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JOURNAL

OF

THE PROCEEDINGS

OF

THE LINNEAN SOCIETY.

ZOOLOGY.

VOL. III.



LONDON: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, LONGMANS & ROBERTS, AND WILLIAMS AND NORGATE. 1859.



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.



LIST OF PAPERS.

Page BAIKIE, Dr.

Extract of a Letter from Dr. Baikie to Sir John Richardson, M.D., C.B., F.R. & L.S., dated 29th October, 1857, Rabba, on the Qworra 76

BATE, C. SPENCE, Esq., F.L.S.

On the Importance of an Examination of the Structure of the Integument of Crustacea in the determination of doubtful Species.—Application to the genus Galathea, with the Description of a New Species of that Genus 1

BELL, THOMAS, Esq., P.L.S.

Description of a new Genus of Crustacea, of the Family Pinnotheridae; in which the fifth pair of legs are reduced to an almost imperceptible rudiment 27

DARWIN, CHARLES, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., & F.G.S., and WALLACE, ALFRED R., Esq.

On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection 45

HANBURY, DANIEL, Esq., F.L.S.

Note on Two Insect-products from Persia 178

HIGGINS, Rev. HENRY.

Death of the Common Hive Bee; supposed to be occasioned by a parasitic Fungus 29

HUXLEY, T. H., Esq., F.R.S., Professor of Natural History, Government School of Mines.

On some points in the Anatomy of Nautilus Pompilius 36

KNOX, R., Esq., M.D., F.R.S.E.

Contributions to the Anatomy and Natural History of the Cetacea. 63

SMITH, FREDERICK, Esq., Assistant in the Zoological Department in the British Museum.

Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects collected at Celebes by Mr. A. R. Wallace 4

Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace at the Islands of Aru and Key 132

WALKER, FRANCIS, Esq., F.L.S.

Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected in the Aru Islands by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with Descriptions of New Species 77

Catalogue of the Heterocerous Lepidoptera collected at Singapore by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with Descriptions of New Species 183

Catalogue of the Heterocerous Lepidopterous Insects collected at Malacca by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with Descriptions of New Species 196

WALLACE, ALFRED R., Esq., and DARWIN, CHARLES Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., & F.G.S.

On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection 45

WASHINGTON, Captain.

Natural-History Extracts from the Journal of Captain Denham, H.M. Surveying Vessel 'Herald,' 1857 32

WETHERELL, JOHN W., Esq.

Notice of the occurrence of recent Worm Tracks in the Upper Part of the London Clay Formation near Highgate 31

INDEX 199



JOURNAL OF THE PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

LINNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON.

On the Importance of an Examination of the Structure of the Integument of Crustacea in the determination of doubtful Species.—Application to the genus Galathea, with the Description of a New Species of that Genus. By SPENCE BATE, Esq., F.L.S.

[Read January 21, 1858.]

Of the various genera of Decapod Crustacea none are more interesting, or more difficult of description, than those which constitute the family Galatheadae.

The interest attaching to these forms arises from the intermediate position which they occupy in the natural arrangement of the class, their structure placing them between the Macrura and Brachyura; in accordance with which we find that, whilst Professor M.-Edwards classes them among the Macrura, Professor Bell, in his work on the British Crustacea, places them (more correctly, as we think) in the intermediate group of Anomura.

This opinion is fully borne out both in the development of the animals and in their structure in the adult state.

The early form of the larva bears, anteriorly, a resemblance to the Brachyural type, whilst the caudal appendages assimilate to those of the Macrura. The same conditions obtain in the young of Anomura. At the time of birth, the larva, like that of the Brachyura, has only the two gnathopoda developed, whilst the termination of the tail is like that of a fish, as in the Macrura. In the adult, the internal antennae possess short flagella and complementary appendages, such as exist in the order Brachyura, whilst the external antennae have the long and slender flagella proper to the Macrura. The scale, however, commonly appended to the external antennae in the latter order is wanting, a circumstance which exhibits a relation to the Brachyura.

An examination of the legs shows that the coxae are fused with the thorax, as in the Brachyura, and not articulated with it as in the Macrura, whilst, on the other hand, the posterior division and caudal termination approach the Macrural type more nearly than that of the Brachyura, the animal thus assuming a character intermediate between the two orders.

But in the description of the several species of the genus Galathea, a peculiar difficulty appears to arise, originating in the affinity which they bear to each other. So close, in fact, is the approximation, that the descriptions of the best writers will scarcely avail for the distinction of the individual species without the assistance of figures. This arises from the fact that the general characters, upon which the descriptions are based, vary, in this genus, only in their comparative degrees of development.

In the three species recognized in Professor Bell's work on the British Crustacea, it will be found that each species retains the same characters in greater or less degree.

Galathea strigosa is peculiar for the spinous character of the carapace and cheliform legs. Every spine, however, is repeated in both the other species, only less developed. We find the rostrum furnished with four lateral teeth on each side, a character which also exists in each of the other species; and although close observation may detect a slightly different arrangement in the relative position of these teeth, the differences are not of sufficient importance to enable a naturalist thence to derive a specific distinction, unless the peculiarity is seconded by some more unqualified character less liable to be affected by any peculiarity of condition.

In order to arrive at more certain results in the identification of species, we think that the microscopic examination of the surface of the integument will be found peculiarly useful.

This mode of examination of species may also be applied to a considerable extent throughout the Crustacea generally with great advantage; and if found valuable in recent, there can be no doubt that it will prove of far greater importance in extinct forms, where parts on which the identification of species visually rests are lost, and fragments only of the animal obtainable.

It should be borne in mind that, as the structure in question undergoes modifications more or less considerable in different parts of the animal, it will always be advisable to compare the corresponding parts with each other.

Applying this test to the known species of Galathea, we perceive that the structure of the integument upon the arms, independent of the marginal spines, exhibits a squamiform appearance, but that the scales, which characterise the structure, possess features peculiar to each species.

In Galathea strigosa the scales are convex, distant from each other, smooth at the edge, and fringed with long hairs. In G. squamifera they are convex, closely placed, scalloped at the edge, and without hairs. In G. nexa the scales are obsolete, tufts of hair representing the supposed edges. In G. depressa, n. sp., the scales are broad, less convex than in G. strigosa and G. squamifera, smooth, closely set, and fringed with short hairs. In G. Andrewsii they are small, distant, very convex, tipped with red, and slightly furnished with hair.

As another instance of the practical application of the microscopical examination of the surface, I would refer to two species of Amphipoda, classed by Leach under the name of Gammarus Locusta, from his inability to assign them any separate specific characters. In the structure of their integuments, however, these two forms will be found to exhibit widely different microscopical appearances.

Again, there exists in the same group three or four species, the description of any one of which would apply to either of the others; and it is probable they would never have been ranked as separate species had not their habitats been geographically distant. Thus Gammarus Olivii, M.-Ed., G. affinis, M.-E., G. Kroeyii, Rathke, and G. gracilis, R., can only be specifically determined by a microscopic examination of the integument.

The same may be said of other Amphipoda, such as Urothoe inostratus, Dana, from South America, which so nearly resembles in form the U. elegans of the British shores.

GALATHEA DISPERSA, mihi.

G. rostro brevi, dentibus 4 utrinque ornato, 2 anterioribus minoribus; pedibus anterioribus elongatis, sparse spiosus; chelarum digitis parallelis.

Galathea with short rostrum, armed on each side with 4 teeth, the two posterior being less important than the two anterior. The fingers of the chelae impinge through their whole length; outer margin of the hand furnished with 3 or 4 small spines.

Hab. Trawling-ground, Plymouth, common; Moray Frith, Scotland.

This species unites G. Andrewsii with G. nexa, and, I think, has often been mistaken for the young of the latter; but G. nexa, so far as my experience goes, is a species peculiar to the north of England, whereas G. dispersa, I anticipate, will be found to be the most universally dispersed, in deep water, of any of the species known. It can always be detected from G. nexa by the form of the hand and the manner in which the fingers impinge: in G. nexa the hand is broad towards the extremity, and the fingers meet only at the apex; in G. dispersa the hand gradually narrows to the apex, and the fingers meet each other through their whole length, the inner margin of the finger being finely serrated, the thumb not.

It also may be distinguished from G. Andrewsii by the breadth of the hands, which are narrow and round in G. Andrewsii, and moderately broad and flat in G. dispersa.

By an examination of the texture of the integument under a magnifying power of low degree, the surface of G. dispersa will be seen distinctly to differ from that of any of the others; it is covered with flat scales, fringed with short cilia. The length of the animal, including the arms, is about 2-1/4 inches.



Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects collected at Celebes by Mr. A. R. WALLACE. By FREDERICK SMITH, Esq., Assistant in the Zoological Department, British Museum. Communicated by W. W. SAUNDERS, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S.

[Read April 15th, 1858.]

This collection of the Hymenoptera of Celebes is specially interesting, as adding greatly to our knowledge of the geographical range of many well-known species, while the additions made to the Fossorial group contain many of great beauty and rarity. A new species belonging to the tribe of Solitary Wasps, Odynerus clavicornis, is perhaps the most interesting insect in the collection; this Wasp has clavate antennae, the flagellum being broadly dilated towards the apex, convex above and concave beneath. I am not acquainted with any other insect belonging to the Vespidious group which exhibits such an anomaly.

Fam. ANDRENIDAE, Leach.

Gen. SPHECODES, Latr.

1. SPHECODES INSULARIS. S. niger, abdominis segmentis primo secundo et tertio (basi) rubris; alis hyalinis.

Male. Length 3-1/2 lines. Head and thorax black, closely and strongly punctured; the face below the antennae with silvery-white pubescence; the joints of the flagellum submoniliform; the mandibles ferruginous. Thorax: the tegulae pale rufo-testaceous, wings hyaline, the nervures ferruginous; the metathorax coarsely rugose; the articulations of the legs and the tarsi ferruginous. Abdomen: the first, second, and base of the third segments red, the apical ones black, very finely and closely punctured, with the apical margins of the segments smooth and shining; a black spot in the middle of the basal segment.

Hab. Celebes.

Gen. NOMIA, Latr.

1. NOMIA PUNCTATA. N. nigra nitida punctata, alis nigro-fuscis.

Male. Length 4-1/2 lines. Shining black: head and thorax coarsely punctured, the metathorax ruggedly sculptured, truncate at the apex, the truncation and sides smooth with a few fine punctures; the abdomen closely and rather finely punctured, the apical margins of the segments smooth and shining. The tips of the mandibles, the tarsi and apex of the abdomen rufo-testaceous, the wings fuscous.

Hab. Celebes.

2. NOMIA FLAVIPES. N. nigra pedibus flavis, abdomine cinereo fasciato, alis hyalinis.

Female. Length 3-1/4 lines. Black; the face and cheeks densely clothed with short cinereous pubescence, the vertex thinly so; the margins of the prothorax, mesothorax and scutellum with a line of pale ochraceous pubescence, the disk of the thorax thinly covered with short pubescence of the same colour, the emargination of the metathorax as well as its sides with longer pubescence of the same colour; the base of the abdomen and basal margin of the second and following segments covered with short cinereous pubescence. The flagellum beneath fulvous; the mandibles ferruginous. The legs reddish-yellow, with the coxae and base of the femora black; the wings hyaline; the tegulae yellow, the nervures pale testaceous.

Hab. Celebes.

3. NOMIA FORMOSA. N. capite thoraceque nigris; abdomine chalybeo; marginibus apicalibus segmentorum caeruleo fasciatis.

Female. Length 5-1/2 lines. Head and thorax black and very closely punctured; the face covered with griseous pubescence; the clypeus with a central longitudinal carina. Thorax: the apical margin of the prothorax, the margins of the scutellum, and the sides of the metathorax covered with a dense short ochraceous pubescence; the disk of the thorax thinly sprinkled with short black hairs; the posterior tibiae obscurely ferruginous; the tarsi ferruginous; the legs covered with bright golden-yellow pubescence; wings subhyaline, the nervures ferruginous; the tegulae yellow with a fuscous stain in the middle. Abdomen obscurely chalybeous, closely punctured, the two basal segments strongly so; the apical margins of the segments with smooth shining narrow blue fasciae.

Male. Closely resembling the female, but with the legs black; the posterior femora incrassate, the tibiae narrow at their base and broadly dilated at their apex, which, as well as the calcaria, are pale testaceous.

This species closely resembles a species from North China, N. chalybeata, Westw. MS., from which it is readily distinguished by the form of the fourth ventral segment, which is notched in the middle, rounded, and then emarginate with the lateral angles rounded; in the species from China the margin is arched, and fringed with fulvous pubescence.

4. NOMIA HALIOTOIDES. N. nigra, pube cinerea tecta, abdominis segmentis intermediis pube alba fasciatis.

Female. Length 4-1/2 lines. Black; head and thorax opake, and thinly clothed with cinereous pubescence, that on the disk of the thorax and margin of the scutellum slightly ochraceous. The flagellum fulvous beneath, the mandibles ferruginous at their apex; the tarsi ferruginous, wings hyaline, nervures fuscous, stigma testaceous. Abdomen shining, delicately punctured; the basal margins of the second, third, and fourth segments with a band of cinereous pubescence, attenuated in the middle.

Hab. Celebes.

Fam. DASYGASTRAE.

1. MEGACHILE INCISA. M. nigra, rude et dense punctata, facie fulvo pubescente; alis fuscis, segmentis abdominis marginibus multo depressis.

Male. Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; closely and strongly punctured, the punctures confluent on the abdomen. The face clothed with fulvous pubescence. The tarsi obscurely rufo-piceous, the claws ferruginous; wings dark fuscous, their base hyaline. Abdomen: the apical margins of the segments smooth, impunctate, their basal margins very deeply depressed; a deep fovea at the tip of the apical segment; the head, thorax, and abdomen clothed beneath with short cinereous pubescence.

Hab. Celebes.

2. MEGACHILE FULVIFRONS. M. nigra, delicatule punctata; facie dense fulvo pubescente; thoracis lateribus abdomineque subtus fulvo pubescentibus; fasciis marginalibus abdominis fulvis.

Female. Length 7 lines. Black; head and thorax closely punctured, the abdomen delicately so and shining; the mandibles stout, with two acute teeth at their apex, shining and covered with oblong punctures; the face, sides of the thorax, and abdomen beneath, densely clothed with fulvous pubescence; the apical margins of the segments of the abdomen above with narrow fasciae of short fulvous pubescence; the abdomen in certain lights has a metallic tinge.

The male is similarly clothed to the female, the margins of the segments are deeply depressed, and that of the apical segment slightly notched in the middle.

Hab. Celebes.

3. MEGACHILE TERMINALIS. M. nigra, capite thoraceque dense punctatis; abdomine pube nigra vestito; segmentis duobus apicalibus pube alba vestitis; alis fuscis.

Female. Length 9 lines. Black; the face with tufts of black pubescence above the insertion of the antennae; mandibles very stout, with an acute tooth at their apex, the inner margin subdentate, and covered with fine cinereous pubescence. Thorax with black pubescence at the sides of the metathorax; the wings dark fuscous. Abdomen clothed with black pubescence; the fifth and sixth segments clothed with ochraceous pubescence above, that on the sixth nearly white.

Hab. Celebes.

This species resembles the M. ornata; but when viewed beneath, the different colour of the pollen-brush at once separates them.

Gen. CERATINA, Spin.

1. Ceratina viridis, Guer. Icon. Reg. Ann. 444. t. 73. f. 6.

Hab. India (Bengal, N. India), Ceylon, Celebes, China.

2. Ceratina hieroglyphica, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. ii. 226.

Hab. Northern India, Celebes, Philippine Islands, Hong Kong.

Fam. DENUDATAE.

1. STELIS ABDOMINALIS. S. dense punctata, capite thoraceque nigris, abdomine ferrugineo; alis nigro-fuscis violaceo iridescentibus.

Male. Length 5 lines. Head and thorax black, abdomen ferruginous; head and thorax strongly punctured, the scutellum very strongly so; the sides of the face and the anterior margin of the face fringed with white pubescence. The posterior margin of the scutellum rounded; wings dark brown with a violet iridescence. Abdomen ferruginous and closely punctured.

Hab. Celebes.

2. COELIOXYS FULVIFRONS. C. nigra, rude punctata, facie pube fulva vestita; alis fuscis cupreo iridescentibus.

Male. Length 6 lines. Black; the head and thorax with large confluent punctures; the face clothed with fulvous pubescence. Thorax: a stout tooth on each side of the scutellum at its base; wings dark brown with a coppery effulgence, subhyaline at their base; beneath clothed with short cinereous pubescence. Abdomen: elongate, conical; closely punctured, with the apical and basal margins of the segments smooth; the apical segment with a tooth on each side at its base and four at its apex; beneath the margins of the segments fringed with pale pubescence; the apical margin of the fourth segment notched in the middle; the fifth entirely clothed with pale pubescence.

Hab. Celebes.

Fam. SCOPULIPEDES.

Gen. ANTHOPHORA, Latr.

1. Anthophora zonata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 955. 19.

Hab. India, Ceylon, Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippine Islands, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Celebes.

Gen. XYLOCOPA, Latr.

1. Xylocopa fenestrata, Fabr. Syst. Piez. p. 339. 6. [Symbol: male].

Hab. India, Celebes.

2. Xylocopa aestuans, Linn. Syst. Nat. 961. 53.

Hab. India, Java, Singapore, Celebes.

3. Xylocopa Dejeanii, St. Farg. Hym. ii. 209. 59.

Hab. Java, Borneo, Sumatra, Celebes.

4. Xylocopa collaris, St. Farg. Hym. ii. 189. 26.

Hab. India, Sumatra, Malacca, Borneo, Celebes.

5. XYLOCOPA NOBILIS. X. nigra, pube nigra induta; abdominis basi pube flava, apice lateritio.

Female. Length 11 lines. Black; a narrow line of pale fulvous pubescence on the margin of the thorax in front, a patch of the same colour on each side of the metathorax, and the basal segment of the abdomen covered above with similar pubescence; the apical margin of the third and fourth segments, and the fifth and six entirely, covered with bright brick-red pubescence; the wings black, with coppery iridescence.

Hab. Celebes.

Fam. SOCIALES.

1. APIS ZONATA. A. nigra, thoracis lateribus dense ochraceo pubescentibus; alis fumatis; abdomine nitido, segmentis secundo tertio quartoque basi niveo pubescentibus.

Worker. Length 8—8-1/2 lines. Black; the head and thorax opake, the abdomen shining; the clypeus smooth and shining, the flagellum rufo-piceous beneath; the anterior margin of the labrum narrowly, and the apex of the mandibles, ferruginous; the face with a little fine short cinereous pubescence above the insertion of the antennae; the vertex with long black pubescence; the eyes covered with short black pubescence. Thorax: the sides with ochraceous pubescence; wings smoky, the superior pair darkest at their anterior margin beyond the stigma. Abdomen: a snow-white band at the basal margin of the second, third, and fourth segments, the bands continued beneath, but narrower.

Hab. Celebes, Philippine Islands.

Specimens of this species denuded of their white bands would approach the A. unicolor of Latreille; but that insect is described as having the anterior wings black; in the present species both pairs are of the same smoky colour, not approaching black.

Fam. MUTILLIDAE.

Gen. MUTILLA.

1. Mutilla sexmaculata, Swed. Nov. Act. Holm. viii. 286. 44. [Symbol: female]. Mutilla fuscipennis, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 436. 35. [Symbol: male].

Hab. India (Punjaub, &c.), China, Java, Celebes.

2. Mutilla unifasciata, Smith, Cat. Hym. pt. iii. p. 38.

Hab. India, Celebes.

3. Mutilla rufogastra, St. Farg. Hym. iii. 629. 51. [Symbol: male].

Hab. India, Celebes.

4. MUTILLA VOLATILIS. M. nigra, rude punctata et pubescens; capite abdomineque nitidis, alis fusco-hyalinis.

Male. Length 5-6 lines. Black. Head and thorax very coarsely punctured; head and disk of the thorax punctured; the metathorax opake, with a central abbreviated channel and covered with large shallow punctures; the eyes notched on their inner margin; wings fuscous and iridescent; the tegulae smooth and shining. Abdomen shining and rather finely punctured; the basal segment narrow and campanulate; the margins of the segments thickly fringed with silvery-white hair; the cheeks, sides of the thorax, and beneath the legs and abdomen with scattered long silvery-white hairs.

Hab. Celebes.

Fam. SCOLIADAE, Leach.

Gen. SCOLIA, Fabr.

1. Scolia erratica, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iii. p. 88. 10. Scolia verticalis, Burm. Abh. Nat.-Ges. Halle, i. 37. 61.

Hab. India, Sumatra, Celebes.

2. Scolia aurulenta, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iii. p. 102. 80. (nec Fabr.).

Hab. Philippine Islands, Celebes.

3. Scolia fimbriata, Burm. Abh. Nat.-Ges. Halle, i. p. 32. 24.

Hab. Java, Celebes.

4. Scolia dimidiata, Guer. Voy. Coq. Zool. ii. pt. 2. p. 248.

Hab. Senegal, Celebes.

5. SCOLIA TERMINATA. S. nigra, clypeo mandibulisque flavis, thorace flavo variegato, alis hyalinis, abdomine flavo quinque-fasciato, apicisque marginibus flavis.

Male. Length 5 lines. Black; the clypeus, labrum, and mandibles yellow; the former with a triangular black spot in the middle; the latter ferruginous at their apex. The posterior margin of the prothorax, the tegulae, a transverse curved line on the scutellum, and a spot on the postscutellum yellow; the anterior and intermediate tarsi, tibiae, and knees, and the posterior tibiae outside, yellow; a black line on the intermediate tibiae beneath, and the apical joints of the tarsi fuscous; wings hyaline, the nervures ferruginous. Abdomen brightly prismatic; the margins of all the segments with a narrow yellow fascia, those on the second and third segments terminating at the sides in a large rounded macula; the fascia very narrow or obliterated on the sixth segment; the fasciae on the second and third segments continued beneath.

Hab. Celebes.

6. SCOLIA AGILIS. S. nigra, mandibulis clypeoque flavis, alis fulvo-hyalinis, abdomine prismatico flavo quadrifasciato.

Male. Length 8 lines. Black and punctured, with thin long griseous pubescence; the vertex, disk of the thorax, and the abdomen shining; the mandibles and clypeus yellow, the latter with a black bell-shaped spot in the middle; wings fulvo-hyaline, the nervures ferruginous; the tibiae with a yellow line outside. Abdomen beautifully prismatic; the first and three following segments with a yellow fascia on their apical margins, the second and two following much attenuated in the middle, or the fourth interrupted.

Hab. Celebes.

7. SCOLIA FULVIPENNIS. S. nigra, antennis capiteque supra basin antennarum rubris, alis fulvo-hyalinis.

Male. Length 7 lines. Black; the antennae and the head above their insertion ferruginous, the scape black, the head coarsely punctured. Thorax: coarsely punctured; the mesothorax with an abbreviated deeply impressed line in the middle of its anterior margin; wings fulvo-hyaline, the nervures ferruginous; the apex of the wings slightly fuscous, the anterior pair with two submarginal cells and one recurrent nervure. Abdomen: shining, punctured, and prismatic.

Hab. Celebes.

8. SCOLIA ALECTO. S. nigra, capite supra basin antennarum rubro; alis nigris violaceo micantibus.

Female. Length 14 lines. Black and shining; head red above the insertion of the antennae, very smooth and glossy, with a few punctures at the sides of and in front of the ocelli; antennae black; the mandibles with a fringe of ferruginous hairs on their inferior margin. Thorax: smooth on the disk, which has a few scattered punctures at the sides; the scutellum punctured and shining; the thorax in front and the metathorax with black pubescence, the latter widely emarginate at the verge of the truncation, the lateral angles produced; wings black with a bright violet iridescence. Abdomen punctured, with the middle of the second, third, and fourth segments smooth and shining in the middle; the first segment with a smooth shining carina at its base slightly produced forwards, the abdomen with a slight metallic lustre. The wings with one marginal and three submarginal cells, and one recurrent nervure.

Male. Smaller than the female, and differs in having the clypeus red and the red colour running down behind the eyes, the antennae longer, and the abdomen with a bright metallic iridescence.

Hab. Celebes.

9. SCOLIA MINUTA. S. nigra, abdomine iridescente, segmentorum marginibus apicalibus flavo fasciatis, alis subhyalinis iridescentibus.

Male. Length 4 lines. Head and thorax black and shining, with scattered pale pubescence; the mandibles and clypeus yellow, the latter with an anchor-shaped black spot. Thorax: the posterior margin of the prothorax and the anterior and intermediate tibiae and tarsi yellow; a minute yellow spot on the postscutellum yellow; the wings subhyaline, the nervures fusco-ferruginous. Abdomen: the apical margins of the segments with a narrow yellow border, the second and third uniting with a lateral spot; the sixth segment immaculate; the apex pale testaceous.

Hab. Celebes.

Fam. POMPILIDAE, Leach.

1. Pompilus analis, Fabr. Syst. Piez. p. 209. 42.

Hab. India, Java, Ceylon, Celebes.

2. POMPILUS SALTITANS. P. niger, pedibus subferrugineis, prothoracis margine postica flava; alis flavo-hyalinis, apice fuscis, abdomine pilis cinereis fasciato.

Female. Length 6 lines. Black and thinly covered with ashy pile. The scape, labrum, mandibles and palpi ferruginous; the clypeus widely emarginate anteriorly. The posterior margin of the prothorax angular and with a yellow border; the scutellum prominent, covered on each side with a dense silvery-white pile, the postscutellum with two spots of the same; the wings flavo-hyaline, their apex with a broad dark-fuscous border, the nervures ferruginous, the tegulae yellow; the posterior wings palest; legs pale ferruginous, the coxae black with their tips pale; the apical joints of the tarsi blackish, the spines of the legs black. Abdomen: the first, second, and third segments with a fascia of silvery-white pile at their basal margins; the apex of the abdomen ferruginous.

Hab. Celebes.

3. POMPILUS CONTORTUS. P. niger, cinereo-pilosus, prothorace flavo postice marginato; alis subhyalinis, marginibus apicalibus fuscis, pedibus subferrugineis.

Female. Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; the head, thorax, and four basal segments of the abdomen covered with ashy pile; the first and second segments with their apical margins naked. The scape yellow in front; the flagellum beneath, the labrum, mandibles and palpi ferruginous; the joints of the antennae arcuate, particularly the apical ones; the apex of each joint is oblique, giving the antennae a twisted appearance. Thorax: the posterior margin of the prothorax angular and with a broad yellow border; the scutellum compressed and prominent; wings subhyaline with a broad fuscous border at their apex, the tegulae yellow; legs pale ferruginous, with their coxae and trochanters black; the apical joints of the tarsi fuscous. Abdomen with a yellow macula at the tip.

Hab. Celebes.

4. POMPILUS PILIFRONS. P. niger, facie argenteis pilis dense tecta; thorace abdomineque flavo maculatis, alis subhyalinis, apice fuscis.

Female. Length 4-1/2 lines. Black; the face densely covered with silvery-white pile; a narrow line at the inner orbits of the eyes, the palpi and mandibles yellow; the latter ferruginous at their apex. The posterior margin of the prothorax rounded and yellow; a minute yellow spot on the mesothorax touching the scutellum, the thorax and abdomen covered with a changeable silky pile; the wings subhyaline, their nervures fuscous, a broad dark fuscous border at the apex of the superior pair. A transverse spot on each side of the basal margin of the second and third segments, and an emarginate fascia on that of the fifth, yellow.

5. POMPILUS DECEPTOR. P. rufescenti-flavus; vertice nigro, alis anticis apice fuscis.

Male. Length 6 lines. Pale reddish-yellow; the antennae slightly dusky above; a black transverse stripe on the vertex between the eyes, and another issuing from it in the middle and passing beyond the ocelli. Thorax: a black stripe on each side of the mesothorax over the tegulae; the wings subhyaline, the nervures ferruginous, the superior pair fuscous at their apex. Abdomen immaculate.

Subgenus PRIOCNEMIS.

1. PRIOCNEMIS RUFIFRONS. P. niger; facie, antennis, tibiis tarsisque ferrugineis, alis fulvo-hyalinis; abdominis segmento apicali flavo unimaculato.

Female. Length 9-1/2 lines. Black; the face above the clypeus, as high as the anterior ocellus, reddish-yellow; the extreme edge of the clypeus, the labrum and base of the mandibles ferruginous; the antennae reddish-yellow. Thorax: fulvo-hyaline, with a dark fuscous border at the apex; the knees, tibiae and tarsi reddish-yellow; the two latter spinose. Abdomen: gradually tapering to an acute point at the apex, the sixth segment with an elongate red spot.

Hab. Celebes.

Subgenus AGENIA.

1. Agenia blanda, Guer. Voy. Coq. Zool. ii. pt. 2. p. 260.

2. AGENIA BIMACULATA. A. nigra, cinereo-pilosa, clypeo plagis duabus flavis; antennarum articulis apicalibus, tibiis tarsisque anticis et intermediis femoribusque posticis ferrugineis; alis subhyalinis, nervuris nigris.

Female. Length 7 lines. Black, and covered with ashy pile; a large macula on each side of the clypeus, the mandibles and palpi yellow; the base and apex of the mandibles rufo-piceous; the flagellum pale ferruginous, more or less fuscous above towards the base. Thorax: the posterior margin of the prothorax arched; the anterior and intermediate tibiae and tarsi and the femora at their apex beneath, also the posterior femora, pale ferruginous; the wings subhyaline, the nervures dark fuscous. Abdomen: the apical margins of the segments obscurely and narrowly rufo-piceous, the apex ferruginous.

Hab. Celebes.

Gen. MACROMERIS, St. Farg.

1. Macromeris splendida, St. Farg. Hym. iii. 463. 1. [Symbol: male].

Hab. India, China, Malacca, Borneo, Java, Celebes.

Gen. MYGNIMIA, Smith.

1. Mygnimia iridipennis, Smith, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. ii. p. 98.

Hab. Celebes, Borneo.

This insect, a female, is 5 lines larger than M. iridipennis; but I can point out no other distinction beyond a slight difference in the colour of the wings: the specimen from Borneo has a metallic bluish-green iridescence, the Celebes insect has a violet iridescence; notwithstanding which I am inclined to regard them as one species.

2. MYGNIMIA FUMIPENNIS. M. aurantiaco-rubra, alis obscure fuscis.

Female. Length 9 lines. Orange-red; the anterior margin of the clypeus entire; the labrum produced, its anterior margin widely emarginate; eyes large, black and ovate. Thorax: the posterior margin of the prothorax rounded; the mesothorax with a longitudinal fuscous stripe on each side, widest anteriorly; the metathorax truncate; above, transversely striate; the tibiae and tarsi spinose; wings dark fuscous, with a pale semitransparent macula at the base of the second discoidal cell and a dark fuscous macula beyond; the insect entirely covered with a fine orange-red downy pile.

Hab. Celebes.

Fam. SPHEGIDAE.

1. SPHEX PRAEDATOR. S. niger, rude punctatus, facie pube fulva vestita; alis fuscis cupreo iridescentibus.

Male. Length 10-1/2 lines. Black; the head and thorax opake. Abdomen shining blue-black. The face with silvery pile on each side of the clypeus, and sprinkled with erect black hairs. Thorax: the posterior margin of the prothorax with a line of silvery pubescence; the metathorax with a short light-brown pubescence at the apex, and thinly clothed with black hairs; wings dark brown, with a brilliant violet iridescence. Abdomen blue-black, smooth and shining.

Hab. Celebes.

2. AMMOPHILA INSOLATA. A. nigra, scapo mandibulis, pedibus, abdominisque segmentis primo et secundo ferrugineis; alis subhyalinis.

Female. Length 8-1/2 lines. Black; the scape, the base of the flagellum beneath, the anterior margin of the clypeus and the mandibles ferruginous; the latter black at their apex. Thorax: the prothorax smooth and shining; the meso- and metathorax above transversely striated, the scutellum longitudinally so; the legs ferruginous, with their coxae black; a spot of silvery-white pubescence on each side of the metathorax at its base, and two at its apex close to the insertion of the petiole; the wings fulvo-hyaline with the nervures ferruginous. Abdomen: the petiole and the following segment red, the base of the third also slightly red; the three apical segments obscurely blue, with a thin glittering pile.

The male differs in having the legs black, their articulations only being ferruginous; the head entirely black with the face densely covered with silvery-white pile. The thorax is sculptured as in the other sex; the petiole more elongate and slender, the basal joint black, the second and the first segment ferruginous beneath; the rest of the abdomen blue.

Hab. Celebes.

Gen. PELOPAEUS, Latr.

1. Pelopaeus Madraspatanus, Fabr. Syst. Piez. p. 203. 3.

Hab. Malabar, Madras, Nepaul, Bengal, Celebes.

2. Pelopaeus Bengalensis, Dahlb. Syst. Nat. i. 941. 2.

Hab. India, Philippine Islands, China, Isle of France, Celebes.

3. PELOPAEUS INTRUDENS. P. niger; clypeo bidentato, tibiis anticis et intermediis, femorumque apice, femoribusque posticis basi, trochanteribus, tibiarum dimidio basali, petioloque rufescenti-flavis; alis fulvo-hyalinis.

Female. Length 11 lines. Black; the face with silvery pubescence; the clypeus with two large blunt teeth at its apex, formed by a deep notch in its anterior margin; the scape reddish-yellow in front. The meso- and metathorax transversely striated; the wings fulvo-hyaline, the nervures ferruginous; the anterior and intermediate tibiae and the femora at their apex, the posterior femora at their base, the trochanters, the tibiae with their basal half and the middle of the basal joint of the posterior tarsi, reddish-yellow; the petiole of the abdomen of a paler yellow; the abdomen smooth and shining. The male only differs in being rather smaller.

Hab. Celebes.

Mr. Wallace says of this species, "A common house-wasp in Macassar; builds mud cells on rafters."

Note.—In describing the species of this genus collected by Mr. Wallace at Borneo, I incorrectly gave that locality for P. javanus. The insect mistaken for that species may be shortly characterized as P. benignus, length 12 lines. Opake-black, with the petiole shining; the metathorax transversely striated; the wings pale fulvo-hyaline, the nervures ferruginous; the scape in front, the anterior and intermediate tibiae, the apex of the femora, and the basal joint of the tarsi reddish-yellow; the posterior legs, with the trochanters and basal half of the femora, yellow.

4. PELOPAEUS FLAVO-FASCIATUS. P. niger; capite thoraceque flavo variegato; pedibus abdominisque basi ferrugineis; alis hyalinis, apice fuscis, abdominisque segmento tertio fascia lata flava ornato.

Female. Length 9 lines. Black; the clypeus yellow; the mandibles and scape ferruginous, the former black at their base, the latter yellow in front; the sides of the face with a bright golden pile. Thorax: the posterior margin of the prothorax, the tegulae, scutellum, and a quadrate spot on each side of the metathorax at its base yellow; the legs ferruginous, with the coxae, trachanters, and claw-joint of the tarsi black; wings fulvo-hyaline, the nervures ferruginous, a fuscous spot at the apex of the anterior pair; the meso- and metathorax transversely striated, the latter with a yellow spot at the insertion of the petiole. Abdomen: the petiole slightly curved upwards, the first segment ferruginous; a broad yellow fascia at the apex of the third segment, the apex of the fourth with a narrow obscure fascia; the abdomen covered with a fine silky pile.

Hab. Celebes.

Fam. BEMBICIDAE, Westw.

1. Bembex trepanda, Dahlb. Hym. Europ. i. p. 181.

Hab. India, Celebes.

Fam. LARRIDAE.

Genus LARRA, Fabr.

1. Larra prismatica, Smith, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. ii. p. 103.

Hab. Malacca, Celebes.

Genus LARRADA, Smith.

1. Larrada aurulenta, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. 276. 6. Sphex aurulenta, Fabr. Mant. i. 274. 10.

Hab. India, Java, Sumatra, Celebes, Philippine Islands, China, Cape of Good Hope, Gambia.

2. Larrada exilipes, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. p. 278.

3. LARRADA AEDILIS. L. nigra; facie argenteo-pilosa, alis subhyalinis, articulis apicalibus tarsorum rufo-testaceis, abdomine laevi et nitido.

Female. Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; head and thorax subopake, the abdomen shining; the face densely covered with silvery pile, the cheeks, sides of the thorax and abdomen thinly so; the tips of the mandibles and apical joints of the tarsi ferruginous, the latter obscurely so. The metathorax transversely and rather finely rugose, the truncation more strongly striated; the scutellum shining; the wings subhyaline, the nervures ferruginous; the tibiae with scattered spines, the tarsi spinose.

4. LARRADA AURIFRONS. L. nigra; facie mesothoracis metathoracisque lateribus aurato pubescentibus, abdominis marginibus segmentorum trium basalium argentato piloso fasciatis; alis fuscis.

Male. Length 8 lines. Black; the face and outer orbits of the eyes clothed with golden pile; the lateral margins of the mesothorax and the metathorax thinly clothed with golden pile; wings dark fuscous with a violet iridescence; the three basal segments of the abdomen with fasciae of silvery pile.

Hab. Celebes.

5. LARRADA PERSONATA. L. capite thoraceque nigris, abdomine ferrugineo.

Female. Length 8-1/2 lines. Head, thorax, and legs black; the two former closely punctured and thinly covered with short cinereous pubescence; the metathorax with the punctures running into transverse striae in the middle; the sides of the thorax and the legs with a fine silky silvery-white pile; the tibiae and tarsi strongly spinose; wings fusco-hyaline; abdomen entirely red, smooth and shining.

The male is smaller, and has the four apical segments of the abdomen black, the face, cheeks, and apical margins of the segments of the abdomen with silvery pile.

Hab. Celebes.

This is probably merely a variety of L. simillima, wanting the black apex to the abdomen; it very much resembles the L. anathema of Europe.

6. LARRADA RUFIPES. L. nigra, mandibulis pedibusque rufis; alis hyalinis, venis pallide testaceis; abdomine sericeo-piloso.

Female. Length 7 lines. Black; the head smooth and shining; the clypeus, the cheeks, and face anteriorly covered with silvery pile; the scape in front, the mandibles, and palpi ferruginous. Thorax: the sides and beneath with a thin silvery-white pile; the legs ferruginous with the coxae black, the posterior pair red beneath; the thorax closely punctured, the metathorax transversely striated; wings fulvo-hyaline, the nervures pale-testaceous. Abdomen shining, very closely and delicately punctured; thinly covered with a fine white silky pile, which is very bright on the margins of the segments, which are slightly rufo-piceous.

The male closely resembles the female, and is similarly sculptured and coloured.

Hab. Celebes.

7. LARRADA FESTINANS. L. nigra; facie abdominisque marginibus segmentorum argentato-pilosis.

Female. Length 3 lines. Black; the face and cheeks thinly covered with silvery pile. Thorax: the disk very closely punctured, the metathorax rugose; the sides and the legs with a fine glittering sericeous pile, the wings subhyaline, their apical margins fuscous, the nervures fuscous. Abdomen smooth and sinning, covered with a thin silky pile, the apical margins with bright silvery fasciae, only observable in certain lights.

The male closely resembles the female, but has the face more silvery.

Hab. Celebes.

Genus MORPHOTA, Smith.

1. MORPHOTA FORMOSA. M. capite thoraceque nigris; abdomine rufo, apice nigro, pilis argentatis ornato.

Female. Length 5 lines. Black, with the two basal segments of the abdomen red; covered with a brilliant changeable silvery pile, most dense on the face, cheeks, sides of the metathorax, and on the apical margins of the abdominal segments. The mandibles ferruginous, with their apex piceous. The vertex smooth, and having three distinct ocelli; the head more produced behind the eyes than in Larrada. Thorax: the prothorax subtuberculate at the sides; wings subhyaline and iridescent, the nervures fuscous, the tegulae pale testaceous behind. The apical margin of the first segment of the abdomen rufo-fuscous.

Hab. Celebes.

The insects belonging to the genus Morphota differ from those of Larrada in having three distinct ocelli, the vertex without any depressions, and the head much less compressed than in Larrada; the recurrent nervures are received nearer to the base and apex of the second submarginal cell; the species have, in fact, a distinct habit, and do not assimilate with the species of Larrada.

Genus TACHYTES, Panz.

1. TACHYTES MOROSUS. T. niger, scutello abdomineque nitidis, facie argenteo-pilosa; marginibus lateralibus abdominis segmentorum argentatis.

Female. Length 4-1/2 lines. Black; the face covered with silvery pile; the thorax finely and very closely punctured; the metathorax opake and finely rugose, thinly covered with cinereous pubescence; the anterior tarsi ciliated on the exterior, and the intermediate and posterior tibiae with a few dispersed spines; wings fusco-hyaline and iridescent, the nervures fusco-ferruginous, the costal nervure black. Abdomen smooth and shining; the apical margins of the intermediate segments slightly depressed, with the sides sericeous.

Fam. CRABRONIDAE.

Genus OXYBELUS, Latr.

1. Oxybelus agilis, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. 387. 25.

Hab. India, Celebes.

GENUS CRABRO, Latr.

1. CRABRO (RHOPALUM) AGILIS. C. obscuro-nigra, clypeo argentato, capite, thorace abdomineque flavo variis.

Female. Length 4 lines. Black, opake; head larger than the thorax, quadrate; the ocelli in a curve on the vertex; the clypeus and lower portion of the cheeks with silvery pile; the scape, two basal joints of the flagellum, the palpi, and the mandibles, yellow; the latter rufo-piceous at their apex. The margin of the prothorax, the tubercles, the scutellum, the tibiae and tarsi, the anterior femora and the intermediate pair at their apex yellow; the anterior femora black above; the wings subhyaline and iridescent, the nervures testaceous. Abdomen: with an elongate clavate petiole; the first segment with an oblique yellow macula on each side, the third with a large lateral macula at its base, and the following segments entirely yellow.

Hab. Celebes.

This species closely resembles the C. Westermanni of Dahlbome, from the Cape of Good Hope.

GENUS CERCERIS, Latr.

1. Cerceris instabilis, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. 452. 74.

Hab. India, China, Celebes.

2. Cerceris unifasciata, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. 456. 84.

Hab. North China, Celebes.

3. Cerceris fuliginosa, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. iv. 454. 79.

Hab. Celebes.

4. CERCERIS VARIPES. C. nigra, facie flavo varia; alis fuscis basi hyalinis; pedibus variegatis; abdomine flavo maculato.

Male. Length 6 lines. Black; a line down the inner orbits of the eyes, continued along the lower margins of the face, and uniting with the clypeus, which as well as a line above it between the antennae are yellow; a spot on the scape in front, and the mandibles, yellow; the latter rufo-piceous at their apex. Thorax: a spot on each side of the prothorax, a minute one on the tegulae; the postscutellum, the intermediate and posterior coxae and trochanters, the anterior tibiae behind, the femora beneath, and the intermediate and posterior tibiae yellow; the femora reddish above and at their articulations; the posterior femora and tibiae black, with the tarsi rufo-testaceous; the anterior wings and the apex of the posterior pair brown, the base of the anterior pair hyaline. Abdomen: the second and three following segments with a short yellow stripe on each side.

Hab. Celebes.

Tribe VESPIDAE.

Fam. EUMENIDAE, Westw.

Genus ZETHUS, Fabr.

1. Zethus cyanopterus, Sauss. Mon. Guepes Sol. i. 23. 2.

Genus MONTEZUMIA, Sauss.

1. Montezumia Indica, Sauss. Mon. Guepes Sol. i. supp. 167. 59. t. 9. f. 4.

Hab. India, Celebes.

Genus RHYNCHIUM, Spin.

1. Rhynchium haemorrhoidale, Sauss. Mon. Guepes Sol. i. 109. 12. Vespa haemorrhoidalis, Fabr. Syst. Piez. p. 259. 28.

Hab. India, Java, Cape of Good Hope, Celebes.

2. Rhynchium argentatum, Sauss. Mon. Guepes Sol. i. 115. 22. Vespa argentata, Fabr. Syst. Piez. p. 260. 39.

Hab. India, Celebes.

3. Rhynchium atrum, Sauss. Mon. Guepes Sol. i. 109. 11.

Hab. India, Celebes.

4. Rhynchium parentissimum, Sauss. Mon. Guepes Sol. p. 111. 14. Var. R. haemorrhoidale?

Hab. India, Java, Celebes.

Genus EUMENES.

1. Eumenes circinalis, Fabr. Syst. Piez. p. 286. 4.

Hab. India, Sumatra, Celebes.

2. Eumenes fulvipennis, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. pt. v. 24. 26.

Hab. Celebes.

3. EUMENES VINDEX. E. niger, flavo variegatus, alis subhyalinis iridescentibus.

Male. Length 6 lines. Black; strongly punctured and shining; a minute spot behind the eyes, another in their emargination, the clypeus, with two minute spots above it, a spot at the base of the mandibles, and the scape in front yellow. Thorax: a subinterrupted line on its anterior margin, the tubercles, a spot on the tegulae behind, and the legs yellow; the coxae, femora at their base, and the posterior tibiae outside dusky; wings light brown and iridescent, the anterior margin of the superior pair darkest. Abdomen delicately punctured; the apical margin of the first segment with a narrow yellow border slightly interrupted on each side; the apical segments with a thin cinereous pile.

Hab. Celebes.

4. EUMENES ARCHITECTUS. E. niger, clypeo, prothoracis margine postscutello abdominisque segmenti primi margine flavis.

Female. Length 6 lines. Black and closely punctured; a line behind the eyes near their vertex, a spot between the antennae and the clypeus, yellow; the latter black at the apex, which is notched; the labrum and mandibles reddish-yellow, the latter black at their base. Thorax: the anterior margin yellow; the tubercles, tegulae, postscutellum, an interrupted line on each side of the metathorax, the tibiae, tarsi, and femora at their apex, yellow; the coxae spotted with yellow and the posterior tibiae dusky; the wings fusco-hyaline; a black line across the tegulae. Abdomen: an ovate spot on each side of the petiole, its apical margin, a transverse ovate spot on each side of the first segment, and its posterior margin yellow; the following segments covered with a grey silky pile.

Male. Differs from the female in having the clypeus entirely yellow, the metathorax and abdomen entirely black; only the apical margin of the petiole is yellow, it is also longer.

Hab. Celebes.

5. EUMENES FLORALIS. E. niger; clypeo flavo; thorace pedibusque ferrugineo-flavo variegatis.

Male. Length 6-1/2 lines. Black; strongly punctured and shining; the clypeus and a spot above yellow; a narrow abbreviated line behind the eyes, a minute spot in their emargination, and the tips of the mandibles orange-red; the flagellum fulvous beneath. Thorax: the anterior and posterior margin of the prothorax, the tubercles, and a spot on the tegulae behind, a line on the postscutellum and the legs, orange-red, the coxae black, and the tarsi dusky; the wings slightly brownish with a violet iridescence. Abdomen immaculate, with a minute spot on the posterior border of the petiole; the third and following segments with a fine cinereous pile.

Hab. Celebes.

Genus ODYNERUS, Latr.

1. Odynerus ovalis, Sauss. Mon. Guepes Sol. 215. 122. t. 19. f. 4.

Hab. India, China, Celebes.

2. ODYNERUS (ANCISTROCERUS) CLAVICORNIS. O. niger, flavo varius; capite thoraceque fortiter, abdomine delicatule punctatis, antennis clavatis.

Male. Length 4-1/2 lines. Black; head and thorax strongly punctured and shining; a spot on the mandibles, the labrum, the clypeus, a spot above, the scape in front, a line in the emargination of the eyes and a spot behind them, yellow; the flagellum broadly clavate, the joints transverse, the apex of the club and the terminal hook reddish-yellow, the thickened part of the club concave beneath, the hook bent into the cavity. Thorax: two spots on the anterior margin, a spot on the tegulae in front, and the legs, reddish-yellow, the coxae dusky; the metathorax coarsely rugose and deeply concave-truncate. Abdomen: the first segment with a transverse carina at its base, in front of which is an irregularly cut deep transverse channel forming a second carina in front of the groove; the segments finely punctured, the first and second segments with a yellow posterior border, the fourth and following segments rufo-piceous.

Hab. Celebes.

3. ODYNERUS (LEIONOTUS) INSULARIS. O. niger, flavo et aurantio variegatus; abdominis basi ferruginea.

Male. Length 6 lines. Black; the head and thorax strongly punctured; the mandibles, clypeus, a line above extending to the anterior ocellus, the emargination of the eyes, a spot at their vertex and a line at their outer orbits, yellow; the antennae reddish-yellow, with the scape pale yellow in front and a narrow fuscous line above; the yellow marking more or less stained orange. Thorax: the prothorax orange, its anterior border, the tubercles, tegulae, two spots on the scutellum and postscutellum, the lateral margins of the metathorax and the legs, yellow, the latter with reddish stains; wings subhyaline, the superior pair with a fuscous cloud at their apex. The base of the abdomen and a large macula on each side of the second segment ferruginous; the apical margin of the segments with a yellow border, the first and second with a minute notch in the middle; the first and second segments entirely ferruginous beneath.

4. ODYNERUS FULVIPENNIS. O. niger, flavo varius, pedibus ferrugineis, alis fulvo-hyalinis.

Male. Black; head and thorax closely and strongly punctured; the clypeus and two spots above, a line along the lower margin of the sinus of the eyes, a narrow line behind them, the scape in front, and the mandibles yellow; the tips of the latter rufo-piceous; the antennae and legs ferruginous; an interrupted yellow line on the anterior margin of the thorax; the wings fulvo-hyaline; the veins which enclose the marginal and second and third submarginal cells fuscous, the rest pale testaceous; a fuscous cloud in the marginal cell. Abdomen: the apical margin of the second segment with a yellow fascia, the following segments with red fasciae.

Hab. Celebes.

Genus ICARIA, Sauss.

1. Icaria ferruginea, Sauss. Mon. Guepes Soc. p. 37. 15.

Hab. India, Celebes.

2. ICARIA PILOSA. I. nigra, rude punctata et densissime pubescens, clypeo flavo, thorace, pedibus abdomineque ferrugineo variegatis; alis subhyalinis, anticis apice fusco maculatis.

Male. Length 7-1/2 lines. Black; closely and strongly punctured; the clypeus, a line on the mandibles, and the scape in front, yellow; tips of the mandibles, the scape above, and the base of the flagellum ferruginous. Thorax: the prothorax, scutellum and postscutellum, ferruginous; the tegulae and legs pale ferruginous, the coxae black; wings fusco-hyaline, with a dark cloud in the marginal cell extending to the apex of the wing; a fainter cloud traverses the margin of the wing to its base. Abdomen: the first, second and third segments with a reddish-yellow fascia, that on the second segment continued beneath; a longitudinal broad stripe of the same colour on each side of the second segment; its apical margin serrated.

Hab. Celebes.

Genus POLISTES, Latr.

1. Polistes sagittarius, Sauss. Mon. Guepes Soc. p. 56. 12.

Various specimens from Greece and Celebes have the thorax more or less ferruginous.

Hab. India, Celebes, China, Greece.

2. Polistes Picteti, Sauss. Mon. Guepes Soc. 69. 28. t. 6. f. 8.

Hab. Ceram, Australia, Celebes.

3. Polistes fastidiosus, Sauss. Mon. Guepes Soc. p. 60. 18.

Hab. Africa (Gambia), Celebes.

4. Polistes stigma, Fabr. Syst. Piez. p. 261. 41.

Hab. India, Ceram, Celebes.

5. Polistes Philippinensis, Sauss. Mon. Guepes Soc. 58. 14 (var.).

Hab. Philippine Islands.

Genus VESPA, Linn.

1. Vespa affinis, Fabr. Syst. Piez. p. 254. 6 (var. V. cincta?).

Hab. India, China, Singapore, Celebes.

2. VESPA FERVIDA. V. nigra, delicatule punctata; clypei margine antica, macula pone oculos, margineque postica segmenti primi abdominis flavis; alis fulvo-hyalinis.

Female. Length 13 lines. Black; closely and finely punctured; the clypeus convex and strongly punctured, emarginate anteriorly, the emargination with a yellow border; the eyes extending to the base of the mandibles, which have three stout teeth at their apex and a narrow yellow line at their inner margin. Thorax: the postscutellum yellow, and a minute yellow spot on the outer margin of the tegulae; the wings rufo-hyaline, darkest along the anterior margin of the superior pair; the nervures ferruginous, gradually becoming darker at the base of the wings, the costal nervure black.

Worker. Length 9 lines. Very closely resembles the female, but in addition to the yellow markings of that sex has the anterior margin of the clypeus yellow, a narrow transverse line between the antennae, another along the lower margin of the notch of the eyes, an abbreviated stripe behind them at the base of the mandibles, a spot beneath the postscutellum and a narrow yellow line along the posterior margin of the basal segment of the abdomen.

Hab. Celebes.

Fam. TENTHREDINIDAE.

Genus TENTHREDO, Linn.

1. TENTHREDO (ALLANTUS) PURPURATA. T. capite thoraceque caeruleo-viridibus, abdomine purpureo, alis fuscis iridescentibus.

Size, length 4 lines. Head and thorax blue-green, abdomen purple; wings dark fuscous with a violet iridescence; an oblique white line on each side beneath the scutellum; legs and antennae black.

Hab. Celebes.

Fam. ICHNEUMONIDAE.

Genus MEGISCHUS, Brulle.

1. Megischus indicus, Westw. Trans. Ent. Soc. new ser. i. 1851.

Hab. Philippine Islands, Celebes.

Genus MESOSTENUS, Brulle.

1. MESOSTENUS ALBO-SPINOSUS. M. niger, albo varius, abdominis segmentis albo marginatis, metathorace spinis duabus albis armato.

Female. Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; a half-circular spot on the clypeus, a heart-shaped one above it, a spot at the base of the mandibles, the orbits of the eyes, interrupted at their vertex, yellowish white, the palpi of the same colour, and a broad incomplete annulus on the antennae beyond their middle. Thorax: the mesothorax with two deeply impressed oblique lines inclined inwards and terminating at an ovate spot in the middle of the disk, the scutellum and an oblique line on each side a little before it, a horseshoe-shaped spot in the middle of the metathorax, and a little below it on each side a conical tooth, yellowish white; four spots beneath the wings, one on each side of the metathorax, and the coxae beneath, white; the legs ferruginous, with the intermediate pair dusky behind, the posterior pair entirely so, the femora being black; the wings hyaline, nervures fuscous. Abdomen: punctured and with a white fascia on the margins of the three basal segments; the two apical segments with very narrow fasciae.

Hab. Celebes.

This species is closely allied to the M. literatus of Brulle; but it differs too much, I think, to be identical with it.

2. PIMPLA TRIMACULATA. P. flava, oculis, macula circa ocellos, vittulis tribus mesothoracis setisque caudalibus nigris.

Female. Length 6 lines. Yellow; the antennae fuscous above, also a fuscous cloud at the apex of the anterior wings, the wings hyaline with the nervures black; a spot on the scape within, and three longitudinal stripes on the mesothorax, black; the latter slightly punctured anteriorly; the metathorax smooth and shining, with three oblique carinae on each side, and a small subovate enclosed space in the middle of the disk. Abdomen punctured, all the segments margined at their apex, and each with a deeply impressed line at their extreme lateral margins; the sixth segment with two minute black spots at its basal margin, the two apical segments smooth and shining; the ovipositor black.

Hab. Celebes.

This species is closely allied to the P. trilineata of Brulle.

Fam. BRACONIDAE.

1. BRACON INSINUATOR. B. capite, thorace pedibusque ferrugineis; antennis, tibiis tarsisque posticis et abdomine nigris; alis nigro-fuscis, macula hyalina sub stigmate.

Female. Length 7-1/2 lines. Head and thorax smooth, shining, and ferruginous, the legs ferruginous, with the posterior tibiae and tarsi black; the antennae black, with the scape and following joint ferruginous; wings dark brown, with their extreme base pale testaceous; a hyaline stripe runs from the stigma across the first submarginal cell and passes a little below it. Abdomen black, smooth, and shining, with the lateral margins of the basal segment pale yellow-testaceous; this segment has on each side a longitudinal carina, and between them is a highly polished bell-shaped form; the second segment with deep oblique depressions at the sides, and deeply longitudinally rugose-striate, leaving the apical margin smooth and shining; the second segment is similarly sculptured, and the third has a transverse groove at its base.

Hab. Celebes.

2. BRACON INTRUDENS. B. rufescenti-flavus, antennis setisque caudalibus nigris; alis nigro-fuscis, basi fasciaque angusta transversa flavis.

Female. Length 9 lines. Pale reddish-yellow; the eyes, flagellum, and ovipositor black; the scape and the following segment yellow; the head and thorax smooth and shining, both pubescent at the sides and beneath, the legs covered with a similar pale pubescence; the face with an upright horn between the antennae, and a raised flattened plate in front of it. Abdomen: the basal segment with the lateral margins raised, and having on each side an elongate broad depression extending its entire length; the three following with an oblique depression on each side at the base of the segment; the third, fourth, and fifth segments distinctly margined at their apex; the ovipositor the length of the insect.

Hab. Celebes.

Genus AGATHIS, Latr.

1. AGATHIS SCULPTURALIS. A. nigra, prothorace, pedibus anticis mediisque ferrugineis; abdomine laevigato nitido.

Male. Length 5-1/2 lines. Black; the mouth, prothorax, anterior and intermediate legs, ferruginous; the face with two teeth or horns between or a little before the insertion of the antennae, and another at the side of each, close to their insertion. Thorax: the mesothorax with two deeply impressed lines in front, running inwards, and uniting about the middle, and with two or three deep transverse channels before their junction; the lateral margins of the mesothorax deeply impressed; the metathorax ruggedly sculptured; the posterior coxae and femora closely punctured; wings black with a hyaline spot in the first submarginal cell. Abdomen very smooth and shining, with a deeply impressed line on each side of the basal segment.

Hab. Celebes.

2. AGATHIS MODESTA. A. rufescenti-flava; antennis, vertice, tibiis posticis apice, tarsisque nigris; alis fusco maculatis.

Female. Length 4 lines. Reddish-yellow: the antennae and vertex, black. The mesothorax with two deeply impressed longitudinal oblique lines, and two parallel ones between them; the metathorax reticulated; wings hyaline, with a dark fuscous stain crossing the anterior pair at the base of the first submarginal cell, these hyaline to the middle of the stigma, beyond which they are fuscous; a subhyaline spot at the apex of the marginal cell, and another beneath it at the inferior margin of the wing; the posterior tarsi dusky, and the tips of the tibiae black.

Hab. Celebes.

3. AGATHIS NITIDA. A. nigra, nitida; facie, pectore, pedibus anticis et intermediis, plaga infra alas, scutelloque pallide ferrugineis.

Length 4 lines. Black and shining; the face, mandibles, head beneath, legs, pectus, sides of the thorax beneath the wings, the scutellum and the basal half of the abdomen beneath, pale ferruginous; the mesothorax with two longitudinal oblique lines on the disk, which have two parallel ones between them; the metathorax coarsely rugose; the wings dark brown, with the base of the stigma pale, and a hyaline spot beneath it. Abdomen very smooth and shining, with the apical margins of the segments narrowly rufo-piceous; the posterior legs incrassate and dark rufo-piceous.

Fam. CHRYSIDIDAE.

Genus HEDYCHRUM, Latr.

1. HEDYCHRUM FLAMMULATUM. H. viridi-purpureo lavatum; capite thoraceque fortiter, abdomine delicatule, punctatis; alis fuscis basi hyalinis.

Length 3 lines. Bright green; the vertex, two oblique stripes on the prothorax, meeting in the centre of its anterior margin, a broad longitudinal stripe on the disk of the mesothorax, and the sides of the scutellum and postscutellum deep purple. Abdomen: the middle of the basal segment, the second and third segments at their base, broadly purple; the apical margin of the third tinged with purple; wings subfuscous, with their base hyaline. The head and thorax coarsely and closely punctured, the abdomen finely so; the tarsi with the claws unidentate.

Hab. Celebes.

Genus CHRYSIS, Linn.

1. CHRYSIS PURPUREA. C. laete purpurea, capite, thorace abdominisque basi rugosis punctatis, segmentis abdominis secundo et tertio delicatule punctatis, apice quadridentato.

Length 3 lines. Bright purple; the head, thorax, and base of the abdomen strongly and coarsely punctured, the rest of the abdomen finely punctured; the disk of the thorax and apical margins of the segments of the abdomen reflecting bright tints of green; the wings subhyaline, the nervures dark fuscous; the apical margin of the third segment of the abdomen with four teeth, the two central ones approximating, separated by a deep notch, the lateral teeth more distant, separated from the others by a wide emargination.

Hab. Celebes.

2. CHRYSIS INSULARIS. C. nigro-purpurea, violaceo et viridi lavata; capite, thorace abdominisque basi rude punctatis.

Length 5 lines. Dark purple, with violet and green reflections; the face, legs, and thorax beneath, green; wings slightly fuscous, and iridescent; the head and thorax closely and coarsely punctured; the base of the abdomen roughly punctured, the two following segments much more finely so; the apical segment armed with six teeth, the outer ones subacute.

Hab. Celebes.

3. CHRYSIS SUMPTUOSA. C. fortiter punctata, metallico-viridis auro lavata; thoracis disco, abdominis segmentis secundo et tertio basi purpureis; segmento apicali margine integro.

Length 3-1/4 lines. Golden-green; the thorax at the sides and posteriorly with bright coppery effulgence; an oblong purple spot on the disk of the thorax; the metathorax and its lateral teeth vivid green, the vertex and prothorax splashed with gold. Abdomen: the basal segment bright green, with a bright coppery or golden effulgence at the sides; the second segment purple at the base, coppery at the apex, and with a suffusion of green between these tints; the third segment is similarly coloured, with the apical margin entire; the insect closely and strongly punctured throughout.

Hab. Celebes.



Description of a new Genus of Crustacea, of the Family Pinnotheridae; in which the fifth pair of legs are reduced to an almost imperceptible rudiment. By THOMAS BELL, Esq., Pres. L. S.

[Read June 3rd, 1858.]

Fam. PINNOTHERIDAE, Edwards.

Genus AMORPHOPUS, Bell.

CHAR. GEN.:—Corpus subcylindricum. Testa semicircularis, margine posteriore recto.—Antennae externae minimae, articulo basali orbitam subtus partim claudente.—Antennularum fossulae transversae, continuae, et ab orbitis haud separatae.—Pedipalpi externi articulo quarto ovato, palpo tri-articulato, ad angulum antico-interiorem articuli quarti inserto.—Oris apertura antice arcuata.—Orbitae apertae, margine inferiore carente, superiore integro.—Oculi transversim positi.—Pedes antici robusti, inaequales; pedum paria secundum, tertium et quartum longa, subcompressa; par quintum exiguum, simplicissimum, rudimentarium, in incisura articuli basalis paris quarti insertum.—Abdomen MARIS segmentis tertio cum quarto, et quinto cum sexto coalitis; FOEMINAE?

Sp. unica. Amorphopus cylindraceus, mihi.

Description.—The body is nearly cylindrical, somewhat depressed, the carapace very much curved from the point to the back, quite straight from side to side; the anterior and lateral margins forming nearly a semicircle, the posterior margin straight; the orbits are deeply cut in the anterior margin of the carapace, looking upwards; the inferior margin wanting; the oral aperture much arched anteriorly; the external footjaws with the third articulation somewhat rhomboid, the fourth irregularly oval, and the palpi three-jointed, inserted at its anterior and inner angle. Epistome extremely small, transversely linear; the external antennae placed directly beneath the orbits, the basal joints partly filling them beneath. The antennules folded transversely in large open fossae, which are scarcely at all separated from each other, and are open to the orbits, the eyes lying transversely; the peduncles short and thick; the sternum is semicircular, the segments separated by very deep grooves; the abdomen very long and narrow, the first and second joint transversely linear, the third and fourth united and forming a triangle truncated anteriorly at the articulation of the portion formed by the fifth and sixth joints united, and which with the seventh form a very narrow and linear piece extending forwards to the posterior margin of the oral aperture; the first pair of legs robust, unequal (the right being the larger in the only specimen at present observed); the hand in each as broad as it is long; that of the smaller conspicuously tuberculated, that of the larger much less so; the former with the fingers nearly meeting throughout their length, those of the latter only at the tips; the second, third, and fourth pairs of legs are long, somewhat compressed, the third joint tuberculated on the under side, the third pair the longest; the fifth pair is reduced to a mere rudiment, in the form of a minute tubercle inserted in a little notch at the base of the first joint of the fourth pair, and scarcely discernible by the naked eye.

Observations.—The relation of this genus to the Pinnotheridae is tolerably obvious, in the smallness of the antennae, the direction and arrangement of the eyes, and particularly in the form of the oral aperture, and of the external footjaws. I shall not, however, enter upon the consideration of these relations, as I am about shortly to offer to the Society a review and monograph of the whole of this family. The most remarkable peculiarity in the genus is the apparent absence of the fifth pair of legs, which can only be discovered to exist at all by examination with the help of a lens. In this respect I doubt not that the Fabrician genus Hexapus, adopted and figured by De Haan, will be found to agree with it, although it is very remarkable that the anomalous condition of this part never excited any particular attention on the part of either of these distinguished naturalists; and De Haan describes Fabricius's species, Hexapus sexpes, as if there were nothing especial or abnormal in a Decapod having only six pairs of legs besides the claws. Mr. White made a similar mistake on one occasion, when he described an anomourous genus allied to Lithodes, in which the fifth pair of legs were not visible; but when, at my suggestion, a more careful examination was made, they were found, as was anticipated, in a rudimentary form, concealed under the edge of the carapace. I believe that I can discover even in De Haan's figure something like a little tubercle at the base of the fourth leg, which is probably the rudimentary representative of the fifth.



Death of the Common Hive Bee, supposed to be occasioned by a parasitic Fungus. By the Rev. HENRY HIGGINS. Communicated by the President.

[Read June 3rd, 1858.]

On the 18th of March last, Timpron Martin, Esq., of Liverpool, communicated to me some circumstances respecting the death of a hive of bees in his possession, which induced me to request from him a full statement of particulars. Mr. Martin gave me the following account:—

"In October last I had three hives of bees which I received into my house. Each doorway was closed, and the hive placed upon a piece of calico; the corners were brought over the top, leaving a loop by which the hive was suspended from the ceiling. The hives were taken down about the 14th of March; two were healthy, but all the bees in the third were dead. There was a gallon of bees. The two hives containing live bees were much smaller; but in each of them were dead ones. Under whatever circumstances you preserve bees through the winter, dead ones are found at the bottom, in the spring. The room, an attic, was dry; and I had preserved the same hives in the same way during the winter of 1856. In what I may call the dead hive there was an abundance of honey when it was opened; and it is clear that its inmates did not die for want. It is not a frequent occurrence for bees so to die; but I have known another instance. In that case the hive was left out in the ordinary way, and possibly cold was the cause of death. I think it probable that my bees died about a month before the 14th of March, merely from the circumstance that some one remarked about that time that there was no noise in the hive. They might have died earlier; but there were certainly live bees in the hive in January. I understand there was an appearance of mould on some of the combs. There was ample ventilation, I think; indeed, as the bees were suspended, they had more air than through the summer when placed on a stand."

When the occurrence was first made known to me, I suggested that the bees might probably have died from the growth of a fungus, and requested some of the dead bees might be sent for examination. They were transmitted to me in a very dry state; and a careful inspection with a lens afforded no indications of vegetable growth. I then broke up a specimen, and examined the portions under a compound microscope, using a Nachet No. 4. The head and thorax were clean; but on a portion of the sternum were innumerable very minute, linear, slightly curved bodies, showing the well-known oscillatory or swarming motion. Notwithstanding the agreement of these minute bodies with the characters of the genus of Bacterium of the Vibrionia, I regarded them as spermatia, having frequently seen others undistinguishable from them under circumstances inconsistent with the presence of Confervae, as in the interior of the immature peridia and sporangia of Fungals.

In the specimen first examined there were no other indications of the growth of any parasite; but from the interior of the abdomen of a second bee I obtained an abundance of well-defined globular bodies resembling the spores of a fungus, varying in size from .00016 to .00012 in. Three out of four specimens subsequently examined contained similar spores within the abdomen. No traces of a mycelium were visible; the plants had come to maturity, fruited, and withered away, leaving only the spores.

The chief question then remaining to be solved was as to the time when the spores were developed; whether before or after the death of the bees. In order, if possible, to determine this, I placed four of the dead bees in circumstances favourable for the germination of the spores, and in about ten days I submitted them again to examination. They were covered with mould, consisting chiefly of a species of Mucor, and one also of Botrytis or Botryosporium. These fungi were clearly extraneous, covering indifferently all parts of the insects, and spreading on the wood on which they were lying. On the abdomen of all the specimens, and on the clypeus of one of them, grew a fungus wholly unlike the surrounding mould. It was white and very short, and apparently consisted entirely of spores arranged in a moniliform manner, like the fertile filaments of a stemless Penicillium. These spores resembled those found in the abdomen of the Bees, and proceeded I think, from them. The filaments were most numerous at the junction of the segments. The spores did not resemble the globules in Sporendonema muscae of the English Flora, neither were they apparently enclosed.

The Rev. M. J. Berkeley, to whom I sent some of the bees, procured, by scraping the interior of the abdomen with a lancet, very minute, curved linear bodies from 1/8000 to 1/10000 in. long, which he compares to Vibrios. He also found mixed with them globular bodies, but no visible stratum of mould.

From the peculiar position of the supposed spores within the abdomen of the bees, and from the subsequent growth of a fungus unlike any of our common forms of Mucedines, I think it probable that the death of the bees was occasioned by the presence of a parasitic fungus.



Notice of the occurrence of recent Worm Tracks in the Upper Part of the London Clay Formation near Highgate. By JOHN W. WETHERELL. Communicated by JAMES YATES, Esq., M.A., F.L.S.

[Read June 3rd, 1858.]

The London clay is very tenacious, and near the surface is generally of a brown colour, probably owing to the decomposition of the iron pyrites which it contains. It abounds in selenite or sulphate of lime, and in nodules which often contain organic remains. Fossil wood with Teredo antenautae is also met with, and pyritous casts of univalve and bivalve shells. Lower down the stratum becomes more compact and is of a bluish or blackish colour, and its fossil contents are in a fine state of preservation. During the last summer, while examining the London Clay in the vicinity of Highgate in search of fossils, my attention was directed to certain appearances in it which I could not account for. This led to a further examination, when I found they were produced by the borings of Lumbrici or earth-worms. These appearances consisted of long tubes passing nearly perpendicularly through the clay and terminating in receptacles or nidi, each tube leading to a separate receptacle. As these receptacles occurred in large numbers, I had an opportunity of examining a great many of them with various results. In one instance, I found a dead worm coiled up; in another, a portion of a worm protruding into the lower part of the tube. Again, nidi were found partially filled with only the casts of worms, whilst others contained more or less of a species of Conferva; and, lastly, I obtained some with the cavities partially or wholly filled up. The receptacles varied in shape, from a sphere to an oval, and were extremely thin and fragile. They also varied in size from a pea to a nut. Externally they presented an appearance so singularly contorted, that I could not help considering they were moulded from the casts of worms. They did not appear to have any attachment to the surrounding clay, except at the point of junction with the tube; and the clay beneath them presented no unusual appearance.

Internally they generally exhibited impressions of the worm; but occasionally I detected some of the round and contorted appearances which I have mentioned as being so conspicuous on the outside. I cannot speak with precision as to the length of the tubes, as the clay when examined had been broken up into large rough masses in digging for the foundations of houses. The largest noticed was about three inches long, and the general width one-eighth of an inch. They often run parallel to each other, but at unequal distances. I now have to notice what I consider a remarkable circumstance, namely, that all the tubes contained a solid cylinder of clay, and in every instance where the worms occurred under the circumstances above recorded, they were found to be dead. Researches of this kind are calculated to throw a light on some of those singular phenomena which geologists occasionally meet with in the older rocks.

[Mem.—Several specimens of clay, containing the worm-tubes as above described, were exhibited to the meeting.]



Natural History—Extracts from the Journal of Captain Denham, H.M. Surveying Vessel 'Herald,' 1857. Communicated by Captain WASHINGTON, through the Secretary.

[Read June 3rd, 1858.]

We found upon the larger islands the small species of the Kangaroo, bearing the native name Wallaby (Halmaturus Billardierii), which, when mixed with other meats, affords a fine-flavoured soup.

On the islets are flocks of the Cape Banca goose, which Mr. Smith informed me were only to be found in these straits in the vicinity of Flinders Island, from Cape Banca to Cape Frankland (west about), and that they are readily domesticated, and hatch from three to seven eggs, and afford an acceptable dish. I obtained a live specimen, which Dr. Rayner of this ship describes thus:—"Cereopsis Novae Hollandiae. Body about the size of a common goose; bill short, vaulted, obtuse, two-thirds of which is covered by an expanded cere of a pale greenish-yellow colour, the tip of the bill being black, arcuated, and truncated. Nostrils large, round, open, and situated in the middle of the bill. Wings ample, third quill longest. Legs long, light dull-red, and naked to a little above the knee. Feet black, webbed, the membrane being deeply notched, great toe articulated to the metatarsus. Plumage slate-grey, with black spots upon the wings and back. Wing-feathers dusky black, and edged at the tip with pale grey. Irides light hazel."

We likewise obtained specimens of the following wildfowl:—

AVES.

A BRONZE-WING PIGEON, Phaps elegans. QUAIL, Corturnix pectoralis (Gould). OYSTER-CATCHER, Haematophus fuliginosus. RING PLOVER, Hiaticula bicincta. WILD DUCK, Anas punctata (Cuvier). GREAT GULL, Larus pacificus. LESSER GULL, Xema Jamesonii. MUTTON BIRD, Puffinus brevicaudus (Brandt). SOUTHERN GANNET, Sulu australis (Gould). SMALL PENGUIN, Spheniscus minor (Temminck).

The Mutton Bird we observed streaming from island to island; and I learnt from Mr. Benvenuto Smith the following particulars of its habits from his own observations.

The male birds come in from sea in the month of September, and prepare the burrows for the reception of the hens. The hen bird does not make her appearance till about the 25th November, when she lays and sits at once.

The Mutton Bird lays but one egg; they are employed rearing the young bird until the month of May, at which time the old birds leave the young ones to shift for themselves; the young birds remain in the burrows till they are starved down, and then set off to sea, and are not seen again amongst the islands till September. The cock and hen sit alternately night and day; and all the labour of providing for the young is equally shared.

There are at this date about ninety people living on the small islands in "Franklin Inlet" who make a livelihood by gathering the oil, feathers, and eggs of the Mutton Bird.

Upwards of 2000 gallons of the oil are extracted from the birds annually; and although 300,000 birds are known to be destroyed each year, they appear undiminished in numbers. The oil burns well, and is of a bright-red colour.

I was presented by Mr. Smith with two Paper Nautilus shells (Argonauta tuberculosa) found on the shore of Flinders Island this season, a circumstance which he has remarked occurs but every seventh year, when many hundreds are thrown up: the shells are rarely obtained perfect, as they are extremely fragile, and the sea fowl pick the fish out of them.

Our Botanic Collector, Mr. Milne, ascertained, from what he obtained himself and from what we could contribute from our individual visits to the islets, the existence of plants, which he believes to be indigenous, belonging to the following families and genera, viz.

Amentaceae. Umbelliferae. Asteraceae. Graminaceae. Rosaceae. Junceae. Geraniaceae. Solanum. Euphorbiaceae. Geranium. Myrtaceae.

Testing the chances of fish refreshment at this anchorage, we found little encouragement for hook and line; but the two favouring opportunities which the weather allowed for hawling the seine produced as tabulated on opposite page.

We found the Reef Islands in this sound so abundant in rabbits since Captain Stokes's forethought had set some loose upon them, that, in two visits of four hours with but four guns, 100 brace were brought on board.

I took care to follow my esteemed brother officers' example and the system of introducing such productions, and obtained a dozen couple alive for letting loose in Shark Bay.

[A coloured drawing of Cereopsis Novae Hollandiae accompanied Captain Denham's observations.]

Trawl-seine, or hook How many and line. hawls and Depth Nature Natural phase of of History Common No. of Pounds Locality. of [moon] water. bottom. Names. Names. sorts. weight. - West side 6 hawls with seine. Mugil Mullet 23 28 Flinders ... ... 1/2 ... ... Hemiramphus Gar-fish 10 5 Isl. Settlement [moon] } 1 Sand {Platycephalus Flat-head, 3 1 fathom small Bay 14 days} on and {Raia Sting Ray 2 29 H.W.F. & ... ... } a flat weed {Iulis Small fish Several ... C. [moon] of the X. 30. Basse family Range 10 L.W. ... ... ... ... Labrax Basse 1 1 ft. East side 7 hawls with seine {Myliobatis Ray 11 375 of } (mar.). Hummock } [moon] ... ... ... ... {Mugil Mullet 20 30 Island 26 days 1 to 3 Sandy Platycephalus Flat-head 3 2 centre fams. beach {Siphyracus Barracouta 1 1 Bay at 3/4 ... ... ... ... {Scomberesox Saury 27 17 flood {Sepioteuthis Cuttlefish Several ... Total ... 489 -



On some points in the Anatomy of Nautilus pompilius. By T. H. HUXLEY, F.R.S., Professor of Natural History, Government School of Mines.

[Read June 3rd, 1858.]

Some time ago my friend Dr. Sinclair, of New Zealand, had the kindness to offer me two specimens of the Pearly Nautilus which had been brought to him from New Caledonia, preserved in Goadby's solution. I gladly accepted the present, and looked forward to the dissection of the rare animal with no little pleasure; but on proceeding to examine one of the specimens, I found its anatomical value greatly diminished by the manner in which a deposit from the solution had glued together some of the internal viscera. Other parts of the Nautilus, however, were in a very good state of preservation; and I have noted down such novel and interesting peculiarities as they presented, in the hope that an account of them will be acceptable to the Linnean Society.

Of the six apertures which, besides the genital and anal outlets, open into the branchial cavity of Nautilus pompilius, one on each side lies immediately above and in front of that fold of the inner wall of the mantle which forms the lower root of the smaller and inner gill, and encloses the branchial vein of that gill. The aperture is elongated and narrow, with rather prominent lips. It measures about 1/8th of an inch.

The other two apertures are larger, and lie at a distance of 7/16ths of an inch below and behind the other. They are in close juxta-position, being separated only by a thin triangular fold of membrane, which constitutes the inner lip of the one and the outer lip of the other.

The inner aperture is the larger, measuring 3/16ths of an inch in long diameter, and having the form of a triangle with its base directed posteriorly. The outer aperture is not more than 1/8th of an inch long. The two apertures lie just above the edge of the fold of membrane which runs from the inner root of the larger or outer branchia, across the branchial cavity and beneath the rectum, to the other side.

These apertures lead into five sacs, which collectively constitute what has been described as the pericardium. The sacs into which the superior apertures open, by a short wide canal with folded walls, are situated on each side of and above the rectum. Their inner boundaries are separated by a space of not less than 5/8ths of an inch in width, in which lie the vena cava and the oviduct. Each cavity has a rounded circumference, and a transverse diameter of about half an inch. In a direction at right angles to this diameter the dimensions vary with its state of distension; but a quarter of an inch would be a fair average.

The anterior or outer wall of the cavity is formed by the mantle; the posterior, inner, or visceral wall by a delicate membrane. The former separates it from the branchial cavity; the latter from the fifth sac, to be described by-and-by. I could find no natural aperture in the thin inner wall, so that I conceive no communication can take place between either of these sacs and the fifth sac.

Two irregular, flattened, brownish, soft plates depend from the posterior wall of the sac into its cavity; their attached edges are fixed along a line which is directed from behind obliquely forwards and upwards.

The outer and smaller of the inferior apertures on each side leads into a sac of similar dimensions and constitution to the preceding, but having a less rounded outline in consequence of its being flattened in one direction against its fellow of the opposite side, from which it is separated only by a delicate membranous wall, whilst on another side it is applied against the inferior wall of the superior sac, and is in like manner separated from it only by a thin and membranous partition.

Like the upper sacs, each of these has two dark-brown, lamellar, glandular masses depending from its membranous visceral wall.

A delicate, but broad, triangular membranous process, about 1/4th of an inch long, hangs down freely from the visceral wall of the cavity just behind the opening of the short canal which connects the sac with its aperture.

The third and largest aperture on each side opens directly into a very large fifth cavity, whose boundary is formed anteriorly by the visceral walls of the sacs already described, and behind this by the mantle itself as far as the horny band which marks and connects the insertion of the shell-muscles.

In fact this cavity may be said to be co-extensive with the attached part of the mantle,—the viscera, enclosed within their delicate "peritoneal" membranous coat, projecting into and nearly filling it, but nevertheless leaving a clear space between themselves and the delicate posterior wall of the mantle.

A layer of the "peritoneal" membrane extends from the posterior edge of the muscular expansion which lies between the shell-muscles and from the upper wall of the dilatation of the vena cava, and passes upwards and backwards like a diaphragm to the under surfaces of the gizzard and liver. It is traversed by the aorta, to whose coats it closely adheres.

Along a line nearly corresponding with the horny band which proceeds from the insertions of the shell-muscles and encircles the mantle below, the pallial wall is produced inwards and forwards into a membranous fold or ligament, which I will call the pallio-visceral ligament; and this pallio-visceral ligament becoming attached to various viscera, divides the great fifth chamber into an anterior inferior, and a posterior superior portion, which communicate freely with one another.

Commencing with its extreme right-hand end, the ligament is inserted into the line of reflection of the mantle, and then into the wall of the oviduct, which becomes enclosed as it were within the ligament. The latter then ends in a free edge on the inner side of the oviduct, and is continued along it until it reaches the inferior surface of the apex of the ovary, into which it is inserted.

The free edge is arcuated; and the rectum passes over it, but is in no way connected with it.

Here, therefore, is one great passage of communication between the anterior and posterior divisions of the fifth chamber.

On the left side, this aperture is limited by the heart, whose posterior edge is, on the left side, connected by means of a ligamentous band with the surface of the apex of the ovary; but on the right, for the greater part of its extent, receives a process of the pallio-visceral ligament. Between the ovario-cardiac ligament and this process lies the small oval aperture already described by Professor Owen, which gives passage to the siphonal artery. It constitutes the middle aperture of communication between the two divisions of the fifth chamber.

The left-hand end of the ligament is inserted into the upper wall of the dilated end of the vena cava; but between this point and the heart it has a free arcuated edge, as on the right side.

Thus there are in reality three apertures of communication between the two divisions of the fifth chamber, the middle, by far the smallest, being alone hitherto known.

A delicate membranous band passes from the whole length of the middle line of the rectum to the heart and to the ovary.

The singular "pyriform appendage" of the heart lies in the left process of the ligament, its anterior edge nearly following the arcuated contour of that process.

The siphuncular process of the mantle was broken in my specimen; but its aperture appeared to communicate quite freely with the posterior division of the fifth chamber.

Four sets of brownish, glandular-looking bodies depend into the anterior division of the fifth chamber, from parts of the delicate septa dividing this from the four small sacs, corresponding with the insertions of the glandular bodies above described.

In fact, on distending the vena cava with air, it is found that the four branchial arteries traverse these septa, and that the appendages in question are diverticula of their walls. Consequently the anterior wall of each branchial vein is produced into two glandular appendages, which hang into one of the four smaller sacs, while the posterior wall is produced into a single mass of appendages, which hangs into the anterior division of the fifth chamber.

Although, as I believe, the five chambers do not communicate directly, all the appendages must nevertheless be equally bathed with sea-water, which enters by the apertures of the chambers.

An impacted yellowish-white concretionary matter filled the anterior chamber; and a small quantity of it lay as a fine powder at the bottom of the posterior one. In the latter, however, its presence might, by possibility, have been accidental. My colleague, Dr. Percy, who kindly undertook to examine this substance, informs me that he has been unable to detect uric acid in it. The follicular appendages of the branchial arteries present remarkable differences in their external appearance. The eight which hang into the four anterior chambers are similar, slightly festooned, but otherwise simple lamellae; while the four which depend into the posterior chambers are produced into a number of papillary processes. This external difference is obvious enough: whether it be accompanied by a corresponding discrepancy in minute structure I am unable to say; for I have not as yet been able to arrive at any satisfactory results from the microscopic examination of the altered tissues, and, as will be seen below, the only observer who has had the opportunity of examining the Nautilus in the fresh state has not noted any difference of structure in the two sets of follicles.

One is naturally led to seek among other mollusks for a structure analogous to the vast posterior aquiferous chamber of the Nautilus; and it appears to me that something quite similar is offered by the Ascidioida and the Brachiopoda. In both cases, the viscera, inclosed within a delicate tissue, project into a large cavity communicating freely with the exterior by the cloacal aperture in the one case, and by the funnel-shaped channels which have been miscalled "hearts" in the other.

The rudimentary renal organs of the Ascidian are developed in the walls of the cavity in question; and an aquiferous chamber of smaller dimensions has the same relation to the kidney in Lamellibranchiata—in Gasteropoda, Heteropoda, Pteropoda, and dibranchiate Cephalopoda. But although such is likely enough to be the case, we do not know at present that the aquiferous chambers in any of the last named mollusks attain an extension similar to that which obtains in Nautilus.

On comparing the observations detailed above with the statements of previous writers, I find that, in his well-known "Memoir on the Pearly Nautilus" (1832), Professor Owen describes "on each side, at the roots of the branchiae," "a small mamillary eminence with a transverse slit which conducts from the branchial cavity into the pericardium. There is, moreover, a foramen at the lower part of the cavity (o, pl. 5) permitting the escape of a small vessel; and by the side of this vessel a free passage is continued between the gizzard and ovary into the membranous tube or siphon that traverses the divisions of the shell, thus establishing a communication between the interior of that tube and the exterior of the animal."

The foramen here described is easily seen; but, as I have stated, there are other modes of communication between the so-called pericardium and the cavity with which the siphuncle communicates, of a far more extensive nature.

With respect to the pericardium itself, Professor Owen states, "The peritoneum, after lining the cavity which contains the crop and liver, and enveloping those viscera, forms two distinct pouches at the bottom of the pallial sac, in one of which, the left, is contained the gizzard, and in the other the ovary; anterior to these, and on the ventral aspect of the liver, is another distinct cavity, of a square shape, which contains the heart and principal vessels, with the glandular appendages connected therewith." This is what the author terms the pericardium.

As Van der Hoeven has pointed out, however, the gizzard lies to the right and the ovary to the left. Moreover, the gizzard is superior to the ovary, so as only to overlap it a little above; and I can find no evidence of the existence of such distinct pouches as those described.

Professor Owen states that the branchiae "arise by a common peduncle from the inner surface of the mantle." My own observations, however, and Van der Hoeven's figures, of both male and female, lead me to believe that the peduncles of the branchiae are perfectly distinct from one another.

The follicles of the branchial arteries are thus described in the "Memoir on the Pearly Nautilus:"—"They are short and pyriform and closely set together. To each of the branchial arteries are appended three clusters of these glands, of which one is larger than the united volume of both the others; and the larger cluster is situated on one side of the vessel and the two smaller on the opposite side. Each of these clusters is contained in a membranous receptacle proper to itself, partitioned off, as it were, from the pericardium, but communicating with it.... The two canals which form the communication between the pericardium and the branchial cavity commence at the receptacle of the lesser cluster attached to the superior branchial arteries, and terminate at the papillae before mentioned, which are situated at the roots of the branchiae. The pericardium and these receptacles of the glands, when first laid open, were found filled with a coagulated substance so closely compacted as to require a careful removal, bit by bit, before the contained follicles and vessels could be brought into view."

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