployed he accompanies the captain.

The quartermaster sergeant, when present, is assigned according to his rank as a sergeant.

Enlisted men below the grade of sergeant, armed with the rifle, are in ranks unless serving as guides; when not so armed, they are posted in the line of file closers.

Musicians, when required to play, are at the head of the column. When the company is deployed, they accompany the captain.

165. The company executes the halt, rests, facings, steps and marchings, manual of arms, loadings and firings, takes intervals and distances and assembles, increases and diminishes intervals, resumes attention, obliques, resumes the direct march, preserves alignments, kneels, lies down, rises, stacks and takes arms, as explained in the Schools of the Soldier and the Squad, substituting in the commands company for squad.

The same rule applies to platoons, detachments, details, etc., substituting their designation for squad in the commands. In the same manner these execute the movements prescribed for the company, whenever possible, substituting their designation for company in the commands.

166. A company so depleted as to make division into platoons impracticable is led by the captain as a single platoon, but retains the designation of company. The lieutenants and first sergeant assist in fire control; the other sergeants place themselves in the firing line as skirmishers.

CLOSE ORDER.

Rules.

167. The guides of the right and left, or leading and rear, platoons, are the right and left, or leading and rear, guides, respectively, of the company when it is in line or in column of squads. Other guides are in the line of file closers.

In platoon movements the post of the platoon guide is at the head of the platoon, if the platoon is in column, and on the guiding flank if in line. When a platoon has two guides their original assignment to flanks of the platoon does not change.

168. The guides of a column of squads place themselves on the flank opposite the file closers. To change the guides and file closers to the other flank, the captain commands: 1. File closers on left (right) flank; 2. MARCH. The file closers dart through the column; the captain and guides change.

In column of squads, each rank preserves the alignment toward the side of the guide.

169. Men in the line of file closers do not execute the loadings or firings.

Guides and enlisted men in the line of file closers execute the manual of arms during the drill unless specially excused, when they remain at the order. During ceremonies they execute all movements.

170. In taking intervals and distances, unless otherwise directed, the right and left guides, at the first command, place themselves in the line of file closers, and, with them, take a distance of 4 paces from the rear rank. In taking intervals, at the command march, the file closers face to the flank and each steps off with the file nearest him. In assembling the guides and file closers resume their positions in line.

171. In movements executed simultaneously by platoons (as platoons right or platoons, column right), platoon leaders repeat the preparatory command (platoon right, etc.), applicable to their respective platoons. The command of execution is given by the captain only.

To Form the Company.

172. At the sounding of the assembly the first sergeant takes position 6 paces in front of where the center of the company is to be, faces it, draws saber, and commands: FALL IN.

The right guide of the company places himself, facing to the front, where the right of the company is to rest, and at such point that the center of the company will be 6 paces from and opposite the first sergeant; the squads form in their proper places on the left of the right guide, superintended by the other sergeants, who then take their posts.

The first sergeant commands: REPORT. Remaining in position at the order, the squad leaders, in succession from the right, salute and report: All present; or, Private(s) —— absent. The first sergeant does not return the salutes of the squad leaders; he then commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Order, 4. ARMS, faces about, salutes the captain, reports: Sir, all present or accounted for, or the names of the unauthorized absentees, and, without command, takes his post.

If the company can not be formed by squads, the first sergeant commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Right shoulder, 4. ARMS, and calls the roll. Each man, as his name is called, answers here and executes order arms. The sergeant then effects the division into squads and reports the company as prescribed above.

The captain places himself 12 paces in front of the center of, and facing, the company in time to receive the report of the first sergeant, whose salute he returns, and then draws saber.

The lieutenants take their posts when the first sergeant has reported and draw saber with the captain. The company, if not under arms, is formed in like manner omitting reference to arms.

173. For the instruction of platoon leaders and guides, the company, when small, may be formed in single rank. In this formation close order movements only are executed. The single rank executes all movements as explained for the front rank of a company.

To Dismiss the Company.

174. Being in line at a halt, the captain directs the first sergeant: Dismiss the company. The officers fall out; the first sergeant places himself faced to the front, 3 paces to the front and 2 paces from the nearest flank of the company, salutes, faces toward opposite flank of the company, and commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Port, 4. ARMS, 5. DISMISSED. (C.I.D.R., No. 2.)

Alignments.

175. The alignments are executed as prescribed in the School of the Squad, the guide being established instead of the flank file. The rear-rank man of the flank file keeps his head and eyes to the front and covers his file leader.

At each alignment the captain places himself in prolongation of the line, 2 paces from and facing the flank toward which the dress is made, verifies the alignment, and commands: FRONT.

Platoon leaders take a like position when required to verify alignments.

Movements on the Fixed Pivot.

176. Being in line, to turn the company: 1. Company right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT; or, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH.

At the second command the right-flank man in the front rank faces to the right in marching and marks time; the other front-rank men oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot, and mark time; in the rear rank the third man from the right, followed in column by the second and first, moves straight to the front until in rear of his front-rank man, when all face to the right in marching and mark time; the remaining men of the rear rank move straight to the front 4 paces, oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the third man, cover their file leaders, and mark time; the right guide steps back, takes post on the flank, and marks time.

The fourth command is given when the last man is 1 pace in rear of the new line.

The command halt may be given at any time after the movement begins; only those halt who are in the new position. Each of the others halts upon arriving on the line, aligns himself to the right, and executes front without command.

177. Being in line, to form column of platoons, or the reverse: 1. Platoons right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT; or 3. Forward, 4. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

Before forming line the captain sees that the guides on the flank toward which the movement is to be executed are covering. This is effected by previously announcing the guide to that flank.

178. Being in line, to form column of squads, or the reverse; or, being in line of platoons, to form column of platoons, or the reverse: 1. Squads right (left), 2. MARCH; or, 1. Squads right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT.

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

If the company or platoons be formed in line toward the side of the file closers, they dart through the column and take posts in rear of the company at the second command. If the column of squads be formed from line, the file closers take posts on the pivot flank, abreast of and 4 inches from the nearest rank. (C.I.D.R., No. 2.)

Movements on the Moving Pivot.

179. Being in line, to change direction: 1. Right (Left) turn, 2. MARCH, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH.

Executed as described in the School of the Squad, except that the men do not glance toward the marching flank and that all take the full step at the fourth command. The right guide is the pivot of the front rank. Each rear-rank man obliques on the same ground as his file leader.

180. Being in column of platoons, to change direction: 1. Column right (left), 2. MARCH.

At the first command the leader of the leading platoon commands: Right turn. At the command march the leading platoon turns to the right on moving pivot; its leader commands: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH, on completion of the turn. Rear platoons march squarely up to the turning point of the leading platoon and turn at command of their leaders.

181. Being in column of squads, to change direction: 1. Column right (left), 2. MARCH.

At the second command the front rank of the leading squad turns to the right on moving pivot as in the School of the Squad; the other ranks, without command, turn successively on the same ground and in a similar manner.

182. Being in column of squads, to form line of platoons or the reverse: 1. Platoons, column right (left), 2. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

183. Being in line, to form column of squads and change direction: 1. Squads right (left), column right (left), 2. MARCH; or, 1. Right (Left) by squads, 2. MARCH.

In the first case the right squad initiates the column right as soon as it has completed the squad right.

In the second case, at the command march, the right squad marches forward; the remainder of the company executes squads right, column left, and follows the right squad. The right guide, when he has posted himself in front of the right squad, takes four short steps, then resumes the full step; the right squad conforms.

184. Being in line, to form line of platoons: 1. Squads right (left), platoons, column right (left), 2. MARCH; or, 1. Platoons, right (left) by squads, 2. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company in the preceding paragraph.

Facing or Marching to the Rear.

185. Being in line, line of platoons, or in column of platoons or squads, to face or march to the rear: 1. Squads right (left) about, 2. MARCH; or, 1. Squads right (left) about, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT.

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

If the company or platoons be in column of squads, the file closers turn about toward the column, and take their posts; if in line, each darts through the nearest interval between squads. (C.I.D.R., No. 2.)

186. To march to the rear for a few paces: 1. About, 2. FACE, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH.

If in line, the guides place themselves in the rear rank, now the front rank; the file closers, on facing about, maintain their relative positions. No other movement is executed until the line is faced to the original front.

On Right (Left) Into Line.

187. Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line on right or left: 1. On right (left) into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

At the first command the leader of the leading unit commands: Right turn. The leaders of the other units command: Forward, if at a halt. At the second command, the leading unit turns to the right on moving pivot. The command halt is given when the leading unit has advanced the desired distance in the new direction; it halts; its leader then commands: Right dress.

The units in rear continue to march straight to the front; each, when opposite the right of its place in line, executes right turn at the command of its leader; each is halted on the line at the command of its leader, who then commands: Right dress. All dress on the first unit in line.

If executed in double time, the leading squad marches in double time until halted.

Front Into Line.

188. Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line to the front: 1. Right (Left) front into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

At the first command the leaders of the units in rear of the leading one command: Right oblique. If at a halt, the leader of the leading unit commands: Forward. At the second command the leading unit moves straight forward; the rear units oblique as indicated. The command halt is given when the leading unit has advanced the desired distance; it halts; its leader then commands: Left dress. Each of the rear units, when opposite its place in line, resumes the original direction at the command of its leader; each is halted on the line at the command of its leader, who then commands: Left dress. All dress on the first unit in line.

189. Being in column of squads to form column of platoons, or being in line of platoons, to form the company in line: 1. Platoons, right (left) front into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company. In forming the company in line, the dress is on the left squad of the left platoon. If forming column of platoons, platoon leaders verify the alignment before taking their posts; the captain commands front when the alignments have been verified.

When front into line is executed in double time the commands for halting and aligning are omitted and the guide is toward the side of the first unit in line.

AT EASE AND ROUTE STEP.

190. The column of squads is the habitual column of route, but route step and at ease are applicable to any marching formation.

191. To march at route step: 1. Route step, 2. MARCH. Sabers are carried at will or in the scabbard; the men carry their pieces at will, keeping the muzzles elevated; they are not required to preserve silence, nor to keep the step. The ranks cover and preserve their distance. If halted from route step, the men stand at rest.

192. To march at ease: 1. At ease, 2. MARCH.

The company marches as in route step, except that silence is preserved; when halted, the men remain at ease.

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