ECLECTIC EDUCATIONAL SERIES.
FIFTH ECLECTIC READER.
McGuffey Editions and Colophon are Trademarks of
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York-Chichester-Weinheim-Brisbane-Singapore-Toronto
Copyright, 1879, by VAN ANTWERP, BRAGG & CO. Copyright, 1896, by AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY. Copyright, 1907 and 1920, by H. H. VAIL. M'G. REV 5TH EC. EP 310
The plan of the revision of McGUFFEY'S FIFTH READER is the same as that pursued in the other books of the REVISED SERIES. The book has been considerably enlarged, but the new pieces have been added or substituted only after the most careful consideration, and where the advantages to be derived were assured.
It has been the object to obtain as wide a range of leading authors as possible, to present the best specimens of style, to insure interest in the subjects, to impart valuable information, and to exert a decided and healthful moral influence. Thus the essential characteristics of McGUFFEY'S READERS have been carefully kept intact.
The preliminary exercises have been retained, and are amply sufficient for drill in articulation, inflection, etc. The additional exercises on these subjects, formerly inserted between the lessons, have been omitted to make room for other valuable features of the REVISED SERIES.
A full understanding of the text is necessary in order to read it properly. As all the books of reference required for this purpose are not within the reach of the majority of pupils, full explanatory notes have been given, which, it is believed, will add greatly not only to the interest of the reading lessons, but also to their usefulness from an instructive point of view.
The definitions of the more difficult words have been given, as formerly; and the pronunciation has been indicated by diacritical marks, in conformity with the preceding books of the REVISED SERIES.
Particular attention is invited to the notices of authors. Comparatively few pupils have the opportunity of making a separate study of English and American literature, and the carefully prepared notices in the REVISED SERIES are designed, therefore, to supply as much information in regard to the leading authors as is possible in the necessarily limited space assigned. The publishers have desired to illustrate McGUFFEY'S READERS in a manner worthy of the text and of the high favor in which they are held throughout the United States. The most celebrated designers and engravers of the country have been employed for this purpose.
It has been the privilege of the publishers to submit the REVISIED SERIES to numerous eminent educators in all parts of the country. To the careful reviews and criticisms of these gentlemen is due, in a large measure, the present form of McGUFFEY'S READERS. The value of these criticisms, coming from practical sources of the highest authority, can not well be overestimated, and the publishers take this occasion to express their thanks and their indebtedness to all who have thus kindly assisted them in this work.
Especial acknowledgment is due to Messrs. Houghton, Osgood & Co. for their permission to make liberal selections from their copyright editions of many of the foremost American authors whose works they publish.
SUBJECT. I. PRELIMINARY REMARKS II. ARTICULATION III. INFLECTIONS IV. ACCENT V. EMPHASIS VI. MODULATION VII. POETIC PAUSES EXERCISES
SELECTIONS IN PROSE AND POETRY.
TITLE. AUTHOR. 1. The Good Reader 2. The Bluebell 3. The Gentle Hand T. S. Arthur. 4. The Grandfather C. G. Eastman. 5. A Boy on a Farm C. D. Warner. 6. The Singing Lesson Jean Ingelow. 7. Do not Meddle 8. Work Eliza Cook. 9. The Maniac 10. Robin Redbreast W. Allingham. 11. The Fish I Did n't Catch Whittier. 12. It Snows Mrs. S. J. Hale. 13. Respect for the Sabbath Rewarded 14. The Sands o' Dee Charles Kingsley. 15. Select Paragraphs Bible. 16. The Corn Song Whittier. 17. The Venomous Worm John Russell. 18. The Festal Board 19. How to Tell Bad News 20. The Battle of Blenheim Southey. 21. I Pity Them 22. An Elegy on Madam Blaize Goldsmith. 23. King Charles II. and William Penn Mason L. Weems. 24. What I Live For 25. The Righteous Never Forsaken 26. Abou Ben Adhem Leigh Hunt. 27. Lucy Forrester John Wilson. 28. The Reaper and the Flowers. Longfellow. 29. The Town Pump Hawthorne. 30. Good Night Peter Parley. 31. An Old-fashioned Girl Louisa M. Alcott. 32. My Mother's Hands 33. The Discontented Pendulum. Jane Taylor. 34. The Death of the Flowers Bryant. 35. The Thunderstorm Irving. 36. April Day Mrs. C. A. Southey. 37. The Tea Rose 38. The Cataract of Lodore Southey. 39. The Bobolink Irving. 40. Robert of Lincoln Bryant. 41. Rebellion in Massachusetts State Prison J. T. Buckingham. 42. Faithless Nelly Gray Hood. 43. The Generous Russian Peasant Nikolai Karamzin. 44. Forty Years Ago 45. Mrs. Caudle's Lecture Douglas Jerrold. 46. The Village Blacksmith Longfellow. 47. The Relief of Lucknow "London Times." 48. The Snowstorm Thomson. 49. Behind Time 50. The Old Sampler Mrs. M. E. Sangster. 51. The Goodness of God Bible. 52. My Mother 53. The Hour of Prayer Mrs. F. D. Hemans. 54. The Will 55. The Nose and the Eyes Cowper. 56. An Iceberg L. L. Noble. 57. About Quail W. P. Hawes. 58. The Blue and the Gray F. M. Finch. 59. The Machinist's Return Washington "Capital." 60. Make Way for Liberty James Montgomery. 61. The English Skylark Elihu Burritt. 62. How Sleep the Brave William Collins. 63. The Rainbow John Keble. 64. Supposed Speech of John Adams Daniel Webster. 65. The Rising T. R. Read. 66. Control your Temper Dr. John Todd. 67. William Tell Sheridan Knowles. 68. William Tell Sheridan Knowles. 69. The Crazy Engineer 70. The Heritage Lowell. 71. No Excellence without Labor William Wirt. 72. The Old House Clock 73. The Examination. D. P. Thompson. 74. The Isle of Long Ago B. F. Taylor. 75. The Boston Massacre Bancroft. 76. Death of the Beautiful Mrs. E. L. Follen. 77. Snow Falling J. J. Piatt. 78. Squeers's Method Dickens. 79. The Gift of Empty Hands Mrs. S. M. B. Piatt. 80. Capturing the Wild Horse Irving. 81. Sowing and Reaping Adelaide Anne Procter. 82. Taking Comfort Whittier. 83. Calling the Roll Shepherd. 84. Turtle Soup C. F. Briggs. 85. The Best Kind of Revenge 86. The Soldier of the Rhine Mrs. C. E. S. Norton. 87. The Winged Worshipers Charles Sprague. 88. The Peevish Wife Maria Edgeworth. 89. The Rainy Day Longfellow. 90. Break, Break, Break Tennyson. 91. Transportation and Planting of Seeds H. D. Thoreau. 92. Spring Again Mrs. Celia Thaxter. 93. Religion the only Basis of Society W. E. Channing. 94. Rock Me to Sleep Mrs. E. A. Allen. 95. Man and the Inferior Animals Jane Taylor. 96. The Blind Men and the Elephant J. G. Saxe. 97. A Home Scene D. G. Mitchell. 98. The Light of Other Days Moore. 99. A Chase in the English Channel Cooper. 100. Burial of Sir John Moore Charles Wolfe. 101. Little Victories Harriet Martineau. 102. The Character of a Happy Life Sir Henry Wotton. 103. The Art of Discouragement Arthur Helps. 104. The Mariner's Dream William Dimond. 105. The Passenger Pigeon Audubon. 106. The Country Life R. H. Stoddard. 107. The Virginians Thackeray. 108. Minot's Ledge Fitz-James O'Brien. 109. Hamlet. Shakespeare. 110. Dissertation on Roast Pig Charles Lamb. 111. A Pen Picture William Black. 112. The Great Voices C. T. Brooks. 113. A Picture of Human Life Samuel Johnson. 114. A Summer Longing George Arnold. 115. Fate Bret Harte. 116. The Bible the Best of Classics T. S. Grimke. 117. My Mother's Bible G. P. Morris.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
The Good Reader H. F. Farny. The Fish I Did n't Catch H. F. Farny. The Corn Song E. K. Foote. I Pity Them. W. L. Sheppard. The Town Pump Howard Pyle. Good Night J. A. Knapp. The Tea Rose C. S. Reinhart. Forty Years Ago H. Fenn. The Old Sampler Mary Hallock Foote. The Old Sampler Mary Hallock Foote. About Quail Alexander Pope. The Crazy Engineer H. F. Farny. Squeers's Method Howard Pyle. Turtle Soup W. L. Sheppard. Hamlet Alfred Fredericks.
1. PRELIMINARY REMARKS.
The great object to be accomplished in reading, as a rhetorical exercise, is to convey to the hearer, fully and clearly, the ideas and feelings of the writer.
In order to do this, it is necessary that a selection should be carefully studied by the pupil before he attempts to read it. In accordance with this view, a preliminary rule of importance is the following:
RULE 1.—Before attempting to read a lesson, the learner should make himself fully acquainted with the subject as treated of in that lesson, and endeavor to make the thought and feeling and sentiments of the writer his own.
REMARK.—When he has thus identified himself with the author, he has the substance of all rules in his own mind. It is by going to nature that we find rules. The child or the savage orator never mistakes in inflection or emphasis or modulation. The best speakers and readers are those who follow the impulse of nature, or most closely imitate it as observed in others.
Articulation is the utterance of the elementary sounds of a language, and of their combinations.
An Elementary Sound is a simple, distinct sound made by the organs of speech.
The Elementary Sounds of the English language are divided into Vocals, Subvocals, and Aspirates.
Vocals are sounds which consist of pure tone only. A diphthong is a union of two vocals, commencing with one and ending with the other.
DIRECTION.—Put the lips, teeth, tongue, and palate in their proper position; pronounce the word in the chart forcibly, and with the falling inflection, several times in succession; then drop the subvocal or aspirate sounds which precede or follow the vocal, and repeat the vocals alone.
Table of Vocals.
Long Vocals. Vocal as in Vocal as in ——- ——- ——- ——- a hate e err a hare i pine a far o no a pass u tube a fall u burn e eve oo cool
Short Vocals Vocal as in Vocal as in ——- ——- ——- ——- a mat o hot e met u us i it oo book
Diphthongs. Vocal as in ——— ———— oi, oy oil, boy ou, ow out,now
REMARK 1.—In this table, the short sounds, except u, are nearly or quite the same in quality as certain of the long sounds. The difference consists chiefly in quantity.
REMARK 2. The vocals are often represented by other letters or combinations of letters than those used in the table; for instance, a is represented by ai in hail, ea in steak, etc.
REMARK 3.—As a general rule, the long vocals and the diphthongs should be articulated with a full, clear utterance; but the short vocals have a sharp, distinct, and almost explosive utterance.
SUBVOCALS AND ASPIRATES.
Subvocals are those sounds in which the vocalized breath is more or less obstructed.
Aspirates consist of breath only, modified by the vocal organs.
Words ending with subvocal sounds should be selected for practice on the subvocals; words beginning or ending with aspirate sounds may be used for practice on the aspirates. Pronounce these words forcibly and distinctly several times in succession; then drop the other sounds, and repeat the subvocals and aspirates alone. Let the class repeat the words and elements at first in concert, then separately.
Table of Subvocals and Aspirates. Subvocal as in Subvocal as in ———— ——- ———— ——- b babe p rap d bad t at g nag k book j judge ch rich v move f life th with th Smith z buzz s hiss z azure(azh'ure) sh rush
REMARK.—These sixteen sounds make eight pairs of cognates. In articulating the aspirates, the vocal organs are put in the position required in the articulation of the corresponding subvocals; but the breath is expelled with some force without the utterance of any vocal sound. The pupil should first verify this by experiment, and then practice on these cognates.
The following subvocals and aspirates have no cognates.
Subvocal as in Subvocal as in ———— ——- ———— ——- l mill r rule m rim r car n run w win ng sing y yet
Aspirate as in ———— ——- h hat wh when
Substitutes are characters used to represent sounds ordinarily represented by other characters.
TABLE OF SUBSTITUTES.
Substitute for as in Substitute for as in ————— —- ——- ————— —- ——- a o what y i hymn e a there c s cite e a freight c k cap i e police ch sh machine i e sir ch k chaos o u son g j cage o oo to n ng rink o oo would s z rose o a corn s ah sure o u work x gz examine u oo pull gh f laugh u oo rude ph f sylph y i my qu k pique qu kw quick
FAULTS TO BE REMEDIED.
DIRECTION.—Give to each sound, to each syllable, and to each word its full, distinct, and appropriate utterance.
For the purpose of avoiding the more common errors under this head, observe the following rules:
RULE II.—Avoid the omission of unaccented vowels.
Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct ————- —————- ————— ————- Sep'rate sep-a-rate Ev'dent ev-i-dent met-ric'l met-ric-al mem'ry mem-o-ry 'pear ap-pear 'pin-ion o-pin-ion com-p'tent com-pe-tent pr'pose pro-pose pr'cede pre-cede gran'lar gran-u-lar 'spe-cial es-pe-cial par-tic'lar par-tic-u-lar
RULE III.—Avoid sounding incorrectly the unaccented vowels.
Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct ————— —————- —————— —————— Sep-er-ate sep-a-rate Mem-er-ry mem-o-ry met-ric-ul met-ric-al up-pin-ion o-pin-ion up-pear ap-pear prup-ose pro-pose com-per-tent com-pe-tent gran-ny-lar gran-u-lar dum-mand de-mand par-tic-e-lar par-tic-u-lar ob-stur-nate ob-sti-nate ev-er-dent ev-i-dent
REMARK I.—In correcting errors of this kind in words of more than one syllable, it is very important to avoid a fault which is the natural consequence of an effort to articulate correctly. Thus, in endeavoring to sound correctly the a in met'ric-al, the pupil is very apt to say met-ric-al'. accenting the last syllable instead of the first.
REMARK 2.—The teacher should bear it in mind that in correcting a fault there is always danger of erring in the opposite extreme. Properly speaking, there is no danger of learning to articulate too distinctly, but there is danger of making the obscure sounds too prominent, and of reading in a slow, measured, and unnatural manner.
RULE IV.—Utter distinctly the terminating subvocals and aspirates.
Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct ————- ———- ————- ———- An' and Mos' mosque ban' band near-es' near-est moun' mound wep' wept mor-nin' morn-ing ob-jec' ob-ject des' desk sub-jec sub-ject
REMARK 1.—This omission is still more likely to occur when several consonants come together.
Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct ————- ———— ————- ————— Thrus' thrusts Harms' harm'st beace beasts wrongs' wrong'st thinks' thinkst twinkles' twinkl'dst weps' weptst black'ns black'n'dst
REMARK 2.—In all cases of this kind these sounds are omitted, in the first instance, merely because they are difficult, and require care and attention for their utterance, although after a while it becomes a habit. The only remedy is to devote that care and attention which may be necessary. There is no other difficulty, unless there should be a defect in the organs of speech, which is not often the case.
RULE V.—A void blending syllables which belong to different words.
INCORRECT. CORRECT. ————— —————— He ga-zdupon. He gazed upon. Here res tsis sed. Here rests his head. Whattis sis sname? What is his name? For ranninstantush. For an instant hush. Ther ris sa calm, There is a calm. For tho stha tweep. For those that weep. God sglorou simage. God's glorious image.
EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION.
This exercise and similar ones will afford valuable aid in training the organs to a distinct articulation.
Every vice fights against nature. Folly is never pleased with itself. Pride, not nature, craves much. The little tattler tittered at the tempest. Titus takes the petulant outcasts. The covetous partner is destitute of fortune. No one of you knows where the shoe pinches. What can not be cured must be endured. You can not catch old birds with chaff. Never sport with the opinions of others. The lightnings flashed, the thunders roared. His hand in mine was fondly clasped. They cultivated shrubs and plants. He selected his texts with great care. His lips grow restless, and his smile is curled half into scorn. Wisdom's ways are ways of pleasantness. O breeze, that waftst me on my way! Thou boast'st of what should be thy shame. Life's fitful fever over, he rests well. Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? From star to star the living lightnings flash. And glittering crowns of prostrate seraphim. That morning, thou that slumber'd'st not before. Habitual evils change not on a sudden. Thou waft'd'st the rickety skiffs over the cliffs. Thou reef'd'st the haggled, shipwrecked sails. The honest shepherd's catarrh. The heiress in her dishabille is humorous. The brave chevalier behaves like a conservative. The luscious notion of champagne and precious sugar.
Inflections are slides of the voice upward or downward. Of these, there are two: the rising inflection and the falling inflection.
The Rising Inflection is that in which the voice slides upward, and is marked thus ('); as,
Did you walk'? Did you walk.
The Falling Inflection is that in which the voice slides downward, and is marked thus ('); as,
I did not walk'. I did not walk.
Both inflections are exhibited in the following question:
Did you walk' or ride'? walk or ride.
In the following examples, the first member has the rising and the second member the falling inflection:
Is he sick', or is he well'? Did you say valor', or value'? Did you say statute', or statue'? Did he act properly', or improperly'?
[Footnote 1: These questions and similar ones, with their answers, should be repeatedly pronounced with their proper inflection, until the distinction between the rising and falling inflection is well understood and easily made by the learner. He will be assisted in this by emphasizing strongly the word which receives the inflection, thus. Did you RIDE' or did you WALK'?]
In the following examples, the inflections are used in a contrary order, the first member terminating with the falling and the second with the rising inflection:
He is well', not sick'. I said value', not valor'. I said statue', not statute'. He acted properly', not improperly'.
Rule VI.—The falling inflection is generally proper wherever the sense is complete.
Truth is more wonderful than fiction'. Men generally die as they live'. By industry we obtain wealth'.
REMARK.—Parts of a sentence often make complete sense in themselves, and in this case, unless qualified or restrained by the succeeding clause, or unless the contrary is indicated by some other principle, the falling inflection takes place according to the rule.
Truth is wonderful', even more so than fiction'.
Men generally die as they live' and by their actions we must judge of their character'.
Exception.—When a sentence concludes with a negative clause, or with a contrast or comparison (called also antithesis), the first member of which requires the falling inflection, it must close with the rising inflection. (See Rule XI, and paragraph 2, Note.)
No one desires to be thought a fool'.
I come to bury' Caesar, not to praise' him.
He lives in England' not in France'.
REMARK.—In bearing testimony to the general character of a man we say:
He is too honorable' to be guilty of a vile' act.
But if he is accused of some act of baseness, a contrast is at once instituted between his character and the specified act, and we change the inflections, and say:
He is too honorable' to be guilty of such' an act.
A man may say in general terms:
I am too busy' for projects'.
But if he is urged to embark in some particular enterprise, he will change the inflections, and say:
I am too busy' for projects'.
In such cases, as the falling inflection is required in the former part by the principle of contrast and emphasis (as will hereafter be more fully explained), the sentence necessarily closes with the rising inflection. Sometimes, also, emphasis alone seems to require the rising inflection on the concluding word. See exception to Rule VII.
RULE VII.—Language which demands strong emphasis generally requires the falling inflection.
EXAMPLES. 1. Command or urgent entreaty; as,
Begone', Run' to your houses, fall' upon your knees, Pray' to the Gods to intermit the plagues.
0, save' me, Hubert' save' me I My eyes are out Even with the fierce looks of these bloody men.
2. Exclamation, especially when indicating strong emotion; as,
0, ye Gods'! ye Gods'! must I endure all this?
Hark'! Hark'! the horrid sound Hath raised up his head.
For interrogatory exclamation, see Rule X, Remark.
SERIES OF WORDS OR MEMBERS.
3. A series of words or members, whether in the beginning or middle of a sentence, if it does not conclude the sentence, is called a commencing series, and usually requires the rising inflection when not emphatic.
EXAMPLES OF COMMENCING SERIES.
Wine', beauty', music', pomp', are poor expedients to heave off the load of an hour from the heir of eternity'.
I conjure you by that which you profess, (Howe'er you came to know it,) answer me; Though you untie the winds and let them fight Against the churches'; though the yeasty waves Confound and swallow navigation' up; Though bladed corn be lodged, and trees blown down'; Though castles topple on their warders' heads'; Though palaces and pyramids do slope Their heads to their foundations'; though the treasures Of nature's germens tumble altogether', Even till destruction sicken'; answer me To what I ask' you.
4. A series of words or members which concludes a sentence is called a concluding series, and each member usually has the falling inflection.
EXAMPLE OF CONCLUDING SERIES.
They, through faith, subdued kingdoms', wrought righteousness' obtained promises', stopped the mouths of lions', quenched the violence of fire', escaped the edge of the sword', out of weakness were made strong', waxed valiant in fight', turned to flight the armies of the aliens'.
REMARK.—When the emphasis on these words or members is not marked, they take the rising inflection, according to Rule IX.
They are the offspring of restlessness', vanity', and idleness'. Love', hope', and joy' took possession of his breast.
5. When words which naturally take the rising inflection become emphatic by repetition or any other cause, they often take the falling inflection.
Exception to the Rule.—While the tendency of emphasis is decidedly to the use of the falling inflection, sometimes a word to which the falling inflection naturally belongs changes this, when it is emphatic, for the rising inflection.
Three thousand ducats': 't is a good round sum'. It is useless to point out the beauties of nature to one who is blind'.
Here sum and blind, according to Rule VI, would take the falling inflection, but as they are emphatic, and the object of emphasis is to draw attention to the word emphasized, this is here accomplished in part by giving an unusual inflection. Some speakers would give these words the circumflex, but it would he the rising circumflex, so that the sound would still terminate with the rising inflection.
RULE VIII.—Questions which can not be answered by yes or no, together with their answers, generally require the falling inflection.
Where has he gone'? Ans. To New York'. What has he done'? Ans. Nothing'. Who did this'? Ans. I know not'. When did he go'? Ans. Yesterday'.
REMARK.—It these questions are repeated, the inflection is changed according to the principle stated under the Exception to Rule VII.
RULE IX.—Where a pause is rendered proper by the meaning, and the sense is incomplete, the rising inflection is generally required.
To endure slander and abuse with meekness' requires no ordinary degree of self-command',
Night coming on', both armies retired from the field of battle'.
As a dog returneth to his vomit', so a fool returneth to his folly'.
REMARK.—The person or object addressed, in ordinary conversation, comes under this head.
Fathers'! we once again are met in council.
My lords'! and gentlemen'! we have arrived at an awful crisis.
Age'! thou art shamed.
Rome'! thou hast lost the breed of noble bloods!
Exception.—Where a word which, according to this rule, requires the rising inflection, becomes emphatic, it generally has the falling inflec-tion; as, when a child addresses his father, he first says, Father'! but if he repeats it emphatically, he changes the inflection, and says, Father'! Father'! The falling inflection is also used in formal address; as, Fellow—citizens', Mr. President', etc.
When we aim at a high standard, if we do not attain' it, we shall secure a high degree of excellence.
Those who mingle with the vicious, if they do not become depraved', will lose all delicacy of feeling.
RULE X.—Questions which may be answered by yes or no, generally require the rising, and their answers the falling inflection.
Has he arrived'? Yes'. Will he return'? No'. Does the law condemn him'? It does not'.
Exception.—If these questions are repeated emphatically, they take the falling inflection, according to Rule VII.
Has he arrived'? Will he return'? Does the law condemn him'?
REMARK.—When a word or sentence is repeated as a kind of interrogatory exclamation, the rising inflection is used according to the principles of this rule.
You ask, who would venture' in such a cause! Who would venture'? Rather say, who would not' venture all things for such an object!
He is called the friend' of virtue. The friend'! ay! the enthusiastic lover' the devoted protector' rather.
So, also, when one receives unexpected information he exclaims, Ah'! indeed'!
REMARK.—In the above examples the words "venture," "friend," "ah," etc., may be considered as interrogatory exclamations, because if the sense were carried out it would be in the form of question; as, "Do you ask who would venture'?" "Do you say that he is the friend' of virtue?" "Is it possible'?" and thus they would receive the rising inflection according to this rule.
RISING AND FALLING INFLECTIONS.
RULE XI.—The different members of a sentence expressing comparison, or contrast, or negation and affirmation, or where the parts are united by or used disjunctively, require different inflections; generally the rising inflection in the first member, and the falling inflection in the second member. This order is, however, sometimes inverted.
1. Comparison and contrast. This is also called antithesis.
In all things approving ourselves as the ministers of God; by honor', and dishonor'; by evil' report, and good' report; as deceivers', and yet true'; as unknown', and yet well' known; as dying', and behold we live'; as chastened', and not killed'; as sorrowful', yet always rejoicing'; as poor', yet making many rich'; as having nothing', yet possessing all' things.
Europe was one great battlefield, where the weak struggled for freedom', and the strong for dominion'. The king was without power', and the nobles without principle', They were tyrants at home', and robbers abroad'.
2. Negation and affirmation.
He desired not to injure' his friend, but to protect' him. We desire not your money', but yourselves'. I did not say a better' soldier, but, an elder'.
If the affirmative clause comes first, the order of the inflections is inverted.
He desired to protect' his friend, not to injure' him. We desire yourselves', not your money'. I said an elder' soldier, not a better'.
The affirmative clause is sometimes understood.
We desire not your money'. I did not say a better' soldier. The region beyond the grave is not a solitary' land.
In most negative sentences standing alone, the corresponding affirmative is understood; hence the following.
REMARK.—Negative sentences, whether alone or connected with an affirmative clause, generally end with the rising inflection.
If such sentences are repeated emphatically, they take the falling inflection according to Rule VI.
We do not' desire your money. I did not' say a. better soldier.
3. Or used disjunctively.
Did he behave properly', or improperly'?
Are they living/, or dead'?
Is he rich', or poor'?
Does God, having made his creatures, take no further' care of them, or does he preserve and guide them'?
REMARK.—Where or is used conjunctively, this rule does not apply; as, Will the law of kindness' or of justice' justify such conduct'?
The circumflex is a union of the rising and falling inflections. Properly speaking, there are two of these, the one called the rising circumflex, in which the voice slides down and then up; and the other, the falling circumflex, in which the voice slides upward and then downward on the same vowel. They may both be denoted by the same mark, thus, (^). The circumflex is used chiefly to indicate the emphasis of irony, of contrast, or of hypothesis.
1. Queen. Hamlet, you have your father much offended. Hamlet. Madam, you have my father much offended.
2. They offer us their protec'tion. Yes', such protection as vultures give to lambs, covering and devouring them.
3. I knew when seven justices could not make up a quarrel; but when the parties met themselves, one of them thought but of an if; as, If you said so, then I said so; O ho! did you say so! So they shook hands and were sworn brothers.
REMARKS.—In the first example, the emphasis is that of contrast. The queen had poisoned her husband, of which she incorrectly supposed her son ignorant, and she blames him for treating his father-in-law with disrespect. In his reply, Hamlet contrasts her deep crime with his own slight offense, and the circumflex upon "you" becomes proper.
In the second example the emphasis is ironical. The Spaniards pretended that they would protect the Peruvians if they would submit to them, whereas it was evident that they merely desired to plunder and destroy them. Thus their protection is ironically called "such protection as vultures give to lambs," etc.
In the third example, the word "so" is used hypothetically; that is, it implies a condition or supposition. It will be observed that the rising circumflex is used in the first "so," and the falling, in the second, because the first "so" must end with the rising inflection and the second with the falling inflection, according to previous rules.
When no word in a sentence receives an inflection, it is said to be read in a monotone; that is, in nearly the same tone throughout. This uniformity of tone is occa-sionally adopted, and is fitted to express solemnity or sublimity of idea, and sometimes intensity of feeling. It is used, also, when the whole sentence or phrase is emphatic. In books of elocution, when it is marked at all, it is generally marked thus (—-), as in the lines following.
Hence! loathed melancholy! Where brooding darkness spreads her jealous wings, And the night raven sings; There, under ebon shades and low-browed rocks, As ragged as thy locks, In deep Cimmerian darkness ever dwell.
In every word which contains more than one syllable, one of the syllables is pronounced with a somewhat greater stress of voice than the others. This syllable is said to be accented. The accented syllable is distinguished by this mark ('), the same which is used in inflections.
Love'ly, re-turn', re-mem'ber, Con'stant, re-main', a-sun'der, Mem'ber, a-bide', a-ban'don, Win'dow, a-tone', rec-ol-lect', Ban'ner, a-lone', re-em-bark',
REMARK.—In most cases custom is the only guide for placing the accent on one syllable rather than another. Sometimes, however, the same word is differently accented in order to mark its different meanings.
Con'jure, to practice enchantments. Con-jure', to entreat. Gal'lant, brave. Gal-lant', a gay fellow. Au'gust, a month. Au-gust', grand.
REMARK.—A number of words used sometimes as one part of speech, and sometimes as another, vary their accents irregularly.
Pres'ent, noun. Pres'ent, adjective. Pre-sent', verb. Com'pact, noun. Com-pact', adjective. Com-pact', verb.
In words of more than two syllables there is often a second accent given, but more slight than the principal one, and this is called the secondary accent; as, car'a-van'', rep''ar-tee', where the principal accent is marked (') and the secondary (''); so, also, this accent is obvious in nav''-i-ga'tion, com''pre-hen'sion, plau''si-bil'i-ty, etc. The whole subject, however, properly belongs to dictionaries and spelling books.
A word is said to be emphasized when it is uttered with a greater stress of voice than the other words with which it is connected.
REMARK 1.—The object of emphasis is to attract particular attention to the word upon which it is placed, indicating that the idea to be conveyed depends very much upon that word. This object, as just stated, is generally accomplished by increasing the force of utterance, but sometimes, also, by a change in the inflection, by the use of the monotone, by pause, or by uttering the words in a very low key. Emphatic words are often denoted by italics, and a still stronger emphasis by SMALL CAPITALS or CAPITALS, according to the degree of emphasis desired.
REMARK 2.—Emphasis constitutes the most important feature in reading and speaking, and, properly applied, gives life and character to language. Accent, inflection, and indeed everything yields to emphasis.
REMARK 3.—In the following examples it will be seen that accent is governed by it.
What is done cannot be undone. There is a difference between giving and forgiving. He that descended is the same that ascended.
Some appear to make very little difference between decency and indecency, morality and immorality, religion and irreligion.
REMARK 4.—There is no better illustration of the nature and importance of emphasis than the following examples. It will he observed that the meaning and proper answer of the question vary with each change of the emphasis.
QUESTIONS. ANSWERS. ————- ———— Did you walk into the city yesterday? No, my brother went.
Did you walk into the city yesterday? No, I rode.
Did you walk into the city yesterday? No, I went into the country.
Did you walk into the city yesterday? No, I went the day before.
Sometimes a word is emphasized simply to indicate the importance of the idea. This is called absolute emphasis.
To arms! they come! the Greek! the Greek! Woe unto you, PHARISEES! HYPOCRITES! Days, months, years, and ages shall circle away.
REMARK.—In instances like the last, it is sometimes called the emphasis of specification.
Words are often emphasized in order to exhibit the idea they express as compared or contrasted with some other idea. This is called relative emphasis.
A friend can not be known in prosperity; an enemy can not be hidden in adversity.
It is much better to be injured than to injure.
REMARK.—In many instances one part only of the antithesis is expressed, the corresponding idea being understood; as,
A friendly eye would never see such faults.
Here the unfriendly eye is understood.
King Henry exclaims, while vainly endeavoring to compose himself to rest,
"How many thousand of my poorest subjects Are at this hour asleep!"
Here the emphatic words thousand, subjects, and asleep are contrasted in idea with their opposites, and if the contrasted ideas were expressed it might be in this way:
While I alone, their sovereign, am doomed to wakefulness.
Sometimes several words in succession are emphasized, forming what is called an emphatic phrase.
Shall I, the conqueror of Spain and Gaul, and not only of the Alpine nations but of the Alps themselves—shall I compare myself with this HALF—YEAR—CAPTAIN?
Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been trying that for the LAST TEN YEARS.
And if thou said'st I am not peer To any lord in Scotland here, Lowland or Highland, far or near, Lord Angus-THOU-HAST-LIED!
The emphatic expression of a sentence often requires a pause where the grammatical construction authorizes none. This is sometimes called the rhetorical pause. Such pauses occur chiefly before or after an emphatic word or phrase, and sometimes both before and after it.
Rise—fellow-men! our country—yet remains! By that dread name we wave the sword on high, And swear for her—to live—with her—to die.
But most—by numbers judge the poet's song: And smooth or rough, with them is—right or wrong.
He said; then full before their sight Produced the beast, and lo!—'t was white.
Modulation includes the variations of the voice. These may be classed under the heads of Pitch, Compass, Quantity, and Quality.
PITCH AND COMPASS.
If anyone will notice closely a sentence as uttered in private conversation, he will observe that very few successive words are pronounced in exactly the same key or with the same force. At the same time, however, there is a certain PITCH or key, which seems, on the whole, to prevail.
This keynote, or governing note, as it may be called, is that upon which the voice most frequently dwells, to which it usually returns when wearied, and upon which a sentence generally commences, and very frequently ends, while, at the same time, there is a considerable play of the voice above and below it.
This key may be high or low. It varies in different individuals, and at different times in the same individual, being governed by the nature of the subject and the emotions of the speaker. It is worthy of notice, however, that most speakers pitch their voices on a key too high.
The range of the voice above and below this note is called its COMPASS. When the speaker is animated, this range is great; but upon abstract subjects, or with a dull speaker, it is small. If, in reading or speaking, too high a note be chosen, the lungs will soon become wearied; if too low a pitch be selected, there is danger of indistinctness of utterance; and in either case there is less room for compass or variety of tone than if one be taken between the two extremes.
To secure the proper pitch and the greatest compass observe the following rule:
RULE XII.—The reader or speaker should choose that pitch in which he can feel himself most at ease, and above and below which he may have most room for variation.
REMARK 1.—Having chosen the proper keynote, he should beware of confining himself to it. This constitutes monotony, one of the greatest faults in elocution. One very important instrument for giving expression and life to thought is thus lost, and the hearer soon becomes wearied and disgusted.
REMARK 2.—There is another fault of nearly equal magnitude, and of very frequent occurrence. This consists in varying the pitch and force without reference to the sense. A sentence is commenced with vehemence and in a high key, and the voice gradually sinks until, the breath being spent, it dies away in a whisper.
NOTE—The power of changing the key at will is difficult to acquire, but of great importance.
REMARK 3.—The habit of singsong, so common in reading poetry, as it is a variation of pitch without reference to the sense, is a species of the fault above mentioned.
REMARK 4.—If the reader or speaker is guided by the sense, and if he gives that emphasis, inflection, and expression required by the meaning, these faults speedily disappear.
REMARK 5.—To improve the voice in these respects, practice is necessary. Commence, for example, with the lowest pitch the voice can comfortably sound, and repeat whole paragraphs and pages upon that key with gentle force. Then repeat the paragraph with increased force, taking care not to raise the pitch. Then rise one note higher, and practice on that, then another, and so on, until the highest pitch of the voice is reached. Reverse the process, and repeat as before until the lowest pitch is obtained.
NOTE.—In these and all similar exercises, be very careful not to confound pitch and force.
QUANTITY AND QUALITY.
The tones of the voice should vary also in quantity, or time required to utter a sound or a syllable, and in quality, or expression, according to the nature of the subject.
REMARK.—We notice a difference between the soft, insinuating tones of persuasion; the full, strong voice of command and decision; the harsh, irregular, and sometimes grating explosion of the sounds of passion; the plaintive notes of sorrow and pity; and the equable and unimpassioned flow of words in argumentative style.
The following direction, therefore, is worthy of attention:
The tones of the voice should always correspond both in quantity and quality with the nature of the subject.
Passion and Grief
"Come back! come back!" he cried, in grief. "Across this stormy water, And I'll forgive your Highland chief, My daughter! O, my daughter!"
Plaintive I have lived long enough: my way of life Is fallen into the sear, the yellow leaf: And that which should accompany old age, As honor, love, obedience, troops of friends, I must not look to have.
Calm A very great portion of this globe is covered with water, which is called sea, and is very distinct from rivers and lakes.
Burned Marmion's swarthy cheek like fire, And shook his very frame for ire, And—"This to me?" he said; "And 't were not for thy hoary beard, Such hand as Marmion's had not spared To cleave the Douglas' head!
Loud and Explosive
"Even in thy pitch of pride, Here, in thy hold, thy vassals near, I tell thee thou 'rt defied! And if thou said'st I am not peer To any lord in Scotland here, Lowland or Highland, far or near, Lord Angus, thou hast lied '"
REMARK 1.—In our attempt to imitate nature it is important to avoid affectation, for to this fault even perfect monotony is preferable.
REMARK 2.—The strength of the voice may be increased by practicing with different degrees of loudness, from a whisper to full rotundity, taking care to keep the voice on the same key. The same note in music may be sounded loud or soft. So also a sentence may be pronounced on the same pitch with different degrees of loudness. Having practiced with different degrees of loudness on one key, make the same experiment on another, and then on another, and so on. This will also give the learner practice in compass,
VII. POETIC PAUSES.
In poetry we have, in addition to other pauses, poetic pauses. The object of these is simply to promote the melody.
At the end of each line a slight pause is proper, whatever be the grammatical construction or the sense. The purpose of this pause is to make prominent the melody of the measure, and in rhyme to allow the ear to appreciate the harmony of the similar sounds.
There is, also, another important pause, somewhere near the middle of each line, which is called the caesura or caesural pause. In the following lines it is marked thus ( ):
There are hours long departed which memory brings, Like blossoms of Eden to twine round the heart, And as time rushes by on the might of his wings, They may darken awhile but they never depart.
REMARK.—The caesural pause should never be so placed as to injure the sense. The following lines, if melody alone were consulted, would be read thus:
With fruitless la bor Clara bound, And strove to stanch the gushing wound; The Monk with un availing cares, Exhausted all the church's prayers.
This manner of reading, however, would very much interfere with the proper expression of the idea. This is to be corrected by making the caesural pause yield to the sense. The above lines should be read thus:
With fruitless labor Clara bound, And strove to stanch the gushing wound; The Monk with unavailing cares, Exhausted all the church's prayers,
I. DEATH OF FRANKLIN. (To be read in a solemn tone.)
Franklin is dead. The genius who freed America', and poured a copious stream of knowledge throughout Europe', is returned unto the bosom of the Divinity'. The sage to whom two worlds' lay claim, the man for whom science' and politics' are disputing, indisputably enjoyed au elevated rank in human nature.
The cabinets of princes have been long in the habit of notifying the death of those who were great', only in their funeral orations'. Long hath the etiquette of courts', proclaimed the mourning of hypocrisy'. Nations' should wear mourning for none but their benefactors'. The representatives' of nations should recommend to public homage' only those who have been the heroes of humanity'.
He knew no motive' but interst'; acknowledged no criterion' but success'; he worshiped no God' but ambition'; and with an eastern devotion', he knelt at the shrine of his idolatry'. Subsidiary to this, there was no creed' that he did not profess'; there was no opinion' that he did not promulgate': in the hope of a dynasty', he upheld the crescent'; for the sake of a divorce', he bowed before the cross'; the orphan of St. Louis', he became the adopted child of the republic'; and, with a parricidal ingrati-tude', on the ruins both of the throne and the tribune, he reared the throne of his despotism'.
At his touch crowns' crumbled'; beggars' reigned'; systems' van-ished'; the wildest theories' took the color of his whim'; and all that was venerable' and all that was novel', changed places with the rapidity of a drama'. Nature had no obstacle' that he did not surmount'; space, no opposition' he did not spurn'; and whether amid Alpine rocks',—Arabian sands',—or Polar snows',—-he seemed proof' against peril', and empowered with ubiquity'.
III. HAMLET ON SEEING THE SKULL OF YORICK.
Alas, poor Yorick'! I knew him', Horatio'; a fellow of infinite jest', of most excellent fancy'. He hath borne me on his back' a thousand times'; and now', how abhorred my imagination is'! My gorge rises' at it. Here hung those lips that I have kissed', I know not how oft', Where be your gibes' now? your gambols'? your songs'? your flashes of merriment', that were wont to set the table on a roar'? Not one', now, to mock your own grinning'? quite chopfallen'? Now get you to my lady's chamber' and tell her', let her paint an inch thick' to this favor' she must come'; make her laugh at that'.
IV. DESCRIPTION OF A BATTLE.
Yet still Lord Marmion's falcon flew' With wavering flight', while fiercer grew Around, the battle yell. The border slogan rent the sky', A Home'! a Gordon'! was the cry'; Loud' were the clanging blows'; Advanced',—forced back',—now low',—now high', The pennon sunk'—and rose'; As bends the bark's mast in the gale', When rent are rigging', shrouds', and sail', It wavered 'mid the foes'. The war, that for a space did fail', Now trebly thundering swelled the gale', And Stanley'! was the cry; A light on Marmion's visage spread', And fired his glazing eye':— With dying' hand', above his head', He shook the fragment of his blade', And shouted',—"Victory'! Charge', Chester', charge'! On' Stanley', on'!"— Were the last words of Marmion.
V. LORD ULLIN'S DAUGHTER.
For the inflections and emphasis in this selection, let the pupil be guided by his own judgment.
A chieftain to the Highlands bound, Cries, "Boatman, do not tarry! And I'll give thee a silver pound, To row us o'er the ferry."
"Now, who be ye would cross Loch-Gyle This dark and stormy water?" "Oh! I'm the chief of Ulva's isle, And this, Lord Ullin's daughter.
"And fast before her father's men Three days we've fled together, For should he find us in the glen, My blood would stain the heather.
"His horsemen hard behind us ride; Should they our steps discover, Then who will cheer my bonny bride, When they have slain her lover?"
Out spoke the hardy Highland wight "I'll go, my chief—I'm ready: It is not for your silver bright, But for your winsome lady:
"And, by my word! the bonny bird In danger shall not tarry; So, though the waves are raging white, I'll row you o'er the ferry."
By this, the storm grew loud apace, The water wraith was shrieking; And, in the scowl of heaven, each face Grew dark as they were speaking.
But still, as wilder grew the wind, And as the night grew drearer, Adown the glen rode armed men, Their trampling sounded nearer.
"Oh I haste thee, haste!" the lady cries "Though tempest round us gather, I'll meet the raging of the skies, But not an angry father."
The boat has left the stormy land, A stormy sea before her; When, oh I too strong for human hand, The tempest gathered o'er her.
And still they rowed, amid the roar Of waters fast prevailing; Lord Ullin reached that fatal shore, His wrath was changed to wailing.
For sore dismay through storm and shade His child he did discover; One lovely hand she stretched for aid, And one was round her lover.
"Come back! come back!" he cried, in grief, "Across this stormy water; And I'll forgive your Highland chief, My daughter! O, my daughter!"
'T was vain: the loud waves lashed the shore, Return or aid preventing; The waters wild went o'er his child, And he was left lamenting.
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORS.
Name. Name. 1. ALCOTT, LOUISA M. 45. LAMB, CHARLES 2. ALLEN, Mrs. E. A. 46. LONDON TIMES 3. ALLINGHAM, W. 47. LONGFELLOW 4. ARNOLD, GEORGE 48. LOWELL 5. ARTHUR, T. S. 49. MARTINEAU, HARRIET 6. AUDUBON 50. MITCHELL, DONALD G. 7. BANCROFT 51. MONTGOMERY, JAMES 8. BIBLE, THE 52. MOORE 9. BLACK, WILLIAM 53. MORRIS. G. P. 10. BRIGGS, C. F. 54. NOBLE, L. L. 11. BROOKS, C. T. 55. NORTON, MRS. C. E. S. 12. BRYANT 56. O'BRIEN, FITZ-JAMES 13. BUCKINGHAM, J. T. 57. PIATT, J. J. 14. BURRITT, ELIHU 58. PIATT, MRS. S. M. B. 15. CAMPBELL, THOMAS 59. PROCTER, ADELAIDE ANNE 16. CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY 60. READ, T. B. 17. COLLINS, WILLIAM 61. RUSSELL, JOHN 18. COOK, ELIZA 62. SANGSTER, MRS. M. E. 19. COOPER, JAMES FENIMORE 63. SAXE, J. G. 20. COWPER 64. SHAKESPEARE 21. DICKENS 65. SHEPHERD 22. DIMOND, WILLIAM 66. SOUTHEY, MRS. C. A. 23. EASTMAN, C. G. 67. SOUTHEY, ROBERT 24. EDGEWORTH, MARIA 68. SPRAGUE, CHARLES 25. FINCH, F. M. 69. STODDARD. R. H. 26. FOLLEN, MRS. E. L. 70. TAYLOR, B. F. 27. GOLDSMITH. 71. TAYLOR, JANE 28. GOODRICH, S. G. 72. TENNYSON 29. GRIMKE', THOMAS S. 73. THACKERAY 30. HALE, Mrs. S. J, 74. THACKER, CELIA 31. HARTE. FRANCIS BRET 75. THOMPSON, D. P. 32. HAWES, W. P. 76. THOMSON, JAMES 33. HAWTHORNE 77. THOREAU, H. D. 34. HELPS, ARTHUR 78. TOOD, JOHN 35. HEMANS, FELICIA D. 79. WARNER, CHARLES DUDLEY 36. HOOD, THOMAS 80. "CAPITAL" (WASHINGTON) 37. HUNT, LEIGH 81. WEBSTER 38. INGELOW, JEAN 82. WEEMS, MASON L. 39. IRVING 83. WHITTIER 40. JERROLD, DOUGLAS 84. WILSON, JOHN 41. JOHNSON, SAMUEL 85. WIRT, WILLIAM 42. KEBLE, JOHN 86. WOLFE, CHARLES 43. KINGSLEY, CHARLES 87. WOTTON, SIR HENRY 44. KNOWLES, SHERIDAN
McGuffey's Fifth Reader
1. THE GOOD READER.
1. It is told of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, that, as he was seated one day in his private room, a written petition was brought to him with the request that it should be immediately read. The King had just returned from hunting, and the glare of the sun, or some other cause, had so dazzled his eyes that he found it difficult to make out a single word of the writing.
2. His private secretary happened to be absent; and the soldier who brought the petition could not read. There was a page, or favorite boy servant, waiting in the hall, and upon him the King called. The page was a son of one of the noblemen of the court, but proved to be a very poor reader.
3. In the first place, he did not articulate distinctly. He huddled his words together in the utterance, as if they were syllables of one long word, which he must get through with as speedily as possible. His pronunciation was bad, and he did not modulate his voice so as to bring out the meaning of what he read. Every sentence was uttered with a dismal monotony of voice, as if it did not differ in any respect from that which preceded it.
4. "Stop!" said the King, impatiently. "Is it an auctioneer's list of goods to be sold that you are hurrying over? Send your companion to me." Another page who stood at the door now entered, and to him the King gave the petition. The second page began by hemming and clearing his throat in such an affected manner that the King jokingly asked him whether he had not slept in the public garden, with the gate open, the night before.
5. The second page had a good share of self-conceit, however, and so was not greatly confused by the King's jest. He determined that he would avoid the mistake which his comrade had made. So he commenced reading the petition slowly and with great formality, emphasizing every word, and prolonging the articulation of every syllable. But his manner was so tedious that the King cried out, "Stop! are you reciting a lesson in the elementary sounds? Out of the room! But no: stay! Send me that little girl who is sitting there by the fountain."
6. The girl thus pointed out by the King was a daughter of one of the laborers employed by the royal gardener; and she had come to help her father weed the flower beds. It chanced that, like many of the poor people in Prussia, she had received a good education. She was somewhat alarmed when she found herself in the King's presence, but took courage when the King told her that he only wanted her to read for him, as his eyes were weak.
7. Now, Ernestine (for this was the name of the little girl) was fond of reading aloud, and often many of the neighbors would assemble at her father's house to hear her; those who could not read themselves would come to her, also, with their letters from distant friends or children, and she thus formed the habit of reading various sorts of handwriting promptly and well.
8. The King gave her the petition, and she rapidly glanced through the opening lines to get some idea of what it was about. As she read, her eyes began to glisten, and her breast to heave. "What is the matter?" asked the King; "don't you know how to read?" "Oh, yes! sire," she replied, addressing him with the title usually applied to him: "I will now read it, if you please."
9. The two pages wore about to leave the room. "Remain," said the King. The little girl began to read the petition. It was from a poor widow, whose only son had been drafted to serve in the army, although his health was delicate and his pursuits had been such as to unfit him for military life. His father had been killed in battle, and the son had a strong desire to become a portrait painter.
10. The writer told her story in a simple, concise manner, that carried to the heart a belief of its truth; and Ernestine read it with so much feeling, and with an articulation so just, in tones so pure and distinct, that when she had finished, the King, into whose eyes the tears had started, exclaimed, "Oh! now I understand what it is all about; but I might never have known, certainly I never should have felt, its meaning had I trusted to these young gentlemen, whom I now dismiss from my service for one year, advising them to occupy their time in learning to read."
11. "As for you, my young lady," continued the King, "I know you will ask no better reward for your trouble than the pleasure of carrying to this poor widow my order for her son's immediate discharge. Let me see whether you can write as well as you can read. Take this pen, and write as I dictate." He then dictated an order, which Ernestine wrote, and he signed. Calling one of his guards, he bade him go with the girl and see that the order was obeyed.
12. How much happiness was Ernestine the means of bestowing through her good elocution, united to the happy circumstance that brought it to the knowledge of the King! First, there were her poor neighbors, to whom she could give instruction and entertainment. Then, there was the poor widow who sent the petition, and who not only regained her son, but received through Ernestine an order for him to paint the King's likeness; so that the poor boy soon rose to great distinction, and had more orders than he could attend to. Words could not express his gratitude, and that of his mother, to the little girl.
13. And Ernestine had, moreover, the satisfaction of aiding her father to rise in the world, so that he became the King's chief gardener. The King did not forget her, but had her well educated at his own expense. As for the two pages, she was indirectly the means of doing them good, also; for, ashamed of their bad reading, they commenced studying in earnest, till they overcame the faults that had offended the King. Both finally rose to distinction, one as a lawyer, and the other as a statesman; and they owed their advancement in life chiefly to their good elocution.
DEFINITIONS.—1. Pe-ti'tion, a formal request. 3. Ar-tic'u-late, to utter the elementary sounds. Mod'u-late, to vary or inflect. Mo-not'o-ny, lack of variety. 4. Af-fect'ed, unnatural and silly. 9. Draft'ed, selected by lot. 10. Con-cise', brief and full of meaning. 11. Dis-charge', release. Dic'tate, to utter so that another may write it down. 12. Dis-tinc'tion, honorable and notable position. Ex-press', to make known the feelings of.
NOTES.—Frederick II. of Prussia (b. 1712, d. 1788), or Frederick the Great, as he was called, was one of the greatest of German rulers. He was distinguished for his military exploits, for his wise and just government, and for his literary attainments. He wrote many able works in the French language. Many pleasant anecdotes are told of this king, of which the one given in the lesson is a fair sample.
II. THE BLUEBELL.
1. There is a story I have heard— A poet learned it of a bird, And kept its music every word—
2. A story of a dim ravine, O'er which the towering tree tops lean, With one blue rift of sky between;
3. And there, two thousand years ago, A little flower as white as snow Swayed in the silence to and fro.
4. Day after day, with longing eye, The floweret watched the narrow sky, And fleecy clouds that floated by.
5. And through the darkness, night by night, One gleaming star would climb the height, And cheer the lonely floweret's sight.
6. Thus, watching the blue heavens afar, And the rising of its favorite star, A slow change came—but not to mar;
7. For softly o'er its petals white There crept a blueness, like the light Of skies upon a summer night;
8. And in its chalice, I am told, The bonny bell was formed to hold A tiny star that gleamed like gold.
9. Now, little people, sweet and true, I find a lesson here for you Writ in the floweret's hell of blue:
10. The patient child whose watchful eye Strives after all things pure and high, Shall take their image by and by.
DEFINITIONS.—2. Rift, a narrow opening, a cleft. 3. Swayed, swung. 5. Height (pro. hite), an elevated place. 7. Pet'als, the colored leaves of a flower. 8. Chal'ice, a cup or bowl. Bon'ny, beautiful.
III. THE GENTLE HAND.
Timothy S. Arthur (b. 1809, d. 1885) was born near Newburgh, N.Y., but passed most of his life at Baltimore and Philadelphia. His opportunities for good schooling were quite limited, and he may be considered a self-educated man. He was the author of more than a hundred volumes, principally novels of a domestic and moral tone, and of many shorter tales—magazine articles, etc. "Ten Nights in a Barroom," and "Three Years in a Mantrap," are among his best known works.
1. When and where it matters not now to relate—but once upon a time, as I was passing through a thinly peopled district of country, night came down upon me almost unawares. Being on foot, I could not hope to gain the village toward which my steps were directed, until a late hour; and I therefore preferred seeking shelter and a night's lodging at the first humble dwelling that presented itself.
2. Dusky twilight was giving place to deeper shadows, when I found myself in the vicinity of a dwelling, from the small uncurtained windows of which the light shone with a pleasant promise of good cheer and comfort. The house stood within an inclosure, and a short distance from the road along which I was moving with wearied feet.
3. Turning aside, and passing through the ill-hung gate, I approached the dwelling. Slowly the gate swung on its wooden hinges, and the rattle of its latch, in closing, did not disturb the air until I had nearly reached the porch in front of the house, in which a slender girl, who had noticed my entrance, stood awaiting my arrival.
4. A deep, quick bark answered, almost like an echo, the sound of the shutting gate, and, sudden as an apparition, the form of an immense dog loomed in the doorway. At the instant when he was about to spring, a light hand was laid upon his shaggy neck, and a low word spoken.
5. "Go in, Tiger," said the girl, not in a voice of authority, yet in her gentle tones was the consciousness that she would be obeyed; and, as she spoke, she lightly bore upon the animal with her hand, and he turned away and disappeared within the dwelling.
6. "Who's that?" A rough voice asked the question; and now a heavy-looking man took the dog's place in the door.
7. "How far is it to G—?" I asked, not deeming it best to say, in the beginning, that I sought a resting place for the night.
8. "To G—!" growled the man, but not so harshly as at first. "It's good six miles from here."
9. "A long distance; and I'm a stranger and on foot," said I. "If you can make room for me until morning, I will be very thankful."
10. I saw the girl's hand move quickly up his arm, until it rested on his shoulder, and now she leaned to him still closer.
11. "Come in. We'll try what can be done for you." There was a change in the man's voice that made me wonder. I entered a large room, in which blazed a brisk fire. Before the fire sat two stout lads, who turned upon me their heavy eyes, with no very welcome greeting. A middle-aged woman was standing at a table, and two children were amusing themselves with a kitten on the floor.
12. "A stranger, mother," said the man who had given me so rude a greeting at the door; "and he wants us to let him stay all night."
13. The woman looked at me doubtingly for a few moments, and then replied coldly, "We don't keep a public house."
14. "I'm aware of that, ma'am," said I; "but night has overtaken me, and it's a long way yet to G—."
15. "Too far for a tired man to go on foot," said the master of the house, kindly, "so it's no use talking about it, mother; we must give him a bed."
16. So unobtrusively that I scarce noticed the movement, the girl had drawn to her mother's side. What she said to her I did not hear, for the brief words were uttered in a low voice; but I noticed, as she spoke, one small, fair hand rested on the woman's hand.
17. Was there magic in that touch? The woman's repulsive aspect changed into one of kindly welcome, and she said, "Yes, it's a long way to G—. I guess we can find a place for him."
18. Many times more during that evening, did I observe the magic power of that hand and voice—the one gentle yet potent as the other. On the next morning, breakfast being over, I was preparing to take my departure when my host informed me that if I would wait for half an hour he would give me a ride in his wagon to G—, as business required him to go there. I was very well pleased to accept of the invitation.
19. In due time, the farmer's wagon was driven into the road before the house, and I was invited to get in. I noticed the horse as a rough-looking Canadian pony, with a certain air of stubborn endurance. As the farmer took his seat by my side, the family came to the door to see us off.
20. "Dick!" said the farmer in a peremptory voice, giving the rein a quick jerk as he spoke. But Dick moved not a step. "Dick! you vagabond! get up." And the farmer's whip cracked sharply by the pony's ear.
21. It availed not, however, this second appeal. Dick stood firmly disobedient. Next the whip was brought down upon him with an impatient hand; but the pony only reared up a little. Fast and sharp the strokes were next dealt to the number of half a dozen. The man might as well have beaten the wagon, for all his end was gained.
22. A stout lad now came out into the road, and, catching Dick by the bridle, jerked him forward, using, at the same time, the customary language on such occasions, but Dick met this new ally with increased stubbornness, planting his fore feet more firmly and at a sharper angle with the ground.
23. The impatient boy now struck the pony on the side of the head with his clinched hand, and jerked cruelly at his bridle. It availed nothing, however; Dick was not to be wrought upon by any such arguments.
24. "Don't do so, John!" I turned my head as the maiden's sweet voice reached my ear. She was passing through the gate into the road, and in the next moment had taken hold of the lad and drawn him away from the animal. No strength was exerted in this; she took hold of his arm, and he obeyed her wish as readily as if he had no thought beyond her gratification.
25. And now that soft hand was laid gently on the pony's neck, and a single low word spoken. How instantly were the tense muscles relaxed—how quickly the stubborn air vanished!
26. "Poor Dick!" said the maiden, as she stroked his neck lightly, or softly patted it with a childlike hand. "Now, go along, you provoking fellow!" she added, in a half-chiding, yet affectionate voice, as she drew up the bridle.
27. The pony turned toward her, and rubbed his head against her arm for an instant or two; then, pricking up his ears, he started off at a light, cheerful trot, and went on his way as freely as if no silly crotchet had ever entered his stubborn brain.
28. "What a wonderful power that hand possesses!" said I, speaking to my companion, as we rode away.
29. He looked at me for a moment, as if my remark had occasioned surprise. Then a light came into his countenance, and he said briefly, "She's good! Everybody and everything loves her."
30. Was that, indeed, the secret of her power? Was the quality of her soul perceived in the impression of her hand, even by brute beasts! The father's explanation was doubtless the true one. Yet have I ever since wondered, and still do wonder, at the potency which lay in that maiden's magic touch. I have seen something of the same power, showing itself in the loving and the good, but never to the extent as instanced in her, whom, for want of a better name, I must still call "Gentle Hand."
DEFINITIONS.—2. Vi-cin'i-ty, neighborhood. 16. Un-ob-tru'-sive-ly, not noticeably, modestly. 17. Re-pul'sive, repelling, forbid-ding. 18. Po'tent, powerful, effective. Host, one from whom another receives food, lodging, or entertainment. 20. Per'emp-to-ry, commanding, decisive. 21. A-vailed', was of use, had effect. 22. Al-ly', a confederate, one who unites with another in some purpose. 25. Tense, strained to stiffness, rigid. Re-laxed', loosened. 20. Chid'ing, scolding, rebuking. 27. Crotch'et, a perverse fancy, a whim. 30. In'stanced, mentioned as an example.
IV. THE GRANDFATHER.
Charles G. Eastman (b. 1816, d.1861) was born in Maine, but removed at an early age to Vermont, where he was connected with the press at Burlington, Woodstock, and Montpelier. He published a volume of poems in 1848, written in a happy lyric and ballad style, and faithfully portraying rural life in New England.
1. The farmer sat in his easy-chair Smoking his pipe of clay, While his hale old wife with busy care, Was clearing the dinner away; A sweet little girl with fine blue eyes, On her grandfather's knee, was catching flies.
2. The old man laid his hand on her head, With a tear on his wrinkled face, He thought how often her mother, dead, Had sat in the selfsame place; As the tear stole down from his half-shut eye, "Don't smoke!" said the child, "how it makes you cry!"
3. The house dog lay stretched out on the floor, Where the shade, afternoons, used to steal; The busy old wife by the open door Was turning the spinning wheel, And the old brass clock on the manteltree Had plodded along to almost three.
4. Still the farmer sat in his easy-chair, While close to his heaving breast The moistened brow and the cheek so fair Of his sweet grandchild were pressed; His head bent down, all her soft hair lay; Fast asleep were they both on that summer day.
DEFINITIONS.—1. Hale, healthy. 3. Man'tel-tree, shelf over a fireplace. Plod'ded, went slowly. 4. Heaving, rising and falling.
V. A BOY ON A FARM.
Charles Dudley Warner (b. 1829,—) was born at Plainfield, Mass. In 1851 he graduated at Hamilton College, and in 1856 was admitted to the bar at Philadelphia, but moved to Chicago to practice his profession. There he remained until 1860, when he became connected with the press at Hartford, Conn., and has ever since devoted himself to literature. "My Summer in a Garden," "Saunterings," and "Backlog Studies" are his best known works. The following extract is from "Being a Boy."
1. Say what you will about the general usefulness of boys, it is my impression that a farm without a boy would very soon come to grief. What the boy does is the life of the farm. He is the factotum, always in demand, always expected to do the thousand indispensable things that nobody else will do. Upon him fall all the odds and ends, the most difficult things.
2. After everybody else is through, he has to finish up. His work is like a woman's,—perpetually waiting on others. Everybody knows how much easier it is to eat a good dinner than it is to wash the dishes afterwards. Consider what a boy on a farm is required to do,—things that must be done, or life would actually stop.
3. It is understood, in the first place, that he is to do all the errands, to go to the store, to the post office, and to carry all sorts of messages. If he had as many legs as a centiped, they would tire before night. His two short limbs seem to him entirely inadequate to the task. He would like to have as many legs as a wheel has spokes, and rotate about in the same way.
4. This he sometimes tries to do; and the people who have seen him "turning cart wheels" along the side of the road, have supposed that he was amusing himself and idling his time; he was only trying to invent a new mode of locomotion, so that he could economize his legs, and do his errands with greater dispatch.
5. He practices standing on his head, in order to accustom himself to any position. Leapfrog is one of his methods of getting over the ground quickly. He would willingly go an errand any distance if he could leapfrog it with a few other boys.
6. He has a natural genius for combining pleasure with business. This is the reason why, when he is sent to the spring for a pitcher of water, he is absent so long; for he stops to poke the frog that sits on the stone, or, if there is a penstock, to put his hand over the spout, and squirt the water a little while.
7. He is the one who spreads the grass when the men have cut it; he mows it away in the barn; he rides the horse, to cultivate the corn, up and down the hot, weary rows; he picks up the potatoes when they are dug; he drives the cows night and morning; he brings wood and water, and splits kindling; he gets up the horse, and puts out the horse; whether he is in the house or out of it, there is always something for him to do.
8. Just before the school in winter he shovels paths; in summer he turns the grindstone. He knows where there are lots of wintergreens and sweet flags, but instead of going for them, he is to stay indoors and pare apples, and stone raisins, and pound something in a mortar. And yet, with his mind full of schemes of what he would like to do, and his hands full of occupations, he is an idle boy, who has nothing to busy himself with but school and chores!
9. He would gladly do all the work if somebody else would do the chores, he thinks; and yet I doubt if any boy ever amounted to anything in the world, or was of much use as a man, who did not enjoy the advantages of a liberal education in the way of chores.
DEFINITIONS.—1. Fac-to'tum, a person employed to do all kinds of work. In-dis-pen'sa-ble, absolutely necessary. 2. Per-pet'u-al-ly, continually. 3. Cen'ti-ped, an insect with a great number of feet. 4. E-con'o-mize, to save. Dis-patch', diligence, haste. 6. Pen'-stock, a wooden tube for conducting water. 8. Chores, the light work of the household either within or without doors.
VI. THE SINGING LESSON.
Jean Ingelow (b. 1830, d.1897) was born at Boston, Lincolnshire, England. Her fame as a poetess was at once established upon the publication of her "Poems" in 1863; since which time several other volumes have appeared. The most generally admired of her poems are "Songs of Seven" and "The High Tide on the Coast of Lincolnshire," She has also written several successful novels, of which, "Off the Skelligs" is the most popular. "Stories Told to a Child," "The Cumberers," "Poor Mat," "Studies for Stories," and "Mopsa, the Fairy" are also well known. Miss Ingelow resided in London, England, and spent much of her time in deeds of charity.
1. A nightingale made a mistake; She sang a few notes out of tune: Her heart was ready to break, And she hid away from the moon. She wrung her claws, poor thing, But was far too proud to weep; She tucked her head under her wing, And pretended to be asleep.
2. A lark, arm in arm with a thrush, Came sauntering up to the place; The nightingale felt herself blush, Though feathers hid her face; She knew they had heard her song, She felt them snicker and sneer; She thought that life was too long, And wished she could skip a year.
3. "O nightingale!" cooed a dove; "O nightingale! what's the use? You bird of beauty and love, Why behave like a goose? Don't sulk away from our sight, Like a common, contemptible fowl; You bird of joy and delight, Why behave like an owl?
4. "Only think of all you have done; Only think of all you can do; A false note is really fun From such a bird as you! Lift up your proud little crest, Open your musical beak; Other birds have to do their best, You need only to speak!"
6. The nightingale shyly took Her head from under her wing, And, giving the dove a look, Straightway began to sing. There was never a bird could pass; The night was divinely calm; And the people stood on the grass To hear that wonderful psalm.
6. The nightingale did not care, She only sang to the skies; Her song ascended there, And there she fixed her eyes. The people that stood below She knew but little about; And this tale has a moral, I know, If you'll try and find it out.
DEFINITIONS.—2. Saun'ter-ing, wandering idly, strolling. Snick'er, to laugh in a half-suppressed manner. 4. Crest, a tuft growing on an animal's head. 5. Di-vine'ly, in a supreme degree. 6. Mor'al, the practical lesson which anything is fitted to teach.
NOTE.—The nightingale is a small bird, about six inches in length, with a coat of dark-brown feathers above and of grayish, white beneath. Its voice is astonishingly strong and sweet, and, when wild, it usually sings throughout the evening and night from April to the middle of summer. The bird is common in Europe, but is not found in America.
VII. DO NOT MEDDLE.
1. About twenty years ago there lived a singular gentleman in the Old Hall among the elm trees. He was about three-score years of age, very rich, and somewhat odd in many of his habits, but for generosity and benevolence he had no equal.
2. No poor cottager stood in need of comforts, which he was not ready to supply; no sick man or woman languished for want of his assistance; and not even a beggar, unless a known impostor, went empty-handed from the Hall. Like the village pastor described in Goldsmith's poem of "The Deserted Village,"
"His house was known to all the vagrant train; He chid their wand'rings, but relieved their pain; The long-remembered beggar was his guest, Whose beard descending swept his aged breast."
3. Now it happened that the old gentleman wanted a boy to wait upon him at table, and to attend him in different ways, for he was very fond of young people. But much as he liked the society of the young, he had a great aversion to that curiosity in which many young people are apt to indulge. He used to say, "The boy who will peep into a drawer will be tempted to take something out of it; and he who will steal a penny in his youth will steal a pound in his manhood."
4. No sooner was it known that the old gentleman was in want of a boy than twenty applications were made for the situation; but he determined not to engage anyone until he had in some way ascertained that he did not possess a curious, prying disposition.
5. On Monday morning seven lads, dressed in their Sunday clothes, with bright and happy faces, made their appearance at the Hall, each of them desiring to obtain the situation. Now the old gentleman, being of a singular disposition had prepared a room in such a way that he might easily know if any of the young people who applied were given to meddle unnecessarily with things around them, or to peep into cupboards and drawers. He took care that the lads who were then at Elm Tree Hall should be shown into this room one after another.
6. And first, Charles Brown was sent into the room, and told that he would have to wait a little. So Charles sat down on a chair near the door. For some time he was very quiet, and looked about him; but there seemed to be so many curious things in the room that at last he got up to peep at them.
7. On the table was placed a dish cover, and Charles wanted sadly to know what was under it, but he felt afraid of lifting it up. Bad habits are strong things; and, as Charles was of a curious disposition, he could not withstand the temptation of taking one peep. So he lifted up the cover.
8. This turned out to be a sad affair; for under the dish cover was a heap of very light feathers; part of the feathers, drawn up by a current of air, flew about the room, and Charles, in his fright, putting the cover down hastily, puffed the rest of them off the table.
9. What was to be done? Charles began to pick up the feathers one by one; but the old gentleman, who was in an adjoining room, hearing a scuffle, and guessing the cause of it, entered the room, to the consternation of Charles Brown, who was very soon dismissed as a boy who had not principle enough to resist even a slight temptation.
10. When the room was once more arranged, Henry Wilkins was placed there until such time as he should be sent for. No sooner was he left to himself than his attention was attracted by a plate of fine, ripe cherries. Now Henry was uncommonly fond of cherries, and he thought it would be impossible to miss one cherry among so many. He looked and longed, and longed and looked, for some time, and just as he had got off his seat to take one, he heard, as he thought, a foot coming to the door; but no, it was a false alarm.
11. Taking fresh courage, he went cautiously and took a very fine cherry, for he was determined to take but one, and put it into his mouth. It was excellent; and then he persuaded himself that he ran no risk in taking another; this he did, and hastily popped it into his mouth.
12. Now, the old gentleman had placed a few artificial cherries at the top of the others, filled with Cayenne pepper; one of these Henry had unfortunately taken, and it made his month smart and burn most intolerably. The old gentleman heard him coughing, and knew very well what was the matter. The boy that would take what did not belong to him, if no more than a cherry, was not the boy for him. Henry Wilkins was sent about his business without delay, with his mouth almost as hot as if he had put a burning coal in to it.
13. Rufus Wilson was next introduced into the room and left to himself; but he had not been there ten minutes before he began to move from one place to another. He was of a bold, resolute temper, but not overburdened with principle; for if he could have opened every cupboard, closet, and drawer in the house, without being found out, he would have done it directly.
14. Having looked around the room, he noticed a drawer to the table, and made up his mind to peep therein. But no sooner did he lay hold of the drawer knob than he set a large bell ringing, which was concealed under the table. The old gentleman immediately answered the summons, and entered the room.
15. Rufus was so startled by the sudden ringing of the bell, that all his impudence could not support him. He looked as though anyone might knock him down with a feather. The old gentleman asked him if he had rung the bell because he wanted anything. Rufus was much confused and stammered, and tried to excuse himself, but all to no purpose, for it did not prevent him from being ordered off the premises.
16. George Jones was then shown into the room by an old steward; and being of a cautious disposition, he touched nothing, but only looked at the things about him. At last he saw that a closet door was a little open, and, thinking it would be impossible for anyone to know that he had opened it a little more, he very cautiously opened it an inch farther, looking down at the bottom of the door, that it might not catch against anything and make a noise.
17. Now had he looked at the top, instead of the bottom, it might have been better for him; for to the top of the door was fastened a plug, which filled up the hole of a small barrel of shot. He ventured to open the door another inch, and then another, till, the plug being pulled out of the barrel, the leaden shot began to pour out at a strange rate. At the bottom of the closet was placed a tin pan, and the shot falling upon this pan made such a clatter that George was frightened half out of his senses.
18. The old gentleman soon came into the room to inquire what was the matter, and there he found George nearly as pale as a sheet. George was soon dismissed.
19. It now came the turn of Albert Jenkins to be put into the room. The other boys had been sent to their homes by different ways, and no one knew what the experience of the other had been in the room of trial.
20. On the table stood a small round box, with a screw top to it, and Albert, thinking it contained something curious, could not be easy without unscrewing the top; but no sooner did he do this than out bounced an artificial snake, full a yard long, and fell upon his arm. He started back, and uttered a scream which brought the old gentleman to his elbow. There stood Albert, with the bottom of the box in one hand, the top in the other, and the snake on the floor.
21. "Come, come," said the old gentleman, "one snake is quite enough to have in the house at a time; therefore, the sooner you are gone the better." With that he dismissed him, without waiting a moment for his reply.
22. William Smith next entered the room, and being left alone soon began to amuse himself in looking at the curiosities around him. William was not only curious and prying, but dishonest, too, and observing that the key was left in the drawer of a bookcase, he stepped on tiptoe in that direction. The key had a wire fastened to it, which communicated with an electrical machine, and William received such a shock as he was not likely to forget. No sooner did he sufficiently recover himself to walk, than he was told to leave the house, and let other people lock and unlock their own drawers.
23. The other boy was Harry Gordon, and though he was left in the room full twenty minutes, he never during that time stirred from his chair. Harry had eyes in his head as well as the others, but he had more integrity in his heart; neither the dish cover, the cherries, the drawer knob, the closet door, the round box, nor the key tempted him to rise from his feet; and the consequence was that, in half an hour after, he was engaged in the service of the old gentleman at Elm Tree Hall. He followed his good old master to his grave, and received a large legacy for his upright conduct in his service.
DEFINITIONS.—2. Lan'guished, suffered, sank away. Im-pos'. tor, a deceiver. 3. A-ver'sion, dislike. In-dulge', to give way to. Pound, a British denomination of money equal in value to about $4.86. 4. Ap-pli-ca'tion, the act of making a request. 9. Con—ster-na'tion, excessive terror, dismay. Prin'ci-ple, a right rule of conduct. 12. Ar-ti-fi'cial (pro. ar-ti-fish'al), made by art, not real. In-tol'er-a-bly, in a manner not to be borne. 14. Sum'mons, a call to appear. 19. Ex-pe'ri-ence, knowledge gained by actual trial. 23. In-teg'ri-ty, honesty. Leg'a-cy, a gift, by will, of personal property.
Eliza Cook (b. 1817, d. 1889) was born at London. In 1837 she commenced contributing to periodicals. In 1840 the first collection of her poems was made. In 1849 she became editor of "Eliza Cook's Journal."
1. Work, work, my boy, be not afraid; Look labor boldly in the face; Take up the hammer or the spade, And blush not for your humble place.
2. There's glory in the shuttle's song; There's triumph in the anvil's stroke; There's merit in the brave and strong Who dig the mine or fell the oak.
3. The wind disturbs the sleeping lake, And bids it ripple pure and fresh; It moves the green boughs till they make Grand music in their leafy mesh.
4. And so the active breath of life Should stir our dull and sluggard wills; For are we not created rife With health, that stagnant torpor kills?
5. I doubt if he who lolls his head Where idleness and plenty meet, Enjoys his pillow or his bread As those who earn the meals they eat.
6. And man is never half so blest As when the busy day is spent So as to make his evening rest A holiday of glad content.
DEFINITIONS.—3. Mesh, network. 4. Rife, abounding. Stag'nant, inactive. 2. Tor'por, laziness, stupidity. 5. Lolls, reclines, leans.
IX. THE MANIAC.
1. A gentleman who had traveled in Europe, relates that he one day visited the hospital of Berlin, where he saw a man whose exterior was very striking. His figure, tall and commanding, was bending with age, but more with sorrow; the few scattered hairs which remained on his temples were white almost as the driven snow, and the deepest melancholy was depicted in his countenance.
2. On inquiring who he was and what brought him there, he started, as, if from sleep, and, after looking around him, began with slow and measured steps to stride the hall, repeating in a low but audible voice, "Once one is two; once one is two."
3. Now and then he would stop, and remain with his arms folded on his breast as if in contemplation, for some minutes; then again resuming his walk, he continued to repeat, "Once one is two; once one is two." His story, as our traveler understood it, is as follows:
4. Conrad Lange, collector of the revenues of the city of Berlin, had long been known as a man whom nothing could divert from the paths of honesty. Scrupulously exact in an his dealings, and assiduous in the discharge of all his duties, he had acquired the good will and esteem of all who knew him, and the confidence of the minister of finance, whose duty it is to inspect the accounts of all officers connected with the revenue.
5. On casting up his accounts at the close of a particular year, he found a deficit of ten thousand ducats. Alarmed at this discovery, he went to the minister, presented his accounts, and informed him that he did not know how it had arisen, and that he had been robbed by some person bent on his ruin.
6. The minister received his accounts, but thinking it a duty to secure a person who might probably be a defaulter he caused him to be arrested, and put his accounts into the hands of one of his secretaries for inspection, who returned them the day after with the information that the deficiency arose from a miscalculation; that in multiplying, Mr. Lange had said, once one is two, instead of once one is one.