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Magazine, or Animadversions on the English Spelling (1703)
by G. W.
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[Transcriber's Note:

This e-text is intended for users whose text readers cannot display the "real" (utf-8) version of the file. Greek and Hebrew words are shown between marks: Greek Hebrew

In the printed text, the author's special letters were represented by ordinary roman letters turned upside-down. They are shown in this e-text by single letters in [brackets]. Similarly, [i] represents dotless i and [+] is the "dagger" symbol.

Single italicized letters within a word are shown in {braces}.

The word "Taurus" refers to the "ou" ligature (upsilon balanced on top of omicron) used in printed Greek. The astrological symbol is visually similar to the ligature.]



THE AUGUSTAN REPRINT SOCIETY

G. W.

MAGAZINE, or

Animadversions on the English Spelling

(1703)

Introduction by David Abercrombie

Publication Number 70

Los Angeles William Andrews Clark Memorial Library University of California

1958

* * * * *

GENERAL EDITORS

RICHARD C. BOYS, University of Michigan RALPH COHEN, University of California, Los Angeles VINTON A. DEARING, University of California, Los Angeles LAWRENCE CLARK POWELL, Clark Memorial Library

ASSISTANT EDITOR

W. EARL BRITTON, University of Michigan

ADVISORY EDITORS

EMMETT L. AVERY, State College of Washington BENJAMIN BOYCE, Duke University LOUIS BREDVOLD, University of Michigan JOHN BUTT, King's College, University of Durham JAMES L. CLIFFORD, Columbia University ARTHUR FRIEDMAN, University of Chicago LOUIS A. LANDA, Princeton University SAMUEL H. MONK, University of Minnesota ERNEST C. MOSSNER, University of Texas JAMES SUTHERLAND, University College, London H. T. SWEDENBERG, JR., University of California, Los Angeles

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY

EDNA C. DAVIS, Clark Memorial Library

* * * * *

INTRODUCTION

I first came across what is, as far as I know, the unique copy of Magazine, by G. W., when working in the library formed by the late Sir Isaac Pitman.[1] It is bound up as the last item in a volume which contains several nineteenth-century pamphlets on language and spelling, and also the first numbers of the periodical The Phonetic Friend. (The volume was for a time in the possession of the Bath City Free Library, to which it was presented by Isaac Pitman; it must subsequently have been returned to him.) I drew attention to the existence of Magazine in an article published in 1937;[2] to the best of my knowledge it had not been noticed in print before that, though it is of considerable interest in a number of respects. I am indebted to Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd., London, for permission to reproduce the pamphlet herewith in the Augustan Reprints.

G. W. was a spelling reformer, one of the many writers who, from early Elizabethan times onwards, have been critical of traditional English orthography and have made proposals for improving it. Although nothing that could be called a spelling-reform "movement" existed until the nineteenth century, there were earlier periods when the subject was much in the air, when a number of people were writing about it and reading and discussing each other's ideas. The publication of Magazine does not fall at one of these times; it comes, in fact, in the very middle of a recession of interest in spelling reform which lasted almost a hundred years. From about 1650 to 1750 there were few critics of our orthography, and they were usually neither very strong in their criticisms nor radical in their proposals for amendment. G. W. is thus a somewhat isolated figure, and his scheme for reform would appear, in its details at least, to be fairly original.

The greater part of the pamphlet is given over to expounding the illogicalities and inconsistencies of the established spelling, and here G. W.'s style of writing, which is colloquial, racy and allusive, is effective enough. It is not so well suited, however, to orderly and clear exposition of his proposed amendment—unfortunately, since this is what is likely to be of most interest to us today (and numerous misprints increase the difficulties of grasping his proposals). Perhaps there was, or was to have been, a sequel which would have stated his reforms more systematically; that this may have been the case appears from the statement on p. 25 that the alphabet "is preparing," and from the mention, on the last page, of "the ensuing Batl-dur" (i.e. battledore or hornbook). His remedy, briefly, is to replace digraphs by new symbols: "more Letters would do well in the Alfabet, but fewer in most words" (p. 25); and, like John Hart before him (whose works perhaps he knew) and Bernard Shaw after, he draws attention to the economies to be gained from this: "if fewer Letters will serve the turn, 'twill save Paper and Ink, and 'tis strange, if not labour too" (p. 5).

On p. 32 is exhibited "a compleat Alfebet" of 34 symbols (it is not complete, for L has, apparently inadvertently, been omitted). Although there is no indication there of the value each symbol should have, that of most of them can be worked out, with some labor, from the rest of the pamphlet (though a few must probably remain mysteries). I have commented elsewhere[3] on this scheme of reformed spelling; it appears to us today to be theoretically quite creditable, at least as far as the consonants are concerned. The traditional alphabet is enlarged by providing a separate symbol for the italicized sounds in each of the following words: {th}in {th}en {ch}urch {j}udge {sh}all mea{s}ure {wh}en si{ng}; these symbols are obtained partly by creating new ones, partly by redefining existing letters. In two cases existing letters are redefined in accordance with a rather odd principle—that the traditional name of a letter must decide its value. Hence h is used to spell church (which becomes "hurh"), and g is used to spell judge (which becomes "gug"). This of course makes it necessary for G. W. to include among his new symbols one for /h/ and one for /g/. The new symbols as used in the pamphlet are produced by inverting or reversing existing letters; but these may possibly be makeshifts, used in place of more ambitious shapes which were beyond the reach of his printer; he suggests, for instance (p. 20) "the sign Taurus with a Foot-Ball between his horns" as one of his vowel symbols. On the whole, we find the vowels much less systematically tackled than the consonants, and it is proposed that accents ("cambrils") should for the most part be used to provide extra symbols; the pamphlet, however, only exemplifies this sporadically.

Magazine contains a considerable number of words, and a few consecutive texts, transcribed partly or wholly in the new system of spelling, and these necessarily will have to be assessed as evidence of contemporary English pronunciation by students of the subject. It is not easy to be sure how accurate a phonetic observer and transcriber G. W. was, but if we make some allowance for misprints, we find a certain consistency in his transcriptions, and an apparent freedom from any bias given by the traditional spelling, which make one think he was moderately reliable. In this connexion it is of some importance to find out, if possible, where he came from. He shows familiarity both with northern and western types of speech; but although he seems to imply, on p. 7, that he is not a North-countryman, E. J. Dobson has found, on the basis of certain forms which appear in the pamphlet, that there is a strong suggestion that he spoke a northern dialect.[4]

Until recently I had been able to form no idea of the identity of G. W. However, it new seems to be very possible that he was John White, a Devon schoolmaster, and author of The Country-Man's Conductor in Reading and Writing True English, which was published in Exeter in 1701.[5] The name John, in G. W.'s reformed spelling, would of course begin with G (it is indeed so spelled on p. 15). White was interested in spelling reform, as we know from various remarks in his book; and if he was G. W., it would explain the familiarity shown in Magazine with western dialect. What is particularly striking, moreover, is the similarity of White's style to G. W.'s, as the following quotations from The Country-Man's Conductor will show: of certain grammarians, "you shall seldom hear them speak Latin but in Ale-Houses, or when they are well oil'd"; of specimens of early English, "some may laugh at it, and thereby expose their rusty Teeth that will look as old as the English"; of using an accent to show long vowels, "this would look strange 'till it come in fashion, but in time would set as tite as Topknots do now."

[Transcriber's Note: A more recent candidate for "G. W." is John Wild. His 1710 broadsheet, "Nottingham Printing Perfected," is in the "images" directory associated with the html version of this file.]

One final resemblance must be mentioned. Whether or not White was G. W., there can hardly be any doubt that Magazine was printed by Samuel Farley of Exeter, the printer of White's book. The typographical similarity between Magazine and The Country-Man's Conductor (and other works printed by Farley) is too complete to be coincidental. Not only are the identical fonts used, but there are numerous other points where the general manner of printing is the same.

Further research may confirm White's authorship, but there is certainly no other obvious candidate among the writers of the time.

David Abercrombie

University of Edinburgh

NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION

[Footnote 1: This library is now housed in the offices of Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., Parker Street, London, W.C. 2.]

[Footnote 2: Le Maitre Phonetique, No. 59, p. 34. Some of the verses on p. 22 of the pamphlet are reproduced there.]

[Footnote 3: In the Transactions of the Philological Society, 1948, pp. 11 ff.; Lingua, Vol. 2, 1949, p. 60.]

[Footnote 4: English Pronunciation 1500-1700, Vol. 1, p. 267. In Vol. II, p. 977, Dobson says "G. W. was certainly a Northerner."]

[Footnote 5: A "second edition" called The Conductor in Spelling, Reading & Writing, True English, dated 1712, is identical with the first except for the title-page.]

* * * * *

MAGAZINE,

or,

Animadversions

on the

English Spelling;

OBSERVING

The Contradictions of the English Letters Warring themselves against themselves, and one with another, by Intrusions and Usurpations; with Amendment offer'd.

For the Benefit of all Teachers and Learners, Writers and Readers, Composers and Scriveners, whether Strangers or Natives, who are concern'd with our English Tongue.

Nunquam sera est ad bonos mores via. Syntax.

By G. W.

LONDON: Printed for the Author. 1703. Price Sixpence.



Magazine, that is low Learning, too high for the Capacity of the Vulgar; Or the Schooler School'd. viz, Babel pull'd down, and Confusion Confounded. The latter Survey of the English Letters, and ways of Amendment, where things are too much amiss to be excus'd, only referring all to the good will of those that are willing to amend their perceiv'd mistakes and unwilling to fall into their former Errors again.

Q. Horatij Flacci, Epistolarum Liber secundus. Ad Augustum Epist. I. Paulo post initium.

Si meliora dies, ut vina poemata reddit Scire velim: Pretium chartis quotus arrogat annus. Scriptor abhinc annos centum qui decidit, inter Perfectos veteresque, referri debet, an inter Viles atque novos? Excludat jurgia finis. Est vetus atque probus centum qui perficit annos. Quid? Qui deperiit minor uno mense vel anno. Inter quos referendvs erit veteresne poetas. An quos & prsens & postera respuat tas? Iste quidem veteres, inter ponetur honeste. Qui vel mense brevi vel toto est junior anno. Utor permisso; caudaque pilos ut equina Paulatim vello, & demo unum, demo etiam unum. Dum cadat.——

The Second Book of Epistles of Quintus, Horatius, Flaccus. The First Epistle unto the Emperour Augustus Csar, in whose days our Saviour Christ was Born.

Thus English'd.

There is a thing I fain would know, As Age doth make Wines better; Whether to Papers it doth so, And what's Writ on't with Letter, And what Age gives a Reverence To Papers, I would know: If Authors Credits got by Tense Of Hundred Years or mo? An Ancient currant Author then, And Hundred Years is Old? Or is he of the Slight Gown men, That Writ then as 'tis told? Set down the time that strife may cease: And hundred Years is good, If one Month short, or Year he bears, Doth he slick in the Mud? No, for one Month or Year, we grant, And very honestly too; He shall be counted Ancient Without so much ado. What you do grant, I'm very free To use now at my pleasure: Another Month, or Year, d' ye see I'll bate, as I have leasure; So Hair by Hair, from the Mare's Tail I'll pull, as well I may. So what is good, is quickly stale, Though Writ but t' other day.

That we make something to discourse upon further, I'll take an Example or two from the two Tables, wherein one Sound is Spell'd diverse ways, and again the same Letters make diverse Sounds.

First then, z, dayes, praise, phrase, gaze.

A. Asia, day, fair, wear, heir.

E. Phebe, key, the, sea, yea, weigh, either, holy.

I. Why, I, high, try, tie, buy.

O. Who, know, bow, toe, tow, dough.

U. True, dew, Hugh, neuter, give, you, gaol, jaylor, goal, John, gives dat; gives compedes, gill of fishes, gill of water, ague, plague, anger, and danger, guard, reguard, spring, a well, spring of steele, jet, and ginger, and finger, ghost, god, and Ghurmes, and age, ages, cares.

Our Children are not Witches, that they should guess to Read right by the Letter, such stuff as this, and the Masters are no very great Conjurers, to perceive nothing; what contradictions they make 'em swallow.

First then dayes, that is da—yes, why should not yes spell yes at the end, as well as at the beginning of a word: Again, why might we not spell dayes thus, daise as well as praise, and spell praises, prayes, da—i—se: I see day, why not se, see, as well as he, h—? And why not dase, dayes, and phrayes, phrase, or phraise, phrase, and daze, dayes; and why not daze, or dase, daisey, or daisy, hei, daisy: how can Ladies be blam'd for Writing bad English, when Scholars spell no better?

A, as Asia, why not da; fare and ware; how can one Vowel have another, at command to make it long; a circumflex might do it. But you answer it is our custom, and Books would not be read if we change the spelling; but is there not a right spelling as Ancient as wrong? Is not the as ancient as weigh, yea, sea, holy, key. Then 'tis wit to use the proper spelling, and leave off impertinencies; and if fewer Letters will serve the turn, 'twill save Paper and Ink, and 'tis strange, if not labour too, for Writers; no doubt for Teachers it will.

And how many ways do we pronounce you? yo, yau, yeu, yiu, you, yuu, yet every dialect praise their own Speech, nay in Towns near together, nay in the same Town, nay in the same House, persons born in other places, differ in pronounciation, and many delight to hear different dialects (as the Grecians did) so they did but understand one another, though some precise Females do condemn all but their own finical pronunciation.

But why should phrase be spell'd with ph and s, and not f and z? Because you say its Original is a Greek word: But it hath been long enough freely us'd amongst us, that it may claim prescription for a Licence to put on the English garb, and suits pretty well with the Original phraz and hath it not a single f in Greek? So might be frz, and take with it the Greek Precispomene, its right.

[Transcriber's Note: The Greek letter phi, transliterated ph, is a single character.]

But if we spell praise thus, prayes we alter the sense. Why the Eyes are as much in the dark to distinguish sound, as the Ears are put to silence at the shape of Letters, and which of these is the fitter judge in this Controversy, to bring knowledge to the Understanding? That is to be observ'd well: But what's Learnt in Childhood is uncontroulable, as good as prescription of an hundred years, and a School-Dames authority is irrefragable, as the Proverb says, Early crookes the Tree, that will good Cambrill be: That to unlearn a Youthful Error, is more than to serve an Apprentiseship, or take the Degree of a Doctor or Serjeant. For these are deaf and dumb to Learn the contrary, as the dead Letters they have Learn'd, though I am loath to compare them to the English Doctor Burnet's Antidiluvian People pettrify'd in the Alps, which he saw in his Travails:

But in some parts they speak as we spell: Though the Countryman of the North in Apron and Iron, pronounce o after r, and we before it: Why should we keep their spelling, having lost their speech, and why should they not still keep their spelling of old, who still keep the speech? 'Tis this thought by some of the Learned, that English is the hardest Language in the World; for that Foreigners coming over, being past Children, never have our speech right, but may be discern'd to be no English born, whereas we after a short abode in out-Lands, speak their Tongue as well as Natives: Our folk being a mixture of many Nations, is so of Languages: But 'tis a wonder, so free as we are to take in their words, we take not in their Letters also. The Latines have but Twelve Consonants, and Five Vowels, and h, but the Greek and Hebrew may furnish us with Letters. The Neighbouring Countries are at a loss for them as well as we. If our credit be good, we want to borrow Two letters of the Greek, Gama, and Theta, and Four of the Hebrew, Thaleth, He, Aim, and Shin, and we should be set up, and with what shift we can make of our own.

In the first place what is the English of Quotus? But now my Pen is silenc'd, except I borrow the Two Greek Letters, and Thaleth of the Hebrew, and the Acute, and Greek Circumflex, to tell how Gtham, Gotherd, or gather, is to be red, and which is ment of the 24.

Gtham, [G]tham, Gtham, [G]tham, G[t]am, [G][t]am, G[t]am, [G][t]am, G[c]am, [G][c]am, G[c]am, [G][c]am, Gothm, [G]othm, Gothm, [G]othm, Go[t]m, [G]o[t]m, Go[t]m, [G]o[t]m, Go[c]m, [G]o[c]m, Gothm, Go[c]m.

[G] is Gama, [T] is Theta, [D] Thaleth; 'tis strange my Tongue should be longer than my Arms, without eking. 'Tis hard for Dunces to understand this as all willful Fools are. Humble humility is better than the miserable wisdom of the merciless knowledge of error. Cunning fooleries and vanities unlock'd for, to spell the same sound diverse ways, and when you have all done, you are but where you was, as prayes, praise, prasy. For why may not y stand for nothing after s, as well as after a, as may: But where no reason there is for custom, custom is no reason. Dasye, and dayes is all one. As the fool thinks, so the Bell chinks, for our Letters are like Wimondes-woles Bells. Sure if we have these tricks, we have more. Why if y doth no good, it doth nothing. But I have a mind it shall stand an out-side there out of the way, as daisy, is dayes. Doth (GO{D}) spell the Creator, it spells an Hebrew Letter as well. If you hold your book the wrong end upward. I've nothing to say against it, for 'tis your own, and you may hold it as you please.

But to go on according to Prescript.

2. Whether or no are our 24 Letters sufficient to spell all the words of our English Tongue.

3. Whether or no if they be sufficient to spell all words us'd for English in our books, they be not sufficient to spell all Languages; if England be like Rome, Conquering all Nations, took in the Idola[t]ry of all Laws, so England being Conquer'd by all, hath not got the rubish of all Languages.

4. Whether or no we make good and proper use of those Letters we have.

5. Whether the old use and custom of the Letters for an hundred Years or more, be sufficient for justifying the mispelling most words, us'd to this day, or whether we had not better mend late than never.

Hereupon we argue. First, It is granted that we have not yet proper English for all words in other Languages, nor Letters sufficient to express our own; as Authors from time to time do justifie, who have bin so little taken notice of by the publick (though there is some small amendment made, that can scarce be perceiv'd). The latter Authors mentioning the former, all Men of no small Note.

Secondly, There was as good reason for amendment an Hundred Years ago, as there is now, and will be as good reason an Hundred years hence to delay the amendment, as their is now; not altering a tittle of the known Pronounciation of the words, but only of the spelling. That the Letters may be of good use, and we need not to Read all by authority, as the very Learned Men are forc'd to do in yet unknown words still; so little assistance do the Letters yield them, that they the more might pitty young beginners. Which thing hath made a many Foreigners (and no marvel at all) of all the Neighbouring Nations to throw away their Books and Study of English, as their English Grammars, as well as our own, do sufficiently declare.

Thus to maintain a thing always unreasonable, will always be (as it hath bin) a thing unreasonable and after this rate an error everlasting.

But it is answer'd, that many words be thus Spell'd to shew their derivations. That need not be objected, when Scholars can find out the Etymologyes, when scarce one Letter remains of their Original, more than James from Jacob, Thaddus and Lebbus, from Jude the honest, or Judas, not Iscareat, and Didymus from Thomas, Giles, gidius. As for changing the Letters, I shall hope they will put the devines in; I fear not that they can put the Lawyers out.

What advantage or disadvantage it may be to Booksellers or Printers, as none of my business, I leave to their consideration.

But now to strike at the root of so many errors begotten by false Letters, besides a false finical speech according to the Letters, being illeterately litterate, as calf, haut, goust.



The Second Part of low Learning high.

The Order.

1. Vowels, 2. Diphthongs, 3. Consonants.

A is us'd 7 ways, and other Vowels so; When thus, or so, it doth amaze, we have no mark to know.

First, A long in Chamber changed danger commanded. Secondly, Short in Amber hang'd Anger, Understanding.

Now suppose Rennard the Fox, or the like old book, was Reprinted, and long Cambril'd, (which the Greeks call Perispomene) and a short not, would not that be a good guide for reading old Rennard unreprinted, with a right pronounciation, though there be no difference in a long or short.

Next, if it would please the wisdom of foolish custom (in whose errors of this kind (though in nothing else) all Religions meet) being long enough advis'd in time, to think fit to amend in the Copy, or at least in the Margin, where words are far otherwise spell'd, than they are pronounc'd (which the Hebrews call Kery and Kethiu; the Copy as written, but Kery the Margin as read, mark'd with Asterisk, one to the other) I believe our Printers could as easily Cambril our English Vowels, as Circumflex the Latin, which would be a sure guide for reading.

[Transcriber's Note: The Hebrew terms are usually written keri and kethiv.]

3dly and 4thly, A short without either rule or reason before a Consonant or two, with e after, as ace, acre, able, unstable, father, with A long, and solace, massacre, constable, gather, with A short.

5thly, A put for A Cambril to make e or o long, as bear, greater, broad, board. 6thly, Put like a Cambril, and is not a Cambril, neither, as Beatrice, create, creatour: So is i a false Cambril to a, as foraigners. When a person is in Commission, he should wear the livery of his Office; but when he signifies nothing, he should not put it on, nay rather, he had better keep at home.

7thly, A standing for just nothing, but as the shadow of a Cambril, as heaven, earth, bread, head, realm, meadow, read in the Preterperfect Tense.

In a Rail of Pales, if one be out to let in one Hog, 'tis enough to let in the whole Herd into the Close, is an observation applicable to the premisses.

E long and short, and we can see no cause for't in equally and equity, in cement, regard, torment, rebell, register, long and short in the same words being Acute when Verbs, and penacute when Nounes. But any Child or Foreigner, that never heard the words spoken, might uneasily guess at the true pronunciation by the sense, That an Acute would be a great ease and comfort to the Reader and Teacher, and no great trouble to the Printer.

3dly, and 4thly, E long and short before 2 Cambrils to bear up its train, viz. e before, and e after a Consonant, also g and e, or i and gh, 3 Cambrils, as eare, beare, with a and e; but here with but one Cambril; weigh with 2 or 3: In east, bread, stead, it makes no use of the Cambrils, only for state A must dance attendance, as in many hundreds more.

5thly, and 6thly, e long and short before a consonant or 2, and another e, as steple, people, treble and indeleble.

7thly, Syllables are long without e for a Cambril, as dost, most, ghost, bright, right, sign, design, and short, notwithstanding e Cambril as hence, since, prince, possible, facile, but Prince and Simple proper Names be spoken, with i long, that an unknown Reader mistake not the persons names.

But how nonsensically e is us'd in the end of syllables short in live, love, gives, but long, alive, and gives (fetters) and is pronounc'd and unpronounc'd before s, as rages, wages, cages, horses, asses, churches, and porches, and not in cares, fears, hopes, robes, bones, and making i long and not, as writer, fighter, mitre, hither and thither: In whether, e short, and weather, in neither e long; likewise e is pronounc'd and unpronounc'd in the middle, as commandements, righteous, covetous, stupefie, not in careful, careless, grateful, feareful; not in wednesday, and is pronounc'd after a diphthong or double consonant, very needlesly, as in inne, Anne, asse, poore, roome, joye, cause, laws, coife, choice, juice, and as badly after syllables made long by a or i, as feares, roads, theire, veine, veile, either. In Beresford the latter e is mispronounced by Scholarship, mistaken to make it trissylable.

8thly, E is pronounc'd sometimes singly in the end of words, as in Phebe, Cyrene, Penelope, Euterpe. But these be Greek words, but so is not the and be. But what an Husteron proteran is this to teach the Greek Grammar before the Battledore.

9thly, E put for a in they, their, and for i in ever, never, evil, wevil, devil.

10th, E put for ee, as Peter, Steven, even, he, she, me, we. And sometimes ie for the same, as yield, believe, friend, and otherwise in fiend, friend, diet, quiet, but not alike neither, but let that run upon th' tongue, made long in people by o, also infeoffe, heofness. viz. Heavens, (f pronounc'd as v) left out in George, biere, friend, leave out i, sieve, e; diet; and quiet, take in both.

11th, EE for e long, as beere, drink, deere, venison.

12th, Sometimes ee for twice, e, as Beersheba, overseer.

13th, Y and e, both for one Cambril, because one was perhaps to weak. Though one Cambril seems enough for one small veile, as dayes, wayes; also i and e, as haires, praise, and w and e, as showes, knows, crowes, not in lose. But why may not w serve after a and e, and y after o, I know not. Methinks the dead Letters should not be coye on what Cambril they're hang'd on; but I must ask the Butchers, and what doth e after Ile, for I will.

14th, E defective in seest, fleeth, freeest, agreed; that prodigal as e is of its company, should ever be wanting is a wonder; where there ought to be 3 ease, or ez, or thrice e, two for a diphthong, if it may be one for the syllable, that the distiction may seeme not heard between seeth, beholdeth, and see the boile, e is added.

But alas it is objected lately within this Seven years by G. B. that Compositors leav out E in days and ways, and such like; Garamercy for that! But why do they not leav out y also, which signifies not more, but les than e: And why is not i and e cast out of praise and raise, and e from wife and strife, which adorn the words no more than Beauty-spots do a Whore's Face: And why is not w for a black Patch, cast awa from know and blow, as well as da, and wa hav cast awa their Pock arr-y; and why is not w to do, where there's need; that 'ton need no mock 'tuthr wi' the los, and wi' the load of w: Now indeed we have cast awa ugh from though, and although, when som sound is of them, and not left gh out in bright, light, thought, where they signify no more than a chip, or herb Gohn in poredg: Ha! Ha! He! Yet in floweth and knoweth w sounds well, having an influence in the following vowel.

[Transcriber's Note: The "herb Gohn" is probably St. John's Wort, which can be made into a mash or "porridge".]

15th, Other verieties to make a syllable long without e, as a in boast, board, coasts, coales, not holes.

Also Short i, as veil, either, neither, and somtimes 'tis a diphthong, as neighbour, eight. Also o, as people, enfeoff, heofness. And u, as foure, foul, not in honour, neighbour, where o, and u, stand for as good as nothing.

And all Vowels be us'd supervacaneously before l, n, or r; as in brethren, coffen, children, open, navill, wevill; not in cavill, Sybill, and civill; apron, button, mutton, iron, reason, bacon, treason; and in proper names, as Gackson, Gohnson, Wilson, Tomson, Rependon, Repton, Donnington; not in God-Son, Common, but in Cousin.

All vowels be us'd in vain before r, as pillar, cellar, winter, summer, dinner, curfir, (as it were cover, fire,) honour, donour, neighbour, pleasure, measure, nature, feature, scripture, martyr. I is us'd severally.

1st and 2dly, I Long and short in the same circumstances, as blind, find, mind, with i long, kindred, limb, shrimp, pinch, with i short; gh makes i long, as bright, might, plight, &c. and i is long without 'em, as bite, kite, write.

3dly and 4thly, I short with a consonant, and e after it, as lives, gives, nouns and verbs: Bible, possible, triple, tribled, idle fidle, Prince, prince. 5thly, and 6thly, makeing e long, and not as before.

7thly, Used in vain, as gainful, &c. as before; also e and a put for i, as borage, savage, knowledge, colledge, not in hedge and nonage; also y was us'd formerly for i.

But most abominably i is us'd for g, which is unpardonable, when g being a letter of a double meaning can do without, as gaol, or goal; why should it infect i with its own distemper, to be double minded.

Lastly, W[h]y g[h] ma not make all vowels long as well as i, and w[h]y ma not ye and we make vowels long, as well as a, e, and o; we must ask t[h]e natural P[h]ilosop[h]ers w[h]at sympat[h]y or antipat[h]y is in t[h]e Lettrz; and w[h]et[h]er an occult quality; or t[h]e divines, if t[h]ere be not a mystery in it above nature before we adventure to teah and cong the batl-dur; and w[h]y I ma not supply t[h]e place of y rat[h]er t[h]an g, as in yate, yell, yule, younger, (as Italians).

T[h]is [h]ad bin very excuseable, and not wit[h]out antient president. As likewise w[h]y some consonants take exception at some vowels; or some vowels at t[h]em, t[h]at t[h]ey change t[h]eir meaning? as c and g, sometimes before e and i, and t before ion sometimes.

8thly, W[h]y not always wit[h]out exeption: If t[h]ere be a supernatural cause (for we are sure t[h]eir is no natural one) for t[h]ese t[h]ings, t[h]ey will declare it, if not; t[h]ere must needs be a preternatural won.

O, is us'd accordingly, as most, dost, lost, tost.

3dly and 4thly, As some, come, [h]ome, done, gone; short a in Joan, Joanne, Joakim, a and o part.

Also l makes o long, as roll, poll, not extoll, and w[h]y not ot[h]er vowels too.

O, for oe, as mot[h]er, among, from.

O, for u, as brot[h]er, come, some, word, world, wont, t[h]e verb; anot[h]er, good, blood, not yonder.

O, for a, nort[h]erly, as paredg, [h]arses, carn, amang.

U is us'd promiscuously, as appears in the vowels afore going, but not so frequently as the rest, as [h]ugh long, hug short; [h]uge, voluble, superfluous after b and g, as build, guard, not regard, q being call'd cu, needs it not; guide, not gilbert.

But v consonant not call'd ev, with a different caracter, is no less absur'd than j consonant, not call'd ij, with a different figure, as mejer for measure, as the French also use it, as je vou remercy. So osier, [h]osier, easier, azure, &c.

F us'd for v anciently, as d for th, as fader; but spokn as we do now: ev is us'd for f in the West, as vire, vield, for fire, field, and we put p for v in upper: The Hebrews put veth for it, beth for b, the Spaniards make v, b, but to let other Languages alone, we pass to

The Diphthongs.

Whereof 3 be very absurd, ee for which the Latins us'd ij, as ijdem oculi lucent, eadem feritatis imago est, Ov. met. The Greeks made Eta a doble e, as also oo OMEGA.

2. Oo, for which the Latins us'd uu, as uva, uuula, and the British and Hebrews double u.

3. Aw, all, au, as augre, maugre, awe, law, all, calf, (se the rest in l.) and ao properly, as graot, gaol, gaot.

Ai, as straight, again, not, wait, ei as eight, not neither.

Oi, as boile, not the noun.

Uu is serv'd by oo, and so forth. No thanks for it.

Ui, as juice. Ou, as ought, not, out.

Au is put for ao, ou for au, as sauce, souce.

Eu or ew, ewe, neuter, is right.

Iu, as view, might be mended thus, viu.

Ou is common, as could, cow, but there is difference between o long and short.

O is often us'd for a triphthong (y in British). O u u, as hone, stone, doore, through, wo, whore, fore, more.

In ou o is oft left out, as double, trouble.

L is us'd for o, as Ralph, [h]alf, calf, malt, [h]alt, salt and scalp, not in [h]ealth and wealth, and dealt: L is so us'd after e, as elf, not self, whelm, Gulielm, not elme.

Lastly, L is for u, as old, cold, gold, fold, bold, colt, bolt, not in dolt.

If ae, eo, ie, and ea be diphthongs, and lawfully marry'd by Banes, or Licens, I'm sure it is but an [h]alf char-marriage, for they (for a just impediment) never bed together.

Amendment offer'd.

Make a Cambril over the vowels to make 'em long; and this will cure innumerabl errors, and there will be no more mistakes or abuse of the vowels, and this will save a world of truble.

But because the titl of i stands in the way, give a dash for I long, and let a low Apostrophe, as high as the bodies of he letters, stand for i short, and i with a tittle for double i or ee. So

Mal, mel, mil, mol, mul. Ml, ml, m[i]l, ml, ml.

[Transcriber's Note: Text shown as printed, although preceding paragraph implies "m'l" or "m[i]l" (dotless i, or i without "tittle") in first line, "m—l" in second.]

Then ask the Printer whether a Cambril set over the vowels, be not as good, and cheap as an e, a, o, or gh at the end.

But w[h]at difference can we make in figures, between ou, long o, and short o? Thus like the sign Taurus after the Greek fashion is short ou, or (speak Tongue) ou at lengt[h], is long o wit[h] u; and again the sign Taurus wit[h] a Foot-Ball between [h]is [h]orns, is t[h]e Trift[h]ong; t[h]e reason belongs to Grammar.

For to lay sound upon sound wit[h]out sig[h]t, is as field upon field, false Heraldry.

But as for suc[h] as [h]ave t[h]eir for[h]eads no broader t[h]an t[h]eir Battledore, they must stic in the old nooke at q in the corner, not seven years, but seventy times seven.

'Tis not a sin sait[h] a P[h]ilosop[h]er t[h]at I cannot spel wel, but t[h]at I cannot live well. If we [h]ave t[h]is error from the Lawyers we [h]ope 'tis lawful; for to put in letters in a word or words in a deed, more t[h]an enoug[h] often. But the Lawyers English may be no better t[h]an [h]is Latin, t[h]e one as [h]ard to be spell'd, as t[h]e ot[h]er to be parsd.

Next we come to the Consonants.



Third Part of Babling Babel undermin'd; the Eyes submitting to the Ears.

Consonants do sometimes stand for noug[h]t, Sometimes for one anot[h]er; But w[h]en stands eah one as it oug[h]t? W[h]en stands it for its brot[h]er?

B is a Consonant [h]at[h] no name-sake, as none oug[h]t to have. For put a vowel before or after it, its all one for the name and value, for every value of a letter is according to its name, or oug[h]t to be, for the name is proper to the figure as call, de or ed, 'tis all one, as r o ed, rod. Call b be, or eb; but use custom, 'tis [h]elpful w[h]en proper; [h]urtful w[h]en improper. B is overplus in Lamb, t[h]umb, debt, doubt; and w[h]at need is t[h]ere of t[h]ese unnecessary bees; scarce one in a Parish besides the Parson t[h]inks t[h]e two last come of Latin words, debitum and dubito, w[h]ere t[h]ey are pronounc'd.

B is a letter of t[h]e lips, shutting t[h]e lips before t[h]e vowel, w[h]en it begins a syllable, and after a vowel when it ends: So do the rest in BUMaF viz. ev, we, m, f, p.

A Rule useful for School-Teachers, for short Tongu'd Children, for easy Utterance use the upper Letters for the neather.

B [G] D V G J Z [C] [Y] [R]

For

P C [T] F H [J] S [T] K R

Probatum est.

By one I had a Scholar, could speak none of the neather Letters, till he [h]ad learn'd (after the West [G]untry fashion, and the Rules of the Learn'd Grammars) to pronounce the upper first.

We are not awar [h]au muh our deseitful lettrz [h]indr uthr Learning, and refining Inglish, and [h]au tru letrz would furthr it.

Mad C w'[c] s spelz sound [c]e sm, Stilo novo. Betrz q h and k. Desetfule deniz its nam, And s do[c] it betra. Dissembli[v] C wi[c] nidles vot, Ov ridi[v] brex [c]e nec. Unles it [h]av a proper nam, And spelli[v] suits wi[c] C. C [g]ivz an il exampl, And iz a tripl tnav: CCC ERAS. Ad. On gustis it do[c] trampl, Scab'd for aol [h]er aolz brav. Ov sierz [c]e blind ledr iz: [D]e ded [c]e livi[v] rul. ARISTOF. And [wot] a tirsum tasc iz [c]is To wat upon a Fuul? Larg [h]ausn [h]av wi in larg taunz, And largr hevnle buux: Larg Cots and Tlox [h]av wi and [G]aunz, Aur fit in letr stox. It nivr iz tuu lat to [t]riv, Nor to inven[j]onz ad: For Silvr auns wi ra[c]r striv, [D]un mane paundz ov Led. Nau [c]at I ma u trule si, Sertante to mi sa: If lic u sim and no frend be, Non ledz mi wursr wa. In cruuced waz [c]is aol iz il, Men tno not [c]at [c]a er. And [c]at men luv darcnes stil, No faot in endless fir.

As c t and h do fuul our erz ovr and ovr in hatch and catch, &c. so dodh D (non without desert) in Wednesday, Hedg, Judg, spring, grudg, badg, where g may do well without its false [h]elp or cumber-place.

F is unpronounc'd in mastiff and t is spoken instead of f, in handful, armful, sackful. But it hath manifest wrong done it, by his convertible p, and its unconvertible h, against their own names too, as Philip. Whereas ph help no more for spelling Filip, than it doth Alexander. Now if you had said HURH spells Church, and GUG spells Judge, I could easily believe it.

But heap, God, thy, thigh, hang, shame, which are none of the seven spell'd by the Letters we intend should spell them: neither can any Englishman for his ears, eyes and wits, spell any of these words, and MILLIONS more like 'em, more by his 24 English Letters, make what shift he can, while Ingland is Ingland, and have both Universities, CAMBRIGE and Oxford to help him, and all the Universities beyond the Seas to help them.

Viz. [Y]p, [G]od, [C]i, [T]i, [Y]a[v], [J][v], [W]ih; also [F]aun, [R]m; and Hif, Ked, Plejr. For

Turpe est doctore cum culpa redarguit ipsum.

According to Cato:

Unto the Teacher its a shame, In others his own Faults to blame.

Thus you percieve the whole World is but in the Battle-dore, and Lerning is in the Cradle, and the sayings of this Book, as Macroons to invite her to the taking her Letters to keep up old custom. As Horas [h]ath it in his first Sermon.

——Pueris dant crustula blandi Doctores elementa velint ut discere prima.

Kind Teachers give Boys Bun and Cake, Their Letters for to Learn them make.

G is deaf in sign, not signifie, and g[h] in boug[h]t, broug[h]t, not in coug[h], throug[h], enoug[h], w[h]ih is strangly spoken, stuff, enoug[h], boug[h]s, enoug[h], (corn enoug[h]) and sig[h]ed, and g[h]ed spells [h]ead, if ec be not cast away; let k be g[h]a, else k (unless for g[h]) as in back, stack, crack, would be a vain impertinent Letter, and deserves (as suh) in an orderly Family to be cic'd out o' th' doors. For our Battle-dore is a well-[g]overn'd SITY, w[h]ih shuts out all idle impertinent persnz, as vagrants wit[h] t[h]eir extravagancies out o' t[h]' Gates.

H is vain, in Ghost, Sc[h]olar, not in Churh, but c is, t[h]erefore it deserves to be turn'd out of doors, for loosing its good name, [h]aving work enoug[h] to live of its trade, and is an Interlooper, sounding one t[h]ing by its self, anot[h]er in word-spelling, that she ma not be [h]onest by [h]er self, and a knave in company.

L in will, bell, mall, full, and t[h]ousands more.

M in gemm, stem, &c.

N in Henry and proper names, as Normanton, Rependon, Donington. T[h]e former n is un[h]eard.

P in receipt, not except, and mig[h]t as well be left out, as in deceit, conceit, of t[h]e same sin, so empty temptation.

S in isle, island, ass, as is uz, s single is as

T in whitsunday, and watch, catch, clutch.

U is turn'd into EV, Coventry, Daventry, Oven for Couentry, Dauntry, Ouen, an eut; see Mr. Dugdal.

So our Letters rat[h]er marr than mend our Language, w[h]en wrong spell'd: but more Letters would do well in the Alfabet, (w[h]ih is preparing) but fewer in most words to spell properly.

We is us'd t[h]ree ways, as a vowel, as now, [h]ow, as a consonant in we, went, as nothing, in know, show, and bo.

Ye is us'd four ways, as a consonant, as yea, yes, as a long and short vowel, as w[h]y, [h]oly and doubtful, as my, t[h]y, and as not[h]ing in may day.

W[h]en each Letter [h]at[h] but one meaning 1; the Reading is certain as two and twenty one, one wants w, and two ma spare it.

Z is scarce us'd in vain, but as many consonants are double to make a short vowel, as Buzze, but is most us'd for s after all Letters but p, c, t, for plurals and t[h]e like, s and z seem to cross one another, as raze and raise, and x for z, as beaux.

Since renoun'd Aut[h]ors of late [h]ave left out ugh, as t[h]oug[h] and the like, writing t[h]o', if they [h]ad left out w and y superfluous, as know, row, da, t[h]are, and put out all vain letters, and cambril the vowels, the idle Letters would never [h]ave come in again.

Now if Books were begun to be all printed by t[h]ese directions, t[h]ey would make all other old books easier read, and more truly pronounced, t[h]e false spelling being discover'd and amended.

But Letters are neither here nor there, for all this, in every circuit there is something of a particular dialect, differing from the common English, though the Western and Northern differ most.

Now when we speak of altering the Letters, we alter not, but establish and settle the known speech, which is no more but to alter or remove the sign when it directedh to the wrong [h]ouse, but the Inn all the while is the same. If one be in the North or West, he had best speak as they do, that he may be readily understood, which is the end of speech.

We have corruptions enough in our Letters to corrupt all Languages writ with them.

If our Letters were thus Corrected, a stranger, or home-bred, might learn as much English in a day, as otherwise in a month or more.

Put nature in arts Cradle, and its fet in the stox.

There have been many changes of [G]overnment this hundred years, yet the same errors rule, that we are, and no body for promisiz better.

But what ails you to be so bitter against the Letters? Why I look at them as the dark-house to lodge all our errors in, and a feather-bed, where all, both errors and unknown sins may be lodg'd, therefore I pull out the Straws out of your bolster, that I may let light into the house, that you ma see you lodge in a thorn-bush instead of a feather-bed. But I find, (God [h]elp us both) that at all final errors are friends of the greater, that neither am I able by these letters to speak, nor you to understand me by Writing. Nay no man is by old Letters able so much as to hint what he would have the new ones call'd, but the old will insinuate their sufficiency.



The Fourth Part, of Instructions Instructed, or Light out of Darkness.

The first Table, wherein the self-same sounds are Spell'd by different Letters, first Right, and then Wrong.

A as a, Manna, Joshua, Asia, Judah, Hannah; why ma we not cast awa the Hebrew He out of words, as well as the Latins and Greeks have done? Day, say, their, they, fair. These Letters that be, not pronounc'd are very wellcome to be gone, the door stands wide open.

E, as be, the, Phebe, yea, weigh, key, holy. If propagating Error be lawful, 'tis lawful to teach wrong.

I, as Ivi; lie, lye, thy, why, thigh, buy, for the first might as lawfully be spell'd like the last, as UYe I, as the last is wrong spell'd, but more lawfully ma the last be spell'd as your first.

O, do, no, so, to, right, tow, dough, Bowes, beau, sloe, slow. (If u be pronounc'd in flow, 'tis a diphthong, let u take its place) wrong.

U, as tru, blue, Hugh, new, a singl u might stand for you (if it please u) but not for your, beauty.

Ao, gaol, gaot, graot, goal, law, sauce, calf, scalp, caug[h]t, taug[h]t.

Al, as ale, fail, but, fayl in old Books.

El, as kele, meale, seale, veil, and veal.

Il, mile, isle, island, boile, pyle.

Ol, mole, soul, coal, roll, poll.

Ul, deul, the straig[h]test road, the shortest rule.

Sore against shins it goes to go about, Where you've but one road, you cannot go out.

So m, em, im, om, um, and an, en, in, on, un, as claim, p[h]legm, rooms, [h]olmes, tombs, soveraign, foreigners, sign, groan, hewn.

Hav two strait lines from point to point you shall, * Pseudografy ageometrical. * Bz.

So a, e, and sofort[h], before, before, r, s, t, z, bier, [h]ig[h]er, bore, soar, four, lower, case, ace, raze, bass, peace, cease, rise, price, justice, prose, sloce, prize, wise, eyes, lies, rise verb, sighs, use, noun, truce, nose, foes, blows, use verb; suit, an event: but s is us'd for z too oft, the more intollerable; but z should be us'd when it makes a distinction between noun and verb, as use, rise, abuse:

Conceit wit[h]out receit, is mere deceit.

Jams, gaol, Jo[h]n, goal, magistrate, majesty, geese, fleece, sig[h]ed, [h]ead, sadled, glad, titled, clad, battled, know, frenh, wensh, good, blood, wort[h], [h]unt, gentl, jear, rih, wit[h], city, sit, scituate, year, be[h]aviour, Joshua, wa, now, noug[h]t.

S, as factious, precious, anctious, conscience, sho, fashion, Je[h]oschua, these wi the help ov the Frenh, as quelque hose, and old Authors ma be quadrupled all wrong.

So x for ckes, as flax, stackes, sex, necks, six, stickes, fox, rokes, flux, bucks.

What spells g u g, q i c, [w] i h, R e p n, s c o l r; if wrong (w [h]as no business there) be plesant, rite, (gh [h]at[h] not[h]ing to do t[h]ere) is plezantr, unless to please t[h]ose t[h]at [h]ave t[h]eir wits wit[h]out 'em, will [h]ave t[h]e ears misled by t[h]e eys, and t[h]e soul by t[h]e body, t[h]erefore (suppose t[h]at t[h]ere are fashions for t[h]e soul as well as the body) in t[h]e old Church Bible ov K. J. its [h]ye, now [h]ig[h]; so formerly forainers, now foreigners, Rawley, Rawleigh, [h]ere's wit with a witness: But these are no more besides their wits, t[h]an t[h]ey are wit[h]out their wits, t[h]at [h]ave t[h]eir wits wit[h]in t[h]em. These that can, paint the vois, can limb out souls too. No doubt very Learn'd men!

You t[h]at understand t[h]e frets on t[h]e great Fidle, and wit[h]out Gammut, can pric down proper sounds to words in visible shapes, according to t[h]e nu fashion; pra take not awa the falals the old Fat[h]ers put to t[h]eir words, lest posterity serve you no better, as Hierom, Hierusalem, ripe, snite, knight, as haucer.

The time shall come that Doctors and Knights Shall be as common as Woodcox and Snites, With Crambo's or Books ful many a score, As good as these you find, I'll ad no more.

Fpsti. Difficilia qu pulchra. Hard to be dun, a dute iz sur dhe gratest bute.



A Table of the self-same Leters, Spelling words ov a far different sound.

As with, with, bath, bathe, sith, sithe, both, both, loath, loath, oath, oathes, smith, smithy, breath, of, off, then, yet, liveth or liveth, joth or joth, mouth, mouth, path or path, wrath, wreath, faith or faith, thy, thigh, this, thistle, thou, thousand, thank, they, them, theame, thus, thunder, thine, thin, goal or goal, as afore, motion, crimson, action, Acteon, singed, hanged, changed, shepherd, Shaphat, dishonour, asham'd, bishop, mishap, character, charity, duckherd, blockhead, Dutchess, gather, success, suggest, or suggest, or suggest, or suggest, haov, rij, [w]heg and who, come, on, you know what I mean, as well as [h]orses. War rod: scepter, sceptic, syllables, bless, access, axes, oxen, Christ-cross, beaux, beauty, ancre, kernel, acres, craz'd, threatned, knead, bootes, Bootes, winged, gnaw'd: th is cut of from with, cum, after another of the same, at wi' them.

To Read English after the names ov the Letters, which is blameless, max English as strang as to read after the French fashion; what would become of Gire-eagle, wither, league, thing, Jehosaphat.

Put an Apostrophe (call'd Swa in Hebru) between every two consonants (viz. a short i) the spelling is discern'd as well as with a touch-stone, that you may perseve easily that falsehood is not in good earnest.

So george, gorge, Gomorrha, Esau, Hus or uz, Nubes, Ragau, Joshua, where ([V] [v]) is the first letter in the four first, middlemost in fist, a in the last all wrong. That no wonder if the Bible Translators took up the blanket, and left the Child behind 'em, when St. Hierom says, the Hebrew Letters are not to be exprest by the Western figures (I think truly) And for want of axents Church-Readers wickedly miscall Bible-words, as Theobulus, Jericho, Goliah, Csarea, a Decapolis, Penacutes or Prepenacutes, also Haggi four ways.

A duble Letter in Hebrew of the same sort, being dageshed, prevents all mistakes, as heggai. So '[G]od"es" for the Goddesses.

But for example sake, as far as any thing can really be exprest by English Letters, without bodging patching, or bungling balderdash or barbarous gallimofry of our Romantic Letters, obscurer than the Egiptian Hieroglifix. I will subscribe an old saing in English, as easy as any thing, if custom and fashion tnu it:

An As an Mul carrid Runlets ov Wine, But d' Ass did gron undr er burdn gret: Qo'd' Mul, Modr, wat al u dus to win? And under your lijt lod so sor to swet? Ist dubl ber if I tac won ov din. Wijst ber a lic if dau tac won ov min. Pride cind Gometer do us dis fet.

Doctrina non habet inimicum prter ignorantem.

Of erudition dher's no sircumstans Hadh ani enimi but ignorans.

But 'premisses rightly understood desier the exhibition of a compleat Alfebet, to read English as easily as [G]reek; therefore I shall end this Book wi' the first Letter ov the ensuing Batl-dur.

[A] [a] A a B b [D] d D [c] E e F f G g [G] [g] H h [Y] [h] I i J j C c K k [F] [f] M m N n [V] [v] O o P p Q q R r S s [J] [j] T t [T] [t] U u V v W w [W] [w] X x Y y z &. [+]

FINIS.

* * * * *

William Andrews Clark Memorial Library: University of California

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Henry Fielding, The Voyages of Mr. Job Vinegar (1740). Introduction by Sam Sackett.

William Herbert, Third Earl of Pembroke, Poems (1660). Introduction by Gaby Onderwyzer.

An Historical View of the Political Writers of Great Britain (1740). Introduction by Robert L. Haig.

Francis Hutcheson, Essays on Laughter (1729).

Samuel Johnson, Notes to Shakespeare, Vol. III, Tragedies. Edited by Arthur Sherbo.

Richard Savage, An Author to be Let (1732). Introduction by James Sutherland.

Elkanah Settle, The Notorious Impostor (1692). Introduction by Spiro Peterson.

Seventeenth Century Tales of the Supernatural. Selected, with an Introduction, by Isabel M. Westcott.

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Numbers 1-6 out of print.

[List of titles added by transcriber:

1. Richard Blackmore's Essay upon Wit (1716), and Addison's Freeholder No. 45 (1716). #13484

2. Anon., Essay on Wit (1748), together with Characters by Flecknoe, and Joseph Warton's Adventurer Nos. 127 and 133. #14973

3. Anon., Letter to A. H. Esq.; concerning the Stage (1698), and Richard Willis' Occasional Paper No. IX (1698). #14047

4. Samuel Cobb's Of Poetry and Discourse on Criticism (1707). #14528

5. Samuel Wesley's Epistle to a Friend Concerning Poetry (1700) and Essay on Heroic Poetry (1693). #16506

6. Representation of the Impiety and Immorality of the Stage (1704) and Some Thoughts Concerning the Stage (1704). #15656]

*Second Year (1947-1948)*

7. John Gay's The Present State of Wit (1711); and a section on Wit from The English Theophrastus (1702). #14800

8. Rapin's De Carmine Pastorali, translated by Creech(1684). #14495

9. T. Hanmer's(?) Some Remarks on the Tragedy of Hamlet (1736). #14899

10. Corbyn Morris' Essay towards Fixing the True Standards of Wit, etc. (1744). #16233

11. Thomas Purney's Discourse on the Pastoral (1717). #15313

12. Essays on the Stage, selected, with an Introduction by Joseph Wood Krutch. #16335

*Third Year (1948-1949)*

13. Sir John Falstaff (pseud.), The Theatre (1720). #15999

14. Edward Moore's The Gamester(1753). #16267

15. John Oldmixon's Reflections on Dr. Swift's Letter to Harley (1712); and Arthur Mainwaring's The British Academy (1712).

16. Nevil Payne's Fatal Jealousy (1673). #16916

17. Nicholas Rowe's Some Account of the Life of Mr. William Shakespeare (1709). #16275

18. "Of Genius," in The Occasional Paper, Vol. III, No. 10 (1719); and Aaron Hill's Preface to The Creation (1720). #15870

*Fourth Year (1949-1950)*

19. Susanna Centlivre's The Busie Body (1709). #16740

20. Lewis Theobold's Preface to The Works of Shakespeare (1734). #16346

21. Critical Remarks on Sir Charles Grandison, Clarissa, and Pamela (1754).

22. Samuel Johnson's The Vanity of Human Wishes (1749) and Two Rambler papers (1750). #13350

23. John Dryden's His Majesties Declaration Defended (1681). #15074

24. Pierre Nicole's An Essay on True and Apparent Beauty in Which from Settled Principles is Rendered the Grounds for Choosing and Rejecting Epigrams, translated by J. V. Cunningham.

*Fifth Year (1950-1951)*

25. Thomas Baker's The Fine Lady's Airs (1709). #14467

26. Charles Macklin's The Man of the World (1792). #14463

27. Out of print.

[Title added by transcriber: Frances Reynolds' An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Taste, and of the Origin of Our Ideas of Beauty, etc. (1785). #13485]

28. John Evelyn's An Apologie for the Royal Party (1659); and A Panegyric to Charles the Second (1661). #17833

29. Daniel Defoe's A Vindication of the Press (1718). #14084

30. Essays on Taste from John Gilbert Cooper's Letters Concerning Taste, 3rd edition (1757), & John Armstrong's Miscellanies (1770). #13464

*Sixth Year*

31. Thomas Gray, Elegy in a Country Church Yard (1751); and The Eton College Manuscript. #15409

32. Prefaces to Fiction; Georges de Scudry's Preface to Ibrahim (1674), etc. #14525

33. Henry Gally's A Critical Essay on Characteristic-Writings (1725). #16299

34. Thomas Tyers' A Biographical Sketch of Dr. Samuel Johnson (1785).

35. James Boswell, Andrew Erskine, and George Dempster. Critical Strictures on the New Tragedy of Elvira, Written by Mr. David Malloch (1763). #15857

36. Joseph Harris's The City Bride (1696).

*Seventh Year (1952-1953)*

37. Thomas Morrison's A Pindarick Ode on Painting (1767).

38. John Phillips' A Satyr Against Hypocrites (1655).

39. Thomas Warton's A History of English Poetry.

40. Edward Bysshe's The Art of English Poetry (1708).

41. Bernard Mandeville's "A Letter to Dion" (1732).

42. Prefaces to Four Seventeenth-Century Romances.

*Eighth Year (1953-1954)*

43. John Baillie's An Essay on the Sublime (1747).

44. Mathias Casimire Sarbiewski's The Odes of Casimire, Translated by G. Hils (1646).

45. John Robert Scott's Dissertation on the Progress of the Fine Arts.

46. Selections from Seventeenth Century Songbooks.

47. Contemporaries of the Tatler and Spectator.

48. Samuel Richardson's Introduction to Pamela.

*Ninth Year (1954-1955)*

49. Two St. Cecilia's Day Sermons (1696-1697).

50. Hervey Aston's A Sermon Before the Sons of the Clergy (1745).

51. Lewis Maidwell's An Essay upon the Necessity and Excellency of Education (1705).

52. Pappity Stampoy's A Collection of Scotch Proverbs (1663).

53. Urian Oakes' The Soveraign Efficacy of Divine Providence (1682).

54. Mary Davys' Familiar Letters Betwixt a Gentlemen and a Lady (1725).

*Tenth Year (1955-1956)*

55. Samuel Say's An Essay on the Harmony, Variety, and Power of Numbers (1745).

56. Theologia Ruris, sive Schola & Scala Naturae (1686).

57. Henry Fielding's Shamela (1741).

58. Eighteenth Century Book Illustrations.

59. Samuel Johnson's Notes to Shakespeare. Vol. I, Comedies, Part I.

60. Samuel Johnson's Notes to Shakespeare. Vol. I, Comedies, Part II.

*Eleventh Year (1956-1957)*

61. Elizabeth Elstob's An Apology for the Study of Northern Antiquities (1715) #15329

62. Two Funeral Sermons (1635)

63. Parodies of Ballad Criticism (1711-1787)

64. Prefaces to Three Eighteenth Century Novels (1708, 1751, 1797)

65. Samuel Johnson's Notes to Shakespeare. Vol. II, Histories, Part I.

66. Samuel Johnson's Notes to Shakespeare. Vol. II, Histories, Part II.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Errors and Anomalies noted by transcriber:

[Footnote 4: ... Vol. 1, p. 267. In Vol. II ...] Inconsistency between "1" and "II" in original.

Inter quos referendvs erit veteresne poetas. _v for u in original_ Utor permisso; caudaque pilos ut equina _text reads "uquina"_ Paulatim vello, & demo unum, demo etiam unum. _text reads "itiam"_ _The Second Book of Epistles of _Quintus, Horatius, Flaccus_. _commas in original_ That we make something to discourse upon further _text reads "discoure"_ U. True, dew, Hugh, neuter, give, you, gaol, jaylor, goal, John ... _text unchanged: erroneous comma after "give" and missing line break after "you"?_

Gtham, [G]tham, Gtham, [G]tham, G[t]am, [G][t]am, error for "[G][t]am"? G[t]am, [G][t]am, / G[c]am, [G][c]am, G[c]am, [G][c]am, Gothm, [G]othm, / Gothm, [G]othm, errors for "Gothm, [G]othm"? Go[t]m, [G]o[t]m, Go[t]m, [G]o[t]m, Go[c]m, / [G]o[c]m, Gothm, Go[c]m. errors for "Go[c]m, [G]o[c]m"?

2. Whether or no are our 24 Letters sufficient ... The printed text uses 26 ordinary English letters, distinguishing between i and j and between u and v. It also uses long s. took in the Idola[t]ry of all Laws error for "Idolatry"? Hereupon we argue. First, It is granted text reads "Is is granted" Secondly, There was as good reason for amendment text reads "Thers was" 1. Vowels, 2. Diphthongs, 3. Consonants. text reads "Consonats" First, A long in Chamber changed danger commanded text reads "Along" But what an Husteron proteran text unchanged: usual form is "Husteron proteron" or herb Gohn in poredg: Ha! Ha! He! end of line unclear: possible letter after "poredg" Yet in floweth text reads "it floweth" as borage, savage text reads "us" (for we are sure t[h]eir is no natural one) text reads "te[h]ir is no naural" ev is us'd for f text reads "e v is us'd" a low Apostrophe, as high as the bodies of the letters text reads "Apostorphe ... he letters" be not as / good, and cheap as an e, a, o, or gh at the end text has "and heap" with extra space t[h]at I cannot live well text has "t[h] t" with space

B [G] D V G J Z [C] [Y] [R] For P C [T] F H [J] S [T] K R text unchanged: [C] in first line probable error for [D]; first [T] in second line (below D) probable error for T

Mad C w'[c] s spelz sound [c]e sm, Stilo novo. text reads "Mad C w''[c] s" or "Mad C w"[c] s" C [g]ivz an il exampl, text reads "[g]i[v]z" And iz a tripl tnav: CCC ERAS. Ad. text reads "tna[v]" (tn for kn: "knave"?) Scab'd for aol [h]er aolz brav. text reads "bra[v]" [D]e ded [c]e livi[v] rul. text reads "De ded" And [w]ot a tirsum tasc iz [c]is text unchanged: error for "wot"? Larg Cots and Tlox [h]av wi and [G]aunz, text unchanged Aur fit in letr stox. text unchanged: error for "le[t]r"? [D]un mane paundz ov Led. text reads "Dun mane" Men tno not [c]at [c]a er. text reads "[c]rt [c]a er"

dodh D (non without desert) _text reads "deset"; "dodh" may be error for "do[c]"_ and Hif, Ked, Plejr. _text unchanged: error for "Ple[j]r" (Pleasure)?_ enoug[h], (corn enoug[h]) _no open parenthesis in text_ So our Letters rat[h]er marr than mend our Language _text reads "Letaers"_ as nothing, in know, show, and bo. _text unchanged: error for "bow"?_ Put nature in arts Cradle, and its fet in the stox. _text reads "its set in the ftox" with apparent f:long-s exchange_ Bowes, beau, sloe, slow. (If u be pronounc'd in flow, 'tis a diphthong, let u take its place) wrong. _"sloe, slow" and "flow" unchanged: either f or s may be an error_ * Pseudografy ageometrical. * Bz. _asterisks in original text_ suit, an event: _text reads "evet"_ t[h]erefore (suppose t[h]at t[h]ere are fashions for t[h]e soul as well as the body) _no open parenthesis in text_ Fpsti. _Difficilia qu pulchra._ _text unclear: may be "Epsti."_ So '[G]od"es" for the Goddesses. _text unchanged: intended punctuation unclear_ if custom and fashion tnu it: _text unclear_ _Doctrina non habet inimicum prter ignorantem._ _text reads "_Doctrida"_

[A] [a] A a B b [D] d D [c] ... text unchanged: error for "D d [D] [c]" or "[D] [c] D d"? letters L l and capital Z missing in original

ARS Material:

34. Thomas Tyers' A Biographical Sketch of Dr. Samuel Johnson (1785). text reads "Johson" 35. ... ... Malloch (1763). date included in italics

THE END

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