LIFE OF JOHNSON
INCLUDING BOSWELL'S JOURNAL OF A TOUR TO THE HEBRIDES AND JOHNSON'S DIARY OF A JOURNEY INTO NORTH WALES
IN SIX VOLUMES
VOLUME VI: ADDENDA, INDEX, DICTA PHILOSOPHI, &C.
EDITED BY GEORGE BIRKBECK HILL, D.C.L.
PEMBROKE COLLEGE, OXFORD
M DCCC LXXXVII
TITLES OF WORKS QUOTED IN THE NOTES
ADDENDA (AUTOGRAPH LETTERS, ETC.)
TITLES OF MANY OF THE WORKS QUOTED IN THE NOTES.
In my notes I have often given but brief references to the authors whom I quote. The following list, which is not, however, so complete as I could wish, will, I hope, do much towards supplying the deficiency. Most of the poets, and a few of the prose writers also, I have not found it needful to include, as my references apply equally well to all editions of their works. The date in each case shows, not the year of the original publication, but of the edition to which I have referred.
ADDISON, Joseph, Works, 6 vols., London, 1862.
AIKIN, J. and A. L., Miscellaneous Pieces in Prose, 1773.
ALBEMARLE, Earl of, Memoirs of the Marquis of Rockingham, 2 vols., London, 1852.
ALMON, John, Correspondence, etc. of John Wilkes, 5 vols., London, 1805.
ARRIGHI, A., Histoire de Pascal Paoli, 2 tom., Paris, 1843.
BACON, Francis, Philosophical Works, edited by Ellis, Spedding, and Heath, 7 vols., London, 1857-62; Life and Letters, edited by Spedding, Ellis, and Heath, 7 vols., London, 1869-74.
BAIN, Alexander, Life of James Mill, London, 1882.
BAKER, David Erskine, Biographia Dramatica. See REED, Isaac.
BARBAULD, Anna Letitia, Works, 2 vols., London, 1825; Lessons for Children, London, 1878.
BARCLAY, Robert, An Apology, London, 1703.
BARETTI, Joseph, Account of Manners and Customs of Italy, 2 vols., London, 1769; Journey from London to Genoa, 4 vols., London, 1770; Tolondron, London, 1786.
BARRY, James, Works, 2 vols., London, 1809.
BEATTIE, James, Life. See FORBES, Sir William.
BELLAMY, George Anne, An Apology for the Life of George Anne Bellamy, 5 vols., London, 1786.
BERRY, Miss, Journal and Correspondence, 3 vols., London, 1865.
BEST, Henry Digby, Personal and Literary Memorials, London, 1829.
BLACKIE, C., Etymological Geography, London, 1875.
BLACKSTONE, Sir William, Commentaries, 4 vols., Oxford, 1778.
BLAIR, Hugh, A Critical Dissertation on the Poems of Ossian, the son of Fingal, London, 1765.
BOLINGBROKE, Lord Viscount, Works, with Life by Dr. Goldsmith, 8 vols., London, 1809.
Bookseller of the Last Century, being some account of the Life of John Newbery. By Charles WELSH, London, 1885.
BOSWELL, James, British Essays in favour of the brave Corsicans, London, 1769; Correspondence with the Honourable Andrew Erskine and Journal of a Tour to Corsica, edited by George Birkbeck Hill, D.C.L., London, 1879; The Cub at Newmarket, 1762; An Elegy on the Death of an Amiable Young Lady, with An Epistle from Menalcas to Lycidas, 1761; The Hypochondriack, published in the London Magazine, from 1777 to 1783; Journal of a Tour to Corsica: see above under Correspondence with the Hon. Andrew Erskine; Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, first and second editions, 1785; third, 1786; fourth, 1807; A Letter to the People of Scotland on the present state of the Nation, Edinburgh, 1783; A Letter to the People of Scotland on the Alarming Attempt to infringe the Articles of the Union and introduce a Most Pernicious Innovation by Diminishing the Number of the Lords of Session, London, 1785; Letters of James Boswell addressed to the Rev. W.J. Temple, London, 1857; Ode to Tragedy, 1661 (1761).
Boswelliana, The Common-place Book of James Boswell, edited by Rev. C. Rogers, LL.D., London, Grampian Club, 1876.
Boulter's Monument, Dublin, 1745.
BOWEN, Emanuel, A Complete System of Geography, 2 vols., London, 1747.
BREWSTER, Sir David, Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1860.
BRIGHT, John, M.P., Speeches, edited by James E. Thorold Rogers, 2 vols., London, 1869.
BRITISH MUSEUM MSS., Letters by Johnson to Nichols, Add. MS. 5159.
BROOME, Herbert, Constitutional Law, London, 1885.
BROWNE, Sir Thomas, Works, 4 vols., London, 1836.
BRYDONE, Patrick, Tour through Sicily and Malta, 2 vols., London, 1790.
BURKE, Edmund, Correspondence of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke, 4 vols., London, 1844. See PAYNE, E.J., and PRIOR, Sir James.
BURNET, Gilbert, Bishop of Salisbury, History of his own Time, 4 vols., London, 1818; Vindication of the authority, &c. of the Church and State of Scotland, Glasgow, 1673.
BURNET, James (Lord Monboddo), Origin of Languages, 6 vols., Edinburgh, 1773-92.
BURNET, Thomas, Sacred Theory of the Earth, 2 vols., London, 1722.
BURNEY, Dr. Charles, Present State of Music in France and Italy, London, 1771; Present State of Music in Germany, 2 vols., London, 1773; Memoirs: see D'ARBLAY, Madame.
BURNEY, Frances, Evelina, 2 vols., London, 1784. See D'ARBLAY, Madame.
Burns, Life of. By James CURRIE, in Works of Burns, 1 vol., 1846.
BURTON, John Hill, Life and Correspondence of David Hume, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1846; Reign of Queen Anne, 3 vols, Edinburgh, 1880.
BUTLER, Samuel, Hudibras, 2 vols., London, 1806.
CALDERWOOD, Mrs., of Polton, Letters and Journals, Edinburgh, 1884.
Cambridge Shakespeare. See SHAKESPEARE.
CAMDEN, William, Remains, London, 1870.
CAMPBELL, John, Lord, Lives of the Chancellors, 8 vols., London, 1846; Lives of the Chief Justices, 3 vols., London, 1849-57.
CAMPBELL, Dr. John, Hermippus Redivivus; or, The Sage's Triumph over Old Age and the Grave, London, 1744.
CAMPBELL, Thomas, Specimens of the British Poets, London, 1845.
CAMPBELL, Rev. Dr. Thomas, Diary of a Visit to England in 1775 by an Irishman, Sydney, 1854; A Philosophical Survey of the South of Ireland, 1777.
CARLYLE, Rev. Alexander, D.D., Autobiography, Edinburgh, 1860.
CARLYLE, Thomas, French Revolution, 2 vols., London, 1857; Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches, 3 vols., London, 1857; Miscellanies, London, 1872.
CARSTARES, Rev. William, State Papers, Edinburgh, 1774.
CARTE, Thomas, History of the Life of James, Duke of Ormonde, 3 vols., London, 1735-6.
CARTER, Elizabeth, Memoirs of her Life, by Montagu Pennington, 2 vols., London, 1816.
Carter and Talbot Correspondence, 4 vols., London, 1809.
CAVENDISH, H., Debates of the House of Commons, 2 vols., London, 1841-2.
CHALMERS, Alexander, General Biographical Dictionary, 32 vols., London, 1812-17; British Essayists, 38 vols., London, 1823.
CHALMERS, George, Life of Ruddiman, London, 1794.
CHAMBERS, Ephraim, Cyclopaedia, 2 vols., London, 1738.
CHAMBERS, Dr. Robert, History of the Rebellion in Scotland in 1745, 1746, Edinburgh, 1827; Traditions of Edinburgh, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1825.
CHAPONE, Mrs. Hester, Letters on the Improvement of the Mind, with the Life of the Author, London, 1806; Posthumous Works, 2 vols., London, 1807.
CHAPPE D'AUTEROCHE, Voyage en Siberie, 2 tom., Paris, 1768.
CHARLEMONT, Earl of, Memoirs. See HARDY, Francis.
CHATHAM, Earl of, Correspondence, 4 vols., London, 1838.
CHESTERFIELD, Earl of, Letters to his Son, 4 vols., London, 1774; Miscellaneous Works, 4 vols., London, 1779.
CHEYNE, Dr. George, English Malady, or a Treatise of Nervous Diseases of all Kinds, London, 1733.
CHURCHILL, Charles, Poems, 2 vols., London, 1766.
CLARENDON, Edward, Earl of, History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England, 8 vols., Oxford, 1826.
COCKBURN, Henry Thomas (Lord), Life of Lord Jeffrey, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1852.
COLLINS, Arthur, The Peerage of England, 5 vols., London, 1756.
COLMAN, George, Comedies of Terence, 2 vols., London, 1768; Prose on Several Occasions, 3 vols., London, 1787.
COLMAN, George, Junior, Random Records, 2 vols., London, 1830.
Contemplation, London, 1753.
CONWAY, Moncure, Thomas Carlyle, London, 1881.
COOKE, William, Memoirs of Charles Macklin, London, 1806.
COURTENAY, John, A Poetical Review of the Literary and Moral Character of the late S. Johnson, London, 1786.
COWPER, William, Life. See under SOUTHEY.
COXE, Rev. William, Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole, 3 vols., London, 1798.
CRABBE, Rev. George, Life and Poems, 8 vols., London, 1834.
CRADOCK, Joseph, Literary Memoirs, 4 vols., London, 1828.
CROKER, Right Hon. John Wilson, Boswell's Life of Johnson, 1 vol. 8vo., London, 1866; Correspondence and Diaries, edited by Louis J. Jennings, 3 vols., London, 1884.
CUMBERLAND, Richard, Memoirs, 2 vols., London, 1807.
DALRYMPLE, Sir David (Lord Hailes), Remarks on the History of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1773.
DALRYMPLE, Sir John, Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland, Edinburgh and London, 1771-8.
D'ARBLAY, Madame, Diary and Letters, 7 vols., London, 1842; Memoirs of Dr. Burney, 3 vols., London, 1832.
DAVIES, Thomas, Dramatic Miscellanies, 3 vols., London, 1785; Memoirs of the Life of David Garrick, 2 vols., London, 1781; Miscellaneous and Fugitive Pieces, 3 vols., London, 1773-4.
DEAN, Rev. Richard, Essay on the Future Life of Brutes, Manchester, 1767.
DELANY, Dr., Observations on Swift, London, 1754.
DE QUINCEY, Thomas, Works, 16 vols., Edinburgh, 1862.
DICEY, Professor Albert Venn, Lectures introductory to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, London, 1885.
DIDEROT, Denys, Oeuvres, Paris, 1821.
D'ISRAELI, Isaac, Calamities of Authors, 2 vols., London, 1812; Curiosities of Literature, 6 vols., London, 1834.
DOBLE, C.E., Thomas Hearne's Remarks and Collections, vol. i., Oxford, 1885.
DODD, Rev. Dr. William, The Convict's Address to his Unhappy Brethren, 1777.
DODSLEY, Robert, A Muse in Livery; or, The Footman's Miscellany, London, 1732; Collection of Poems by Several Hands, 6 vols., London, 1758.
DRUMMOND, William, of Hawthorne-denne, Flowers of Sion, Edinburgh, 1630; Polemo-Middinia, Oxford, 1691.
DRYDEN, John, Comedies, Tragedies, and Operas, 2 vols., London, 1701.
DUMONT, Etienne, Recollections of Mirabeau, London, 1835.
DUPPA, R., Diary of a Journey into North Wales in the year 1774, by Samuel Johnson, London, 1816. (See ante, vol. v. p. 427.)
Edinburgh Review, Edinburgh, 1753.
ELDON, Lord Chancellor, Life. See Twiss, Horace.
ELWALL, E., The Grand Question in Religion Considered, London.
ERASMUS, Adagiorum Chiliades, 1559; Colloquia Familiaria, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1867.
Farm and its Inhabitants, with some Account of the Lloyds of Dolobran, by Rachel J. Lowe, privately printed, 1883.
FIELD, Rev. William, Memoirs of the Rev. Samuel Parr, LL.D., 2 vols., London, 1828.
FIELDING, Henry, Works, 10 vols., London, 1806.
FITZGERALD, Percy, The Life of David Garrick, 2 vols., London, 1868.
FITZMAURICE, Lord Edmond, Life of William, Earl of Shelburne, 3 vols., London, 1875.
FORBES, Sir William, Life of James Beattie, London, 1824.
FORSTER, John, Historical and Biographical Essays, 2 vols., London, 1858; Life and Times of Oliver Goldsmith, 2 vols., London, 1871.
Foss, Edward, Lives of the Judges of England, 9 vols., London, 1848-64.
Foundling Hospital for Wit, London, 1771-3.
FRANKLIN, Dr. Benjamin, Memoirs, 6 vols., London, 1818.
FREDERICK II (the Great), of Prussia, Oeuvres, 30 tom., Berlin, 1846-56.
FROUDE, James Anthony, Thomas Carlyle, vols. i. and ii., London, 1882; vols. iii. and iv., 1885.
GARDEN, F. (Lord Gardenston), Miscellanies, Edinburgh, 1792.
GARRICK, David, Private Correspondence, 2 vols., London, 1831; Life: see DAVIES, Thomas; FITZGERALD, Percy; and MURPHY, Arthur.
GIBBON, Edward, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 12 vols. London, 1807; Miscellaneous Works, 5 vols., London, 1814.
GOLDSMITH, Oliver, History of the Earth and Animated Nature, 8 vols., London, 1779; Miscellaneous Works, 4 vols., London, 1801; Works, edited by Cunningham, 4 vols., London, 1854.
GRAY, Thomas, Works, with Memoirs of his Life, by the Rev. William Mason, 2 vols., London, 1807; Works, edited by the Rev. John Mitford, 5 vols., London, 1858; Works, edited by Edmund Gosse, London, 1884.
GREVILLE, Charles C.F., Greville Memoirs, edited by Henry Reeve, 3 vols., London, 1874; second part, 3 vols., London, 1885.
GRIMM, Baron, Correspondance Litteraire, 1829.
HALL, Robert, Works, 6 vols., London, 1834.
HAMILTON, Right Hon. William Gerard, Parliamentary Logick, London, 1808.
HAMILTON, William, of Bangour, Poems, Edinburgh, 1760.
HARDY, Francis, Memoirs of the Earl of Charlemont, 2 vols., London, 1812.
HARGRAVE, Francis, An Argument in the Case of James Sommersett, London, 1772.
HARWOOD, Rev. Thomas, History of Lichfield, Gloucester, 1806.
HAWKESWORTH, John, Voyages of Discovery in the Southern Hemisphere, 3 vols., London, 1773.
HAWKINS, Sir John, Life of Samuel Johnson, London, 1787; Johnson's Works: See JOHNSON, Samuel.
HAWKINS, Laetitia Matilda, Memoirs, Anecdotes, &c., 2 vols., London, 1824.
HAYWARD, Abraham, Mrs. Piozzi's Autobiography, 2 vols., London, 1861.
HAZLITT, William, Conversations of James Northcote, R.A., London, 1830.
HEARNE, Thomas, Remains, edited by Philip Bliss, 3 vols., London, 1869; Remarks and Collections, edited by C.E. Doble, vol. i., Oxford, 1885.
Herodotus, edited by Rev. J.W. Blakesley, 2 vols., London, 1854.
HERVEY, Rev. James, Meditations, London, 1748.
HILL, George Birkbeck, Dr. Johnson: his Friends and his Critics, London, 1878; Boswell's Correspondence with the Hon. Andrew Erskine, and Journal of a Tour to Corsica, London, 1879.
HOGG, James, Jacobite Relics, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1819.
HOLCROFT, Thomas, Memoirs, 3 vols., London, 1816.
HOME, Henry. See KAMES, Lord.
HORNE, Dr. George, Bishop of Norwich, A Letter to Adam Smith, Oxford, 1777; Essays and Thoughts on Various Subjects, London, 1808.
HORNE, Rev. John. See TOOKE, Horne.
HORREBOW, Niels, Natural History of Iceland, London, 1758.
House of Lords, Scotch Appeal Cases, vol. xvii.
HOWELL, James, Epistoloe, London, 1737.
HOWELL, T.B. and T.J., State Trials, 33 vols., London, 1809-1826.
HUME, David, Essays, 4 vols., London, 1770; History of England, 8 vols., London, 1802; Private Correspondence, London, 1820; Life: see BURTON, John Hill.
HUSBANDS, J., A Miscellany of Poems, Oxford, 1731.
HUTTON, William, History of Derby, London, 1791; Life, London, 1816.
JAMES, Robert, M.D., Dissertation on Fevers, London, 1770.
JEFFREY, Lord, Life. See COCKBURN, H.J.
JOHNSON, Samuel, Annals of Johnson, being an Account of the Life of Dr. Samuel Johnson from his Birth to his Eleventh Year, London, 1805; Diary of a Journey into North Wales: see DUPPA, R; Dictionary, first edition, London, 1755; fourth edition, London, 1773; Abridgment, London, 1766; Letters, published by Hester Lynch Piozzi, 2 vols., London, 1788; Life, printed for G. Kearsley, London, 1785; Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the late Dr. Samuel Johnson, printed for J. Walker, London, 1785; Prayers and Meditations composed by Samuel Johnson, second edition, London, 1785; Rasselas, edited by the Rev. W. West, London, 1869; Works, edited by Sir John Hawkins, 13 vols. (the last two vols. by the Rev. Percival Stockdale), London, 1787-9: vol. xi. contains a collection of Johnson's Apophthegms; Works, 9 vols.; Parliamentary Debates, 2 vols. (11 vols. in all), Oxford, 1825.
Johnsoniana, published by John Murray, London, 1836.
JOHNSTONE, John. See PARR, Samuel.
JONES, Sir William. See TEIGNMOUTH, Lord.
JONSON, Ben, Works, 7 vols., London, 1756.
KAMES, Lord (Henry Home), Sketches of the History of Man, 4 vols., Edinburgh, 1788.
KING, Dr. William, Principal of St. Mary Hall, Anecdotes of His Own Times, London, 1819.
KING, William, Archbishop of Dublin, Essay on the Origin of Evil, edited by Bishop Law, 1781.
KNIGHT, Charles, English Cyclopedia (Biography), 6 vols., London 1856-1858.
KNOX, Rev. Dr. Vicesimus, Works, 7 vols., London, 1824.
LAMB, Charles, Works, edited by Sir Thomas Noon Talfourd, London, 1865.
LANDOR, Walter Savage, Works, 8 vols., London, 1874.
LANGTON, Bennet, Collection of Anecdotes of Dr. Johnson, ante, iv. 1-33.
LAW, Bishop Edmund. See KING, Archbishop.
LECKY, W.E.H., History of England in the Eighteenth Century, 4 vols. London, 1878-82.
LESLIE, Charles Robert, R.A., Autobiographical Recollections, London 1860.
LESLIE, Charles Robert, R.A., and TOM TAYLOR, Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 2 vols., London, 1865.
Lexiphanes: a Dialogue, London, 1767.
LITTLETON, Dr. Adam, Linguae Latinae Liber Dietionarius, London, 1678 and 1703.
LOCKE, John, Works, London, 1824.
LOCKHART, J. G., Memoirs of the Life of Sir Walter Scott, Bart., 10 vols., Edinburgh, 1839.
LOFFT, Capel, Reports of Cases, London, 1776.
London and its Environs, Dodsley, 6 vols., London, 1761.
LOWE, Charles, Prince Bismarck; an Historical Biography, 2 vols., London, 1885.
LOWNDES, William Thomas, Bibliographer's Manual, 4 vols., London, 1871.
MACAULAY, Rev. Kenneth, History of St. Kilda, London, 1764.
MACAULAY, Thomas Babington, Critical and Historical Essays, 3 vols., London, 1843, and 4 vols., 1874; History of England, 8 vols., London, 1874; Miscellaneous Writings and Speeches, London, 1871; Life: see TREVELYAN, George Otto.
MACKENZIE, Sir George, Works, Edinburgh, 1716-22.
MACKENZIE, Henry, Life of John Home, Edinburgh, 1822.
MACKINTOSH, Sir James, Memoirs of his Life, 2 vols., London, 1836.
MACKLIN, Charles, Life. See COOKE, William.
McNEILL, P., Tranent and its Surroundings, 2nd ed., Edinburgh and Glasgow, 1884.
MADAN, Rev. Martin, Thoughts on Executive Justice, London, 1785.
MAHON, Lord. See STANHOPE, Earl.
MAINE, Sir Henry Sumner, Lectures on Early History of Institutions, London, 1875.
MAITTAIRE, M., Senilia, London, 1742.
MANDEVILLE, Bernard, Fable of the Bees, 1724.
MARSHALL, William, Minutes on Agriculture, London, 1799.
MARTIN, M., A Description of the Western Islands, London, 1716; Voyage to St. Kilda, London, 1753.
MASON, William, Life of Gray. See GRAY, Thomas.
MAXWELL, Rev. Dr. William, Collectanea, ante, ii. 116-133.
MICKLE, William Julius, The Lusiad, Oxford, 1778.
MILL, James, History of British India, London, 1840; Life: see BAIN, Alexander.
MILL, John Stuart, Autobiography, London, 1873; Principles of Political Economy, 2 vols., London, 1865.
Modern Characters from Shakespeare, London, 1778.
MONBODDO, Lord. See BURNET, James.
MONTAGU, Mrs. Elizabeth, Essay on the Writings of Shakespeare, London, 1769; Letters, 4 vols., London, 1810.
MONTAGUE, Lady Mary Wortley, Letters, London, 1769.
MOORE, John, M.D., Journal during a Residence in France, 2 vols., London, 1793; Life of Smollett, 1797; View of Society and Manners in France, Switzerland, and Germany, 2 vols., London, 1789.
MOORE, Thomas, Life of R.B. Sheridan, 2 vols., London, 1825.
MORE, Hannah, Life and Correspondence, 4 vols., London, 1834.
MORRIS, William, AEneids of Virgil done into English verse, London, 1876.
MORRISON, Alfred, Catalogue of the Collection of Autograph Letters, &c., formed by Alfred Morrison, edited by A. W. Thibaudeau, printed for private circulation, London, 1883.
MUNK, William, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 3 vols., London, 1878.
MURPHY, Arthur, Essay on the Life and Genius of Samuel Johnson, London, 1792; Life of David Garrick, Dublin, 1801.
MURRAY, John, Guide to Scotland, London, 1867, 1883; Johnsoniana, London, 1836.
NAPIER, Rev. Alexander, Boswell's Life of Johnson, 5 vols., London, 1884.
New Foundling Hospital for Wit, 3 vols., London, 1769.
NEWMAN, John Henry, History of my Religious Opinions, London, 1865.
NEWTON, Rev. John, An Authentic Narrative of some remarkable and interesting particulars in the Life of, London, 1792.
NEWTON, Thomas, Bishop of Bristol, Works, 3 vols., London, 1782.
NICHOLS, John, Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, 9 vols., London, 1812-15; Literary History, 8 vols., London, 1817-58.
Ninth Report of the Commissioners of the Post-office, London, 1837.
NORTHCOTE, James, Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 2 vols., London, 1819. See HAZLITT, William, for Northcote's Conversations.
Nouvelle Biographie Generale, 46 vols., Paris, 1855-1866.
O'LEARY, Rev. Arthur, Remarks on the Rev. Mr. Wesley's Letters, Dublin 1780.
ORRERY, —— John, fifth Earl of Orrery and Corke, Remarks on the Life and Writings of Dr. Swift, London, 1752.
ORTON, Job, Memoirs of Doddridge, Salop, 1766.
Oxford during the Last Century [by G. Roberson and J.R. Green], Oxford, 1859.
PALEY, Rev. William, D.D., Principles of Philosophy, London, 1786.
Parliamentary History of England, 33 vols., London, 1806.
PARR, Samuel, LL.D., Works, with Memoir, by John Johnstone, M.D. 8 vols., London, 1828. See FIELD, Rev. William.
PATERSON, Daniel, British Itinerary, 2 vols., London, 1800.
PATTISON, Mark, Memoirs, London, 1885. See POPE, Alexander.
PAYNE, E.J., Select Works of Burke, 2 vols., Oxford, 1874.
PENNANT, Thomas, Literary Life, London, 1793; Tour in Scotland, London, 1772.
Penny Cyclopaedia, 27 vols., London, 1833.
PEPYS, Samuel, Diary and Correspondence, 5 vols., London, 1851.
PHILIPPS, Erasmus, Diary, published in Notes and Queries, second series, x. 443.
PILKINGTON, James, A View of the Present State of Derbyshire, 2 vols., Derby, 1789.
PINKERTON, John, Voyages, 17 vols., London, 1808-1814.
PIOZZI, Hester Lynch, Anecdotes of the late Samuel Johnson, fourth edition, London, 1786; Autobiography: see under HAYWARD, Abraham; British Synonymy, 2 vols., London, 1794; Journey through France, Italy, and Germany, 2 vols., London, 1789.
Piozzi Letters. See under JOHNSON, Samuel.
POPE, Alexander, Works, edited by Rev. W. Elwin and W.J. Courthope, 10 vols., London, 1871-86; Satires and Epistles, edited by Mark Pattison, Oxford, 1872.
PORSON, Richard, Tracts and Miscellaneous Criticisms, London, 1815.
PRIESTLEY, Joseph, Works, 25 vols., London, 1817-31.
PRIOR, Sir James, Life of Edmund Burke (Bohn's British Classics), London, 1872; Life of Oliver Goldsmith, 2 vols., London, 1837; Life of Edmond Malone, London, 1860.
Probationary Odes for the Laureateship, London.
PSALMANAZAR, George, Historical and Geographical Description of Formosa, London, 1704; Memoirs, London, 1764.
RADCLIFFE, John, Some Memoirs of his Life, London, 1715.
RANKE, Professor, The Popes of Rome. Translated from the German by Sarah Austin, 3 vols., London, 1866.
Recreations and Studies of a Country Clergyman of the Eighteenth Century. See TWINING, Rev. Thomas.
REED, Isaac, Baker's Biographia Dramatica, 3 vols., London, 1812.
REYNOLDS, Sir Joshua, Life: see under LESLIE and NORTHCOTE; Works, 3 vols., London, 1824.
RICHARDSON, Samuel, Correspondence, 6 vols., London, 1804; One hundred and seventy-three Letters written for particular Friends on the most important occasions, seventh edition, London, no date.
RITSON, Joseph, English Songs, 3 vols., London, 1813.
ROBINSON, Henry Crabb, Diary, Reminiscences, and Correspondence, 3 vols., London, 1869.
ROGERS, Samuel, Table Talk, London, 1856.
Rolliad, The, London, 1795.
ROMILLY, Sir Samuel, Memoirs of his Life, 3 vols., London, 1840.
ROSE, Hugh James, New General Biographical Dictionary, 12 vols., London, 1840-1848.
RUSKIN, John, Lectures on Architecture and Painting, London, 1854; Praeterita, Orpington, 1886.
SACHEVERELL, W., An Account of the Isle of Man, with a Voyage to I-Columb-Kill, London, 1702.
SAVAGE, Richard, Works, 2 vols., London, 1777.
SCOTT, Sir Walter, Life of Swift, London, 1834; Novels, 41 vols., Edinburgh, 1860; Life: See under LOCKHART.
SELWYN, George, Life and Correspondence. By J.H. Jesse, 4 vols., London, 1843.
Session Papers of Old Bailey Trials for 1758, London.
SEWARD, Anna, Elegy on Captain Cook, London, 1781; Letters, 6 vols., Edinburgh, 1811.
SEWARD, William, Anecdotes of Distinguished Persons, 4 vols., London, 1798; Biographiana, 2 vols., London, 1799.
Shakespeare, edited by W.G. Clark and W. Aldis Wright, 9 vols., Cambridge, 1864-66.
SHELBURNE, Earl of, Life. See FITZMAURICE, Lord Edmond.
SHENSTONE, William, Works, 3 vols., London, 1773.
SMART, Christopher, Poems on Several Occasions, London, 1752.
SMOLLETT, Tobias, History of England, 5 vols., London, 1800; Travels through France and Italy, 2 vols., London, 1766.
SOUTHEY, Robert, Life and Correspondence, 6 vols., London, 1849; Life and Works of William Cowper, 15 vols., London, 1835; Life of John Wesley, 2 vols., London, 1846.
SPENCE, Rev. Joseph, Anecdotes, London, 1820.
Spiritual Quixote, 3 vols., London, 1773.
STANHOPE, Earl, History of England, 7 vols., London, 1836-1854; History of the War of the Succession in Spain, London, 1832-3; Life of William Pitt, 4 vols., London, 1861.
STANLEY, Arthur Penrhyn, Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey, London, 1868.
STEELE, Sir Richard, Apology for Himself and his Writings, London, 1714.
STEPHENS, Alexander, Memoirs of Horne Tooke, 2 vols., London, 1813.
STERNE, Lawrence, Sentimental Journey, 2 vols., London, 1775.
STEWART, Dugald, An Account of the Life and Writings of Thomas Reid, William Robertson, and Adam Smith, Edinburgh, 1811; also Life of Reid, Edinburgh, 1802; Life of Robertson, Edinburgh, 1802.
STOCKDALE, Rev. Percival, Memoirs, London, 1809; The Remonstrance, London, 1770.
STORY, Thomas, Journal of his Life, 2 vols., Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1747.
SWIFT, Jonathan, Works, 24 vols., London, 1803; Life: See SCOTT, Sir Walter.
SYDENHAM, Thomas, Works, London, 1685.
TAYLOR, Jeremy, Works, 10 vols., London, 1864.
TAYLOR, Tom, Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds. See under LESLIE, C.R.
TEIGNMOUTH, Lord, Memoirs of the Life of Sir William Jones, London, 1815.
TEMPLE, Sir William, Works, 4 vols., London, 1757.
THACKERAY, W.M., English Humourists, London, 1858.
THICKNESSE, Philip, A Year's Journey through France and part of Spain, 2 vols., Bath and London, 1770.
TICKELL, Richard, Epistle from the Hon. Charles Fox to the Hon. John Townshend, 1779.
TILLOTSON, John, Sermons preached upon Several Occasions, London, 1673.
TIMMINS, Samuel, _Dr. Johnson in Birmingham: a Paper read to the Archaeological Section of the Birmingham and Midland Institute_, Nov. 22, 1876, and reprinted from Transactions_ (12 copies only), quarto, pp. viii.
TOOKE, Home, Diversions of Purley, London, 1798; Life: See STEPHENS, Alexander; A Letter to John Dunning, Esq., London, 1778.
Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain, originally begun by De Foe, 4 vols., London, 1769.
TREVELYAN, George Otto, Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay, 2 vols., London, 1877.
TWINING, Rev. Thomas, Recreations and Studies of a Country Clergyman of the Eighteenth Century, London, 1882.
Twiss, Horace, Life of Lord Chancellor Eldon, 3 vols., London, 1844.
TYERMAN, Rev. Luke, Life of George Whitefield, 2 vols., London, 1876-7.
VICTOR, Benjamin, Original Letters, London, 1776.
VOLTAIRE, Oeuvres Completes, 66 tom., Paris, 1819-25.
WALPOLE, Horace, Journal of the Reign of King George III, 2 vols., London, 1859; Letters, 9 vols., London, 1861; Memoirs of the Reign of George II, 3 vols., London, 1846; Memoirs of the Reign of King George III, 4 vols., London, 1845.
WALTON, Izaak, Lives, London, 1838.
WARBURTON, William, Divine Legation of Moses, 5 vols., London, 1765.
WARNER, Rebecca, Original Letters, Bath and London, 1817.
WARNER, Rev. Richard, A Tour through the Northern Counties of England, Bath, 1802.
WARTON, Dr. Joseph, Essay on Pope, London, vol. i. 1772; vol. ii. 1782; Life: See under WOOLL.
WARTON, Rev. Thomas, Poetical Works, 2 vols., Oxford, 1802.
WATSON, Richard, Bishop of Llandaff, A Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, London, 1783.
WESLEY, John, Journals, 4 vols., London, 1827; Life: See under SOUTHEY.
Westminster Abbey, with other Poems, 1813.
WHYTE, Samuel, Miscellanea Nova, Dublin, 1800.
WILKES, John, Correspondence. See ALMON, John.
WILLIAMS, Anna, Miscellanies, London, 1766.
WILLIAMS, Sir Charles Hanbury, Odes, London, 1775.
WINDHAM, William, Right Hon., Diary, London, 1866.
WOOD, Robert, The Ruins of Palmyra, London, 1753; The Ruins of Balbec, London, 1757.
WOOLL, John, D.D., Biographical Memoirs of Dr. Joseph Warton, 1 vol. (vol. ii. never published), London, 1806.
WORDSWORTH, William, Works, 6 vols., London, 1857.
WRAXALL, Sir Nathaniel William, Bart., Historical Memoirs of My Own Time, 2 vols., London, 1815; also edited by H.B. Wheatley, 5 vols., London, 1884.
YOUNG, Arthur, Six Months' Tour through the North of England, 4 vols., London, 1770-1.
Last summer Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson sold some very interesting autograph letters written by Johnson to William Strahan, the printer.
I was fortunate enough to find that the purchasers, with but one exception, were mindful of what Boswell so well describes as 'the general courtesy of literature,' and were ready to place their treasures at my service. To one of them, Mr. Frederick Barker, of 43, Rowan Road, Brook Green, I am still more indebted, for he entrusted me not only with the original letters which he had just bought, but also with some others that he had previously possessed. His Johnsonian collection is one of unusual interest. I have moreover to acknowledge my obligations to Mr. Fawcett, of 14, King Street, Covent Garden; to Messrs. J. Pearson and Co., of 46, Pall Mall; to Messrs. Robson and Kerslake, of Coventry Street, Haymarket; to Mr. Frank T. Sabin, of 10 and 12, Garrick Street, Covent Garden; and to Mr. John Waller, of 2, Artesian Road, Westbourne Grove. Those of the letters which are undated, I have endeavoured to assign to their proper places by internal evidence. The absence of a date is in itself very strong evidence that they belong to a comparatively early period (see ante, i. 122, n. 2).
[Footnote 1: Ante, iv. 246.]
A letter about a projected Geographical Dictionary by Mr. Bathurst, with Bathurst's Proposal; dated March 22, probably written in 1753.[In the possession of Mr. Frederick Barker, of 43, Rowan Road, Brook Green.]
'I have inclosed the Scheme which I mentioned yesterday in which the work proposed is sufficiently explained.
'The Undertaker, Mr. Bathurst, is a Physician of the University of Cambridge, of about eight years standing, and will perform the work in such a manner as may satisfy the publick. No advice of mine will be wanting, but advice will be all that I propose to contribute unless it should be thought worth while that I should write a preface, which if desired I will do and put my name to it. The terms which I am commissioned to offer are these:
'1. A guinea and half shall be paid for each sheet of the copy.
'2. The authour will receive a Guinea and half a week from the date of the Contract.
'3. As it is certain that many books will be necessary, the Authour will at the end of the work take the books furnished him in part of payment at prime Cost, which will be a considerable reduction of the price of the Copy; or if it seems as you thought yesterday no reduction, he will allow out of the last payment fifty pounds for the use of the Books and return them.
'4. In two months after his first demand of books shall be supplied, he purposes to write three Sheets a week and to continue the same quantity to the end of the work, unless he shall be hindered by want of Books. He does not however expect to be always able to write according to the order of the Alphabet but as his Books shall happen to supply him, and therefore cannot send any part to the press till the whole is nearly finished.
'5. He undertakes as usual the Correction.
'I am, Sir, Your most humble servant, 'SAM. JOHNSON.'
'March 22nd. 'To Mr. Strahan.'
'There is nothing more apparently wanting to the English Literature, than a Geographical Dictionary, which, though its use is almost every day necessary, not only to Men of Study, but of Trade or publick employment, yet has been hitherto, not only unperformed, but almost unattempted among us. Bohun's Dictionary, the only one which has any pretension to regard, owes that pretension only to its bulk; for it is in all parts contemptibly defective and is therefore deservedly forgotten. In Collier's Dictionary, what Geography there is, can scarcely be found among the crowd of other subjects, and when it is found, is of no great importance. The books of Eachard and Salmon, though useful for the ends proposed by them, are too small to be considered as anticipations of this work, which is intended to consist of two volumes of the same size and print with Harris's Dictionary, in which will be comprised the following particulars:
'The situation of every Country with its Provinces and dependencies according to its present state, and latest observation.
'The description of all remarkable Cities, Towns, Castles, Fortresses, and places observable for their situation, products or other particulars.
'An account of the considerable Rivers, their Springs, Branches, Course, Outlets, how far navigable, the Produce and Qualities of their waters.
'The course of Voyages, giving directions to sailors for navigating from one place of the World to another, with particular attention to the Traffic of these Kingdoms.
'An account of all the principal Ports and Harbours of the known World, in which will be laid down the Pilotage, Bearings, depth of water, danger from Sands or Rocks, firmness or uncertainty of Anchorage, and degree of safety from particular Winds.
'An exact account of the Commodities of each Country, both natural and artificial.
'A description of the remarkable Animals in every Country, whether Beasts, Birds or Fishes.
'An account of the Buildings, whether ancient or modern, and of Ruins or other remains of Antiquity.
'Remarks upon the soil, air, and waters of particular Places, their several qualities and effects, the accidents to which every Region is exposed, as Earthquakes and Hurricanes, and the diseases peculiar to the Inhabitants or incident to strangers at their arrival.
'The political State of the World, the Government of Countries, and the Magistracy of Cities, with their particular Laws, or Privileges.
'The most probable and authentic Calculations of the number of Inhabitants of each place.
'The military state of Countries, their Forces, manner of making War, Weapons, and naval Power.
'The Commercial State, extent of their Trade, Number and strength of their Colonies, quantity of Shipping.
'The pretensions of Princes with their Alliances, Relations and Genealogies.
'The customs of Nations with regard to Trade, and receptions of strangers, their domestic Customs, as Rites of Marriage and Burial. Their particular Laws. Their habits, recreations and amusements.
'The religious Opinions of all Nations.
'These and many other heads of observation will be collected, not merely from the Dictionaries now extant in many Languages, but from the best Surveys, Local Histories, Voyages, and particular accounts, among which care will be taken to select those of the best authority, as the basis of the Work, and to extract from them such observations as may best promote Knowledge and gratify Enquiry, so that it is to be hoped, there will be few remarkable places in the known World, of which the Politician, the Merchant, the Sailor, or the Man of Curiosity may not find a useful and pleasing account, of the credit of which the Reader may always judge, as the Authors from whom it is taken will be regularly quoted, a caution which if some, who have attempted such general works, had observed, their labours would have deserved, and found more favour from the Publick.'
[Footnote 1: That this is done will appear from the authours' names exactly quoted.]
This letter must have been written about the year 1753, for Bathurst is described as a physician of about eight years' standing. He took his degree as Bachelor of Medicine at Peterhouse, Cambridge, in 1745, and did not, it should seem, proceed to the higher degree. In 1757 he was at the Havannah, where he died (ante, i. 242, n. i). He was Johnson's beloved friend, of whom 'he hardly ever spoke without tears in his eyes' (ante, i. 190, n. 2). The Proposal, I have no doubt, was either written, or at all events revised, by Johnson. It is quite in his style. It may be assumed that it is in Bathurst's handwriting.
An apologetical letter about some work that was passing through the press; undated, but probably written about the years 1753-5.[In the possession of Mr. Frederick Barker.]
'What you tell me I am ashamed never to have thought on—I wish I had known it sooner—Send me back the last sheet; and the last copy for correction. If you will promise me henceforward to print a sheet a day, I will promise you to endeavour that you shall have every day a sheet to print, beginning next Tuesday.
'I am Sir, Your most, &c.
'To Mr. Strahan.'
In all likelihood Johnson is writing about the Dictionary. The absence of a date, as I have already said, is strong evidence that the letter was written comparatively early. As the first edition of the Dictionary was in folio a sheet consisted of four pages. Johnson writing on April 3, 1753 says, 'I began the second vol. of my Dictionary, room being left in the first for Preface, Grammar, and History, none of them yet begun' (ante, i. 255). As the book was published on April 15, 1755 (ante, i. 290, n. 1), the printing must have gone on very rapidly, when a start was once made. By copy he means his manuscript for printing.
Two undated letters about printing the Dictionary.[In the possession of Mr. John Waller, 2, Artesian Road, Westbourne Grove.]
'I must desire you to add to your other civilities this one, to go to Mr. Millar and represent to him the manner of going on, and inform him that I know not how to manage. I pay three and twenty shillings a week to my assistants, in each instance having much assistance from them, but they tell me they shall be able to pull better in method, as indeed I intend they shall. The Point is to get two Guineas.
'Sir, Your humble Servant, 'SAM. JOHNSON.' (Address on back.) 'To Mr. Strahan.'
'I have often suspected that it is as you say, and have told Mr. Dodsley of it. It proceeds from the haste of the amanuensis to get to the end of his day's work. I have desired the passages to be clipped close, and then perhaps for two or three leaves it is done. But since poor Stuart's time I could never get that part of the work into regularity, and perhaps never shall. I will try to take some more care but can promise nothing; when I am told there is a sheet or two I order it away. You will find it sometimes close; when I make up any myself, which never happens but when I have nobody with me, I generally clip it close, but one cannot always be on the watch.
'I am Sir, Your most, &c. 'SAM. JOHNSON.'
These letters refer to the printing of the Dictionary, of which Dodsley and Millar were two among the proprietors, and Strahan the printer. Francis Stuart or Stewart was one of Johnson's amanuenses (ante, i. 187). In 1779 Johnson paid his sister a guinea for an old pocket-book of her brother's (ante, iii. 418), and wrote on April 8,1780 (ante, iii. 421):—'The memory of her brother is yet fresh in my mind; he was an ingenious and worthy man.' In February 1784 he gave her another guinea for a letter relating to himself that he had found in the pocket-book (ante, iv. 262). A writer in the Gent. Mag. for 1799, p. 1171, who had been employed in Strahan's printing-works, says that 'Stewart was useful to Johnson in the explanation of low cant phrases; all words relating to gambling and card-playing, such as All-Fours, Catch-honours [not in Johnson's Dictionary], Cribbage [merely defined as A game at cards], were said to be Stewart's corrected by the Doctor.' He adds that after the printing had gone on some time 'the proprietors of the Dictionary paid Johnson through Mr. Strahan at the rate of a guinea for every sheet of MS. copy delivered. The copy was written upon quarto post, and in two columns each page. Johnson wrote in his own hand the words and their explanation, and generally two or three words in each column, leaving a space between each for the authorities, which were pasted on as they were collected by the different amanuenses employed: and in this mode the MS. was so regular that the sheets of MS. which made a sheet of print could be very exactly ascertained.' The same writer states that Stewart in a night ramble in Edinburgh with some of his drinking companions 'met with the mob conducting Captain Porteous to be hanged; they were next day examined about it before the Town Council, when, as Stewart used to say, "we were found to be too drunk to have any hand in the business." He gave an accurate account of it in the Edinburgh Magazine of that time.'
A letter about Miss Williams, taxes due, and a journey; undated, but perhaps written at Oxford in 1754.[In the possession of Mr. Frederick Barker.]
'I shall not be long here, but in the mean time if Miss Williams wants any money pray speak to Mr. Millar and supply her, they write to me about some taxes which I wish you would pay.
'My journey will come to very little beyond the satisfaction of knowing that there is nothing to be done, and that I leave few advantages here to those that shall come after me.
'I am Sir, &c.
'My compliments to Mrs. Strahan.
To Mr. Strahan.'
Miss Williams came to live with Johnson after his wife's death in 1752 (ante, i. 232). The fact that Strahan is asked to supply her with money after speaking to Mr. Millar seems to show that this letter was written some time before the publication of the Dictionary in April 1755. Millar 'took the principal charge of conducting its publication,' and Johnson 'had received all the copy-money, by different drafts, a considerable time before he had finished his task' (ante, i. 287).
His 'journey' may have been his visit to Oxford in the summer of 1754. He went there, because, 'I cannot,' he said, 'finish my book [the Dictionary] to my mind without visiting the libraries' (ante, i. 270). According to Thomas Warton 'he collected nothing in the libraries for his Dictionary' (ib n. 5). It is perhaps to this failure that the latter part of the letter refers, Johnson's visit, however, was one of five weeks, while the first line of the letter shews that he intended to be away from London but a short time.
A letter about 'Rasselas,' dated Jan. 20, 1759.[In the possession of Mr. Frederick Barker.]
'When I was with you last night I told you of a story which I was preparing for the press. The title will be
"The Choice of Life
The History of ... Prince of Abissinia."
'It will make about two volumes like little Pompadour, that is about one middling volume. The bargain which I made with Mr. Johnson was seventy five pounds (or guineas) a volume, and twenty five pounds for the second edition. I will sell this either at that price or for sixty, the first edition of which he shall himself fix the number, and the property then to revert to me, or for forty pounds, and I have the profit that is retain half the copy. I shall have occasion for thirty pounds on Monday night when I shall deliver the book which I must entreat you upon such delivery to procure me. I would have it offered to Mr. Johnson, but have no doubt of selling it, on some of the terms mentioned.
[Footnote 2: 'Fifty-five pounds' written first and then scored over.]
'I will not print my name, but expect it to be known. I am Dear Sir, Your most humble servant, SAM. JOHNSON. Jan. 20, 1759. Get me the money if you can.'
This letter is of unusual interest, as it proves beyond all doubt that Rasselas was written some weeks before Candide was published (see ante, i. 342, n. a). Baretti, as I have shewn (i. 341, n. 3), says that 'any other person with the degree of reputation Johnson then possessed would have got L400 for the work, but he never understood the art of making the most of his productions.' We see, however, by this letter that Johnson did ask for a larger sum than the booksellers allowed him. He received but one hundred pounds for the first edition, but he had made a bargain for one hundred and fifty pounds or guineas. Johnson, the bookseller, seems to have been but in a small way of business as a publisher. I do not find in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1758 any advertisement of books published by him, and only one in 1759 (P. 339). Cowper's publisher in 1778 was Joseph Johnson of St. Paul's Churchyard. (Cowper's Works by Southey, i. 285; see also Nichols' Literary Anecdotes, iii. 461-464.)
By 'little Pompadour' Johnson, no doubt, means the second and cheaper edition of The History of the Marchioness de Pompadour. The first edition was published by Hooper in one volume, price five shillings (Gent. Mag. for October 1758, p. 493). and the second in two volumes for three shillings and sixpence (Gent. Mag. for November, 1758, p. 543).
Johnson did not generally 'print his name.' He published anonymously his translation of Lobos Voyage to Abyssinia; London; The Life of Savage; The Rambler, and The Idler, both in separate numbers and when collected in volumes; Rasselas; The False Alarm; Falkland's Islands; The Patriot;, and Taxation no Tyranny; (when these four pamphlets were collected in a volume he published them with the title of Political Tracts, by the Authour of the Rambler). He gave his name in The Vanity of Human Wishes, Irene, the Dictionary, his edition of Shakespeare, the Journey to the Western Islands, and the Lives of the Poets.
A letter about George Strahan's election to a scholarship at University College, Oxford, and about William Strahan's 'affair with the University'; dated October 24, 1764.[In the possession of Mr. Frederick Barker.]
'I think I have pretty well disposed of my young friend George, who, if you approve of it, will be entered next Monday a Commoner of University College, and will be chosen next day a Scholar of the House. The Scholarship is a trifle, but it gives him a right, upon a vacancy, to a Fellowship of more than sixty pounds a year if he resides, and I suppose of more than forty if he takes a Curacy or small living. The College is almost filled with my friends, and he will be well treated. The Master is informed of the particular state of his education, and thinks, what I think too, that for Greek he must get some private assistance, which a servitour of the College is very well qualified and will be very willing to afford him on very easy terms.
'I must desire your opinion of this scheme by the next post, for the opportunity will be lost if we do not now seize it, the Scholarships being necessarily filled up on Tuesday.
'I depend on your proposed allowance of a hundred a year, which must the first year be a little enlarged because there are some extraordinary expenses, as
Caution (which is allowed in his last quarter). . 7 0 0 Thirds. (He that enters upon a room pays two thirds of the furniture that he finds, and receives from his successor two thirds of what he pays; so that if he pays L20 he receives L13 6s. 8d., this perhaps may be) 12 0 0 Fees at entrance, matriculation &c., perhaps 2 0 0 His gown (I think) 2 10 0 L 23 10 0
'If you send us a Bill for about thirty pounds we shall set out commodiously enough. You should fit him out with cloaths and linen, and let him start fair, and it is the opinion of those whom I consult, that with your hundred a year and the petty scholarship he may live with great ease to himself, and credit to you.
'Let me hear as soon as is possible.
'In your affair with the university, I shall not be consulted, but I hear nothing urged against your proposal.
'I am, Sir, 'Your humble servant, 'SAM. JOHNSON.'
'Oct. 24, 1764.
'My compliments to Mrs. Strahan.
'To Mr. Strahan, Printer, in New Street, Shoe-lane, London.'
My friend, Mr. C. J. Faulkner, Fellow and Tutor of University College, has given me the following extracts from the College records:—
'Oct. 30-31, 1764. Candidatis examinatis electi sunt Gulielmus Jones et Georgius Strahan in vacuas Exhibitiones Dmi Simonis Benet Baronetti.'
Gulielmus Jones is the famous oriental scholar, Sir William Jones, whose portrait adorns the Hall of his ancient College (ante, ii. 25, n. 2).
On April 16, 1767, is found the election of 'Georgium Strahan, sophistam in perpetuum hujus Collegii Socium.'
He vacated his fellowship in 1773.
The value of a Bennet scholarship in 1764 was ten pounds a year, with rooms added, the rent of which was reckoned as equal to two pounds more. A fellowship on the same foundation was worth about twenty pounds, with a yearly dividend added to it that amounted to about thirty pounds. 'Fines' (ante, iii. 323) and other extra payments might easily raise the value to more than sixty pounds.
The 'caution' is the sum deposited by an undergraduate with the College Bursar or Steward as a security for the payment of his 'battells' or account. Johnson in 1728 had to pay at Pembroke College the same sum (seven pounds) that George Strahan in 1764 had to pay at University College. Ante, i. 58, n. 2.
Johnson wrote four letters to George Strahan, when he was a boy at school, and one letter when he was at College. (See Croker's Johnson, pp. 129, 130, 161, 168.) In this last letter, dated May 25, 1765, he writes: 'Do not tire yourself so much with Greek one day as to be afraid of looking on it the next; but give it a certain portion of time, suppose four hours, and pass the rest of the day in Latin or English. I would have you learn French, and take in a literary journal once a month, which will accustom you to various subjects, and inform you what learning is going forward in the world. Do not omit to mingle some lighter books with those of more importance; that which is read remisso animo is often of great use, and takes great hold of the remembrance. However, take what course you will, if you be diligent you will be a scholar.'
George Strahan attended Johnson on his death-bed, and published the volume called Prayers and Meditations composed by Samuel Johnson. Ante, i. 235, n. i; iv. 376, n. 4.
William Strahan's 'affair with the University' was very likely connected with the lease of the University Printing House. From the 'Orders of the Delegates of the Press,' 1758, I have been permitted to copy the following entry, which bears a date but six days later than that of Johnson's letter.
'Tuesday, Oct. 30, 1764. At a meeting of the Delegates of the Press.
'That the following articles be made the foundation of the new lease to be granted of the moiety of the Printing House; that a copy of them be delivered to Mr. Baskett and Mr. Eyre, and that they be desired to give in their respective proposals at a meeting to be held on Tuesday the sixth of November.' (P. 41.)
The chief part of the lease consisted of the privilege to print Bibles and Prayer Books. I conjecture that Strahan had hoped to get a share in the lease.
A letter about a cancel in Johnson's 'Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland', dated Nov. 30, 1774.[In the possession of Messrs. Pearson and Co., 46, Pall Mall.]
'I waited on you this morning having forgotten your new engagement; for this you must not reproach me, for if I had looked upon your present station with malignity I could not have forgotten it. I came to consult you upon a little matter that gives me some uneasiness. In one of the pages there is a severe censure of the clergy of an English Cathedral which I am afraid is just, but I have since recollected that from me it may be thought improper, for the Dean did me a kindness about forty years ago. He is now very old, and I am not young. Reproach can do him no good, and in myself I know not whether it is zeal or wantonness. Can a leaf be cancelled without too much trouble? tell me what I shall do. I have no settled choice, but I would not wish to allow the charge. To cancel it seems the surer side. Determine for me.
'I am, Sir, Your most humble servant, 'SAM. JOHNSON.' 'Nov. 30, 1774.
'Tell me your mind: if you will cancel it I will write something to fill up the vacuum. Please to direct to the borough.'
Mr. Strahan's 'new engagement' was in the House of Commons at Westminster, to which he had been elected for the first time as member for Malmesbury. The new Parliament had met on Nov. 29, the day before the date of Johnson's letter (Parl. Hist, xviii. 23).
The leaf that Johnson cancelled contained pages 47, 48 in the first edition of his Journey to the Western Islands. It corresponds with pages 19-30 in vol. ix. of Johnson's Works (ed. 1825), beginning with the words 'could not enter,' and ending 'imperfect constitution.' The excision is marked by a ridge of paper, which was left that the revised leaf might be attached to it. Johnson describes how the lead which covered the Cathedrals of Elgin and Aberdeen had been stripped off by the order of the Scottish Council, and shipped to be sold in Holland. He continues:—'Let us not however make too much haste to despise our neighbours. Our own cathedrals are mouldering by unregarded dilapidation. It seems to be part of the despicable philosophy of the time to despise monuments of sacred magnificence, and we are in danger of doing that deliberately, which the Scots did not do but in the unsettled state of an imperfect constitution.'
In the copy of the first edition in the Bodleian Library, which had belonged to Gough the antiquary, there is written in his hand, as a foot-note to 'neighbours': 'There is now, as I have heard, a body of men not less decent or virtuous than the Scottish Council, longing to melt the lead of an English Cathedral. What they shall melt, it were just that they should swallow.' It can scarcely be doubted that this is the suppressed passage. The English Cathedral to which Johnson refers was, I believe, Lichfield. 'The roof,' says Harwood (History of Lichfield, p. 75), 'was formerly covered with lead, but now with slate.' Addenbroke, who had been Dean since 1745, was, we may assume, very old at the time when Johnson wrote. I had at first thought it not unlikely that it was Dr. Thomas Newton, Dean of St. Paul's and Bishop of Bristol, who was censured. He was a Lichfield man, and was known to Johnson (see ante, iv. 285, n. 3). He was, however, only seventy years old. I am informed moreover by the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, the learned editor of Documents illustrating the History of St. Paul's, that it is very improbable that at this time the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's entertained such a thought.
My friend Mr. C. E. Doble has kindly furnished me with the following curious parallel to Johnson's suppressed wish about the molten lead.
'The chappell of our Lady [at Wells], late repayred by Stillington, a place of great reverence and antiquitie, was likewise defaced, and such was their thirst after lead (I would they had drunke it scalding) that they tooke the dead bodies of bishops out of their leaden coffins, and cast abroad the carkases skarce throughly putrified.'—Harington's Nuga Antiquae, ii. 147 (ed. 1804).
In the postscript Johnson says 'Please to direct to the borough.' He was staying in Mr. Thrale's town-house in the Borough of Southwark. (See ante, i, 493.)
A letter about apprenticing a lad to Mr. Strahan, and about a presentation to the Blue Coat School, dated December 22, 1774. [In the possession of Messrs. Robson and Kerslake, 25, Coventry Street Haymarket.]
'When we meet we talk, and I know not whether I always recollect what I thought I had to say.
'You will please to remember that I once asked you to receive an apprentice, who is a scholar, and has always lived in a clergyman's house, but who is mishapen, though I think not so as to hinder him at the case. It will be expected that I should answer his Friend who has hitherto maintained him, whether I can help him to a place. He can give no money, but will be kept in cloaths.
'I have another request which it is perhaps not immediately in your power to gratify. I have a presentation to beg for the blue coat hospital. The boy is a non-freeman, and has both his parents living. We have a presentation for a freeman which we can give in exchange. If in your extensive acquaintance you can procure such an exchange, it will be an act of great kindness. Do not let the matter slip out of your mind, for though I try others I know not any body of so much power to do it.
'I am, Sir, Your most humble Servant,
'Dec. 22, 1774.'
The apprentice was young William Davenport, the orphan son of a clergyman. His friend was the Rev. W. Langley, the master of Ashbourne School. Strahan received him as an apprentice (ante, ii. 334, n. i). See also Nichols' Literary Anecdotes, vol. iii. p. 287.
The 'case' is the frame containing boxes for holding type.
A letter about suppressions in 'Taxation no Tyranny! dated March 1, 1775.[In the possession of Mr. Frank T. Sabin, 10 & 12, Garrick Street Covent Garden.]
'I am sorry to see that all the alterations proposed are evidences of timidity. You may be sure that I do [? not] wish to publish, what those for whom I write do not like to have published. But print me half a dozen copies in the original state, and lay them up for me. It concludes well enough as it is.
'When you print it, if you print it, please to frank one to me here, and frank another to Mrs. Aston at Stow Hill, Lichfield.
'The changes are not for the better, except where facts were mistaken. The last paragraph was indeed rather contemptuous, there was once more of it which I put out myself.
'I am Sir, Your humble Servant, 'SAM. JOHNSON.'
'March 1, 1775.'
This letter refers to Taxation no Tyranny, which was published before March 31, 1775, the date of Boswell's arrival in London (ante, ii. 311). Boswell says that he had in his possession 'a few proof leaves of it marked with corrections in Johnson's own hand-writing' (ib. p. 313). Johnson, he says,' owned to me that it had been revised and curtailed by some of those who were then in power.' When Johnson writes 'when you print it, if you print it,' he uses, doubtless, print in the sense of striking off copies. The pamphlet was, we may assume, in type before it was revised by 'those in power.' The corrections had been made in the proof-sheets. Johnson asks to have six copies laid by for him in the state in which he had wished to publish it. It seems that the last paragraph had been struck out by the reviser, for Johnson says 'it was rather contemptuous.' He does not think it needful to supply anything in its place, for he says 'it concludes well enough as it is.'
Mr. Strahan had the right, as a member of Parliament, to frank all letters and packets. That is to say, by merely writing his signature on the cover he could pass them through the post free of charge. Johnson, when he wrote to Scotland, used to employ him to frank his letters, 'that he might have the consequence of appearing a parliament-man among his countrymen' (ante, iii. 364). It was to Oxford that a copy of the pamphlet was to be franked to Johnson. That he was there at the time is shown by a letter from him in Mrs. Piozzi's Collection (vol. i. p. 212), dated 'University College, Oxford, March 3, 1775.' Writing to her, evidently from Bolt Court, on February 3, he had said: 'My pamphlet has not gone on at all' (ib. i. 211). Mrs. Aston (or rather Miss Aston) is mentioned ante, ii. 466.
A letter about 'copy' and a book by Professor Watson, dated Oct. 14, 1776'.[In the possession of Mr. H. Fawcett, of 14, King Street, Covent Garden.]
'I wrote to you about ten days ago, and sent you some copy. You have not written again, that is a sorry trick.
'I am told that you are printing a Book for Mr. Professor Watson of Saint Andrews, if upon any occasion, I can give any help, or be of any use, as formerly in Dr. Robertson's publication, I hope you will make no scruple to call upon me, for I shall be glad of an opportunity to show that my reception at Saint Andrews has not been forgotten.
'I am Sir, Your humble Servant, 'SAM. JOHNSON.'
'Oct. 14, 1776.'
The' copy' or MS. that Johnson sent is, I conjecture, Proposals for the Rev. Mr. Shaw's Analysis of the Scotch Celtick Language (ante, iii. 107). This is the only acknowledged piece of writing of his during 1776. The book printing for Professor Watson was History of the Reign of Philip II, which was published by Strahan and Cadell in 1777. This letter is of unusual interest, as showing that Johnson had been of some service as regards one of Robertson's books. It is possible that he read some of the proof-sheets, and helped to get rid of the Scotticisms. 'Strahan,' according to Beattie, 'had corrected (as he told me himself) the phraseology of both Mr. Hume and Dr. Robertson' (ante, v. 92, n. 3). He is not unlikely, in Robertson's case, to have sought and obtained Johnson's help.
The following letter is published in Mr. Alfred Morrison's 'Collection of Autographs', vol. ii. p. 343.
'To Dr. TAYLOR. Dated London, April 20, 1778.'
'The quantity of blood taken from you appears to me not sufficient. Thrale was almost lost by the scrupulosity of his physicians, who never bled him copiously till they bled him in despair; he then bled till he fainted, and the stricture or obstruction immediately gave way and from that instant he grew better.
'I can now give you no advice but to keep yourself totally quiet and amused with some gentle exercise of the mind. If a suspected letter comes, throw it aside till your health is reestablished; keep easy and cheerful company about you, and never try to think but at those stated and solemn times when the thoughts are summoned to the cares of futurity, the only cares of a rational being.
'As to my own health I think it rather grows better; the convulsions which left me last year at Ashbourne have never returned, and I have by the mercy of God very comfortable nights. Let me know very often how you are till you are quite well.'
This letter, though it is dated 1778, must have been written in 1780. Thrale's first attack was in June, 1779, when he was in 'extreme danger' (ante, iii. 397, n. 2, 420). Johnson had the remission of the convulsions on June 18, 1779. He recorded on June 18, 1780:—
'In the morning of this day last year I perceived the remission of those convulsions in my breast which had distressed me for more than twenty years. I returned thanks at church for the mercy granted me, which has now continued a year.'—Prayers and Meditations, p. 183.
Three days later he wrote to Mrs. Thrale:—
'It was a twelvemonth last Sunday since the convulsions in my breast left me. I hope I was thankful when I recollected it; by removing that disorder a great improvement was made in the enjoyment of life.' —Piozzi Letters, ii. 163. (See ante, iii. 397, n. 1.)
He was at Ashbourne on June 18, 1779 (ante, iii. 453).
On April 20, 1778, the very day of which this letter bears the date, he recorded:—
'After a good night, as I am forced to reckon, I rose seasonably.... In reviewing my time from Easter, 1777, I found a very melancholy and shameful blank. So little has been done that days and months are without any trace. My health has, indeed, been very much interrupted. My nights have been commonly not only restless, but painful and fatiguing. ....Some relaxation of my breast has been procured, I think, by opium, which, though it never gives me sleep, frees my breast from spasms.' —Prayers and Meditations, p. 169. See ante, iii. 317, n. 1.
For Johnson's advice about bleeding, see ante, iii. 152; and for possible occasions for 'suspected letters,' ante, i. 472, n. 4; and ii. 202, n. 2.
Mr. Mason's 'sneering observation in his "Memoirs of Mr. William Whitehead"'
(Vol. i, p. 31.)
I had long failed to find a copy of these Memoirs, though I had searched in the Bodleian, the British Museum, and the London Library, and had applied to the University Library at Cambridge, and the Advocates' Library at Edinburgh. By the kindness of Mr. R. H. Soden Smith and Mr. R. F. Sketchley, I have obtained the following extract from a copy in the Dyce and Forster Libraries, in the South Kensington Museum:—
'Conscious, notwithstanding, that to avoid writing what is unnecessary is, in these days, no just plea for silence in a biographer, I have some apology to make for having strewed these pages so thinly with the tittle-tattle of anecdote. I am, however, too proud to make this apology to any person but my bookseller, who will be the only real loser by the 'Those readers, who believe that I do not write immediately under his pay, and who may have gathered from what they have already read, that I am not so passionately enamoured of Dr. Johnson's biographical manner, as to take that for my model, have only to throw these pages aside, and wait till they are new-written by some one of his numerous disciples, who may follow his master's example; and should more anecdote than I furnish him with be wanting (as was the Doctor's case in his life of Mr. Gray), may make amends for it by those acid eructations of vituperative criticism, which are generated by unconcocted taste and intellectual indigestion.'—Poems by William Whitehead, York, 1788 (vol. iii, p. 128).
With this 'sneering observation,' which Boswell might surely have passed over in silence, the Memoirs close.
Michael Johnson as a bookseller.
(Vol. i, p. 36, n. 3.)
Mr. R. F. Sketchley kindly informs me that in the Dyce and Forster Libraries at the South Kensington Museum there is a book with the following title:—
S. Shaw's 'Grammatica Anglo—Romana', London, printed for Michael Johnson, bookseller: and are to be sold at his shops in Litchfield and Uttoxiter in Stafford-shire; and Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Leicestershire, 1687.
Mr. C. E. Doble tells me that in the proposals issued in 1690 by Thomas Bennet, St. Paul's Churchyard, for printing Anthony a Wood's Athenae Oxonienses and Fasti Oxonienses, among 'the booksellers who take subscriptions, give receipts, and deliver books according to the proposals' is 'Mr. Johnson in Litchfield.'
The City and County of Lichfield.
(Vol. i, p. 36, n. 4.)
'The City of Litchfield is a County of itself, with a jurisdiction extending 10 or 12 miles round, which circuit the Sheriff rides every year on Sept. 8.'—A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain, ed. 1769, ii. 419.
Balliol College has a copy of this work containing David Garrick's book-plate, with Shakespeare's head at the top of it, and the following quotation from Menagiana at the foot:—
'La premiere chose qu'on doit faire quand on a emprunte un livre, c'est de le lire, afin de pouvoir le rendre plutot' (sic).
Felixmarte of Hircania.
(Vol. i, p. 49.)
'"He that follows is Florismarte of Hyrcania" said the barber. "What! is Signor Florismarte there?" replied the priest; "in good faith he shall share the same fate, notwithstanding his strange birth and chimerical adventures; for his harsh and dry style will admit of no excuse. To the yard with him, therefore." "With all my heart, dear Sir," answered the housekeeper; "and with joyful alacrity she executed the command.'" —Don Quixote, ed. 1820, i. 48.
Boswell speaks of Felixmarte as the old Spanish romance. In the Bibliografia dei Romanzi e Poeini Cavallereschi Italiani (2nd ed., Milan, 1838), p. 351, it is stated that in the Spanish edition it is called a translation from the Italian, and in the Italian edition a translation from the Spanish. The Italian title is Historia di Don Florismante d'Ircania, tradotta dallo Spagnuolo. Cervantes, in an edition of Don Quixote, published in 1605, which I have looked at, calls the book Florismarte de Hircania (not Florismante). It should seem that he made his hero read the Italian version.
Palmerin of England and Don Belianis.
(Vol. i, p. 49, n. 2; and vol. iii, p. 2.)
'"Let Palmerin of England be preserved," said the licentiate, "and kept as a jewel; and let such another casket be made for it as that which Alexander found among the spoils of Darius appropriated to preserve the works of the poet Homer....Therefore, master Nicholas, saving your better judgment let this and Amadis de Gaul be exempted from the flames, and let all the rest perish without any farther inquiry." "Not so neighbour," replied the barber, "for behold here the renowned Don Belianis." The priest replied, "This with the second, third, and fourth parts, wants a little rhubarb to purge away its excessive choler; there should be removed too all that relates to the castle of Fame, and other impertinencies of still greater consequence; let them have the benefit, therefore, of transportation, and as they show signs of amendment they shall hereafter be treated with mercy or justice; in the meantime, friend, give them room in your house; but let nobody read them."' —Don Quixote, ed. 1820, i. 50.
Mr. Taylor, a Birmingham manufacturer.
(Vol. i, p. 86.)
'John Taylor, Esq. may justly be deemed the Shakspear or Newton of Birmingham. He rose from minute beginnings to shine in the commercial hemisphere, as they in the poetical or philosophical. To this uncommon genius we owe the gilt button, the japanned and gilt snuff-box, with the numerous race of enamels; also the painted snuff-box. ... He died in 1775 at the age of 64, after acquiring a fortune of L200,000. His son was a considerable sufferer at the time of the riots in 1791.' —A Brief History of Birmingham, 1797, p. 9.
(Vol. i, p. 92.)
I am, no doubt, right in identifying Olivia Lloyd, the young quaker, with whom Johnson was much enamoured when at Stourbridge School, with Olive Lloyd, the daughter of the first Sampson Lloyd, of Birmingham, and aunt of the Sampson Lloyd with whom he had an altercation (ante, ii. 458 and post, p. liii). 'A fine likeness of her is preserved by Thomas Lloyd, The Priory, Warwick,' as I learn from an interesting little work called Farm and its Inhabitants, with some Account of the Lloyds of Dolobran, by Rachel J. Lowe. Privately printed, 1883, p. 24. Her elder brother married a Miss Careless; ib. p. 23. Johnson's 'first love,' Hector's sister, married a Mr. Careless (ante, ii. 459).
Henry Porter, of Edgbaston.
(Vol. i, p. 94, n. 3.)
In St. Mary's Church, Warwick, is a monument to—
'Anna Norton, Henrici Porter Filia Nuper de Edgberston in Com. Warw. Generosi; Vidua Thomae Norton.... Haec annis et pietate matura vitam deposuit. Maii 14, 1698.'
A Brief Description of the Collegiate Church of St. Mary in Warwick, published by Grafton and Reddell, Birmingham; no date.
Mrs. Williams's account of Mrs. Johnson and her sons by her former marriage. (Vol. i, p. 95.)
The following note by Malone I failed to quote in the right place. It is copied from a paper, written by Lady Knight.
'Mrs. Williams's account of Mrs. Johnson was, that she had a good understanding and great sensibility, but inclined to be satirical. Her first husband died insolvent [this is a mistake, see ante, i. 95, n. 3]; her sons were much disgusted with her for her second marriage; ... however, she always retained her affection for them. While they [Mr. and Mrs. Johnson] resided in Gough Square, her son, the officer, knocked at the door, and asked the maid if her mistress was at home. She answered, "Yes, Sir, but she is sick in bed." "Oh," says he, "if it's so, tell her that her son Jervis called to know how she did;" and was going away. The maid begged she might run up to tell her mistress, and, without attending his answer, left him. Mrs. Johnson, enraptured to hear her son was below, desired the maid to tell him she longed to embrace him. When the maid descended the gentleman was gone, and poor Mrs. Johnson was much agitated by the adventure; it was the only time he ever made an effort to see her. Dr. [Mr.] Johnson did all he could to console his wife, but told Mrs. Williams: "Her son is uniformly undutiful; so I conclude, like many other sober men, he might once in his life be drunk, and in that fit nature got the better of his pride."'
Johnson's application for the mastership of the Grammar School at Solihull in Warwickshire.
(Vol. i, p. 96.)
Johnson, a few weeks after his marriage, applied for the mastership of Solihull Grammar School, as is shown by the following letter, preserved in the Pembroke College MSS., addressed to Mr. Walmsley, and quoted by Mr. Croker. I failed to insert it in my notes.
'Solihull, the 30 August 1735.
'I was favoured with yours of the 13th inst. in due time, but deferred answering it til now, it takeing up some time to informe the Foeofees of the contents thereof; and before they would return an Answer, desired some time to make enquiry of the caracter of Mr. Johnson, who all agree that he is an excellent scholar, and upon that account deserves much better than to be schoolmaster of Solihull. But then he has the caracter of being a very haughty, ill-natured gent., and that he has such a way of distorting his Face (which though he can't help) the gent, think it may affect some young ladds; for these two reasons he is not approved on, the late master Mr. Crompton's huffing the Foeofees being stil in their memory. However, we are all exstreamly obliged to you for thinking of us, and for proposeing so good a schollar, but more especially is, dear sir,
'Your very humble servant,
Johnson's knowledge of Italian.
(Vol. i, p. 115.)
Boswell says that he does not know 'at what time, or by what means Johnson had acquired a competent knowledge of Italian.' In my note on this I say 'he had read Petrarch "when but a boy."' As Petrarch wrote chiefly in Latin, it is quite possible that Johnson did not acquire his knowledge of Italian so early as I had thought.
Johnson's deference for the general opinion.
(Vol. i, p. 200.)
Miss Burney records an interesting piece of criticism by Johnson. 'There are,' he said, 'three distinct kinds of judges upon all new authors or productions; the first are those who know no rules, but pronounce entirely from their natural taste and feelings; the second are those who know and judge by rules; and the third are those who know, but are above the rules. These last are those you should wish to satisfy. Next to them rate the natural judges; but ever despise those opinions that are formed by the rules.'—Mine. D'Arblay's Diary, i. 180. Later on she writes: —'The natural feelings of untaught hearers ought never to be slighted; and Dr. Johnson has told me the same a thousand times;' ib. ii. 128.
Johnson in the Green Room.
(Vol. i, p. 201.)
Mr. Richard Herne Shepherd, in Watford's Antiquarian for January, 1887, p. 34, asserts that the actual words which Johnson used when he told Garrick that he would no longer frequent his Green Room were indecent; so indecent that Mr. Shepherd can only venture to satisfy those whom he calls students by informing them of them privately. For proof of this charge against the man whose boast it was that 'obscenity had always been repressed in his company' (ante, iv. 295) he brings forward John Wilkes. The story, indeed, as it is told by Boswell, is not too trustworthy, for he had it through Hume from Garrick. As it reaches Mr. Shepherd it comes from Garrick through Wilkes. Garrick, no doubt, as Johnson says (ante, v. 391), was, as a companion, 'restrained by some principle,' and had 'some delicacy of feeling.' Nevertheless, in his stories, he was, we may be sure, no more on oath than a man is in lapidary inscriptions (ante, ii. 407). It is possible that he reported Johnson's very words to Hume, and that Hume did not change them in reporting them to Boswell. Whatever they were, they were spoken in 1749 and published in 1791, when Johnson had been dead six years, Garrick twelve years, and Hume fourteen years. It is idle to dream that they can now be conjecturally emended. But it is worse than idle to bring in as evidence John Wilkes. What entered his ear as purity itself might issue from his mouth as the grossest obscenity. He had no delicacy of feeling. No principle restrained him. When he comes to bear testimony, and aims a shaft at any man's character, the bow that he draws is drawn with the weakness of the hand of a worn-out and shameless profligate.
Mr. Shepherd quotes an unpublished letter of Boswell to Wilkes, dated Rome, April 22, 1765, to show 'that the two men had become familiars, not only long before Wilkes's famous meeting with Dr. Johnson was brought about, but before even the friendship of Boswell himself with Johnson had been consolidated.' It needs no unpublished letters to show that. It must be known to every attentive reader of Boswell. See ante, i. 395, and ii. 11.
Frederick III, King of Prussia.
(Vol. i, p. 308.)
Boswell should have written Frederick II.
Boswell's visit to Rousseau and Voltaire.
(Vol. i, p. 434; and vol. ii, p. 11.)
Boswell to Andrew Mitchell, Esq., His Britannic Majesty's Minister at Berlin.
'Berlin, 28 August, 1764.
... 'I have had another letter from my father, in which he continues of opinion that travelling is of very little use, and may do a great deal of harm. ... I esteem and love my father, and I am determined to do what is in my power to make him easy and happy. But you will allow that I may endeavour to make him happy, and at the same time not to be too hard upon myself. I must use you so much with the freedom of a friend as to tell you that with the vivacity which you allowed me I have a melancholy disposition. I have made excursions into the fields of amusement, perhaps of folly. I have found that amusement and folly are beneath me, and that without some laudable pursuit my life must be insipid and wearisome..... My father seems much against my going to Italy, but gives me leave to go from this, and pass some months in Paris. I own that the words of the Apostle Paul, "I must see Rome," are strongly borne in upon my mind. It would give me infinite pleasure. It would give taste for a life-time, and I should go home to Auchinleck with serene contentment.'
After stating that he is going to Geneva, he continues:—
'I shall see Voltaire; I shall also see Switzerland and Rousseau. These two men are to me greater objects than most statues or pictures.' —Nichols's Literary History, vii. 318.
Superficiality of the French writers.
(Vol. i, p. 454.)
Gibbon, writing of the year 1759, says:—
'In France, to which my ideas [in the Essay on the Study of Literature] were confined, the learning and language of Greece and Rome were neglected by a philosophic age. The guardian of those studies, the Academy of Inscriptions, was degraded to the lowest rank among the three royal societies of Paris; the new appellation of Erudits was contemptuously applied to the successors of Lipsius and Casaubon; and I was provoked to hear (see M. d'Alembert, Discours preliminaire a l'Encyclopedie) that the exercise of the memory, their sole merit, had been superseded by the nobler faculties of the imagination and the judgment.' —Memoirs of Edward Gibbon, ed. 1827, i. 104.
A Synod of Cooks.
(Vol. i, p. 470.)
When Johnson spoke of 'a Synod of Cooks' he was, I conjecture, thinking of Milton's 'Synod of Gods,' in Beelzebub's speech in Paradise Lost, book ii. line 391.
Johnson and Bishop Percy.
(Vol. i, p. 486.)
Bishop Percy in a letter to Boswell says: 'When in 1756 or 1757 I became acquainted with Johnson, he told me he had lived twenty years in London, but not very happily.' —Nichols's Literary History, vii. 307.
Barclay's Answer to Kenrick's Review of Johnson's 'Shakespeare.'
(Vol. i, p. 498.)
Neither in the British Museum nor in the Bodleian have I been able to find a copy of this book. A Defence of Mr. Kenricks Review, 1766, does not seem to contain any reply to such a work as Barclay's.
Mrs. Piozzi's 'Collection of Johnson s Letters.'
(Vol. ii, p. 43, n. 2.)
MR. BOSWELL TO BISHOP PERCY. 'Feb. 9, 1788.
'I am ashamed that I have yet seven years to write of his life. ... Mrs. (Thrale) Piozzi's Collection of his letters will be out soon. ... I saw a sheet at the printing-house yesterday... It is wonderful what avidity there still is for everything relative to Johnson. I dined at Mr. Malone's on Wednesday with Mr. W. G. Hamilton, Mr. Flood, Mr. Windham, Mr. Courtenay, &c.; and Mr. Hamilton observed very well what a proof it was of Johnson's merit that we had been talking of him all the afternoon.' —Nichols's Literary History, vii. 309.
Johnson on romantic virtue.
(Vol. ii, P. 76.)
'Dr. Johnson used to advise his friends to be upon their guard against romantic virtue, as being founded upon no settled principle. "A plank," said he, "that is tilted up at one end must of course fall down on the other." '—William Seward, Anecdotes of Distinguished Persons, ii. 461.'
'Old' Baxter on toleration.
(Vol. ii, p. 253.)
The Rev. John Hamilton Davies, B.A., F.R.H.S., Rector of St. Nicholas's, Worcester, and author of The Life of Richard Baxter of Kidderminster, Preacher and Prisoner (London, Kent & Co., 1887), kindly informs me, in answer to my inquiries, that he believes that Johnson may allude to the following passage in the fourth chapter of Baxter's Reformed Pastor:—
'I think the Magistrate should be the hedge of the Church. I am against the two extremes of universal license and persecuting tyranny. The Magistrate must be allowed the use of his reason, to know the cause, and follow his own judgment, not punish men against it. I am the less sorry that the Magistrate doth so little interpose.'
England barren in good historians.
(Vol. ii, p. 236, n. 2.)
Gibbon, writing of the year 1759, says:
'The old reproach that no British altars had been raised to the muse of history was recently disproved by the first performances of Robertson and Hume, the histories of Scotland and of the Stuarts.' —Memoirs of Edward Gibbon, ed. 1827, i. 103.
An instance of Scotch nationality.
(Vol. ii, p. 307.)
Lord Camden, when pressed by Dr. Berkeley (the Bishop's son) to appoint a Scotchman to some office, replied: 'I have many years ago sworn that I never will introduce a Scotchman into any office; for if you introduce one he will contrive some way or other to introduce forty more cousins or friends.' —G. M. Berkeley's Poems, p. ccclxxi.
Mortality in the Foundling Hospital of London.
(Vol. ii, p. 398.)
'From March 25, 1741, to December 31, 1759, the number of children received into the Foundling Hospital is 14,994, of which have died to December 31, 1759, 8,465.'—A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain, ed. 1769, vol. ii, p. 121. A great many of these died, no doubt, after they had left the Hospital.
(Vol. ii, p. 399, n. 2.)
The reference is no doubt to Mr. Joseph Planta, Assistant-Librarian of the British Museum 1773, Principal Librarian 1799-1827. See Edwards' Lives of the Founders of the British Museum, pp. 517 sqq.; and Nichols's Illustrations of Literature, vol. vii, pp. 677-8.
(Vol. ii, p. 408, n. 1.)
John Locke in his Second Vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity quotes from Mr. Edwards whom he answers:—'This gentleman and his fellows are resolved to be Unitarians; they are for one article of faith as well as One person in the Godhead.' —Locke's Works, ed. 1824, vi, 200.
The proposed Riding School for Oxford.
(Vol. ii, p. 424.)
My friend, Mr. C. E. Doble, has pointed out to me the following passage in Collectanea, First Series, edited by Mr. C. R. L. Fletcher, Fellow of All Souls College, and printed for the Oxford Historical Society, Oxford, 1885.
'The Advertisement to Religion and Policy, by Edward Earl of Clarendon, runs as follows:—
"Henry Viscount Cornbury, who was called up to the House of Peers by the title of Lord Hyde, in the lifetime of his father, Henry Earl of Rochester, by a codicil to his will, dated Aug. 10, 1751, left divers MSS. of his great grandfather, Edward Earl of Clarendon, to Trustees, with a direction that the money to arise from the sale or publication thereof, should be employed as a beginning of a fund for supporting a Manage or Academy for riding and other useful exercises in Oxford; a plan of this sort having been also recommended by Lord Clarendon in his Dialogue on Education. Lord Cornbury dying before his father, this bequest did not take effect. But Catharine, one of the daughters of Henry Earl of Rochester, and late Duchess Dowager of Queensbury, whose property these MSS. became, afterwards by deed gave them, together with all the monies which had arisen or might arise from the sale or publication of them, to [three Trustees] upon trust for the like purposes as those expressed by Lord Hyde in his codicil."
'The preface to the Life of Edward Earl of Clarendon, written by himself., has words to the same effect. (See also Notes and Queries, Ser. I. x. 185, and xi. 32.)
'From a letter in Notes and Queries, Ser. II. x. p. 74, it appears that in 1860 the available sum, in the hands of the Trustees of the Clarendon Bequest, amounted to L10,000. The University no longer needed a riding-school, and the claims of Physical Science were urgent; and in 1872 the announcement was made, that by the liberality of the Clarendon Trustees an additional wing had been added to the University Museum, containing the lecture-rooms and laboratories of the department of Experimental Philosophy.' Vol. i. p. 305.
Boswell and Mrs. Rudd.
(Vol. ii, p. 450, n. 1.)
In Mr. Alfred Morrison's Collection of Autographs, vol. i. p. 103, mention is made among Boswell's autographs of verses entitled Lurgan Clanbrassil, a supposed Irish song.'
I have learnt, through Mr. Morrison's kindness, that 'on the document itself there is the following memorandum, signed, so far as can be made out, H. W. R.:—
"The enclosed song was written and composed by James Boswell, the biographer of Johnson, in commemoration of a tour he made with Mrs. Rudd whilst she was under his protection, for living with whom he displeased his father so much that he threatened to disinherit him.
"Mrs. Rudd had lived with one of the Perreaus, who were tried and executed for forgery. She was tried at the same time and acquitted.
"My father having heard that Boswell used to sing this song at the Home Circuit, requested it of him, and he wrote it and gave it him. H.W. R."'
(Vol. ii, p. 454, n. 3.)
Mr. Robert Browning, in his Parleyings with Christopher Smart, under the similitude of 'some huge house,' thus describes the general run of that unfortunate poet's verse:—
'All showed the Golden Mean without a hint Of brave extravagance that breaks the rule. The master of the mansion was no fool Assuredly, no genius just as sure! Safe mediocrity had scorned the lure Of now too much and now too little cost, And satisfied me sight was never lost Of moderate design's accomplishment In calm completeness.'
Mr. Browning goes on to liken one solitary poem to a Chapel in the house, in which is found—
'from floor to roof one evidence Of how far earth may rival heaven.'
Parleyings with certain People of Importance in their Day (pp. 80-82), London, 1887.
Johnsons discussion on baptism—with Mr. Lloyd, the Birmingham Quaker.
(Vol. ii, p. 458.)
In Farm and its Inhabitants (ante, p. xlii), a further account is given of the controversy between Johnson and Mr. Lloyd the Quaker, on the subject of Barclay's Apology.
'Tradition states that, losing his temper, Dr. Johnson threw the volume on the floor, and put his foot on it, in denunciation of its statements. The identical volume is now in the possession of G. B. Lloyd, of Edgbaston Grove.
'At the dinner table he continued the debate in such angry tones, and struck the table so violently that the children were frightened, and desired to escape.
'The next morning Dr. Johnson went to the bank [Mr. Lloyd was a banker] and by way of apology called out in his stentorian voice, "I say, Lloyd, I'm the best theologian, but you are the best Christian.'" p. 41. It could not have been 'the next morning' that Johnson went to the bank, for he left for Lichfield on the evening of the day of the controversy (ante, ii. 461). He must have gone in the afternoon, while Boswell was away seeing Mr. Boulton's great works at Soho (ib. p. 459).
Mr. G. B. Lloyd, the great-grandson of Johnson's host, in a letter written this summer (1886), says: 'Having spent much of my boyhood with my grandfather in the old house, I have heard him tell the story of the stamping on the broad volume.'
Boswell mentions (ib. p. 457) that 'Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd, like their Majesties, had been blessed with a numerous family of fine children, their numbers being exactly the same.' The author of Farm and its Inhabitants says (p. 46): 'There is a tradition that when Sampson Lloyd's wife used to feel depressed by the care of such a large family (they had sixteen children) he would say to her, "Never mind, the twentieth will be the most welcome."' His fifteenth child Catharine married Dr. George Birkbeck, the founder of the Mechanics' Institutes (ib. p. 48).
A story told (p. 50) of one of Mr. Lloyd's sons-in-law, Joseph Biddle, is an instance of that excess of forgetfulness which Johnson called 'morbid oblivion' (ante, v. 68). 'He went to pay a call in Leamington. The servant asked him for his name, he could not remember it; in perplexity he went away, when a friend in the street met him and accosted him, "How do you do, Mr. Biddle?" "Oh, Biddle, Biddle, Biddle, that's the name," cried he, and rushed off to pay his call.'
The editor is in error in stating (p. 45, n. 1) that a very poor poem entitled A bone for Friend Mary to pick, is by Johnson. It may be found in the Gent. Mag. for 1791, p. 948.
Lichfield in 1783.
(Vol. ii, p. 461.)
C. P. Moritz, a young Prussian clergyman who published an account of a pedestrian tour that he made in England in the year 1782, thus describes Lichfield as he saw it on a day in June:—
'At noon I got to Lichfield, an old-fashioned town with narrow dirty streets, where for the first time I saw round panes of glass in the windows. The place to me wore an unfriendly appearance; I therefore made no use of my recommendation, but went straight through and only bought some bread at a baker's, which I took along with me.'—Travels in England in 1782, p. 140, by C. P. Moritz. Cassell's National Library, 1886.
The 'recommendation' was an introduction to an inn given him by the daughter of his landlord at Sutton, who told him 'that the people in Lichfield were, in general, very proud.' Travelling as he did, on foot and without luggage, he was looked upon with suspicion at the inns, and often rudely refused lodging.
Richard Baxter's doubt.
(Vol. ii, p. 477.)
The Rev. J. Hamilton Davies [See ante, p. xlix. 1] informs me that there can be no doubt that Johnson referred to the following passage in Reliquiae Baxterianae, folio edition of 1696, p. 127:—
'This is another thing which I am changed in; that whereas in my younger days I was never tempted to doubt of the Truth of Scripture or Christianity, but all my Doubts and Fears were exercised at home, about my own Sincerity and Interest in Christ—since then my sorest assaults have been on the other side, and such they were, that had I been void of internal Experience, and the adhesion of Love, and the special help of God, and had not discerned more Reason for my Religion than I did when I was younger, I had certainly apostatized to Infidelity,' &c.
Johnson, the day after he recorded his 'doubt,' wrote that he was 'troubled with Baxter's scruple' (ante, ii. 477). The 'scruple' was, perhaps, the same as the 'doubt.' In his Dictionary he defines scruple as doubt; difficulty of determination; perplexity; generally about minute things.
Oxford in 1782.
(Vol. iii, p. 13, n. 3.)
The Rev. C. P. Moritz (ante, p. liv) gives a curious account of his visit to Oxford. On his way from Dorchester on the evening of a Sunday in June, he had been overtaken by the Rev. Mr. Maud, who seems to have been a Fellow and Tutor of Corpus College, and who was returning from doing duty in his curacy. It was late when they arrived in the town. Moritz, who, as I have said, more than once had found great difficulty in getting a bed, had made up his mind to pass the summer night on a stonebench in the High Street. His comrade would not hear of this, but said that he would take him to an ale-house where 'it is possible they mayn't be gone to bed, and we may yet find company.' This ale-house was the Mitre.
'We went on a few houses further, and then knocked at a door. It was then nearly twelve. They readily let us in; but how great was my astonishment when, on being shown into a room on the left, I saw a great number of clergymen, all with their gowns and bands on, sitting round a large table, each with his pot of beer before him. My travelling companion introduced me to them as a German clergyman, whom he could not sufficiently praise for my correct pronunciation of the Latin, my orthodoxy, and my good walking.
'I now saw myself in a moment, as it were, all at once transported into the midst of a company, all apparently very respectable men, but all strangers to me. And it appeared to me extraordinary that I should thus at midnight be in Oxford, in a large company of Oxonian clergy, without well knowing how I had got there. Meanwhile, however, I took all the pains in my power to recommend myself to my company, and in the course of conversation I gave them as good an account as I could of our German universities, neither denying nor concealing that now and then we had riots and disturbances. "Oh, we are very unruly here, too," said one of the clergymen, as he took a hearty draught out of his pot of beer, and knocked on the table with his hand. The conversation now became louder, more general, and a little confused. ... At last, when morning drew near, Mr. Maud suddenly exclaimed, "D-n me, I must read prayers this morning at All Souls!" "D-n me" is an abbreviation of "G-d d-n me," which in England does not seem to mean more mischief or harm than any of our or their common expletives in conversation, such as "O gemini!" or "The deuce take me!" ... I am almost ashamed to own, that next morning, when I awoke, I had got so dreadful a headache from the copious and numerous toasts of my jolly and reverend friends that I could not possibly get up. —Travels in England in 1782, by C. P. Moritz, p. 123.