Manual of Military Training
(SECOND, REVISED EDITION)
COLONEL JAMES A. MOSS
UNITED STATES ARMY
(Officially adopted by ONE HUNDRED AND FIVE  of our military schools and colleges.)
Intended, primarily, for use in connection with the instruction and training of Cadets in our military schools and colleges and of COMPANY officers of the National Army, National Guard, and Officers' Reserve Corps; and secondarily, as a guide for COMPANY officers of the Regular Army, the aim being to make efficient fighting COMPANIES and to qualify our Cadets and our National Army, National Guard and Reserve Corps officers for the duties and responsibilities of COMPANY officers in time of war.
GEORGE BANTA PUBLISHING COMPANY Army and College Printers MENASHA—WISCONSIN
JAS. A. MOSS
First impression (October, 1914) 10,000 Second impression (September, 1915) 10,000 Third impression (March, 1916) 10,000 Fourth impression (July, 1916) 10,000 Fifth impression (February, 1917) 3,000 Sixth impression (April, 1917) 4,000
First impression (May, 1917) 40,000 Second impression (August, 1917) 30,000 Third impression (November, 1917) 50,000 ———- Total 167,000
Publishers and General Distributers GEORGE BANTA PUBLISHING CO., MENASHA, WIS.
OTHER DISTRIBUTERS (Order from nearest one)
Boston, Mass. The Harding Uniform and Regalia Co., 22 School St. Chicago, Ill. A. C. McClurg & Co. Columbus, Ohio. The M. C. Lilley & Co. Fort Leavenworth, Kan. U. S. Cavalry Association. Book Dept., Army Service Schools. Fort Monroe, Va. Journal U. S. Artillery. Kalamazoo, Mich. Henderson-Ames Co. New York. Baker & Taylor Co., 4th Ave. Army and Navy Cooeperative Co., 16 East 42nd St. Ridabock & Co., 140 West 36th St. Warnock Uniform Co., 16 West 46th St. Philadelphia, Pa. Jacob Reed's Sons, 1424 Chestnut. Portland, Ore. J. K. Gill Co. San Antonio, Tex. Frank Brothers Alamo Plaza. San Francisco, Cal. B. Pasquale Co., 115-117 Post St. Washington, D. C. Army and Navy Register, 511 Eleventh St. N. W. Meyer's Military Shops, 1331 F. St. N. W. U. S. Infantry Association, Union Trust Bldg. PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Philippine Education Co., Manila, P. I. HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: Hawaiian News Co., Honolulu, H. T. CANAL ZONE: Post Exchange, Empire, C. Z.
In order to learn thoroughly the contents of this manual it is suggested that you use in connection with your study of the book the pamphlet, "QUESTIONS ON MANUAL OF MILITARY TRAINING," which, by means of questions, brings out and emphasizes every point mentioned in the manual.
"QUESTIONS ON MANUAL OF MILITARY TRAINING" is especially useful to students of schools and colleges using the manual, as it enables them, as nothing else will, to prepare for recitations and examinations.
The pamphlet can be gotten from the publishers, Geo. Banta Publishing Co., Menasha, Wis., or from any of the distributers of "MANUAL OF MILITARY TRAINING." Price 50 cts., postpaid.
Not only does this manual cover all the subjects prescribed by War Department orders for the Junior Division, and the Basic Course, Senior Division, of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, but it also contains considerable additional material which broadens its scope, rounding it out and making it answer the purpose of a general, all-around book, complete in itself, for training and instruction in the fundamentals of the art of war.
The Company is the basic fighting tactical unit—it is the foundation rock upon which an army is built—and the fighting efficiency of a COMPANY is based on systematic and thorough training.
This manual is a presentation of MILITARY TRAINING as manifested in the training and instruction of a COMPANY. The book contains all the essentials pertaining to the training and instruction of COMPANY officers, noncommissioned officers and privates, and the officer who masters its contents and who makes his COMPANY proficient in the subjects embodied herein, will be in every way qualified, without the assistance of a single other book, to command with credit and satisfaction, in peace and in war, a COMPANY that will be an efficient fighting weapon.
This manual, as indicated below, is divided into a Prelude and nine Parts, subjects of a similar or correlative nature being thus grouped together.
PRELUDE. THE OBJECT AND ADVANTAGES OF MILITARY TRAINING. PART I. DRILLS, EXERCISES, CEREMONIES, AND INSPECTIONS. PART II. COMPANY COMMAND. PART III. MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS PERTAINING TO COMPANY TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION. PART IV. RIFLE TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION. PART V. HEALTH AND KINDRED SUBJECTS. PART VI. MILITARY COURTESY AND KINDRED SUBJECTS. PART VII. GUARD DUTY. PART VIII. MILITARY ORGANIZATION. PART IX. MAP READING AND SKETCHING.
A schedule of training and instruction covering a given period and suitable to the local conditions that obtain in any given school or command, can be readily arranged by looking over the TABLE OF CONTENTS, and selecting therefrom such subjects as it is desired to use, the number and kind, and the time to be devoted to each, depending upon the time available, and climatic and other conditions.
It is suggested that, for the sake of variety, in drawing up a program of instruction and training, when practicable a part of each day or a part of each drill time, be devoted to theoretical work and a part to practical work, theoretical work, when possible, being followed by corresponding practical work, the practice (the doing of a thing) thus putting a clincher, as it were, on the theory (the explaining of a thing). The theoretical work, for example, could be carried on in the forenoon and the practical work in the afternoon, or the theoretical work could be carried on from, say, 8 to 9:30 a. m., and the practical work from 9:30 to 10:30 or 11 a. m.
Attention is invited to the completeness of the Index, whereby one is enabled to locate at once any point covered in the book.
The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance received in the revision of this Manual in the form of suggestions from a large number of officers on duty at our military schools and colleges, suggestions that enabled him not only to improve the Manual in subject-matter as well as in arrangement, but that have also enabled him to give our military schools and colleges a textbook which, in a way, may be said to represent the consensus of opinion of our Professors of Military Science and Tactics as to what such a book should embody in both subject-matter and arrangement.
Suggestions received from a number of Professors of Military Science and Tactics show conclusively that local conditions as to average age and aptitude of students, interest taken in military training by the student body, support given by the school authorities, etc., are so different in different schools that it would be impossible to write a book for general use that would, in amount of material, arrangement and otherwise, just exactly fit, in toto, the conditions, and meet the requirements of each particular school.
Therefore, the only practical, satisfactory solution of the problem is to produce a book that meets all the requirements of the strictly military schools, where the conditions for military training and instruction are the most favorable, and the requirements the greatest, and then let other schools take only such parts of the book as are necessary to meet their own particular local needs and requirements.
"MANUAL OF MILITARY TRAINING" is such a book.
Camp Gaillard, C. Z., March 4, 1917.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
OBJECT AND ADVANTAGES OF MILITARY TRAINING
Object of: Setting-Up Exercises, Calisthenics, Facings 1-23 and Marchings, Saluting, Manual of Arms, School of the Squad, Company Drill, Close Order, Extended Order, Ceremonies, Discipline—Advantages: Handiness, Self-Control, Loyalty, Orderliness, Self-Confidence, Self-Respect, Training Eyes, Teamwork, Heeding Law and Order, Sound Body.
CHAPTER I. INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS—Definitions— 24-710 General Remarks—General Rules for Drills and Formations— Orders, Commands, and Signals—School of the Soldier— School of the Squad—School of the Company—School of the Battalion—Combat—Leadership—Combat Reconnaissance—Fire Superiority—Fire Direction and Control—Deployment— Attack—Defense—Meeting Engagements—Machine Guns— Ammunition Supply—Mounted Scouts—Night Operations— Infantry Against Cavalry—Infantry Against Artillery— Artillery Supports—Minor Warfare—Ceremonies—Inspections— Muster—The Color—Manual of the Saber—Manual of Tent Pitching—Appendices A and B.
CHAPTER II. MANUAL OF THE BAYONET—Nomenclature and 711-824 Description of the Bayonet—Instruction without the Rifle—Instruction with the Rifle—Instruction without the Bayonet—Combined Movements—Fencing Exercises—Fencing at Will—Lessons of the European War—The "Short point"— The "Jab."
CHAPTER III. MANUAL OF PHYSICAL TRAINING—Methods— 825-860 Commands—Setting-Up Exercises—Rifle Exercises.
CHAPTER IV. SIGNALING—General Service Code—Wigwag— 861-866 The Two-Arm Semaphore Code—Signaling with Heliograph, Flash Lanterns, and Searchlight—Sound Signals—Morse Code.
CHAPTER I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF A 867-909 COMPANY—Duties and Responsibilities of the Captain and the Lieutenants—Devolution of Work and Responsibility—Duties and Responsibilities of the First Sergeant and other Noncommissioned Officers—Contentment and Harmony—Efficacious Forms of Company Punishment—Property Responsibility—Books and Records.
CHAPTER II. DISCIPLINE—Definition—Methods of 910-916 Attaining Good Discipline—Importance—Sound Discipline— Punishment—General Principles.
MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS PERTAINING TO COMPANY TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION
CHAPTER I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF COMPANY TRAINING AND 917-941 INSTRUCTION—Object of Training and Instruction—Method and Progression—Individual Initiative—The Human Element— Art of Instruction on the Ground—Ocular Demonstration.
CHAPTER II. GENERAL COMMON SENSE PRINCIPLES OF APPLIED 942-953 MINOR TACTICS—Art of War Defined—Responsibilities of Officers and Noncommissioned Officers in War—General Rules and Principles of Map Problems, Terrain Exercises, the War Game, and Maneuvers—Estimating the Situation— Mission.
CHAPTER III. GENERAL PLAN OF INSTRUCTION IN MAP PROBLEMS 954-958 FOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES—INSTRUCTION IN DELIVERING MESSAGES.
CHAPTER IV. THE SERVICE OF INFORMATION—General 959-1019 Principles of Patrolling—Sizes of Patrols—Patrol Leaders—Patrol Formations—Messages and Reports— Suggestions for Gaining Information about the Enemy— Suggestions for the Reconnaissance of Various Positions and Localities—Demolitions—Problems in Patrolling.
CHAPTER V. THE SERVICE OF SECURITY—General 1020-1079 principles—Advance Guard—Advance Guard Problems— Flank Guards—Rear Guard—Outposts—Formation of Outposts—Outguards—Flags of Truce—Detached Posts— Examining Posts—Establishing the Outpost—Outpost Order—Intercommunication—Outpost Problems.
CHAPTER VI. THE COMPANY ON OUTPOST—Establishing 1080 the Outpost.
CHAPTER VII. THE COMPANY IN SCOUTING AND PATROLLING 1081-1090 —Requisites of a Good Scout—Eyesight and hearing— Finding Way in Strange Country—What to do when Lost— Landmarks—Concealment and Dodging—Tracking—The Mouse and Cat Contest—Flag Stealing Contest.
CHAPTER VIII. NIGHT OPERATIONS—Importance—Training 1091-1108 of the Company—Individual Training—Collective Training—Outposts.
CHAPTER IX. FIELD ENGINEERING—Bridges—Corduroying— 1109-1139 Tascines—Hurdles—Brush Revetment—Gabions—Other Revetments—Knots—Lashings.
CHAPTER X. FIELD FORTIFICATIONS—Object— 1140-1172 Classification—Hasty Intrenchments—Lying Trench— Kneeling Trench—Standing Trench—Deliberate Intrenchments—Fire Trenches—Traverses—Trench recesses; sortie steps—Parados—Head Cover—Notches and Loopholes—Cover Trenches—Dugouts—Communicating Trenches—Lookouts—Supporting Points—Example of Trench System—Location of Trenches—Concealment of Trenches— Dummy Trenches—Length of Trench—Preparation of Foreground—Revetments—Drainage—Water Supply— Latrines—Illumination of the foreground—Telephones— Siege Works.
CHAPTER XI. OBSTACLES—Object—Necessity for 1173-1193 Obstacles—Location—Abatis—Palisades—Fraises— Cheveaux de Frise—Obstacles against Cavalry—Wire Entanglements—Time and Materials—Wire Fence—Military Pits or Trous de Loup—Miscellaneous Barricades— Inundations—Obstacles in Front of Outguards—Lessons from the European War—Wire Cheveaux de Frise—Guarding Obstacles—Listening Posts—Automatic Alarms—Search Lights.
CHAPTER XII. TRENCH AND MINE WARFARE—Asphyxiating 1194-1211 Gases—Protection against Gases—Liquid Fire— Grenades—Bombs—Aerial Mines—Winged Torpedoes—Bombs from Air-Craft—Protection against Hand Grenades— Tanks—Helmets—Masks—Periscopes—Sniperscopes—Aids to Firing—Mining—Countermining.
CHAPTER XIII. MARCHES—Marching Principal Occupation 1212-1229 of Troops in Campaign-Physical Training Hardening New Troops—Long Marches Not to Be Made with Untrained Troops—A Successful March—Preparation—Starting— Conduct of March—Rate—Marching Capacity—Halts— Crossing Bridges and Fords—Straggling and Elongation of Column—Forced Marches—Night Marches—No Compliments Paid on March—Protection on March—Fitting of Shoes and Care of Feet.
CHAPTER XIV. CAMPS—Selection of Camp Sites— 1230-1240 Desirable Camp Sites—Undesirable Camp Sites—Form and Dimensions of Camps—Making Camp—Retreat in Camp— Parade Ground—Windstorms—Making Tent Poles and Pegs Fast in Loose Soil—Trees.
CHAPTER XV. CAMP SANITATION—Definition—Camp 1241-1255 Expedients—Latrines—Urinal Tubs—Kitchens—Kitchen Pits—Incinerators—Drainage—Avoiding Old Camp Sites— Changing Camp Sites—Bunks—Wood—Water—Rules of Sanitation—Your Camp, Your Home.
CHAPTER XVI. INDIVIDUAL COOKING—Making Fire— 1256-1275 Recipes—Meats—Vegetables—Drinks—Hot Breads— Emergency Ration.
CHAPTER XVII. CARE AND PRESERVATION OF CLOTHING AND 1276-1320 EQUIPMENT—Clothing—Pressing—Removing Stains— Shoes—Cloth Equipment—Washing—Shelter Tent—Mess Outfit—Leather Equipment—Points to Be Remembered.
CHAPTER XVIII. CARE AND DESCRIPTION OF THE RIFLE 1321-1343 —Importance—Care of Bore—How to Remove Fouling—Care of Mechanism and Various Parts—How to Apply Oil—Army Regulation Paragraphs About Rifle—Nomenclature of Rifle.
RIFLE TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION
Object and Explanation of Our System of Instruction— 1344-1450 Individual Instruction—Theory of Sighting—Kinds of Sights—Preliminary Drills—Position and Aiming Drills— Deflection and Elevation Correction Drills—Gallery Practice—Range Practice—Use of Sling—Designation of Winds—Zero of Rifle—Estimating Distances—Wind— Temperature—Light—Mirage—Combat Practice—Fire Discipline—Technical Principles of Firing—Ballistic Qualities of the Rifle—Cone of Fire—Shot Group—Center of Impact—Beaten Zone—Zone of Effective Fire— Effectiveness of Fire—Influence of Ground—Grazing Fire—Ricochet Shots—Occupation of Ground—Adjustment of Fire—Determination of Range—Combined Sights— Auxiliary Aiming Points—Firing at Moving Targets— Night Firing—Fire Direction and Control—Distribution of Fire—Individual Instruction in Fire Distribution— Designation of Targets—Exercises in Ranging, Target Designation Communication, etc.
CARE OF HEALTH AND KINDRED SUBJECTS
CHAPTER I. CARE OF THE HEALTH—Importance of Good 1451-1469 Health—Germs—The Five Ways of Catching Disease— Diseases Caught by Breathing in Germs—Diseases Caught by Swallowing Germs—Disease Caught by Touching Germs— Diseases Caught from Biting Insects.
CHAPTER II. PERSONAL HYGIENE—Keep the Skin Clean— 1470-1477 Keep the Body Properly Protected against the Weather— Keep the Body Properly Fed—Keep the Body Supplied with Fresh Air—Keep the Body well Exercised—Keep the Body Rested by Sufficient Sleep—Keep the Body Free of Wastes.
CHAPTER III. FIRST AID TO THE SICK AND INJURED 1478-1522 —Objectof Teaching First Aid—Asphyxiation by Gas— Bite of Dog—Bite of Snake—Bleeding—Broken Bones (Fractures)—Burns—Bruises—Cuts—Dislocations— Drowning—Electric Shock—Fainting—Foreign Body in Eye, in Ear—Freezing—Frost Bite—Headache—Heat Exhaustion— Poison—Sprains—Sunburn—Sunstroke—Wounds—Improvised Litters.
MILITARY COURTESY AND KINDRED SUBJECTS
CHAPTER I. MILITARY DEPORTMENT AND APPEARANCE— 1523-1531 PERSONAL CLEANLINESS—FORMS OF SPEECH—DELIVERY OF MESSAGES.
CHAPTER II. MILITARY COURTESY—Its Importance—Nature 1532-1575 of Salutes and Their Origin—Whom to Salute—When and How to Salute—Usual Mistakes in Saluting—Respect to Be Paid the National Anthem, the Colors and Standards.
Importance—Respect for Sentinels—Classification of 1576-1857 Guards—General Rules—The Commanding Officer—The Officer of the Day—The Commander of the Guard—Sergeant of the Guard—Corporal of the Guard—Musicians of the Guard—Orderlies and Color Sentinels—Privates of the Guard—Countersigns and Paroles—Guard Patrols— Compliments from Guards—General Rules Concerning Guard Duty—Stable Guards—Troop Stable Guards—Reveille and Retreat Gun—Formal Guard Mounting—Informal Guard Mounting.
Composition of Infantry, Cavalry and Field Artillery 1858 Units up to and Including the Regiment.
MAP READING AND SKETCHING
CHAPTER I. MAP READING—Definition of Map—Ability to 1859-1877 Read a Map—Scales—Methods of Representing Scales— Construction of Scales—Scale Problems—Scaling Distances from a Map—Contours—Map Distances—Slopes— Meridians—Determination of Positions of Points on Map— Orientation—Conventional Signs—Visibility.
CHAPTER II. MILITARY SKETCHING—The Different Methods 1878-1893 of Sketching—Location of Points by Intersection— Location of points by Resection—Location of Points by Traversing—Contours—Form Lines—Scales—Position Sketching—Outpost Sketching—Road Sketching—Combined Sketching—Points for Beginners to Remember.
THE OBJECT AND ADVANTAGES OF MILITARY TRAINING
1. Prelude. We will first consider the object and advantages of military training, as they are the natural and logical prelude to the subject of military training and instruction.
2. The object of all military training is to win battles.
Everything that you do in military training is done with some immediate object in view, which, in turn, has in view the final object of winning battles. For example:
3. Setting-up exercises. The object of the setting-up exercises, as the name indicates, is to give the new men the set-up,—the bearing and carriage,—of the military man.
In addition these exercises serve to loosen up his muscles and prepare them for his later experiences and development.
4. Calisthenics. Calisthenics may be called the big brother, the grown-up form, of the setting-up exercise.
The object of calisthenics is to develop and strengthen all parts and muscles of the human body,—the back, the legs, the arms, the lungs, the heart and all other parts of the body.
First and foremost a fighting man's work depends upon his physical fitness.
To begin with, a soldier's mind must always be on the alert and equal to any strain, and no man's mind can be at its best when he is handicapped by a weak or ailing body.
The work of the fighting man makes harsh demands on his body. It must be strong enough to undergo the strain of marching when every muscle cries out for rest; strong enough to hold a rifle steady under fatigue and excitement; strong enough to withstand all sorts of weather, and the terrible nervous and physical strain of modern battle; and more, it must be strong enough to resist those diseases of campaign which kill more men than do the bullets of the enemy.
Hence the necessity of developing and strengthening every part and muscle of the body.
5. Facings and Marchings. The object of the facings and marchings is to give the soldier complete control of his body in drills, so that he can get around with ease and promptness at every command.
The marchings,—the military walk and run,—also teach the soldier how to get from one place to another in campaign with the least amount of physical exertion.
Every man knows how to walk and run, but few of them how to do so without making extra work of it. One of the first principles in training the body of the soldier is to make each set of muscles do its own work and save the strength of the other muscles for their work. Thus the soldier marches in quick time,—walks,—with his legs, keeping the rest of his body as free from motion as possible. He marches in double time,—runs,—with an easy swinging stride which requires no effort on the part of the muscles of the body.
The marchings also teach the soldier to walk and run at a steady gait. For example, in marching in quick time, he takes 120 steps each minute; in double time, he takes 180 per minute.
Furthermore, the marchings teach the soldier to walk and run with others,—that is, in a body.
6. Saluting. The form of salutation and greeting for the civilian consists in raising the hat.
The form of salutation and greeting for the military man consists in rendering the military salute,—a form of salutation which marks you as a member of the Fraternity of Men-at-arms, men banded together for national defense, bound to each other by love of country and pledged to the loyal support of its symbol, the Flag. For the full significance of the military salute see paragraph 1534.
7. Manual of Arms. The rifle is the soldier's fighting weapon and he must become so accustomed to the feel of it that he handles it without a thought,—just as he handles his arms or legs without a thought,—and this is what the manual of arms accomplishes.
The different movements and positions of the rifle are the ones that experience has taught are the best and the easiest to accomplish the object in view.
8. School of the Squad. The object of squad drill is to teach the soldier his first lesson in team-work,—and team-work is the thing that wins battles.
In the squad the soldier is associated with seven other men with whom he drills, eats, sleeps, marches, and fights.
The squad is the unit upon which all of the work of the company depends. Unless the men of each squad work together as a single man,—unless there is team-work,—the work of the company is almost impossible.
9. Company Drill. Several squads are banded together into a company,—the basic fighting unit. In order for a company to be able to comply promptly with the will of its commander, it must be like a pliable, easily managed instrument. And in order to win battles a company on the firing line must be able to comply promptly with the will of its commander.
The object of company drill is to get such team-work amongst the squads that the company will at all times move and act like a pliable, easily managed whole.
10. Close Order. In close order drill the strictest attention is paid to all the little details, all movements being executed with the greatest precision. The soldiers being close together,—in close order,—they form a compact body that is easily managed, and consequently that lends itself well to teaching the soldier habits of attention, precision, team-work and instant obedience to the voice of his commander.
In order to control and handle bodies of men quickly and without confusion, they must be taught to group themselves in an orderly arrangement and to move in an orderly manner. For example, soldiers are grouped or formed in line, in column of squads, column of files, etc.
In close order drill soldiers are taught to move in an orderly manner from one group or formation to another; how to stand, step off, march, halt and handle their rifles all together.
This practice makes the soldier feel perfectly at home and at ease in the squad and company. He becomes accustomed to working side by side with the man next to him, and, unconsciously, both get into the habit of working together, thus learning the first principles of team-work.
11. Extended Order. This is the fighting drill.
Modern fire arms have such great penetration that if the soldiers were all bunched together a single bullet might kill or disable several men and the explosion of a single shell might kill or disable a whole company. Consequently, soldiers must be scattered,—extended out,—to fight.
In extended order not only do the soldiers furnish a smaller target for the enemy to shoot at, but they also get room in which to fight with greater ease and freedom.
The object of extended order drill is to practice the squads in team-work by which they are welded into a single fighting machine that can be readily controlled by its commander.
12. Parades, reviews, and other ceremonies. Parades, reviews and other ceremonies, with their martial music, the presence of spectators, etc., are intended to stimulate the interest and excite the military spirit of the command. Also, being occasions for which the soldiers dress up and appear spruce and trim, they inculcate habits of tidiness,—they teach a lesson in cleanliness of body and clothes.
While it is true it may be said that parades, reviews and other ceremonies form no practical part of the fighting man's training for battle, they nevertheless serve a very useful purpose in his general training. In these ceremonies in which soldiers march to martial music with flags flying, moving and going through the manual of arms with perfect precision and unison, there results a concerted movement that produces a feeling such as we have when we dance or when we sing in chorus. In other words, ceremonies are a sort of "get-together" exercise which pulls men together in spite of themselves, giving them a shoulder-to-shoulder feeling of solidity and power that helps to build up that confidence and spirit which wins battles.
13. Discipline. By discipline we mean the habit of observing all rules and regulations and of obeying promptly all orders. By observing day after day all rules and regulations and obeying promptly all orders, it becomes second nature,—a fixed habit,—to do these things.
Of course, in the Army, like in any other walk of life, there must be law and order, which is impossible unless everyone obeys the rules and regulations gotten up by those in authority.
When a man has cultivated the habit of obeying,—when obedience has become second nature with him,—he obeys the orders of his leaders instinctively, even when under the stress of great excitement, such as when in battle, his own reasoning is confused and his mind is not working.
In order to win a battle the will of the commander as expressed through his subordinates down the line from the second in command to the squad leaders, must be carried out by everyone. Hence the vital importance of prompt, instinctive obedience on the part of everybody, and of discipline, which is the mainspring of obedience and also the foundation rock of law and order.
And so could we go on indefinitely pointing out the object of each and every requirement of military training, for there is none that has no object and that answers no useful purpose, although the object and purpose may not always be apparent to the young soldier.
And remember that the final object of all military training is to win battles.
Advantages of Military Training
The following are the principal advantages of military training:
14. Handiness. The average man does one thing well. He is more or less apt to be clumsy about doing other things. The soldier is constantly called upon to do all sorts of things, and he has to do all of them well. His hands thus become trained and useful to him, and his mind gets into the habit of making his hands do what is required of them,—that is to say, the soldier becomes handy.
Handy arms are a valuable asset.
15. Self-control. In the work of the soldier, control does not stop with the hands.
The mind reaches out,—control of the body becomes a habit. The feet, legs, arms and body gradually come under the sway of the mind. In the position of the soldier, for instance, the mind holds the body motionless. In marching, the mind drives the legs to machine-like regularity. In shooting, the mind assumes command of the arms, hands, fingers and eye, linking them up and making them work in harmony.
Control of the body, together with the habit of discipline that the soldier acquires, leads to control of the mind,—that is, to self-control.
Self-control is an important factor in success in any walk of life.
16. Loyalty. Loyalty to his comrades, to his company, to his battalion, to his regiment becomes a religion with the soldier. They are a part of his life. Their reputation is his; their good name, his good name; their interests, his interests,—so, loyalty to them is but natural, and this loyalty soon extends to loyalty in general.
When you say a man is loyal the world considers that you have paid him a high tribute.
17. Orderliness. In the military service order and system are watchwords. The smooth running of the military machine depends on them.
The care and attention that the soldier is required to give at all times to his clothes, accouterments, equipment and other belongings, instill in him habits of orderliness.
Orderliness increases the value of a man.
18. Self-confidence and self-respect. Self-confidence is founded on one's ability to do things. The soldier is taught to defend himself with his rifle, and to take care of himself and to do things in almost any sort of a situation, all of which gives him confidence in himself,—self-confidence.
Respect for constituted authority, which is a part of the soldier's creed, teaches him respect for himself,—self-respect.
Self-confidence and self-respect are a credit to any man.
19. Eyes trained to observe. Guard duty, outpost duty, patrolling, scouting and target practice, train both the eye and the mind to observe.
Power of observation is a valuable faculty for a man to possess.
20. Teamwork. In drilling, patrolling, marching, maneuvers and in other phases of his training and instruction, the soldier is taught the principles of team-work,—cooeperation,—whose soul is loyalty, a trait of every good soldier.
Teamwork,—cooeperation,—leads to success in life.
21. Heeding law and order. The cardinal habit of the soldier is obedience. To obey orders and regulations is a habit with the soldier. And this habit of obeying orders and regulations teaches him to heed law and order.
The man who heeds law and order is a welcome member of any community.
22. Sound body. Military training, with its drills, marches, and other forms of physical exercise, together with its regular habits and outdoor work, keeps a man physically fit, giving him a sound body.
A sound body, with the physical exercise and outdoor life of the soldier, means good digestion, strength, hardiness and endurance.
A sound body is, indeed, one of the greatest blessings of life.
The Trained Soldier
23. Look at the trained soldier on the following page; study him carefully from top to bottom, and see what military training does for a man.
DRILLS, EXERCISES, CEREMONIES AND INSPECTIONS
INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS
(To include Changes No. 20, Aug. 18, 1917.)
(The numbers following the paragraphs are those of the Drill Regulations, and references in the text to certain paragraph numbers refer to these numbers and not to the numbers preceding the paragraphs.)
(NOTE.—Company drills naturally become monotonous. The monotony, however, can be greatly reduced by repeating the drills under varying circumstances. In the manual of arms, for instance, the company may be brought to open ranks and the officers and sergeants directed to superintend the drill in the front and rear ranks. As the men make mistakes they are fallen out and drilled nearby by an officer or noncommissioned officer. Or, the company may be divided into squads, each squad leader drilling his squad, falling out the men as they make mistakes, the men thus fallen out reporting to a designated officer or noncommissioned officer for drill. The men who have drilled the longest in the different squads are then formed into one squad and drilled and fallen out in like manner. The variety thus introduced stimulates a spirit of interest and rivalry that robs the drill of much of its monotony.
It is thought the instruction of a company in drill is best attained by placing special stress on squad drill. The noncommissioned officers should be thoroughly instructed, practically and theoretically, by one of the company officers and then be required to instruct their squads. The squads are then united and drilled in the school of the company.—Author.)
24. Alignment: A straight line upon which several elements are formed, or are to be formed; or the dressing of several elements upon a straight line.
25. Base: The element on which a movement is regulated.
26. Battle sight: The position of the rear sight when the leaf is laid down.
27. Center: The middle point or element of a command. (See Figs. 2, 3 and 5.) (The designation "center company," indicates the right center or the actual center company, according as the number of companies is even or odd.—Par. 298.)
28. Column: A formation in which the elements are placed one behind another. (See Figs. 4, 5, 6.)
29. Deploy: To extend the front. In general to change from column to line, or from close order to extended order.
30. Depth: The space from head to rear of any formation, including the leading and rear elements. The depth of a man is assumed to be 12 inches. (See Figs. 4, 5, 6.)
31. Distance: Space between elements in the direction of depth. Distance is measured from the back of the man in front to the breast of the man in rear. The distance between ranks is 40 inches in both line and column. (See Figs. 4, 5, 6.)
32. Element: A file, squad, platoon, company, or larger body, forming part of a still larger body.
33. File: Two men, the front-rank man and the corresponding man of the rear rank. The front-rank man is the file leader. A file which has no rear-rank man is a blank file. The term file applies also to a single man in a single-rank formation.
34. File closers: Such officers and noncommissioned officers of a company as are posted in rear of the line. For convenience, all men posted in the line of file closers.
35. Flank: The right or left of a command in line or in column; also the element on the right or left of the line. (See Figs. 2, 3 and 4.)
36. Formation: Arrangement of the elements of a command. The placing of all fractions in their order in line, in column, or for battle.
37. Front: The space, in width, occupied by an element, either in line or in column. The front of a man is assumed to be 22 inches. Front also denotes the direction of the enemy. (See Figs. 2, 3 and 5).
38. Guide: An officer, noncommissioned officer, or private upon whom the command or elements thereof regulates its march.
39. Head: The leading element of a column. (See Figs. 4, 5 and 6.)
40. Interval: Space between elements of the same line. The interval between men in ranks is 4 inches and is measured from elbow to elbow. Between companies, squads, etc., it is measured from the left elbow of the left man or guide of the group on the right, to the right elbow of the right man or guide of the group on the left. (See Fig. 3.)
41. Left: The left extremity or element of a body of troops.
42. Line: A formation in which the different elements are abreast of each other. (See Figs. 2 and 3.)
43. Order, close: The formation in which the units, in double rank, are arranged in line or in column with normal intervals and distances.
44. Order, extended: The formation in which the units are separated by intervals greater than in close order.
45. Pace: Thirty inches; the length of the full step in quick time.
46. Point of rest: The point at which a formation begins. Specifically, the point toward which units are aligned in successive movements.
47. Rank: A line of men placed side by side.
48. Right: The right extremity or element of a body of troops.
49. NOTE. In view of the fact that the word "Echelon" is a term of such common usage, the following definition is given: By echelon we mean a formation in which the subdivisions are placed one behind another, extending beyond and unmasking one another either wholly or in part.—Author.
50. Object of military training. Success in battle is the ultimate object of all military training; success may be looked for only when the training is intelligent and thorough. (1)
51. Commanding officers accountable for proper training of organizations; field efficiency; team-work. Commanding officers are accountable for the proper training of their respective organizations within the limits prescribed by regulations and orders. (2)
The excellence of an organization is judged by its field efficiency. The field efficiency of an organization depends primarily upon its effectiveness as a whole. Thoroughness and uniformity in the training of the units of an organization are indispensable to the efficiency of the whole; it is by such means alone that the requisite team-work may be developed.
52. Simple movements and elastic formations. Simple movements and elastic formations are essential to correct training for battle. (3)
53. Drill Regulations a Guide; their interpretation. The Drill Regulations are furnished as a guide. They provide the principles for training and for increasing the probability of success in battle. (4)
In the interpretation of the regulations, the spirit must be sought. Quibbling over the minutiae of form is indicative of failure to grasp the spirit.
54. Combat principles. The principles of combat are considered in Pars. 50-363. They are treated in the various schools included in Part I of the Drill Regulations only to the extent necessary to indicate the functions of the various commanders and the division of responsibility between them. The amplification necessary to a proper understanding of their application is to be sought in Pars. 364-613. (5)
55. Drills at attention, ceremonies, extended order, field exercises and combat exercises. The following important distinctions must be observed:
(a) Drills executed at attention and the ceremonies are disciplinary exercises designed to teach precise and soldierly movement, and to inculcate that prompt and subconscious obedience which is essential to proper military control. To this end, smartness and precision should be exacted in the execution of every detail. Such drills should be frequent, but short.
(b) The purpose of extended order drill is to teach the mechanism of deployment of the firing, and, in general, of the employment of troops in combat. Such drills are in the nature of disciplinary exercises and should be frequent, thorough, and exact, in order to habituate men to the firm control of their leaders. Extended order drill is executed at ease. The company is the largest unit which executes extended order drill.
(c) Field exercises are for instruction in the duties incident to campaign. Assumed situations are employed. Each exercise should conclude with a discussion, on the ground, of the exercise and principles involved.
(d) The combat exercise, a form of field exercise of the company, battalion, and larger units, consists of the application of tactical principles to assumed situations, employing in the execution the appropriate formations and movements of close and extended order.
Combat exercises must simulate, as far as possible, the battle conditions assumed. In order to familiarize both officers and men with such conditions, companies and battalions will frequently be consolidated to provide war-strength organizations. Officers and noncommissioned officers not required to complete the full quota of the units participating are assigned as observers or umpires.
The firing line can rarely be controlled by the voice alone; thorough training to insure the proper use of prescribed signals is necessary.
The exercise should be followed by a brief drill at attention in order to restore smartness and control. (6)
56. Imaginary, outlined and represented enemy. In field exercises the enemy is said to be imaginary when his position and force are merely assumed; outlined when his position and force are indicated by a few men; represented when a body of troops acts as such. (7)
General Rules for Drills and Formations
57. Arrangement of elements of preparatory command. When the preparatory command consists of more than one part, its elements are arranged as follows:
(1) For movements to be executed successively by the subdivisions or elements of an organization: (a) Description of the movement; (b) how executed, or on what element executed.
(For example: 1. Column of Companies, first company, squads right. 2. March.—Author.)
(2) For movements to be executed simultaneously by the subdivisions of an organization: (a) The designation of the subdivisions; (b) The movement to be executed. (For example: 1. Squads right. 2. March.—Author.) (8)
58. Movements executed toward either flank explained toward but one flank. Movements that may be executed toward either flank are explained as toward but one flank, it being necessary to substitute the word "left" for "right," and the reverse, to have the explanation of the corresponding movement toward the other flank. The commands are given for the execution of the movements toward either flank. The substitute word of the command is placed within parentheses. (9)
59. Any movement may be executed from halt or when marching unless otherwise prescribed. Any movement may be executed either from the halt or when marching, unless otherwise prescribed. If at a halt, the command for movements involving marching need not be prefaced by forward, as 1. Column right (left), 2. MARCH. (10)
60. Any movement may be executed in double time unless specially excepted. Any movement not specially excepted may be executed in double time.
If at a halt, or if marching in quick time, the command double time precedes the command of execution. (11)
61. Successive movements executed in double time. In successive movements executed in double time the leading or base unit marches in quick time when not otherwise prescribed; the other units march in double time to their places in the formation ordered and then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit. If marching in double time, the command double time is omitted. The leading or base unit marches in quick time; the other units continue at double time to their places in the formation ordered and then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit. (12)
62. To hasten execution of movement begun in quick time. To hasten the execution of a movement begun in quick time, the command: 1. Double time, 2. MARCH, is given. The leading or base unit continues to march in quick time, or remains at halt, if already halted; the other units complete the execution of the movement in double time and then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit. (13)
63. To stay execution of movement when marching, for correction of errors. To stay the execution of a movement when marching, for the correction of errors, the command: 1. In place, 2. HALT, is given. All halt and stand fast without changing the position of the pieces. To resume the movement the command: 1. Resume, 2. MARCH, is given. (14)
64. To revoke preparatory command or begin anew movement improperly begun. To revoke a preparatory command, or, being at a halt, to begin anew a movement improperly begun, the command, AS YOU WERE, is given, at which the movement ceases and the former position is resumed. (15)
65. Guide. Unless otherwise announced, the guide of a company or subdivision of a company in line is right; of a battalion in line or line of subdivisions or of a deployed line, center; of a rank in column of squads, toward the side of the guide of the company.
To march with guide other than as prescribed above, or to change the guide: Guide (right, left, or center).
In successive formations into line, the guide is toward the point of rest; in platoons or larger subdivisions it is so announced.
The announcement of the guide, when given in connection with a movement follows the command of execution for that. Exception: 1. As skirmishers, guide right (left or center), 2. MARCH. (16)
66. Turn on fixed and moving pivots. The turn on the fixed pivot by subdivisions is used in all formations from line into column and the reverse.
The turn on the moving pivot is used by subdivisions of a column in executing changes of direction. (17)
67. Partial changes of direction. Partial changes of direction may be executed:
By interpolating in the preparatory command the word half, as Column half right (left), or Right (left) half turn. A change of direction of 45 deg. is executed.
By the command: INCLINE TO THE RIGHT (LEFT). The guide, or guiding element, moves in the indicated direction and the remainder of the command conforms. This movement effects slight changes of direction. (18)
68. Line of platoons, companies, etc. The designations line of platoons, line of companies, line of battalions, etc., refer to the formations in which the platoons, companies, battalions, etc., each in column of squads, are in line. (19)
69. Full distance in column of subdivisions; guide of leading subdivision charged with step and direction. Full distance in column of subdivisions is such that in forming line to the right or left the subdivisions will have their proper intervals.
In column of subdivisions the guide of the leading subdivision is charged with the step and direction; the guides in rear preserve the trace, step, and distance. (20)
70. Double rank, habitual close order formation; uniformity of interval between files obtained by placing hand on hip. In close order, all details, detachments, and other bodies of troops are habitually formed in double rank.
To insure uniformity of interval between files when falling in, and in alignments, each man places the palm of the left hand upon the hip, fingers pointing downward. In the first case, the hand is dropped by the side when the next man on the left has his interval; in the second case, at the command front. (21)
71. Posts of officers, noncommissioned officers, and special units; duties of file closers. The posts of officers, noncommissioned officers, special units (such as band or machine-gun company), etc., in the various formations of the company, battalion, or regiment, are shown in plates.
In all changes from one formation to another involving a change of post on the part of any of these, posts are promptly taken by the most convenient route as soon as practicable after the command of execution for the movement; officers and noncommissioned officers who have prescribed duties in connection with the movement ordered, take their new posts when such duties are completed.
As instructors, officers and noncommissioned officers go wherever their presence is necessary. As file closers it is their duty to rectify mistakes and insure steadiness and promptness in the ranks. (22)
72. Special units have no fixed posts except at ceremonies.
Except at ceremonies, the special units have no fixed places. They take places as directed; in the absence of directions, they conform as nearly as practicable to the plates, and in subsequent movements maintain their relative positions with respect to the flank or end of the command on which they were originally posted. (23)
73. General, field and staff officers habitually mounted; formation of staff; drawing and returning saber. General, field, and staff officers are habitually mounted. The staff of any officer forms in single rank, 3 paces in rear of him, the right of the rank extending 1 pace to the right of a point directly in rear of him. Members of the staff are arranged in order from right to left as follows: General staff officers, adjutant, aids, other staff officers, arranged in each classification in order of rank, the senior on the right. The flag of the general officer and the orderlies are 3 paces in rear of the staff, the flag on the right. When necessary to reduce the front of the staff and orderlies, each line executes twos right or fours right, as explained in the Cavalry Drill Regulations, and follows the commander.
When not otherwise prescribed, staff officers draw and return saber with their chief. (24)
74. Mounted officer turns to left in executing about; when commander faces about to give commands, staff and others stand fast. In making the about, an officer, mounted, habitually turns to the left.
When the commander faces to give commands, the staff, flag, and orderlies do not change position. (25)
75. Saluting when making and receiving reports; saluting on meeting. When making or receiving official reports, or on meeting out of doors, all officers will salute.
Military courtesy requires the junior to salute first, but when the salute is introductory to a report made at a military ceremony or formation, to the representative of a common superior (as, for example, to the adjutant, officer of the day, etc.), the officer making the report, whatever his rank, will salute first; the officer to whom the report is made will acknowledge by saluting that he has received and understood the report. (26)
76. Formation of mounted enlisted men for ceremonies. For ceremonies, all mounted enlisted men of a regiment or smaller unit, except those belonging to the machine-gun organizations, are consolidated into a detachment; the senior present commands if no officer is in charge. The detachment is formed as a platoon or squad of cavalry in line or column of fours; noncommissioned staff officers are on the right or in the leading ranks. (27)
77. Post of dismounted noncommissioned staff officers for ceremonies. For ceremonies, such of the noncommissioned staff officers as are dismounted are formed 5 paces in rear of the color, in order of rank from right to left. In column of squads they march as file closers. (28)
78. Post of noncommissioned staff officers and orderlies other than for ceremonies. Other than for ceremonies, noncommissioned staff officers and orderlies accompany their immediate chiefs unless otherwise directed. If mounted, the noncommissioned staff officers are ordinarily posted on the right or at the head of the orderlies. (29)
79. Noncommissioned officer commanding platoon or company, carrying of piece and taking of post. In all formations and movements a noncommissioned officer commanding a platoon or company carries his piece as the men do, if he is so armed, and takes the same post as an officer in like situation. When the command is formed in line for ceremonies, a noncommissioned officer commanding a company takes post on the right of the right guide after the company has been aligned. (30)
ORDERS, COMMANDS, AND SIGNALS
80. When commands, signals, and orders are used. Commands only are employed in drill at attention. Otherwise either a command, signal, or order is employed, as best suits the occasion, or one may be used in conjunction with another. (31)
81. Instruction in use of signals; use of headdress, etc., in making signals. Signals should be freely used in instruction, in order that officers and men may readily know them. In making arm signals, the saber, rifle, or headdress may be held in the hand. (32)
82. Fixing of attention; a signal includes command of preparation and of execution. Officers and men fix their attention at the first word of command, the first note of the bugle or whistle, or the first motion of the signal. A signal includes both the preparatory command and the command of execution; the movement commences as soon as the signal is understood, unless otherwise prescribed. (33)
83. Repeating orders, commands and signals; officers, platoon leaders, guides and musicians equipped with whistles; whistles with different tones. Except in movements executed at attention, commanders or leaders of subdivisions repeat orders, commands, or signals whenever such repetition is deemed necessary to insure prompt and correct execution.
Officers, battalion noncommissioned staff officers, platoon leaders, guides, and musicians are equipped with whistles.
The Major and his staff will use a whistle of distinctive tone; the captain and company musicians a second and distinctive whistle; the platoon leaders and guides a third distinctive whistle. (34)
84. Limitation of prescribed signals; special prearranged signals. Prescribed signals are limited to such as are essential as a substitute for the voice under conditions which render the voice inadequate.
Before or during an engagement special signals may be agreed upon to facilitate the solution of such special difficulties as the particular situation is likely to develop, but it must be remembered that simplicity and certainty are indispensable qualities of a signal. (35)
85. Orders defined; when employed. In these regulations an order embraces instructions or directions given orally or in writing in terms suited to the particular occasion and not prescribed herein.
Orders are employed only when the commands prescribed herein do not sufficiently indicate the will of the commander.
Orders are more fully described in paragraphs 378 to 383, inclusive. (36)
86. Command defined. In these regulations a command is the will of the commander expressed in the phraseology prescribed herein. (37)
87. Kinds of commands; how given. There are two kinds of commands:
The preparatory command, such as forward, indicates the movement that is to be executed.
The command of execution, such as MARCH, HALT, or ARMS, causes the execution.
Preparatory commands are distinguished by italics; those of execution by CAPITALS.
Where it is not mentioned in the text who gives the commands prescribed, they are to be given by the commander of the unit concerned.
The preparatory command should be given at such an interval of time before the command of execution as to admit of being properly understood; the command of execution should be given at the instant the movement is to commence.
The tone of command is animated, distinct, and of a loudness proportioned to the number of men for whom it is intended.
Each preparatory command is enunciated distinctly, with a rising inflection at the end, and in such manner that the command of execution may be more energetic.
The command of execution is firm in tone and brief. (38)
88. Battalion and higher commanders repeat commands of superiors; battalion largest unit executing movement at command of its commander. Majors and commanders of units larger than a battalion repeat such commands of their superiors as are to be executed by their units, facing their units for that purpose. The battalion is the largest unit that executes a movement at the command of execution of its commander. (39)
89. Facing troops and avoiding indifference when giving commands. When giving commands to troops it is usually best to face toward them.
Indifference in giving commands must be avoided as it leads to laxity in execution. Commands should be given with spirit at all times. (40)
90. Bugle signals that may be used on and off the field of battle. The authorized bugle signals are published in Part V of these regulations.
The following bugle signals may be used off the battlefield, when not likely to convey information to the enemy:
Attention: Troops are brought to attention. Attention to orders: Troops to fix their attention. Forward, march: Used also to execute quick time from double time. Double time, march. To the rear, march: In close order, execute squads right about. Halt. Assemble, march.
The following bugle signals may be used on the battlefield:
Fix bayonets. Charge. Assemble, march.
These signals are used only when intended for the entire firing line; hence they can be authorized only by the commander of a unit (for example, a regiment or brigade) which occupies a distinct section of the battlefield. Exception: Fix bayonet. (See par. 355.)
The following bugle signals are used in exceptional cases on the battlefield. Their principal uses are in field exercises and practice firing.
Commence firing: Officers charged with fire direction and control open fire as soon as practicable. When given to a firing line, the signal is equivalent to fire at will.
Cease firing: All parts of the line execute cease firing at once.
These signals are not used by units smaller than a regiment, except when such unit is independent or detached from its regiment. (41)
91. Attention to orders. A short blast of the whistle. This signal is used on the march or in combat when necessary to fix the attention of troops, or of their commanders or leaders, preparatory to giving commands, orders, or signals.
When the firing line is firing, each squad leader suspends firing and fixes his attention at a short blast of his platoon leader's whistle. The platoon leader's subsequent commands or signals are repeated and enforced by the squad leader. If a squad leader's attention is attracted by a whistle other than that of his platoon leader, or if there are no orders or commands to convey to his squad, he resumes firing at once.
Suspend firing. A long blast of the whistle. All other whistle signals are prohibited. (42)
92. The following arm signals are prescribed. In making signals either arm may be used. Officers who receive signals on the firing line "repeat back" at once to prevent misunderstanding.
Forward, MARCH. Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten and hold the arm horizontally, thrusting it in the direction of march.
This signal is also used to execute quick time from double time.
Halt. Carry the hand to the shoulder; thrust the hand upward and hold the arm vertically.
Double time, MARCH. Carry the hand to the shoulder; rapidly thrust the hand upward the full extent of the arm several times.
Squads right, MARCH. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it to a vertical position above the head and swing it several times between the vertical and horizontal positions.
Squads left, MARCH. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it downward to the side and swing it several times between the downward and horizontal positions.
Squads right about, MARCH (if in close order) or, To the rear, MARCH (if in skirmish line). Extend the arm vertically above the head; carry it laterally downward to the side and swing it several times between the vertical and downward positions.
Change direction or Column right (left), MARCH. The hand on the side toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried across the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal; then swing in a horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the new direction.
As skirmishers, MARCH. Raise both arms laterally until horizontal.
As skirmishers, guide center, MARCH. Raise both arms laterally until horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until vertical and return to the horizontal; repeat several times.
As skirmishers, guide right (left), MARCH. Raise both arms laterally until horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide steadily in the horizontal position: swing the other upward until vertical and return it to the horizontal; repeat several times.
Assemble, March. Raise the arm vertically to full extent and describe horizontal circles.
Range or Change elevation. To announce range, extend the arm toward the leaders or men for whom the signal is intended, fist closed; by keeping the fist closed battle sight is indicated;
by opening and closing the fist, expose thumb and fingers to a number equal to the hundreds of yards;
to add yards describe a short horizontal line with forefinger.
To change elevation, indicate the amount of increase or decrease by fingers as above; point upward to indicate increase and downward to indicate decrease.
What range are you using? or What is the range? Extend the arms toward the person addressed, one hand open, palm to the front, resting on the other hand, fist closed.
Are you ready? or I am ready. Raise the hand, fingers extended and joined, palm toward the person addressed.
Commence firing. Move the arm extended in full length, hand palm down, several times through a horizontal arc in front of the body.
Fire faster. Execute rapidly the signal, "Commence Firing."
Fire slower. Execute slowly the signal, "Commence Firing."
Swing the cone of fire to the right, or left. Extend the arm in full length to the front, palm to the right (left); swing the arm to right (left), and point in the direction of the new target.
Fix Bayonet. Simulate the movement of the right hand in "Fix bayonet." (See par. 142.)
Suspend firing. Raise and hold the forearm steadily in a horizontal position in front of the forehead, palm of the hand to the front.
Cease firing. Raise the forearm as in suspend firing and swing it up and down several times in front of the face.
Platoon. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; describe small circles with the hand. (See par. 93.)
Squad. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; swing the hand up and down from the wrist. (See par. 93.)
Rush. Same as double time. (43)
93. Use of signals "platoon" and "squad." The signals platoon and squad are intended primarily for communication between the captain and his platoon leaders. The signal platoon or squad indicates that the platoon commander is to cause the signal which follows to be executed by platoon or squad.
Note.—The following signals, while not prescribed, are very convenient:
Combined Sights. Extend the arm toward the leaders for whom the signal is intended, hand open and turn hand rapidly from right to left a number of times. Then indicate ranges in the manner prescribed, giving the mean of the two ranges. (For example: If the combined sights are 1050 and 1150, indicate a range of 1100 yards. The leaders who give the oral commands, give the command, "Range 1050 and 1150," whereupon every man in the front rank, before deployment, fixes his sight at 1150, and every man in the rear rank, before deployment, fixes his sight at 1050.)
Company. Bring the hand up near the shoulder and then thrust to the front, snapping fingers in usual way; repeat several times.
Contract fire. Extend both arms horizontally, fingers extended, arms parallel, palms facing each other; bring hands together once, and hold them so and look at the leader concerned.
Disperse fire. Bring hands together, fingers extended, pointing in direction of leader concerned, arms extended horizontally; swing arms outward once, and hold them so and look at the leader concerned.
Platoon column. Raise both arms vertically, full length, arms parallel, fingers joined and extended, palms to the front.
Prepare to rush. Cross the arms horizontally several times.
Squad Column. Raise both arms vertically from elbows, elbows at side of body, fingers joined and extended, palms to the front.—Author. (44)
94. Signal flags carried by company musicians; description of flags. The signal Hags described below are carried by the company musicians in the field.
In a regiment in which it is impracticable to make the permanent battalion division alphabetically, the flags of a battalion are as shown; flags are assigned to the companies alphabetically, within their respective battalions, in the order given below.
Company A. Red field, white square. Company B. Red field, blue square. Company C. Red field, white diagonals. Company D. Red field, blue diagonals.
Company E. White field, red square. Company F. White field, blue square. Company G. White field, red diagonals. Company H. White field, blue diagonals.
Company I. Blue field, red square. Company K. Blue field, white square. Company L. Blue field, red diagonals. Company M. Blue field, white diagonals.
Note.—An analysis of the above system of signal flags will show: 1. The color of the field indicates the battalion and the colors run in the order that is so natural to us all, viz: Red, White and Blue. Hence red field indicates the first battalion; white field, the second; blue field, the third.
2. The squares indicate the first two companies of each battalion, and the diagonals, the second two. Hence,
- + Companies Indicated by -+ + A E I Squares B F K -+ + C G L Diagonals D H M + -
3. The colors of the squares and diagonals in combination with those of the fields, run in the order that is so natural to us all, viz.: Red, White and Blue, the color of any given field being, of course, omitted from the squares and diagonals, as a white square for instance, would not show on a white field, nor would a blue diagonal show on a blue field. For example, with a red field we would have white and blue for the square and diagonal colors; with a white field, red and blue for the square and diagonal colors; with a blue field, red and white for the square and diagonal colors.
4. From what has been said, the following table explains itself:
- - - - - Battalion Field Co. Squares Diagonals - - - - - First Red A White B Blue C White D Blue - - - - - Second White E Red F Blue G Red H Blue - - - - - Third Blue I Red K White L Red M White - - - - -
Note how the square and diagonal colors always follow in the natural order of red, white, and blue, with the color of the field omitted.—Author. (45)
95. Signal flags used to mark assembly point of company, etc. In addition to their use in visual signaling, these flags serve to mark the assembly point of the company when disorganized by combat, and to mark the location of the company in bivouac and elsewhere, when such use is desirable. (46)
96. Signals used between firing line and reserve or commander in rear. (1) For communication between the firing line and the reserve or commander in the rear, the subjoined signals (Signal Corps codes) are prescribed and should be memorized. In transmission, their concealment from the enemy's view should be insured. In the absence of signal flags, the headdress or other substitute may be used. (See par. 863 for the semaphore code and par. 861 for the General Service, or International Morse Code.) (47)
- - Letter of If signaled from the rear If signaled from the firing alphabet to the firing line line to the rear - - A M Ammunition going forward. Ammunition required. C C C Charge (mandatory at all Am about to charge if no times). instructions to the contrary. C F Cease firing. Cease firing. D T Double time or "rush." Double time or "rush." F Commence firing. Commence firing. F B Fix bayonets. Fix bayonets. F L Artillery fire is causing Artillery fire is causing us losses. us losses. G Move forward. Preparing to move forward. H H H Halt. Halt. K Negative. Negative. L T Left. Left. O What is the (R. N. etc.)? What is the (R. N. etc.)? (Ardois and Interrogatory. Interrogatory. semaphore only.) - (All methods What is the (R. N. etc.)? What is the (R. N. etc.)? but ardois Interrogatory. Interrogatory. and semaphore.) P Affirmative. Affirmative. R Acknowledgment. Acknowledgment. R N Range. Range. R T Right. Right. S S S Support going forward. Support needed. S U F Suspend firing. Suspend firing. T Target. Target. - -
For the semaphore signals, see par. 863.
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER
97. Duties of instructor. The instructor explains briefly each movement, first executing it himself if practicable. He requires the recruits to take the proper positions unassisted and does not touch them for the purpose of correcting them, except when they are unable to correct themselves. He avoids keeping them too long at the same movement, although each should be understood before passing to another. He exacts by degrees the desired precision and uniformity. (48)
98. Grouping of recruits according to proficiency. In order that all may advance as rapidly as their abilities permit, the recruits are grouped according to proficiency as instruction progresses. Those who lack aptitude and quickness are separated from the others and placed under experienced drill masters. (49)
Instruction Without Arms
98a. Formation of squad for preliminary instruction. For preliminary instruction a number of recruits, usually not exceeding three or four, are formed as a squad in single rank. (50)
Position of the Soldier, or Attention
99. Heels on the same line and as near each other as the conformation of the man permits.
Feet turned out equally and forming an angle of about 45 deg..
Knees straight without stiffness.
Hips level and drawn back slightly; body erect and resting equally on hips; chest lifted and arched; shoulders square and falling equally.
Arms and hands hanging naturally, thumb along the seam of the trousers.
Head erect and squarely to the front, chin drawn in so that the axis of the head and neck is vertical; eyes straight to the front.
Weight of the body resting equally upon the heels and balls of the feet. (51)
100. Being at a halt, the commands are: FALL OUT; REST; AT EASE; and, 1. Parade, 2. REST.
At the command fall out, the men may leave the ranks, but are required to remain in the immediate vicinity. They resume their former places, at attention, at the command fall in.
At the command rest each man keeps one foot in place, but is not required to preserve silence or immobility.
At the command at ease each man keeps one foot in place and is required to preserve silence but not immobility. (52)
101. 1. Parade, 2. REST. Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to the rear, left knee slightly bent; clasp the hands, without constraint, in front of the center of the body, fingers joined, left hand uppermost, left thumb clasped by the thumb and forefinger of the right hand; preserve silence and steadiness of position. (53)
102. To resume the attention: 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION.
The men take the position of the soldier. (54)
Eyes Right or Left
103. 1. Eyes, 2. RIGHT (LEFT), 3. FRONT.
At the command right, turn the head to the right oblique, eyes fixed on the line of eyes of the men in, or supposed to be in, the same rank. At the command front, turn the head and eyes to the front. (55)
104. To the flank: 1. Right (left), 2. FACE.
Raise slightly the left heel and right toe; face to the right, turning on the right heel, assisted by a slight pressure on the ball of the left foot; place the left foot by the side of the right. Left face is executed on the left heel in the corresponding manner.
Right (left) half face is executed similarly, facing 45 deg..
"To face in marching" and advance, turn on the ball of either foot and step off with the other foot in the new line of direction; to face in marching without gaining ground in the new direction, turn on the ball of either foot and mark time. (56)
105. To the rear: 1. About, 2. FACE.
Carry the toe of the right foot about a half foot-length to the rear and slightly to the left of the left heel without changing the position of the left foot; face to the rear, turning to the right on the left heel and right toe; place the right heel by the side of the left. (57)
Salute with the Hand
106. 1. Hand, 2. SALUTE.
Raise the right hand smartly till the tip of the forefinger touches the lower part of the headdress or forehead above the right eye, thumb and fingers extended and joined palm to the left, forearm inclined at about 45 deg., hand and wrist straight; at the same time look toward the person saluted. (TWO) Drop the arm smartly by the side. (58)
(For rules governing salutes, see "Military Courtesy," Chapter XI, Part II.)
Steps and Marchings
107. Steps and marchings begin with left foot. All steps and marchings executed from a halt, except right step, begin with the left foot. (59)
108. Length and cadence of full step; indicating cadence. The length of the full step in quick time is 30 inches, measured from heel to heel, and the cadence is at the rate of 120 steps per minute.
The length of the full step in double time is 36 inches; the cadence is at the rate of 180 steps per minute.
The instructor, when necessary, indicates the cadence of the step by calling one, two, three, four, or left, right, the instant the left and right foot, respectively, should be planted. (60)
109. Steps and marchings and movements involving marchings habitually executed in quick time. All steps and marchings and movements involving march are executed in quick time unless the squad be marching in double time, or double time be added to the command; in the latter case double time is added to the preparatory command. Example: 1. Squad right, double time, 2. MARCH (School of the Squad). (61)
110. Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH.
At the command forward, shift the weight of the body to the right leg, left knee straight.
At the command march, move the left foot smartly straight forward 30 inches from the right, sole near the ground, and plant it without shock; next in like manner, advance the right foot and plant it as above; continue the march. The arms swing naturally. (62)
111. Being at a halt, or in march in quick time, to march in double time: 1. Double time, 2. MARCH.
If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the body to the right leg. At the command march, raise the forearms, fingers closed, to a horizontal position along the waist line; take up an easy run with the step and cadence of double time, allowing a natural swinging motion to the arms.
If marching in quick time, at the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and then step off in double time. (63)
To resume the quick time: 1. Quick time, 2. MARCH.
At the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the other foot in double time; resume the quick time, dropping the hands by the sides. (64)
To Mark Time
112. Being in march: 1. Mark time, 2. MARCH.
At the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the other foot; bring up the foot in rear and continue the cadence by alternately raising each foot about 2 inches and planting it on line with the other.
Being at a halt, at the command march, raise and plant the feet as described above. (65)
The Half Step
113. 1. Half step, 2. MARCH.
Take steps of 15 inches in quick time, 18 inches in double time. (66)
Forward, half step, halt, and mark time may be executed one from the other in quick or double time.
To resume the full step from half step or mark time: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH. (67)
114. Being at a halt or mark time: 1. Right (left) step, 2. MARCH.
Carry and plant the right foot 15 inches to the right; bring the left foot beside it and continue the movement in the cadence of quick time.
The side step is used for short distances only and is not executed in double time.
If at order arms, the side step is executed at trail without command. (68)
115. Being at a halt or mark time: 1. Backward, 2. MARCH.
Take steps of 15 inches straight to the rear.
The back step is used for short distances only and is not executed in double time.
If at order arms, the back step is executed at trail without command. (69)
116. To arrest the march in quick or double time: 1. Squad, 2. HALT.
At the command halt, given as either foot strikes the ground, plant the other foot as in marching; raise and place the first foot by the side of the other. If in double time, drop the hands by the sides. (70)
To March by the Flank
117. Being in march: 1. By the right (left) flank, 2. MARCH.
At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the left foot; then face to the right in marching and step off in the new direction with the right foot. (71)
To March to the Rear
118. Being in march: 1. To the rear, 2. MARCH.
At the command march given as the right foot strikes the ground advance and plant the left foot; turn to the right about on the balls of both feet and immediately step off with the left foot.
If marching in double time, turn to the right about, taking four steps in place, keeping the cadence, and then step off with the left foot. (72)
119. Being in march: 1. Change step, 2. MARCH.
At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the left foot; plant the toe of the right foot near the heel of the left and step off with the left foot.
The change on the right foot is similarly executed, the command march being given as the left foot strikes the ground. (73)
MANUAL OF ARMS
120. Instruction of recruit in use of rifle, manual of arms, etc. As soon as practicable the recruit is taught the use, nomenclature, and care of his rifle. (See "The Care, Description, and Management of the Rifle," Chapter XIV, Part II.); when fair progress has been made in the instruction without arms, he is taught the manual of arms; instruction without arms and that with arms alternate. (74)
121. Rules governing carrying of piece. The following rules governing the carrying of the piece:
First. Piece habitually carried without cartridges in chamber or magazine. The piece is not carried with cartridges in either the chamber or the magazine except when specifically ordered. When so loaded, or supposed to be loaded, it is habitually carried locked; that is, with the safety lock turned to the "safe." At all other times it is carried unlocked, with the trigger pulled.
Second. Inspection of pieces when troops are formed and when dismissed. Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are immediately inspected at the commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Order (Right shoulder port), 4. ARMS, which are executed as explained in pars. 145-146.
A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal.
If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine they are removed and placed in the belt.
Third. Cut-off habitually turned "off." The cut-off is kept turned "off" except when cartridges are actually used.
Fourth. Bayonet habitually not carried fixed. The bayonet is not fixed (See par. 142), except in bayonet exercise, on guard, or for combat.
Fifth. "Fall in" executed at order; "attention" resumed at order. Fall in is executed with the piece at the order arms. Fall out, rest, and at ease are executed as without arms, as explained in par. 100. On resuming attention the position of order arms is taken.
Sixth. If at order, pieces brought to right shoulder at command "march"; execution of movements at trail; piece brought to trail in certain movements executed from order. If at the order, unless otherwise prescribed, the piece is brought to the right shoulder at the command march, the three motions corresponding with the first three steps. Movements may be executed at the trail by prefacing the preparatory command with the words at trail; as, 1. At trail, forward, 2. MARCH; the trail is taken at the command march.
When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking interval or distance, and assemblings are executed from the order, raise the piece to the trail while in motion and resume the order on halting.
Seventh. Piece brought to order on halting. The piece is brought to the order on halting. The execution of the order begins when the halt is completed.
Eighth. Holding disengaged hand in double time. A disengaged hand in double time is held as when without arms. (75)
122. Rules governing manual of arms. The following rules govern the execution of the manual of arms:
First. Position of left hand at balance. In all positions of the left hand at the balance (center of gravity, bayonet unfixed) the thumb clasps the piece; the sling is included in the grasp of the hand.
Second. Positions of piece "diagonally across the body." In all positions of the piece "diagonally across the body" the position of the piece, left arm and hand are the same as in port arms. (See par. 125.)
Third. Next to last motion in resuming order from any position; piece to strike ground gently. In resuming the order from any position in the manual, the motion next to the last concludes with the butt of the piece about 3 inches from the ground, barrel to the rear, the left hand above and near the right, steadying the piece, fingers extended and joined, forearm and wrist straight and inclining downward, all fingers of the right hand grasping the piece. To complete the order, lower the piece gently to the ground with the right hand, drop the left quickly by the side, and take the position of order arms.
Allowing the piece to drop through the right hand to the ground, or other similar abuse of the rifle to produce effect in executing the manual is prohibited.
Fourth. Cadence of motions; at first attention to be paid to details of motion. The cadence of the motions is that of quick time; the recruits are first required to give their whole attention to the details of the motions, the cadence being gradually acquired as they become accustomed to handling their pieces. The instructor may require them to count aloud in cadence with the motions.
Fifth. Execution of manual "by the numbers." The manual is taught at a halt and the movements are for the purpose of instruction, divided into motions and executed in detail; in this case the command of execution determines the prompt execution of the first motion, and the commands, two, three, four, that of the other motions.
To execute the movements in detail, the instructor first cautions: By the numbers; all movements divided into motions are then executed as above explained until he cautions: Without the numbers; or commands movements other than those in the manual of arms.
Sixth. Regular positions assumed without regard to previous positions; carrying rifle in any position. Whenever circumstances require, the regular positions of the manual of arms and the firings may be ordered without regard to the previous position of the piece.
Under the exceptional conditions of weather or fatigue the rifle may be carried in any manner directed. (76)
123. Position of order arms standing: The butt rests evenly on the ground, barrel to the rear, toe of the butt on a line with toe of, and touching, the right shoe, arms and hands hanging naturally, right hand holding the piece between the thumb and fingers. (77)
124. Being at order arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS.
With the right hand carry the piece in front of the center of the body, barrel to the rear and vertical, grasp it with the left hand at the balance, forearm horizontal and resting against the body. (TWO) Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand. (78)
125. Being at order arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS.
With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across the body, grasp it smartly with both hands; the right, palm down, at the small of the stock: the left, palm up, at the balance; barrel up, sloping to the left and crossing opposite the junction of the neck with the left shoulder; right forearm horizontal; left forearm resting against the body; the piece in a vertical plane parallel to the front. (79)
126. Being at present arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS.
Carry the piece diagonally across the body and take the position of port arms. (80)
127. Being at port arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS.
Carry the piece to a vertical position in front of the center of the body and take the position of present arms. (81)
128. Being at present or port arms: 1. Order, 2. ARMS.
Let go with the right hand; lower and carry the piece to the right with the left hand: regrasp it with the right hand just above the lower band; let go with the left hand, and take the next to the last position in coming to the order. (TWO) Complete the order. (82)
129. Being at order arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS.
With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across the body; carry the right hand quickly to the butt, embracing it, the heel between the first two fingers. (TWO) Without changing the grasp of the right hand, place the piece on the right shoulder, barrel up and inclined at an angle of about 45 deg. from the horizontal, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder, right elbow near the side, the piece in a vertical plane perpendicular to the front; carry the left hand, thumb and fingers extended and joined, to the small of the stock, tip of the forefinger touching the cocking piece, wrist straight and elbow down. (THREE) Drop the left hand by the side. (83)
130. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Order, 2. ARMS.
Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally across the body, the right hand retaining the grasp of the butt. (TWO), (THREE) Execute order arms as described from port arms. (84)
131. Being at port arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS.
Change the right hand to the butt. (TWO), (THREE) As in right shoulder arms from order arms. (85)
132. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS.
Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally across the body, the right hand retaining its grasp of the butt. (TWO) Change the right hand to the small of the stock. (86)
133. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS.
Execute port arms. (THREE) execute present arms. (87)
134. Being at present arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS.
Execute port arms. (TWO), (THREE), (FOUR) Execute right shoulder arms as from port arms. (88)
135. Being at port arms: 1. Left shoulder, 2. ARMS.
Carry the piece with the right hand and place it on the left shoulder, barrel up, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder; at the same time grasp the butt with the left hand, heel between first and second fingers, thumb and fingers closed on the stock. (TWO) Drop the right hand by the side.
136. Being at left shoulder arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS.
Grasp the piece with the right hand at the small of the stock. (TWO) Carry the piece to the right with the right hand, regrasp it with the left, and take the position of port arms.
Left shoulder arms may be ordered directly from the order, right shoulder or present, or the reverse. At the command arms execute port arms and continue in cadence to the position ordered. (89)
137. Being at order arms: 1. Parade, 2. REST.
Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to the rear, left knee slightly bent; carry the muzzle in front of the center of the body, barrel to the left; grasp the piece with the left hand just below the stacking swivel, and with the right hand below and against the left.
138. Being at parade rest: 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION.
Resume the order, the left hand quitting the piece opposite the right hip. (90)
139. Being at order arms: 1. Trail, 2. ARMS.
Raise the piece, right arm slightly bent, and incline the muzzle forward so that the barrel makes an angle of about 30 deg. with the vertical.
When it can be done without danger or inconvenience to others, the piece may be grasped at the balance and the muzzle lowered until the piece is horizontal; a similar position in the left hand may be used. (91)
140. Being at trail arms: 1. Order, 2. ARMS.
Lower the piece with the right hand and resume the order. (92)
141. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Rifle, 2. SALUTE.
Carry the left hand smartly to the small of the stock, forearm horizontal, palm of hand down, thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger touching end of cocking piece; look toward the person saluted. (TWO) Drop left hand by the side; turn head and eyes to the front. (93)
Being at order or trail arms: 1. Rifle, 2. SALUTE.
Carry the left hand smartly to the right side, palm of the hand down, thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger against piece near the muzzle; look toward the person saluted. (TWO) Drop the left hand by the side; turn the head and eyes to the front.
For rules governing salutes, see "Military Courtesy," Chapter XI, Part II.
142. Being at order arms: 1. Fix, 2. BAYONET.
If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest; grasp the bayonet with the right hand, back of hand toward the body; draw the bayonet from the scabbard and fix it on the barrel, glancing at the muzzle; resume the order.
If the bayonet is carried on the haversack: Draw the bayonet with the left hand and fix it in the most convenient manner. (95)
143. Being at our arms: 1. Unfix, 2. BAYONET.
If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest; grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, pressing the spring with the forefinger of the right hand; raise the bayonet until the handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle of the piece; drop the point to the left, back of the hand toward the body, and, glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing between the left arm and the body; regrasp the piece with the right hand and resume the order.