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McGuffey's Fourth Eclectic Reader
by William Holmes McGuffey
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[Transcriber's Note:

Welcome to the schoolroom of 1900. The moral tone is plain. "She is kind to the old blind man."

The exercises are still suitable, and perhaps more helpful than some contemporary alternatives. Much is left to the teacher. Explanations given in the text are enough to get started teaching a child to read and write. Counting in Roman numerals is included as a bonus in the form of lesson numbers.

The form of contractions includes a space. The contemporary word "don't" was rendered as "do n't".

The author, not listed in the text, is William Holmes McGuffey.

Passages using non-ASCI characters are approximately rendered in this text version. See the PDF or DOC versions for the original images.

The section numbers are decimal in the Table of Contents but are in Roman Numerals in the body.

Page headings are removed, but section titles are followed by the page on which they appear.

Don Kostuch end transcriber's note]



ECLECTIC EDUCATIONAL SERIES.

MCGUFFEY'S (Registered) FOURTH ECLECTIC READER.

REVISED EDITION.

McGuffey Edition and Colophon are Trademarks of

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

New York-Chichester-Weinheim-Brisbane-Toronto

In revising the FOURTH READER, the aim has been—as it has with the other books of the Series—to preserve unimpaired all the essential characteristics of MCGUFFEY'S READERS. New articles have been substituted for old ones only where the advantage was manifest.

The book has been considerably enlarged, and has been liberally illustrated by the first artists of the country.

It can not be presumed that every pupil has at hand all the works of reference necessary for the proper preparation of each lesson; hence all the aids that seem requisite to this purpose have been given. Brief notices concerning the various authors represented have been inserted; the more difficult words have been defined, and their pronunciation has been indicated by diacritical marks; and short explanatory notes have been given wherever required for a full understanding of the text.

Especial acknowledgment is due to Messrs. Houghton, Osgood & Co. for their permission to make liberal selections from their copyright editions of many of the foremost American author whose works they publish.

COPYRIGHT, 1879, by VAN ANTWERP, BRAGG & Co. COPYRIGHT, 1896, by AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY. COPYRIGHT, 1907 and 1920, by H. H. VAIL.

M'G 4TH REV. EP 309



INTRODUCTORY MATTER. SUBJECT. PAGE

PUNCTUATION MARKS 7 ARTICULATION 9 ACCENT AND INFLECTION 23

SELECTIONS IN PROSE AND POETRY.

TITLE. AUTHOR. PAGE 1. Perseverance Charlotte Elizabeth 25 2. Try, Try Again T. H. Palmer 28 3. Why the Sea Is Salt Mary Howitt 29 4. Why the Sea Is Salt Mary Howitt 32 5. Popping Corn 34 6. Smiles 35 7. Lazy Ned 38 8. The Monkey 39 9. Meddlesome Matty 42 10. The Good Son 44 11. To-morrow Mrs. M. B. Johnson. 45 12. Where there is a Will there is a Way 47 13. Piccola Celia Thaxter 48 14. True Manliness Mrs. M. Q. Johnson 50 15. True Manliness Mrs. M. O. Johnson 52 16. The Brown Thrush Lucy Larcom 54 17. A Ship in a Storm 55 18. The Sailor's Consolation Charles Dibdin 58 19. Two Ways of Telling a Story Henry K. Oliver 60 20. Freaks of the Frost Hannah Flagg Gould 63 21. Waste not, Want not 64 22. Jeannette and Jo Mary Mapes Dodge 67 23. The Lion 69 24. Strawberries J. T. Trowbridge 71 25. Harry's Riches 74 26. In Time's Swing Lucy Larcom 77 27. Harry and his Dog Mary Russell Mitford 79 28. The Voice of the Grass Sarah Roberts 83 29. The Eagle 84 30. The Old Eagle Tree Dr. John Todd 86 31. Alpine Song W. W. Story 88 32. Circumstances alter Cases 89 33. The Noblest Revenge 94 34. Evening Hymn 97 35. How Margery Wondered Lucy Larcom 99 36. The Child's World 103 37. Susie's Composition 104 38. The Summer Shower T. B. Read 109 39. Consequences of Idleness Abbott 110 40. Advantages of Industry Abbott 113 41. The Fountain Lowell 116 42. Coffee 117 43. The Winter King Hannah Flagg Gould 120 44. The Nettle Dr. Walsh 121 45. The Tempest James T. Fields 125 46. The Creator John Keble 126 47. The Horse Bingley 128 48. Emulation 132 49. The Sandpiper Celia Thaxter 134 50. The Right Way F. R. Stockton 136 51. The Golden Rule Emma C. Embury 139 52. The Snow Man Marian Douglas 143 53. Robinson Crusoe's House Daniel DeFoe 144 54. Robinson Crusoe's Dress Daniel DeFoe 147 55. Somebody's Darling 150 56. Knowledge is Power 151 57. Good Will J. T. Trowbridge 153 58. A Chinese Story C. P. Cranch 156 59. The Way to be Happy 159 60. The Giraffe 162 61. The Lost Child Abbott 165 62. Which? Mrs. E. L. Beers 168 63. The Pet Fawn Miss S. F. Cooper 172 64. Annie's Dream 175 65. My Ghost Mrs. S. M. B. Platt 178 66. The Elephant 180 67. Dare to do Right Thomas Hughes 183 68. Dare to do Right Thomas Hughes 186 69. Wreck of the Hesperus Longfellow 190 70. Anecdotes of Birds Hall 191 71. The Rainbow Pilgrimage Grace Greenwood 197 72. The Old Oaken Bucket Samuel Woodworth 202 73. The Sermon on the Mount 204 74. The Young Witness S. H. Hammond 207 75. King Solomon and the Ants Whittier 211 76. Rivermouth Theater T. B. Aldrich 213 77. Alfred the Great 216 78. Living on a Farm 220 79. Hugh Idle and Mr. Toil Hawthorne 221 80. Hugh Idle and Mr. Toil Hawthorne 224 81. Burning of Fallow Mrs. Susanna Moodie 227 82. Dying Soldiers 230 83. The Attack on Nymwegen Motley 233 84. The Seasons Spring H. G. Adams 237 Summer Lowell 237 Autumn Thomas Hood 238 Winter C. T. Brooks 238 85. Brandywine Ford Bayard Taylor 239 86. Brandywine Ford Bayard Taylor 242 87. The Best Capital Louisa M. Alcott 245 88. The Inchcape Rock Southey 249 89. My Mother's Grave 253 90. A Mother's Gift W. Fergusson 255



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. [See PDF or DOC versions.]

SUBJECT PAGE Perseverance 25 Popping Corn 35 The Monkey 40 Piccola 49 True Manliness 53 A Ship in a Storm 56 Two Ways of Telling a Story 60 The Lion 69 Harry and his Dog 81 Circumstances alter Cases 92 Evening Hymn 98 How Margery Wondered 100 Susie's Composition 107 Coffee 117 The Horse 128 The Sandpiper 135 Robinson Crusoe's Dress 147 A Chinese Story 158 Which? 169 Which? 170 Dare to do Right 185 The Old Oaken Bucket 202 Rivermouth Theater 215 The Attack on Nymwegen 234 The Inchcape Rock 251



PUNCTUATION MARKS. (7)

1. The Hyphen (-) is used between syllables and between the parts of a compound word; as, No-ble, col-o-ny, and text- book, easy-chair.

2. The Comma (,), the Semicolon (;), and the Colon (:) denote grammatical divisions.

NOTE—These marks do not indicate the comparative length of the pauses to be made where they occur.

3. The Period (.) is placed at the end of a sentence. It is also used after an abbreviation; as, God is love. Dr. Eben Goodwin.

4. The Interrogation point (?) denotes a question; as, Has he come? Who are you?

5. The Exclamation point (!) denotes strong feeling; as, Oh Absaom! my son! my son!

6. Quotation marks (" ") denote the words of another; as, God said, "Let there be light."

7. The Apostrophe (') denotes that a letter or letters are left out; as, O'er, for over; 't is, for it is. It also denotes the possessive case; as, John's hat.

8. The Curves ( ) include what, if omitted, would not obscure the sense. The parenthesis, or words included by the curves, should be read in a low key, and with greater rapidity than the rest of the sentence.

9. Brackets [ ] include something intended to exemplify what goes before, or to supply some deficiency, or rectify some mistake.

10. A Dash (-) denotes a long or significant pause, or an abrupt change or transition in a sentence.

11. Marks of Ellipsis (***) indicate the omission of letters of a word, or words of a sentence; as, P * * * * e J**n, for Prince John; the ******* was hung, for the traitor was hung.

Sometimes a long line, or a succession of dots is used instead of stars; as, J—n A—-s, for John Adams; the D..e W.....m, for the Duke William.

12. A Brace (}) is used to connect several lines or words together.

13. A Diaeresis is put over the latter of two vowels, to show that they belong to two distinct syllables; thus, cooperate.

14. A Section is used to divide a discourse or chapter into parts.

15. An Index points out something that requires particular attention.

16. A Paragraph denotes a new subject. It is used in the common version of the Bible.

17. Certain marks and sometimes figures and letters are used to refer to some remark in the margin.

18. A Caret (^) is used in writing, to show that some-thing is omitted; as, Manner. I love her for her modesty and virtue.

ARTICULATION. (9)

ELEMENTARY SOUNDS

Articulation is the utterance of the elementary sounds of a language, and of their combinations.

An Elementary Sound is a simple, distinct sound made by the organs of speech.

The Elementary Sounds of the English language are divided into Vocals, Subvocals, and Aspirates.

Vocals are those sounds which consist of pure tone only. They are the most prominent elements of speech. A diphthong is a union of two vocals, commencing with one and ending with the other.

Subvocals are those sounds in which the vocalized breath is more or less obstructed.

Aspirates consist of breath only, modified by the vocal organs.

VOCALS.

DIRECTIONS FOR ARTICULATION.

1. Let the mouth be open, and the teeth, tongue, and palate in their proper position.

2. Pronounce the word in the CHART forcibly, and with the falling inflection, several times in succession; then drop the subvocal or aspirate sounds which precede or follow the vocal, and repeat the vocals alone.

TABLE.

Long Vocals.

Sound Word Sound Word a hate e err a hare i pine a far o no a pass u tube a fall u burn e eve oo cool

Short Vocals.

Sound Word Sound Word

a mat o not e met u us i it oo book

REMARK.—In this table, the short sounds, except u, are nearly or quite the same, in quality, as certain of the long sounds. The difference consists chiefly in quantity. As a rule, the long vocals should be prolonged with a full, clear utterance; but the short vocals should be uttered sharply and almost explosively.

Diphthongs.

oi, oy, as in coin, boy. ou, ow, as in noun, now.

SUBVOCALS AND ASPIRATES.

DIRECTIONS FOR ARTICULATION.

Pronounce distinctly and forcibly, several times in succession, words in which these sounds occur as elements; then drop the other sounds, and repeat the subvocals and aspirates alone. Each subvocal in the first table should be practiced in connection with its cognate sound.

Let the class repeat the words and elements, at first in concert; then separately.

Select words ending with subvocal sounds for practice on subvocals; words beginning or ending with aspirate sounds, for practice on aspirates.

COGNATE SOUNDS.

Subvocals Aspirates Sound Example Sound Example b babe p rap d rod t at g fog k book j judge ch chat v live f file th them th myth z buzz s sink zh azure sh shine w win wh when

REMARK.—These eighteen sounds make nine pairs of cognate sounds. In articulating the aspirates, the vocal organs are put in the position as required for the articulation of the corresponding subvocals; but the breath is expelled with some force, without the utterance of any vocal sound. Let the pupil verify this by experiment, and then practice on these cognates.

The following sounds are not cognates.

SUB VOCALS. Sound Example

l mill m him n tin ng sing, think r (rough) rule r (smooth) car

ASPIRATE.

h, as in hat.

SUBSTITUTES.

Substitutes are characters used to represent sounds ordinarily represented by other characters. The following table indicates nearly every form of substitution used in the language: a few exceptional cases only are omitted

TABLE OF SUBSTITUTES.

Sub For as in Sub For as in a e any o oo to a o what o oo would c z suffice o u son c s cite ph v Stephen c k cap ph f sylph ch k ache q k liquor ch sh machine qu kw quote d j soldier s sh sure e i England s zh rasure e a there s z rose e a feint u e bury ee i been u i busy f v of u oo rude g j cage u oo pull gh f laugh x ks wax gh k lough x ksh noxious i e police x z Xerxes i e thirst x gz examine i y filial y e myrrh n ng rink y i my o u work y i hymn o i women z s quartz o a form

VOCALS.

Let the teacher utter each word, and then its vocal sound, and let the pupil imitate closely and carefully, thus:

Mate, a; Rate, a: Man, a: Far, a: etc. a—Mate, rain, say, they, feint, gauge, break, vein, gaol a—Man, pan, tan, shall, lamp, back, mat, stand a—Far, hard, ah, aunt, heart, guard, psalm a—Ball, talk, pause, saw, broad, storm, naught, bought a—Was, what, wash, swap, nod, blot, knowledge e—Me, tree, sea, key, field, ceiling, people, police e—Met, bread, said (sed), says (sez), friend, heifer, leopard, guess, any (en'y), bury (ber'ry). e—Her, clerk, earn, were, first, myrrh. i—Pine, sign, lie, type, sleight, buy, guide, aisle, choir. i—Pin, fountain, been (bin), busy (biz'y), surfeit, sieve, hymn, build, myth. i—Sir, bird, girl, birch, mirth, birth. o—No, door, loam, hoe, soul, snow, sew (so), yeomen, bureau (bu'ro), hautboy (ho'boy). o—Not, blot, chop, throb, bother, body, wan. o—Nor, born, storm, cork, fork, small, stall. o—Wolf, woman, bushel, would, should, pull o—Move, who, tomb, group, soup, shoe, do, lose o.—Love, son, flood, front, shove, touch, does, tongue. oo—Wool, book, cook, rook, goodly. oo.—Food, troop, tooth, goose, spoon, noon. u.—Use, abuse, beauty, feud, view, adieu. u.—Rub, sum, sun, such, much, tuck, luck, trouble. u.—Fur, curl, hurt, burn, turn, spurn, work. u.—Full, bull, push, bush oi, oy.-Oil, point, voice, noise, boiler, boy, joy, alloy. ou, ow.-Our, sour, cloud, owl, now, bow, couch.



SUB VOCALS.

Let the sound of each letter be given, and not its name. After articulating the sounds, each word should be pronounced distinctly.

b.—Be, by, boy, bib, sob, bite, bone, band, bubble. d.—Deed, did, dab, bid, bud, dead, door, indeed. g.—Go, gag, gig, bag, beg, fog, fig, girl, rag, log. j.—Jay, joy, jig, gill, job, judge, ginger, soldier. l.—Lad, led, dell, mill, line, lily, folly. m—Me, my, mad, mug, him, aim, blame. n.—No, now, nab, nod, man, sun, none, noun. r. (rough)—Rear, red, rough, riot, ripe, rude, ragged. r. (smooth)—Form, farm, worn, for, ear, manner. v.—Van, vine, vale, vivid, stove, of, Stephen. w.—We, woe, web, wed, wig, wag, wood, will, wonder. y.—Ye, yam, yon, yes, yarn, yoke, yawn, filial. z.—Zag, rose, rise, zone, lives, stars, suffice. zh.—Azure, osier, usual, measure, rouge (roozh). th.—Thee, thy, them, blithe, beneath, those. ng.—Bang, fang, gang, bring, sing, fling.



ASPIRATES.

f.—Fib, fob, buff, beef, if, off, life, phrase, laugh. h.—Ha, he, hub, had, how, hill, home, hire, horse. k.—Kill, bake, cat, cow, come, chord, black. p.—Pop, pig, lip, map, pipe, pope, apple, path, pile. s.—Sad, fuss, miss, cent, cease, sick, sound, sincere. t.—Hat, mat, toe, totter, tint, time, sleet, taught. sh.—Dash, shad, rush, sure, ocean, notion, passion, chaise. ch.—Chin, chop, chat, rich, much, church, bastion. th.—Thin, hath, think, teeth, truth, breath, pith.



SUBVOCALS COMBINED.

Utter the sounds only, and pronounce very distinctly.

br.—Bred, brag, brow, brim, brush, breed, brown. bz, bst.—Fibs, fib'st, robs, rob'st, rubs, rub'st. bd, bdst.—Fibbed, fib'd'st, sobbed, sob'd'st, robbed, rob'd'st. bl.—Blab, blow, bluff, bliss, stable, babble, gobble. blz, blst.—Fables, fabl'st, nibbles, nibbl'st. bid, bldst.—Fabled, fabl'd'st, nibbled, nibbl'd'st.

dr.—Drab, drip, drop, drag drum, dress, drink. dz, dst.—Rids, rid'st, adds, add'st, sheds, shed'st. dl.—Addle, paddle, fiddle, riddle, needle, idle, ladle. dlz, dlst.—Addles, addl'st, fiddles, fiddl'st. dld.—Addled, fiddled, huddled, idled, ladled.

fr.—Fret, frog, from, fry, fresh, frame, free. fs, fst.—Cuffs, cuff'st, stuffs, stuff'st, doffs, doff'st. ft.—Lift, waft, drift, graft, soft, theft, craft, shaft. fts, ftst.—Lifts, lift'st, wafts, waft'st, sifts, sift'st. fi.—Baffle, raffle, shuffle, muffle, rifle, trifle, whiffle. fls, flst.—Baffles, baffl'st, shuffles, shuffl'st, rifles, rifl'st. fld, fldst.—Baffled, baffl'd'st, shuffled, shuffl'd'st.

gr.—Grab, grim, grip, grate, grant, grass, green. gz, gst.—Begs, beg'st, digs, dig'st, gags, gag'st. gd, gdst.—Begged, begg'd'st, digged, digg'd'st. gl.—Higgle, joggle, straggle, glib, glow, glaze. glz, glst.—Higgles, higgl'st, juggles, juggl'st. gld, gldst.—Higgled, higgl'd'st, joggled, joggl'd'st.

jd.—Caged, hedged, bridged, lodged, judged, waged. kr.—Cram, crag, crash, crop, cry, creel, crone, crown. kw, (qu).—Quell, quick, quite, quote, quake, queen. ks, kst, (x).—Kicks, kick'st, mix, mixed, box, boxed. kt, kts.—Act, acts, fact, facts, tact, tacts, sect, sects. kl.—Clad, clip, clown, clean, close, cackle, pickle. klz, klst.—Cackles, cackl'st, buckles, buckl'st. kld, kldst.—Cackled, cackl'd'st, buckled, buckl'd'st.

lf.—Elf, Ralph, shelf, gulf, sylph, wolf. ld.—Hold, mold, bold, cold, wild, mild, field, yield. ldz, ldst.—Holds, hold'st, gilds, gild'st, yields, yield'st. lz, lst.—Fills, fill'st, pulls, pull'st, drills, drill'st. lt, lts.—Melt, melts, tilt, tilts, salt, salts, bolt, bolts. mz, mst.—Names, nam'st, hems, hem'st, dims, dim'st. md, mdst.—Named, nam'd'st, dimmed, dimm'd'st.

nd.—And, lend, band, blonde, fund, bound, round, sound. ndz, ndst.—Lends, lend'st, hands, hand'st. ndl.—Handle, kindle, fondle, trundle, brindle. ndlz, ndlst.—Handles, halldl'st, kindles, kindl'st. ndld, ndldst.—Handled, handl'd'st, kindled, kindl'd'st.

nks, nkst.—Banks, hank'st, sinks, sink'st. nkd.—Banked, clank'd, winked, thank'd, flank'd.

nz, nst.—Wins, win'st, tans, tan'st, runs run'st. nt, nts.—Hint, hints, cent, cents, want, wants. nch, nchd.—Pinch, pinch'd, blanch, blanch'd. ngz, ngd.—Hangs, hang'd, rings, ring'd. nj, njd.—Range, ranged, hinge, hinged.

pr.—Prat, prim, print, prone, prune, pry, prank. pl.—Plant, plod, plum, plus, apple, cripple. ps, pst.—Nips, nip'st, taps, tap'st, mops, mop'st. pt, pts.—Adopt, adopts, adept, adepts, crypt, crypts.

rj, rjd.—Merge, merged, charge, charged, urge, urged. rd.—Card, cord, curd, herd, ford, ward, bird. rdz, rdst.—Cards, card'st, herds, herd'st, cords, cord'st. rk.—Bark, jerk, dirk, cork, lurk, work. rks, rkst.—Barks, bark'st, lurks, lurk'st. rl.—Marl, curl, whirl, pearl, whorl, snarl. rlz, rlst.—Curls, curl'st, whirls, whirl'st, twirls, twirl'st. rld, rldst.— Curled, curl'd'st, whirled, whirl'd'st, snarled, snarl'd'st. rm.—Arm, term, form, warm, storm, worm, sperm. rmz, rmst.—Arms, arm'st, fbrms, form'st. rmd, rmdst.—Armed, arm'd'st, formed, form'd'st. rn.—Barn, warn, scorn, worn, earn, turn. rnz, rnst.—Turns, turn'st, scorns, scorn'st. rnd, rndst.—Turned, turn'd'st, scorned, scorn'd'st. rt.—Dart, heart, pert, sort, girt, dirt, hurt. rts, rtst.—Darts, dart'st, girts, girt'st, hurts, hurt'st. rch, rchd.—Arch, arched, perch, perched.

sk.—Ask, scab, skip, risk, skum, bask, husk. sks.—Asks, tasks. risks, whisks, husks. skd, skst.—Asked, ask'st, risked, risk'st, husked, husk'st. sp, sps.—Gasp, gasps, rasp, rasps, crisp, crisps.

spd.—Gasped, lisped, crisped, wisped, cusped. st, sts.—Mast, masts, nest, nests, fist, fists. sw.—Swim, swell, swill, swan, sweet, swing, swam. str.—Strap, strip, strop, stress, strut, strife, strew.

tl.—Rattle, nettle, whittle, bottle, hurtle, scuttle. tlz, tlst.—Rattles, rattl'st, nettles, nettl'st. tld, tldst.—Rattled, rattl'd'st, settled, settl'd'st. ts, tst.—Bat, bat'st, bets, bet'st, pits, pit'st, dots, dot'st. tw.—Twin, twirl, twice, tweed, twist, twelve, twain. tr.—Trap, trip, trot, tress, truss, trash, try, truce, trice. vz, vst.—Gives, giv'st, loves, lov'st, saves, sav'st.

zm, zmz.—Chasm, chasms, prism, prisms. zl.—Dazzle, frizzle, nozzle, puzzle. zlz, zld.—Dazzles, dazzled, frizzles, frizzled. sht.—Dashed, meshed, dished, rushed, washed. shr.—Shrank, shred, shrill, shrunk, shrine, shroud, shrew. thd.—Bathed, sheathed, soothed, smoothed, wreathed. thz, thzt.—Bathes, Bath'st, sheathes, sheath'st.

ngz, ngst.—Hangs, hang'st, brings, bring'st. ngd, ngdst.—Hanged, hang'd'st., stringed, string'd'st. nks, nkst.—Thanks, thank'st, thinks, think'st. nkd, nkdst.—Thanked, thank'd'st, kinked, kink'd'st. dth, dths.—Width, widths, breadth, breadths. kld, kldst.—Circled, circl'd'st, darkle, darkl'd'st. kl, klz.—Circle, circles, cycle, cycles. lj, ljd.—Bilge, bilged, bulge, bulged, indulge, indulged. lb, lbz.—Alb, albs, bulb, bulbs. lk, lks, lkst, lkdst.—Milk, milks, milk'st, milk'd'st.

lm, lmz.—Elm, elms, whelm, whelms, film, films. lp, lpd, lpst, lpdst.—Help, helped, help'st, help'd'st. lv, lvz, lvd.—Valve, valves, valved, delve, delves, delved. lch, lchd.—Belch, belched, filch, filched, gulch, gulched. lth, lth —Health, healths, tilth, tilth

mf, mfs.—Nymph, nymphs, triumph, triumphs. gth, gths.—Length, lengths, strength, strengths. rb, rbz, rbd, rbst, rbdst.—Curb, curbs, curbed, curb'st, curb'd'st. rf, rfs, rfst, rfdst.—Dwarf, dwarfs, dwarf'st, dwarf'd'st. rv, rvz, rvst, rvd, rvdst.—Curve, curves, curv'st, curved, curv'd'st. rth, rths.—Birth, births, girth, girths, hearth, hearths. rp, rps, rpd, rpst, rpdst.—Harp, harps, harped, harp'st, harp'd'st. rs, rst.—Nurse, nursed, verse, versed, course, coursed.

thr.—Thrash, thresh, thrift, throb, thrush, thrust, throng, three, thrive, thrice, throat, throne, throve, thrill, thrum.

thw.—Thwack, thwart.



EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION.

Errors to be Corrected.

To TEACHERS.—In the following exercises, the more common errors in articulation and pronunciation are denoted. The letters in italics are not silent letters, but are thus marked to point them out as the representatives of sounds which are apt to be defectively articulated, omitted, or incorrectly sounded.

A

Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct Fa-t fa-tal Sep-er-ate sep-a-rate reel re-al temp-per-unce tem-per-ance ras-cul ras-cal up-pear ap-pear crit-ic-ul crit-ic-al tem-per-it tem-per-ate test'ment tes-ta-ment mod-er-it med-er-ate firm'ment fir-ma-ment in-ti-mit int-ti-mate

E

Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct Ev'ry ev-er-y sev'ral sev-er-al b'lief be-lief prov-i-dunce prov-i-dence pr'vail pre-vail ev-i-dunce ev-i-dence r'tain re-tain si-lunt si-lent trav'ler trav-el-er mon-u-munt mon-u-ment flut'ring flut-ter-ing con-ti-nunt con-ti-nent tel'scope tel-e-scope con-fi-dunt con-fi-dent

I

Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct D'rect di-rect rad'cal rad-i-cal d'spose dis-pose sal'vate sal-i-vate van'ty van-i-ty can'bal can-ni-bal ven-t'late ven-ti-late mount'n moun-tain ju-b'lee ju-bi-lee fount'n foun-tain rid-cule rid-i-cule vill'ny vil-lain-y

O

Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct Des'late des-o-late rhet-er-ic rhet-o-tic hist'ry his-to-ry in-ser-lent in-so-lent mem'ry mem-o-ry croc-ud-ile croc-o-dile col'ny col-o-ny com-prum-ise com-pro-mise ag'ny ag-o-ny anch-ur-ite an-cho-rite balc'ny bal-co-ny cor-per-al cor-po-ral ob-s'lete ob-so-lete ob-luq-quy ob-lo-quy wil-ler wil-low or-ther-dox or-tho-dox wid-der wid-ow cun-di-tion con-di-tion pil-ler pil-low pus-i-tion po-si-tion mead-er mead-ow tug-eth-er to-geth-er fel-ler fel-low put-a-ter po-ta-to win-der win-dow tub-ac-cur to-bac-co

U

The most common mistake in the sound of u occurs in words of the following kind: as, crea-ter or crea-choor, for crea-ture; nat-er or na- choor for na-ture, etc.

Incorrect Correct

Lec'-ter lec'-choor lec'-ture fea'-ter fea'-choor fea'-ture mois'-ter mois'-choor mois'-ture ver'-der ver'-jer ver-dure mix'-ter mix'-cher mix'-ture rup'ter rup'-cher rup'-ture sculp'-ter sculp'-cher sculp'-ture ges'-ter ges'cher ges'-ture struc'-ter struc'-cher struc'-ture stric'-ter stric'-choor stric'-ture ves'-ter ves'-cher ves'-ture tex'-ter tex'-cher tex'-ture fix'-ter fix'-cher fix'-ture vul'-ter vul'-cher vul'-ture for'-ten for'-choon for'-tune stat'-er sta'-choor stat'-ure stat'-ew stat'-choo stat'ue stat'-ewt sta'-choot stat'-ute ed'-di-cate ed'-ju-cate ed'-u-cate

H

In order to accustom the learner to sound H properly, let him pronounce certain words without and then with it: as aft, haft; ail, hail, etc. The H should be clearly sounded.

Aft Haft Edge Hedge Ail Hail Eel Heel Air Hair Ell Hell All Hall Elm Helm Ark Hark Eye High Arm Harm Ill Hill Art Hart It Hit Ash Hash old Hold At Hat Yew He

D Final.

Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct

An and frien friend lan land soun sound mine mind groun ground boun bound fiel field

K Final.

Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct

Fris frisk dus dusk des desk mos mosque tas task tus tusk ris risk hus husk

N for Ng.

Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct

Morn-in morn-ing shav-in shav-ing run-nin run-ning hid-in hid-ing talk-in talk-ing see-in see-ing walk-in walk-ing lov-in lov-ing drink-in drink-ing fight-in fight-ing slid-in slid-ing laugh-in laugh-ing

R

Sound the R clearly and forcibly. When it precedes a vowel, give it a slight trill.

Rule ruin rat rug reck rate reed rill rub rig rim rite ride rise red rag rick rote run reek rib rob rip ruse roar roam rack rid rip rouse Arch farm lark far snare for march harm bark bar spare war larch charm mark hair sure corn starch dark are stair lure born arm spark star care pure horn

T Final

Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct

Eas east wep wept moce most ob-jec ob-ject los lost per-fec per-fect nes nest dear-es dear-est gues guest high-es high-est

TS Final

Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct

Hoce hosts sec's sects tes tests bus busts lifs lifts cense cents tuffs tufts ob-jec's ob-jects ac's acts re-spec's re-spects

W for Wh

Incorrect Correct Incorrect Correct

Wale Whale Wet Whet Weal Wheel Wine Whine Wen When Wip Whip



SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE

Sentences like the following may be read with great advantage, for the purpose of acquiring distinctness and precision in articulation.

This act, more than all other acts, laid the ax at the root of the evil. It is false to say he had no other faults.

The hosts still stand in strangest plight. That last still night. That lasts till night. On either side an ocean exists. On neither side a notion exists. Among the rugged rocks the restless ranger ran. I said pop-u-lar, not pop'lar. I said pre-vail, not pr'vail. I said be-hold, not b'hold.

Think'st thou so meanly of my Phocion? Henceforth look to your hearths. Canst thou minister to a mind diseased? A thousand shrieks for hopeless mercy call.



ACCENT.

Accent, marked thus ('), is an increased force of voice upon some one syllable of a word; as, Col'o-ny, bot'a-ny; re-mem'ber, im-por'tant; rec-ol-lect', rep-re-sent'. In the words col'o-ny and bot'a-ny, the first syllable is accented. In the words re-mem'ber and im-por'tant, the second syllable is accented. In the words rec-ol-lect' and rep-re-sent', the third syllable is accented.



INFLECTION.

Inflection is an upward or downward slide of the voice. The Rising Inflection, sometimes marked thus ('), is an upward slide of the voice.

Examples

Has he come'? Has he gone? Are you sick'? Will you go'? Are they here'?

The Falling Inflection, marked thus (') is a downward slide of the voice.

Examples

They are here. He has gone. He has come I will go. I am well.

Let the pupil practice these examples until he is perfectly familiar with the rising and falling inflections.

Are you sick or well? Will you go, or stay? Did he ride, or walk? Is it black, or white? Is he rich, or poor? Are they old, or young? Did you say cap, or cat? I said cat, not cap. Did you say am, or ham? I said ham, not am.

Is the dog white', or black'? The dog is black', not white'. Did you say and', or hand'? I said and', not hand'. Is the tree large', or small'? The tree is small', not large'. Are the apples sweet', or sour'? The apples are sour' not sweet'. Is the tide high', or low'? The tide is high', not low'. Did you say play', or pray'? I said pray', not play'.



MCGUFFEY'S FOURTH READER.



I. PERSEVERANCE. (25)

1. "Will you give my kite a lift?" said my little nephew to his sister, after trying in vain to make it fly by dragging it along the ground. Lucy very kindly took it up and threw it into the air, but, her brother neglecting to run off at the same moment, the kite fell down again.

2. "Ah! now, how awkward you are!" said the little fellow. "It was your fault entirely," answered his sister. "Try again, children," said I.

3. Lucy once more took up the kite. But now John was in too great a hurry; he ran off so suddenly that he twitched the kite out of her hand, and it fell flat as before. "Well, who is to blame now?" asked Lucy. "Try again," said I.

4. They did, and with more care; but a side wind coming suddenly, as Lucy let go the kite, it was blown against some shrubs, and the tail became entangled in a moment, leaving the poor kite hanging with its head downward.

5. "There, there!" exclaimed John, "that comes of your throwing it all to one side." "As if I could make the wind blow straight," said Lucy. In the meantime, I went to the kite's assistance; and having disengaged the long tail, I rolled it up, saying, "Come, children, there are too many trees here; let us find a more open space, and then try again."

6. We presently found a nice grassplot, at one side of which I took my stand; and all things being prepared, I tossed the kite up just as little John ran off. It rose with all the dignity of a balloon, and promised a lofty flight; but John, delighted to find it pulling so hard at the string, stopped short to look upward and admire. The string slackened, the kite wavered, and, the wind not being very favorable, down came the kite to the grass. "O John, you should not have stopped," said I. "However, try again."

7. "I won't try any more," replied he, rather sullenly. "It is of no use, you see. The kite won't fly, and I don't want to be plagued with it any longer." "Oh, fie, my little man! would you give up the sport, after all the pains we have taken both to make and to fly the kite? A few disappointments ought not to discourage us. Come, I have wound up your string, and now try again."

8. And he did try, and succeeded, for the kite was carried upward on the breeze as lightly as a feather; and when the string was all out, John stood in great delight, holding fast the stick and gazing on the kite, which now seemed like a little white speck in the blue sky. "Look, look, aunt, how high it flies! and it pulls like a team of horses, so that I can hardly hold it. I wish I had a mile of string: I am sure it would go to the end of it."

9. After enjoying the sight as long as he pleased, little John proceeded to roll up the string slowly; and when the kite fell, he took it up with great glee, saying that it was not at all hurt, and that it had behaved very well. "Shall we come out to-morrow, aunt, after lessons, and try again?"

10. "I have no objection, my dear, if the weather is fine. And now, as we walk home, tell me what you have learned from your morning's sport." "I have learned to fly my kite properly." "You may thank aunt for it, brother," said Lucy, "for you would have given it up long ago, if she had not persuaded you to try again."

11. "Yes, dear children, I wish to teach you the value of perseverance, even when nothing more depends upon it than the flying of a kite. Whenever you fail in your attempts to do any good thing, let your motto be,—try again."

DEFINITIONS.—In defining words, that meaning is given which is appropriate to them in the connection in which they are used.

4. En-tan'gled, twisted in, disordered. 5. As-sist'-ance, help, aid. Dis-en-gaged, cleared, set free. 6. Grass'plot, a space covered with grass. Dig'ni-ty, majestic manner. 7. Dis-ap-point/ments, failures or defeats of expectation. Dis-cour'age, take away courage. 9. Glee, joy 11. Per-se-ver'ance, continuance in anything once begun. Mot'to, a short sentence or a word full of meaning.

EXERCISES—What is the subject of this lesson? Why was John discouraged in his attempts to fly his kite? What did his, aunt say to him? What may we learn from this? What should be our motto if we expect to be successful?



II. TRY, TRY AGAIN. (28)

1. 'T is a lesson you should heed, Try, try again; If at first you don't succeed, Try, try again; Then your courage should appear, For, if you will persevere, You will conquer, never fear; Try, try again.

2. Once or twice though you should fail, Try, try again; If you would at last prevail, Try, try again; If we strive, 'tis no disgrace Though we do not win the race; What should you do in the case? Try, try again.

3. If you find your task is hard, Try, try again; Time will bring you your reward, Try, try again. All that other folks can do, Why, with patience, should not you? Only keep this rule in view: Try, try again.

DEFINITIONS.—l. Cour'age, resolution. Con'quer, gain the vic-tory. 2. Pre-vail, overcome. Dis-grace', shame. Win, gain, ob-tain. 3. Re-ward', anything given in return for good or bad con-duct. Pa'-tience, constany in labor.

EXERCISES.—What does the mark before "'T is" mean? What is it called? What point is used after the word "case" in the second stanza? Why?



III. WHY THE SEA IS SALT. (29) A FAIRY TALE.

Mary Howitt was born in 1804, at Coleford, England. She wrote many charming stories for children in prose and verse, and also translated many from Swedish, Danish, and German authors. This story is arranged from one in a collection named "Peter Drake's Dream, and Other Stories." She died in 1888.

1. There were, in very ancient times, two brothers, one of whom was rich, and the other poor. Christmas was approaching, but the poor man had nothing in the house for a Christmas dinner; so he went to his brother and asked him for a trifling gift.

2. The rich man was ill-natured, and when he heard his brother's request he looked very surly. But as Christmas is a time when even the worst people give gifts, he took a fine ham down from the chimney, where it was hanging to smoke, threw it at his brother, and bade him begone and never to let him see his face again.

3. The poor man thanked his brother for the ham, put it under his arm, and went his way. He had to pass through a great forest on his way home. When he had reached the thickest part of it, he saw an old man, with a long, white beard, hewing timber. "Good evening," said he to him.

4. "Good evening," returned the old man, raising himself up from his work, and looking at him. "That is a fine ham you are carrying." On this, the poor man told him all about it.

5. "It is lucky for you," said the old man, "that you have met with me. If you will take that ham into the land of the dwarfs, the entrance to which lies just under the roots of this tree, you can make a capital bargain with it; for the dwarfs are very fond of ham, and rarely get any. But mind what I say: you must not sell it for money, but demand for it the 'old hand mill which stands behind the door.' When you come back, I'll show you how to use it."

6. The poor man thanked his new friend, who showed him the door under a stone below the roots of the tree, and by this door he entered into the land of the dwarfs. No sooner had he set his foot in it, than the dwarfs swarmed about him, attracted by the smell of the ham. They offered him queer, old-fashioned money and gold and silver ore for it; but he refused all their tempting offers, and said that he would sell it only for the old hand mill behind the door.

7. At this, the dwarfs held up their little old hands, and looked quite perplexed. "We can not make a bargain, it seems," said the poor man, "so I'll bid you all a good day."

8. The fragrance of the ham had by this time reached the remote parts of dwarf land. The dwarfs came flocking around in little troops, leaving their work of digging out precious ores, eager for the ham.

9. "Let him have the old mill," said some of the newcomers; "it is quite out of order, and he don't know how to use it. Let him have it, and we will have the ham."

10. So the bargain was made. The poor man took the old hand mill, which was a little thing not half so large as the ham, and went back to the woods. Here the old man showed him how to use it. All this had taken up a great deal of time, and it was midnight before he reached home.

11. "Where in the world have you been?" said his wife. "Here I have been waiting and waiting, and we have no wood to make a fire, nor anything to put into the porridge pot for our Christmas supper."

12. The house was dark and cold; but the poor man bade his wife wait and see what would happen. He placed the little hand mill on the table, and began to turn the crank. First, out there came some grand, lighted wax candles, and a fire on the hearth, and a porridge pot boiling over it, because in his mind he said they should come first. Then he ground out a tablecloth, and dishes, and spoons, and knives and forks.

13. He was himself astonished at his good luck, as you may believe; and his wife was almost beside herself with joy and astonishment. Well, they had a capital supper; and after it was eaten, they ground out of the mill every possible thing to make their house and themselves warm and comfortable. So they had a merry Christmas eve and morning.

DEFINITIONS.—l. Tri'-fling, of small value. 5. Hand 'mill, a mill turned by hand. 6. At-tract'ed, drawn to, allured. 7. Perplexed', puzzled. 8. Fra'grance, sweetness of smell.



IV. WHY THE SEA IS SALT. (32) (Concluded.)

1. When the people went by the house to church, the next day, they could hardly believe their eyes. There was glass in the windows instead of a wooden shutter, and the poor man and his wife, dressed in nice new clothes, were seen devoutly kneeling in the church.

2. "There is something very strange in all this," said everyone. "Something very strange indeed," said the rich man, when three days afterwards he received an invitation from his once poor brother to a grand feast. And what a feast it was! The table was covered with a cloth as white as snow, and the dishes were all of silver or gold. The rich man could not, in his great house, and with all his wealth, set out such a table.

3. "Where did you get all these things?" exclaimed he. His brother told him all about the bargain he had made with the dwarfs, and putting the mill on the table, ground out boots and shoes, coats and cloaks, stockings, gowns, and blankets, and bade his wife give them to the poor people that had gathered about the house to get a sight of the grand feast the poor brother had made for the rich one.

4. The rich man, was very envious of his brother's good fortune, and wanted to borrow the mill, intending—for he was not an honest man—never to return it again. His brother would not lend it, for the old man with the white beard had told him never to sell or lend it to anyone.

5. Some years went on, and, at last, the possessor of the mill built himself a grand castle on a rock by the sea, facing the west. Its windows, reflecting the golden sunset, could be seen far out from the shore. It became a noted landmark for sailors. Strangers from foreign parts often came to see this castle and the wonderful mill of which the most extraordinary tales were told.

6. At length, a great foreign merchant came, and when he had seen the mill, inquired whether it would grind salt. Being told that it would, he wanted to buy it; for he traded in salt, and thought that if he owned it he could supply all his customers without taking long and dangerous voyages.

7. The man would not sell it, of course. He was so rich now that he did not want to use it for himself; but every Christmas he ground out food and clothes and coal for the poor, and nice presents for the little children. So he rejected all the offers of the rich merchant. The merchant, however, determined to have it; he bribed one of the man's servants to let him go into the castle at night, and he stole the mill and sailed away with it in triumph.

8. He had scarcely got out to sea, before he determined to set the mill to work. "Now, mill, grind salt," said he; "grind salt with all your might!—salt, salt, and nothing but salt!" The mill began to grind and the sailors to fill the sacks; but these were soon full, and in spite of all that could be done, it began to fill the ship.

9. The dishonest merchant was now very much frightened. What was to be done? The mill would not stop grinding; and at last the ship was overloaded, and down it went, making a great whirlpool where it sank. The ship soon went to pieces; but the mill stands on the bottom of the sea, and keeps grinding out "salt, salt, nothing but salt!" That is the reason, say the peasants of Denmark and Norway, why the sea is salt.

DEFINITIONS.—l. De-vout'ly, in a reverent manner. 5. Re—flect'ing, throwing back light, heat, etc., as a mirror. Land'-mark, an object on land serving as a guide to seamen. Ex-traor'—di-na-ry, wonderful. 9. Whirl'-pool, a gulf in which the water moves round in a circle. Peas'ents, those belonging to the lowest class of tillers of the soil in Europe.

EXERCISES.—What is a "fairy tale"? What fairy people are told about in this story? How did the poor man find the way to the land of the dwarfs? Do you think the old man would have told him if the poor man had not been so polite? How did the poor man treat his rich brother in return for his unkindness? How was the greed of the dishonest merchant punished? What is meant by "strangers from foreign parts"? Where are Denmark and Norway?



V. POPPING CORN. (34)

1. One autumn night, when the wind was high, And the rain fell in heavy plashes, A little boy sat by the kitchen fire, A-popping corn in the ashes; And his sister, a curly-haired child of three, Sat looking on, just close to his knee.

2. Pop! pop! and the kernels, one by one, Came out of the embers flying; The boy held a long pine stick in his hand, And kept it busily plying; He stirred the corn and it snapped the more, And faster jumped to the clean-swept floor.

3. Part of the kernels flew one way, And a part hopped out the other; Some flew plump into the sister's lap, Some under the stool of the brother; The little girl gathered them into a heap, And called them a flock of milk-white sheep.



VI. SMILES. (35)

1. Poor lame Jennie sat at her window, looking out upon the dismal, narrow street, with a look of pain and weariness on her face. "Oh, dear," she said with a sigh, "what a long day this is going to be," and she looked wishfully up the street.

2. Suddenly she leaned forward and pressed her pale face against the glass, as a rosy-checked boy came racing down the street, swinging his schoolbooks by the strap. Looking up to the window, he took off his hat and bowed with a bright, pleasant smile.

3. "What a nice boy he is," said Jennie to herself, as he ran out of sight. "I am so glad he goes by here on his way to school. When he smiles, it seems like having the sun shine. I wish everybody who goes by would look up and smile."

4. "Mamma," said George West, as he came from school, "I can't help thinking about that poor little girl I told you of the other day. She looks so tired. I took off my hat and bowed to her to-day. I wish I could do something for her,"

5. "Suppose you should carry her a handful of pretty flowers some time when you go to school," said Mrs. West. "I'll do that to-morrow morning," said George, "if I can find my way into that rickety old house."

6. The next morning, as Jennie sat leaning her head wearily against the window, watching the raindrops chasing one another down the glass, she spied George with a handful of beautiful flowers carefully picking his way across the street. He stopped in front of her window, and, smiling very pleasantly, said, "How shall I find the way to your room?"

7. Jennie pointed to an alley near by, where he turned in, and with some difficulty found his way to the dingy staircase. Opening the door to Jennie's gentle "Come in," he said, "I have brought you a handful of flowers to look at this rainy day."

8. "Are they for me?" exclaimed Jennie, clapping her hands in delight. "How kind you are," she continued, as George laid them in her lap. "I have not had a flower since we live in the city."

9. "Did you use to live in the country?" asked George. "Oh, yes," answered Jennie, "we used to live in a beautiful cottage, and there were trees and flowers and green grass, and the air was so sweet."

10. "Well, what made you move here?" "Oh," said Jennie, softly, "papa died, and mamma was sick so long that the money was all gone. Then mamma had to sell the cottage, and she moved here to try to get work to do."

11. "Do you have to sit here all day?" asked George, glancing around the bare room and out into the dismal street. "Yes," said Jennie, "because I am lame; but I would not care for that, if I could only help mamma."

12. "I declare, it's too had!" said George, who dreaded nothing so much as being obliged to stay in the house. "Oh, no, it isn't," said Jennie, pleasantly; "mamma says maybe we should forget the Lord if we had everything we wanted, and He never forgets us, you know."

13. "Well, I must rush for school," said George, not knowing exactly what to say next; and he was soon out of Jennie's sight, but had a happy little corner in his heart, because he had tried to do a kind act. He did not know how much good he had done in making a pleasant day out of a dreary one for a little sick girl.

14. "Mamma," said George, that evening, after he had told her what Jennie said, "papa must give them some money, so they can go back to their home."

15. "No," said his mother; "he can not do that, and they would not wish him to do so; but perhaps he can help us contrive some way to assist them, so that they can live more comfortably."

16. "I am going to carry Jennie some of the grapes grandpa sent me, to-morrow," said George, turning over the leaves of his geography. "I will put some of my pears into your basket, and go with you," said his mother; "but there is one thing we can always give, and sometimes it does more good than nice things to eat, or even money."

17. "What is that, mamma,—smiles?" asked George, looking up. "Yes," answered his mother; "and it is a good plan to throw in a kind word or two with them when you can."

DEFINITIONS.-l. Dis'mal, gloomy, cheerless. Wish'ful-ly, with desire. 5. Rick'et-y, imperfect, worn out. 7. Din'gy, dark. 11. Glan'cing, looking about quickly. 13. Drear'y, comfortless, gloomy. 15. Con-trive', to plan.

EXERCISES.—What is the subject of this lesson? How did George West make the day pleasant for Jennie? What did his mother suggest? What happened next day? What did Jennie tell George about her life? Relate what happened at George's home that evening. What does the lesson teach?



VII. LAZY NED. (38)

1. "'T is royal fun," cried lazy Ned, "To coast, upon my fine, new sled, And beat the other boys; But then, I can not bear to climb The tiresome hill, for every time It more and more annoys."

2. So, while his schoolmates glided by, And gladly tugged uphill, to try Another merry race, Too indolent to share their plays, Ned was compelled to stand and gaze, While shivering in his place.

3. Thus, he would never take the pains To seek the prize that labor gains, Until the time had passed; For, all his life, he dreaded still The silly bugbear of uphill, And died a dunce at last.

DEFINITIONS.-l. Roy'al, excellent, noble. Coast, to slide. An—noys', troubles. 2. In'do-lent, lazy. 3. Prize, a reward. Bug-bear, something frightful. Dunce, a silly fellow.

EXERCISES.—What did Ned like? What did he not like?



VIII. THE MONKEY. (39)

1. The monkey is a very cunning little animal, and is found in many parts of the world.

2. A lady once had a monkey, which had been brought to her as a present. This monkey, like all others, was very fond of mischief and of doing whatever he saw others do.

3. His mistress found him one day sitting on her toilet table, holding in one hand a little china mug with water in it, and in the other her toothbrush, with which he was cleaning his teeth, looking all the time in the glass.

4. Her little daughter, Maria, had a large doll with a very handsome head and face. She one day left this doll in the cradle, and went out of the room. The monkey came in, took the doll in his arms, and jumping upon the washstand, he began to wash its face.

5. He first rubbed it all over with soap. Then seizing the towel, he dipped it in the wash bowl, and rubbed it so hard that the doll's face was entirely spoiled, the paint being all washed off.

6. There have been many tales of monkeys who, armed with sticks, have joined together and made war or resisted their enemies with great effect. These are not true, as it is known that in their native state monkeys have no idea of weapons.

7. The sticks and other missiles said to be thrown at travelers as they pass under the branches of trees, are usually the dead branches, etc., accidentally broken off, as the monkeys, with the natural curiosity of their tribe, pass along the tops of trees to watch the actions of the people below.

8. They can, however, be taught to use a stick, and to use it well. Some time ago, two Italians together owned an organ and a monkey, by means of which they earned their living. During one of their exhibitions, a dog flew at the little monkey, which made its owners very angry.

9. They and the owner of the dog quarreled about it, and at last it was agreed that the dog and the monkey should fight it out; the monkey, because he was smaller, was to be allowed a stick.

10. The monkey was taught what he was to do in the following manner: One of the Italians crawled on his hands and knees, barking like a dog, while the other got on his back, grasped his hair, and beat him about the head with a stick.

11. The monkey looked on with great gravity, and, when the instruction was over, received the stick with the air of a man who knew his work and meant to do it.

12. Everything being settled the dog flew at the monkey with open month. The monkey immediately leaped on his back, and, grasping the dog's ear, beat away at his head with such good will that his adversary speedily gave in. The monkey, however, was not content with a mere victory, but continued pounding at the dog's head until he left him senseless on the ground.

DEFINITIONS.—1. Cun'ning, sly. 3. Toi'let ta'ble, dressing table. 6. Re-sist'ed, opposed. 7. Mis'siles, weapons thrown. 8. Ex-hi-bi'tions, public shows. 11. Grav'i-ty, seriousness. In-struc'-tion, lesson, 12. Sense'less, without apparent life.

EXERCISES.—What kind of an animal is a monkey? Where did the lady find the monkey one day? What was he doing? What did he do with Maria's doll? Do monkeys in their native state know how to use sticks as weapons? Can they be taught to use them? Relate the story of the two Italians. What is the meaning of "etc." in the seventh paragraph?



IX. MEDDLESOME MATTY. (42)

1. Oh, how one ugly trick has spoiled The sweetest and the best! Matilda, though a pleasant child, One grievous fault possessed, Which, like a cloud before the skies, Hid all her better qualities.

2. Sometimes, she'd lift the teapot lid To peep at what was in it; Or tilt, the kettle, if you did But turn your back a minute. In vain you told her not to touch, Her trick of meddling grew so much.

3. Her grand mamma went out one day, And, by mistake, she laid Her spectacles and snuffbox gay, Too near the little maid; "Ah! well," thought she, "I'll try them on, As soon as grand mamma is gone."

4. Forthwith, she placed upon her nose The glasses large and wide; And looking round, as I suppose, The snuffbox, too, she spied. "Oh, what a pretty box is this! I'll open it," said little miss.

5. "I know that grandmamma would say, 'Don't meddle with it, dear;' But then she's far enough away, And no one else is near; Beside, what can there be amiss In opening such a box as this?"

6. So, thumb and finger went to work To move the stubborn lid; And, presently, a mighty jerk The mighty mischief did; For all at once, ah! woeful case! The snuff came puffing in her face.

7. Poor eyes, and nose, and mouth, and chin A dismal sight presented; And as the snuff got further in, Sincerely she repented. In vain she ran about for ease, She could do nothing else but sneeze.

8. She dashed the spectacles away, To wipe her tingling eyes; And, as in twenty bits they lay, Her grandmamma she spies. "Heyday! and what's the matter now?" Cried grandmamma, with angry brow.

9. Matilda, smarting with the pain, And tingling still, and sore, Made many a promise to refrain From meddling evermore; And 't is a fact, as I have heard, She ever since has kept her word.

DEFINITIONS.-l. Qual'i-ties, traits of character. 2. Med'-dling, interfering without right. 4. Forth-with', at once. Spied, saw. 5. A-miss', wrong, faulty. 6. Woe'ful, sad, sorrowful 8. Tin'gling, smarting. 9. Re-frain', to keep from.

EXERCISES.—What did Matilda do? How was she punished? What effect did it have on her?



X. THE GOOD SON. (44)

1. There was once a jeweler, noted for many virtues. One day, the Jewish elders came to him to buy some diamonds, to put upon that part of the dress of their high priest, which the Bible calls an ephod.

2. They told him what they wanted, and offered him a fair price for the diamonds. He replied that he could not let them see the jewels at that moment, and requested them to call again.

3. As they wanted them without delay, and thought that the object of the jeweler was only to increase the price of the diamonds, the elders offered him twice, then three times, as much as they were worth. But he still refused, and they went away in very bad humor.

4. Some hours after, he went to them, and placed before them the diamonds, for which they again offered him the last price they had named; but he said, "I will only accept the first one you offered to me this morning."

5. "Why, then, did you not close with us at once?" asked they in surprise. "When you came," replied he, "my father had the key of the chest, in which the diamonds were kept, and as he was asleep, I should have been obliged to wake him to obtain them.

6. "At his age, a short hour of sleep does him a great deal of good; and for all the gold in the world, I would not be wanting in respect to my father, or take from him a single comfort."

7. The elders, affected by these feeling words, spread their hands upon the jeweler's head, and said, "Thou shalt be blessed of Him who has said, 'Honor thy father and thy mother;' and thy children shall one day pay thee the same respect and love thou hast shown to thy father."

DEFINITIONS.—l. Jew'el-er, one who buys and sells precious stones. Not'ed, well known. Eld'er, an officer of the Jewish church. Eph'od, part of the dress of a Jewish priest, made of two pieces, one covering the chest and the other the back, united by a girdle. 2. Di'a-monds, precious stones. 3. Hu'mor, state of mind, temper. 5. Close, come to an agreement.

EXERCISES.—Relate the story of the jeweler and his diamonds. What did the elders say to him, when they heard his reason for not giving them the diamonds at first?



XI. TO-MORROW. (45)

Mrs. M. B. Johnson is the authoress of "To-morrow," one of a collection of poems; entitled "Poems of Home Life."

1. A bright, merry boy, with laughing face, Whose every motion was full of grace, Who knew no trouble and feared no care, Was the light of our household—the youngest there.

2. He was too young, this little elf, With troublesome questions to vex himself; But for many days a thought would rise, And bring a shade to his dancing eyes.

3. He went to one whom he thought more wise Than any other beneath the skies; "Mother,"—O word that makes the home!— "Tell me, when will to-morrow come?"

4. "It is almost night," the mother said, "And time for my boy to be in bed; When you wake up and it's day again, It will be to-morrow, my darling, then."

5. The little boy slept through all the night, But woke with the first red streak of light; He pressed a kiss to his mother's brow, And whispered, "Is it to-morrow now?"

6. "No, little Eddie, this is to-day: To-morrow is always one night away." He pondered a while, but joys came fast, And this vexing question quickly passed.

7. But it came again with the shades of night; "Will it be to-morrow when it is light?" From years to come he seemed care to borrow, He tried so hard to catch to-morrow.

8. "You can not catch it, my little Ted; Enjoy to-day," the mother said; "Some wait for to-morrow through many a year It is always coming, but never is here."

DEFINITIONS.—1. House'hold, family, those living in the same house. 2. Elf, a small fairy-like person. Vex, worry, trouble. Pon'dered, thought anxiously. A-while', for a short time.

EXERCISES.—What is meant by "dancing eyes" in the second stanza? What is meant by "the shades of night," in the seventh stanza? Of what name are "Eddie" and "Ted" nicknames? What troubled Eddie? Can you define tomorrow? What did Eddie's mother advise him to do?



XII. WHERE THERE IS A WILL THERE IS A WAY. (47)

1. Henry Bond was about ten years old when his father died. His mother found it difficult to provide for the support of a large family, thus left entirely in her care. By good management, however, she contrived to do so, and also to send Henry, the oldest, to school, and to supply him, for the most part, with such books as he needed.

2. At one time, however, Henry wanted a grammar, in order to join a class in that study, and his mother could not furnish him with the money to buy it. He was very much troubled about it, and went to bed with a heavy heart, thinking what could be done.

3. On waking in the morning, he found that a deep snow had fallen, and the cold wind was blowing furiously. "Ah," said he, "it is an ill wind that blows nobody good."

4. He rose, ran to the house of a neighbor, and offered his service to clear a path around his premises. The offer was accepted. Having completed this work, and received his pay, he went to another place for the same purpose, and then to another, until he had earned enough to buy a grammar.

5. When school commenced, Henry was in his seat, the happiest boy there, ready to begin the lesson in his new book.

6. From that time, Henry, was always the first in all his classes. He knew no such word as fail, but always succeeded in all he attempted. Having the will, he always found the way.

DEFINITIONS.—l. Man'age-ment, manner of directing things. 2. Fur'nish, to supply. 3. Fu'ri-ous-ly, violently. 4. Serv'ice, labor. Prem'i-ses, grounds around a house.



XIII. PICCOLA. (48)

By Celia Laighton Thaxter, who was born at Portsmouth, N. H., June 29, 1836. Much of her childhood was passed at White Island, one of the Isles of Shoals, off the coast of New Hampshire. "Among the Isles of Shoals," is her most noted work in prose. She published a volume of poems, many of which are favorites with children. She died in 1894.

1. Poor, sweet Piccola! Did you hear What happened to Piccola, children dear? 'T is seldom Fortune such favor grants As fell to this little maid of France.

2. 'T was Christmas time, and her parents poor Could hardly drive the wolf from the door, Striving with poverty's patient pain Only to live till summer again.

3. No gift for Piccola! sad were they When dawned the morning of Christmas day! Their little darling no joy might stir; St. Nicholas nothing would bring to her!

4. But Piccola never doubted at all That something beautiful must befall Every child upon Christmas day, And so she slept till the dawn was gray.

5. And full of faith, when at last she woke, She stole to her shoe as the morning broke; Such sounds of gladness filled all the air, 'T was plain St. Nicholas had been there.

6. In rushed Piccola, sweet, half wild— Never was seen such a joyful child— "See what the good saint brought!" she cried, And mother and father must peep inside.

7. Now such a story I never heard! There was a little shivering bird! A sparrow, that in at the window flew, Had crept into Piccola's tiny shoe!

8. "How good poor Piccola must have been!" She cried, as happy as any queen, While the starving sparrow she fed and warmed, And danced with rapture, she was so charmed.

9. Children, this story I tell to you Of Piccola sweet and her bird, is true. In the far-off land of France, they say, Still do they live to this very day.

DEFINITIONS.—3. Dawned, began to grow light. Stir, excite. 4. Be-fall, happen. 7. Shiv'er-ing, trembling from cold. Ti'ny, very small. 8. Rapture, great joy. Charmed, greatly.

EXERCISES.—What is meant by "driving the wolf from the door"? In the third stanza, what does "St." before Nicholas mean? Who is St. Nicholas? What did Piccola find in her shoe on Christmas morning?



XIV. TRUE MANLINESS. (50)

By MRS. M. O. JOHNSON.—(ADAPTED.)

1. "Please, mother, do sit down and let me try my hand," said Fred Liscom, a bright, active boy twelve years old. Mrs. Liscom, looking pale and worn, was moving languidly about, trying to clear away the breakfast she had scarcely tasted.

2. She smiled, and said, "You, Fred, you wash dishes?" "Yes, indeed, mother," replied Fred; "I should be a poor scholar if I couldn't, when I've seen you do it so many times. Just try me."

3. A look of relief came over his mother's face as she seated herself in her low rocking-chair. Fred washed the dishes, and put them in the closet. He then swept the kitchen, brought up the potatoes from the cellar for the dinner and washed them, and then set out for school.

4. Fred's father was away from home, and as there was some cold meat in the pantry, Mrs. Liscom found it an easy task to prepare dinner. Fred hurried home from school, set the table, and again washed the dishes.

5. He kept on in this way for two or three days, till his mother was able to resume her usual work, and he felt amply rewarded when the doctor, who happened in one day, said, "Well, madam, it's my opinion that you would have been very sick if you had not kept quiet."

6. The doctor did not know how the "quiet" had been secured, nor how the boy's heart bounded at his words. Fred had given up a great deal of what boys hold dear, for the purpose of helping his mother, coasting and skating being just at this time in perfection.

7. Besides this, his temper and his patience had been severely tried. He had been in the habit of going early to school, and staying to play after it was dismissed.

8. The boys missed him, and their curiosity was excited when he would give no other reason for not coming to school earlier, or staying after school, than that he was a "wanted at home." "I'll tell you," said Tom Barton, "I'll find him out, boys—see if I don't!"

9. So he called for Fred to go to school, and on his way to the side door walked lightly and somewhat nearer the kitchen window than was absolutely needful. Looking in, he saw Fred standing at the table with a dishcloth in his hand.

10. Of course he reported this at school, and various were the greetings poor Fred received at recess. "Well, you're a brave one to stay at home washing dishes." "Girl boy!" "Pretty Bessie!" "Lost your apron, have n't you, Polly!"

11. Fred was not wanting either in spirit or courage, and he was strongly tempted to resent these insults and to fight some of his tormentors. But his consciousness of right and his love for his mother helped him.

12. While he was struggling for self mastery, his teacher appeared at the door of the schoolhouse. Fred caught his eye, and it seemed to look, if it did not say, "Don't give up! Be really brave!" He knew the teacher had heard the insulting taunts of his thoughtless schoolmates.

13. The boys received notice during the day that Fred must not be taunted or teased in any manner. They knew that the teacher meant what he said; and so the brave little boy had no farther trouble.

DEFINITIONS.—1. Lan'guid-ly, feebly. 5. Am'ply, fully. O-pin'ion, judgment, belief. 9. Ab'so-lute-ly, wholly, entirely. 11. Re-sent', to consider as an injury. Con'scious-ness, inward feeling, knowledge of what passes in one's own mind.

EXERCISES.—Why did Fred offer to wash the dishes? Was it a disgraceful thing to do? How was he rewarded? How did his schoolmates show their lack of manliness?



XV. TRUE MANLINESS. (52) (Concluded.)

1. "Fire! fire!" The cry crept out on the still night air, and the fire bells began to ring. Fred was wakened by the alarm and the red light streaming into his room. He dressed himself in a moment, almost, and tapped at the door of his mother's bedroom.

2. "It is Mr. Barton's house, mother. Do let me go," he said in eager, excited tones. Mrs. Liscom thought a moment. He was young, but she could trust him, and she knew how much his heart was in the request.

3. "Yes, you may go," she answered; "but be careful, my boy. If you can help, do so; but do nothing rashly." Fred promised to follow her advice, and hurried to the fire.

4. Mr. and Mrs. Barton were not at home. The house had been left in charge of the servants. The fire spread with fearful speed, for there was a high wind, and it was found impossible to save the house. The servants ran about, screaming and lamenting, but doing nothing to any purpose.

5. Fred found Tom outside, in safety. "Where is Katy?" he asked. Tom, trembling with terror, seemed to have had no thought but of his own escape. He said, "Katy is in the house!" "In what room?" asked Fred. "In that one," pointing to a window in the upper story.

6. It was no time for words, but for instant, vigorous action. The staircase was already on fire; there was but one way to reach Katy, and that full of danger. The second floor might fall at any moment, and Fred knew it. But he trusted in an arm stronger than his own, and silently sought help and guidance.

7. A ladder was quickly brought, and placed against the house. Fred mounted it, followed by the hired man, dashed in the sash of the window, and pushed his way into the room where the poor child lay nearly suffocated with smoke.

8. He roused her with some difficulty, carried her to the window, and placed her upon the sill. She was instantly grasped by strong arms, and carried down the ladder, Fred following as fast as possible. They had scarcely reached the ground before a crash of falling timbers told them that they had barely escaped with their lives.

9. Tom Barton never forgot the lesson of that night; and he came to believe, and to act upon the belief, in after years, that true manliness is in harmony with gentleness, kindness, and self-denial.

EXERCISES.—Relate the story of the fire. What is meant by "to any purpose," in paragraph four? Did Fred show any lack of manliness when tested? What does this lesson teach?



XVI. THE BROWN THRUSH. (54)

Lucy Larcom, the author of the following poem, was born in 1826, and passed many years of her life as a factory girl at Lowell, Mass. She died in 1893.

1. There's a merry brown thrush sitting up in a tree; "He's singing to me! he's singing to me!" And what does he say, little girl, little boy? "Oh, the world's running over with joy! Don't You hear? Don't you see? Hush! look! In my tree I'm as happy as happy can be!"

2. And the brown thrush keeps singing, "A nest do you see, And five eggs hid by me in the juniper tree? Don't meddle! don't touch! little girl, little boy, Or the world will lose some of its joy! Now I'm glad! now I'm free! And I always shall be, If you never bring sorrow to me."

3. So the merry brown thrush sings away in the tree, To you and to me, to you and to me; And he sings all the day, little girl, little boy, "Oh, the world's running over with joy! But long it won't be, Don't you know? Don't you see? Unless we're as good as can be."

EXERCISES.—What is a thrush? Why was the thrush so happy? Do you think he would have been happy if the little boy or girl had robbed the nest?



XVII. A SHIP IN A STORM. (55)

1. Did you ever go far out upon the great ocean? How beautiful it is to be out at sea, when the sea is smooth and still!

2. Let a storm approach, and the scene is changed. The heavy, black clouds appear in the distance, and throw a deep, deathlike shade over the world of waters.

3. The captain and sailors soon see in the clouds the signs of evil. All hands are then set to work to take in sail.

4. The hoarse notes of the captain, speaking through his trumpet, are echoed from lip to lip among the rigging. Happy will it be, if all is made snug before the gale strikes the vessel.

5. At last, the gale comes like a vast moving mountain of air. It strikes the ship. The vessel heaves and groans under the dreadful weight, and struggles to escape through the foaming waters.

6. If she is far out at sea, she will be likely to ride out the storm in safety. But if the wind is driving her upon the shore, the poor sailors will hardly escape being dashed upon the rocks, and drowned.

7. Once there was a ship in a storm. Some of her masts were already broken, and her sails lost. While the wind was raging, and the billows were dashing against her, the cry was heard, "A man has fallen overboard!"

8. Quickly was the boat lowered, and she was soon seen bounding on her way over the mountain waves. At one moment, the boat seemed lifted to the skies, and the next, it sank down, and appeared to be lost beneath the waves!

9. At length, the man was found. He was well nigh drowned; but he was taken on board, and now they made for the ship. But the ship rolled so dreadfully, that it seemed certain death to go near her. And now, what should they do?

10. The captain told one of the men to go aloft and throw down a rope. This was made fast to the boat, and when the sea was somewhat calm it was hoisted, and all fell down into the ship with a dreadful crash. It was a desperate way of getting on board; but fortunately no lives were lost.

11. On the dangerous points along our seacoast are lighthouses, which can be seen far out at sea, and serve as guides to ships. Sometimes the fog is so dense that these lights can not be seen, but most lighthouses have great fog bells or fog horns; some of the latter are made to sound by steam, and can be heard for a long distance. These bells and horns are kept sounding as long as the fog lasts.

12. There are also many life-saving stations along the coast where trained men are ready with lifeboats. "When a ship is driven ashore they at once go to the rescue of those on board, and thus many valuable lives are saved.

13. Take it all in all, a sailor's life is a very hard one. Our young friends owe a debt of gratitude to those whose home is upon the great waters, and who bring them the luxuries of other countries.

DEFINITIONS.—4. Ech'oed, sounded again. Gale, a wind storm. 5. Heaves, pitches up and down. 7. Bil'lows, waves. 10. Des'-per-ate, hopeless. 11. Fog, watery vapor, mist. 13. Grat'i-tude, thankfulness. Lux'u-ries, nice things.

EXERCISES.—What is this lesson about? When is it dangerous to be at sea? What do sailors then do? In what situation are they most likely to be saved? Relate the story of the man overboard. Tell about the lighthouses. How are vessels warned of danger in a fog? What about the life-saving stations? What is said of a sailor's life?



XVIII. THE SAILOR'S CONSOLATION. (58)

Charles Dibdin, the author, was born at Southampton, England, in 1745. He wrote a number of fine sea songs. He died in 1814.

1. One night came on a hurricane, The sea was mountains rolling, When Barney Buntline turned his quid, And said to Billy Bowling: "A strong norwester's blowing, Bill; Hark! don't ye hear it roar now? Lord help 'em, how I pities all Unhappy folks on shore now!

2. "Foolhardy chaps who live in town, What danger they are all in, And now are quaking in their beds, For fear the roof shall fall in; Poor creatures, how they envy us, And wish, as I've a notion, For our good luck, in such a storm, To be upon the ocean.

3. "But as for them who're out all day, On business from their houses, And late at night are coming home, To cheer the babes and spouses; While you and I, Bill, on the deck, Are comfortably lying, My eyes! what tiles and chimney pots About their heads are flying!

4. "And very often have we heard How men are killed and undone By overturns of carriages, By thieves, and fires in London. We know what risks all landsmen run, From noblemen to tailors; Then, Bill, let us thank Providence That you and I are sailors."

DEFINITIONS.-l. Hur'ri-cane, a violent windstorm. Quid, a small piece of tobacco. 2. Fool'har'dy, reckless. Quak'ing, shak-ing with fear. No'tion, idea. 3. Spous'es, wives. Tiles, thin pieces of baked clay used in roofing houses. Chim'ney pots, earthenware tops of chimneys. 4. Un-done', injured, ruined.

NOTES.—l. "Barney Buntline" and "Billy Bowling" are supposed to be two sailors. "Norwester" is a sailor's name for a northwest storm. 4. "Landsmen" is a term applied by sailors to all who live on shore.



XIX. TWO WAYS OF TELLING A STORY. (60) By HENRY K. OLIVER.

1. In one of the most populous cities of New England, a few years ago, a party of lads, all members of the same school, got up a grand sleigh ride. The sleigh was a very large one, drawn by six gray horses.

2. On the following day, as the teacher entered the schoolroom, he found his pupils in high glee, as they chattered about the fun and frolic of their excursion. In answer to some inquiries, one of the lads gave him an account of their trip and its various incidents.

3. As he drew near the end of his story, he exclaimed: "Oh, sir! there was one thing I had almost forgotten. As we were coming home, we saw ahead of us a queer looking affair in the road. It proved to be a rusty old sleigh, fastened behind a covered wagon, proceeding at a very slow rate, and taking up the whole road.

4. "Finding that the owner was not disposed to turn out, we determined upon a volley of snowballs and a good hurrah. They produced the right effect, for the crazy machine turned out into the deep snow, and the skinny old pony started on a full trot.

5. "As we passed, some one gave the horse a good crack, which made him run faster than he ever did before, I'll warrant.

6. "With that, an old fellow in the wagon, who was buried up under an old hat, bawled out, 'Why do you frighten my horse?' 'Why don't you turn out, then?' says the driver. So we gave him three rousing cheers more. His horse was frightened again, and ran up against a loaded wagon, and, I believe, almost capsized the old creature—and so we left him."

7. "Well, boys," replied the teacher, "take your seat", and I will tell you a story, and all about a sleigh ride, too. Yesterday afternoon a very venerable old clergyman was on his way from Boston to Salem, to pass the rest of the winter at the house of his son. That he might be prepared for journeying in the following spring he took with him his wagon, and for the winter his sleigh, which he fastened behind the wagon.

8. "His sight and hearing were somewhat blunted by age, and he was proceeding very slowly; for his horse was old and feeble, like his owner. He was suddenly disturbed by loud hurrahs from behind, and by a furious pelting of balls of snow and ice upon the top of his wagon.

9. "In his alarm he dropped his reins, and his horse began to run away. In the midst of the old man's trouble, there rushed by him, with loud shouts, a large party of boys, in a sleigh drawn by six horses. 'Turn out! turn out, old fellow!' 'Give us the road!' 'What will you take for your pony?' 'What's the price of oats, old man?' were the various cries that met his cars.

10. "'Pray, do not frighten my horse!' exclaimed the infirm driver. 'Turn out, then! turn out!' was the answer, which was followed by repeated cracks and blows from the long whip of the 'grand sleigh,' with showers of snowballs, and three tremendous hurrahs from the boys.

11. "The terror of the old man and his horse was increased, and the latter ran away with him, to the great danger of his life. He contrived, however, to stop his horse just in season to prevent his being dashed against a loaded wagon. A short distance brought him to the house of his son. That son, boys, is your instructor, and that 'old fellow,' was your teacher's father!"

12. When the boys perceived how rude and unkind their conduct appeared from another point of view, they were very much ashamed of their thoughtlessness, and most of them had the manliness to apologize to their teacher for what they had done.

DEFINITIONS.-l. Pop'u-lous, full of inhabitants. 2. Ex-cur'-sion, a pleasure trip. In'ci-dents, things that happen, events. 5. War'rant, to declare with assurance. 6. Cap-sized', upset. 7. Ven'er-a-ble, deserving of honor and respect. 8. Blunt'ed, dulled.

EXERCISES.—Repeat the boys' story of the sleigh ride. The teacher's story. Were the boys ill-natured or only thoughtless? Is thoughtlessness any excuse for rudeness or unkindness?



XX. FREAKS OF THE FROST. (63)

By Hannah Flagg Gould, who was born at Lancaster, Vermont, in 1789. She published several volumes of poems (one for children) and one collection of prose articles, entitled "Gathered Leaves." She died in 1865.

1. The Frost looked forth one still, clear night, And whispered, "Now I shall be out of sight; So through the valley and over the height In silence I'll take my way; I will not go on, like that blustering train, The wind and the snow, the hail and the rain, Who make so much bustle and noise in vain, But I'll be as busy as they."

2. Then he flew to the mountain, and powdered its crest; He lit on the trees, and their boughs he dressed In diamond beads; and over the breast Of the quivering lake, he spread A coat of mail, that it need not fear The downward point of many a spear, That he hung on its margin, far and near, Where a rock could rear its head.

3. He went to the windows of those who slept, And over each pane, like a fairy, crept; Wherever he breathed, wherever he stepped, By the light of the morn were seen Most beautiful things; there were flowers and trees; There were bevies of birds, and swarms of bees; There were cities with temples and towers, and these All pictured in silver sheen.

4. But he did one thing that was hardly fair; He peeped in the cupboard, and, finding there That all had forgotten for him to prepare, "Now just to set them a-thinking, I'll bite this basket of fruit," said he, "This costly pitcher I'll burst in three; And the glass of water they've left for me Shall 'tchick!' to tell them I'm drinking."

DEFINITIONS.—l. Blus'ter-ing, being noisy and loud. Bus'tle, stir. 2. Crest, the top. Quiv'er-ing, trembling, shaking. Mar'gin, edge, border. 3. Bev'ies, flocks. Pic'tured, painted. Sheen, brightness, splendor of appearance.

EXERCISES.—What did the frost say? What did he do to the mountain? The trees? The lake? What is a "coat of mail"? What did he do to the window? The pitcher?



XXI. WASTE NOT, WANT NOT. (64)

1. Mr. Jones. Boys, if you have nothing to do, will you unpack these parcels for me?

2. The two parcels were exactly alike, both of them well tied up with good whipcord. Ben took his parcel to the table, and began to examine the knot, and then to untie it.

3. John took the other parcel, and tried first at one corner, and then at the other, to pull off the string. But the cord had been too well secured, and he only drew the knots tighter.

4. John. I wish these people would not tie up their parcels so tightly, as if they were never to be undone. Why, Ben, how did you get yours undone? What is in your parcel? I wonder what is in mine! I wish I could get the string off. I will cut it.

5. Ben. Oh, no, do not cut it, John! Look, what a nice cord this is, and yours is the same. It is a pity to cut it.

6. John. Pooh! what signifies a bit of pack thread?

7. Ben. It is whipcord.

8. John. Well, whipcord then! what signifies a bit of whipcord? You can get a piece of whipcord twice as long as that for three cents; and who cares for three cents? Not I, for one. So, here it goes.

9. So he took out his knife, and cut it in several places.

10. Mr. Jones. Well, my boys, have you undone the parcels for me?

11. John. Yes, sir; here is the parcel.

12. Ben. And here is my parcel, father, and here is also the string.

13. Mr. Jones. You may keep the string, Ben.

14. Ben. Thank you, sir. What excellent whipcord it is!

15. Mr. Jones. And you, John, may keep your string, too, if it will be of any use to you.

16. John. It will be of no use to me, thank you, sir.

17. Mr. Jones. No, I am afraid not, if this is it.

18. A few weeks after this, Mr. Jones gave each of his sons a new top.

19. John. How is this, Ben? These tops have no strings. What shall we do for strings?

20. Ben. I have a string that will do very well for mine. And he pulled it out of his pocket.

21. John. Why, if that is not the whipcord! I wish I had saved mine.

22. A few days afterward, there was a shooting match, with bows and arrows, among the lads. The prize was a fine bow and arrows, to be given to the best marksman. "Come, come," said Master Sharp, "I am within one inch of the mark. I should like to see who will go nearer."

23. John drew his bow, and shot. The arrow struck within a quarter of an inch of Master Sharp's. "Shoot away," said Sharp; "but you must understand the rules. We settled them before you came. You are to have three shots with your own arrows. Nobody is to borrow or lend. So shoot away."

24. John seized his second arrow; "If I have any luck," said he;—but just as he pronounced the word "luck," the string broke, and the arrow fell from his hands.

25. Master Sharp. There! It is all over with you.

26. Ben. Here is my bow for him, and welcome.

27. Master Sharp. No, no, sir; that is not fair. Did you not hear the rules? There is to be no lending.

28. It was now Ben's turn to make his trial. His first arrow missed the mark; the second was exactly as near as John's first. Before venturing the last arrow, Ben very prudently examined the string of his bow; and, as he pulled it to try its strength, it snapped.

29. Master Sharp clapped his hands and danced for joy. But his dancing suddenly ceased, when careful Ben drew out of his pocket an excellent piece of cord, and began to tie it to the bow.

30. "The everlasting whipcord, I declare!" cried John. "Yes," said Ben, "I put it in my pocket today, because I thought I might want it."

31. Ben's last arrow won the prize; and when the bow and arrows were handed to him, John said, "How valuable that whipcord has been to you, Ben. I'll take care how I waste anything hereafter."

DEFINITIONS,—2. Ex-am'ine, to look at carefully. 6. Sig'ni—fies, to be important. 22. Marks'man, one who shoots well. 28. Pru'dent-ly, with proper caution. 29. Ceased, stopped. 30. Ev—er-last'ing, lasting always.

EXERCISES.—What is this lesson designed to teach? Which of the boys preserved his whipcord? What good did it do him? What did the other boy do with his? What was the consequence? What did he learn from it?

XXII. JEANNETTE AND JO. (67)

By Mary Mapes Dodge, who was born in New York City in 1838. She is the editor of the "St. Nicholas" magazine, and has written many stories for children.

1. Two girls I know—Jeannette and Jo, And one is always moping; The other lassie, come what may, Is ever bravely hoping.

2. Beauty of face and girlish grace Are theirs, for joy or sorrow; Jeannette takes brightly every day, And Jo dreads each to-morrow.

3. One early morn they watched the dawn— I saw them stand together; Their whole day's sport, 't was very plain, Depended on the weather.

4. "'T will storm!" cried Jo. Jeannette spoke low; "Yes, but 't will soon be over." And, as she spoke, the sudden shower Came, beating down the clover.

5. "I told you so!" cried angry Jo: "It always is a-raining!" Then hid her face in dire despair, Lamenting and complaining.

6. But sweet Jeannette, quite hopeful yet,— I tell it to her honor,— Looked up and waited till the sun Came streaming in upon her.

7. The broken clouds sailed off in crowds, Across a sea of glory. Jeannette and Jo ran, laughing, in— Which ends my simple story.

8. Joy is divine. Come storm, come shine, The hopeful are the gladdest; And doubt and dread, children, believe Of all things are the saddest.

9. In morning's light, let youth be bright; Take in the sunshine tender; Then, at the close, shall life's decline Be full of sunset splendor.

10. And ye who fret, try, like Jeannette, To shun all weak complaining; And not, like Jo, cry out too soon— "It always is a-raining!"



XXIII. THE LION. (69)

1. The lion is often called the "king of beasts," His height varies from three to four feet, and he is from six to nine feet long. His coat is of it yellowish brown or tawny color, and about his neck is a great shaggy mane which gives his head a majestic appearance.

2. The strength of the lion is so great that he can easily crush the skulls of such animals as the horse or ox with one blow of his paw. No one who has not seen the teeth of a full grown lion taken out of their sockets can have any idea of their real size; one of them forms a good handful, and might easily be mistaken for a small elephant's tooth.

3. The home of the lion is in the forests of Asia and Africa, where he is a terror to man and beast. He generally lies concealed during the day, but as darkness comes on he prowls about where other animals are accustomed to go for food or drink, and springs upon them unawares, with a roar that sounds like the rumble of thunder.

4. The lion sometimes lives to a great age. One by the name of Pompey died at London, in the year 1760, at the age of seventy years. If taken when young the lion can be tamed, and will even show marks of kindness to his keeper.

5. In a menagerie at Brussels, there was a cell where a large lion, called Danco, used to be kept. The cell happened to be in need of repair, and the keeper, whose name was William, desired a carpenter to come and mend it. The carpenter came, but was so afraid of the lion, that he would not go near the cell alone.

6. So William entered the cell, and led the lion to the upper part of it, while the other part was refitting. He played with the lion for some time; but, at last, being wearied, both he and the lion fell asleep. The carpenter went on with his work, and when he had finished he called out for William to come and see it.

7. He called again and again, but no William answered. The poor carpenter began to be frightened, lest the lion had made his dinner of the keeper, or else crushed him with his great paws. He crept round to the upper part of the cell, and there, looking through the railing, he saw the lion and William sleeping side by side as contentedly as two little brothers.

8. He was so astonished that he uttered a loud cry. The lion, awakened by the noise, stared at the carpenter with an eye of fury, and then placing his paw on the breast of his keeper, as if to say, "Touch him if you dare," the heroic beast lay down to sleep again. The carpenter was dreadfully alarmed, and, not knowing how he could rouse William, he ran out and related what he had seen.

9. Some people came, and, opening the door of the cell, Contrived to awaken the keeper, who, rubbing his eyes, quietly looked around him, and expressed himself very well satisfied with his nap. He took the lion's paw, shook it kindly, and then retired uninjured from the cell.

DEFINITIONS.—l. Ma-jes'tic, royal, noble. 3. Prowls, wanders in search of prey. Un-a-wares', unexpectedly. Rum'ble, a low heavy sound. 5. Men-ag'er-ie, a collection of wild animals. 6. Re-fit'ting, repairing. 8. He-ro'-ic, bold.

EXERCISES.—Describe the lion's appearance. What is said of his strength? His teeth? Describe the lion's home and habits. To what age do lions live? Can they be tamed? Relate the story about the lion Danco.



XXIV. STRAWBERRIES. (71)

By John Townsend Trowbridge, who was born at Ogden, N. Y., in 1827. He is a well-known author, and has written much for children both in poetry and prose.

1. Little Pearl Honeydew, six years old, From her bright ear parted the curls of gold; And laid her head on the strawberry bed, To hear what the red-cheeked berries said.

2. Their cheeks were blushing, their breath was sweet, She could almost hear their little hearts beat; And the tiniest, lisping, whispering sound That ever you heard, came up from the ground.

3. "Little friends," she said, "I wish I knew How it is you thrive on sun and dew!" And this is the story the berries told To little Pearl Honeydew, six years old.

4. "You wish you knew? And so do we. But we can't tell you, unless it be That the same Kind Power that cares for you Takes care of poor little berries, too.

5. "Tucked up snugly, and nestled below Our coverlid of wind-woven snow, We peep and listen, all winter long, For the first spring day and the bluebird's song.

6. "When the swallows fly home to the old brown shed, And the robins build on the bough overhead, Then out from the mold, from the darkness and cold, Blossom and runner and leaf unfold.

7. "Good children, then, if they come near, And hearken a good long while, may hear A wonderful tramping of little feet,— So fast we grow in the summer heat.

8. "Our clocks are the flowers; and they count the hours Till we can mellow in suns and showers, With warmth of the west wind and heat of the south, A ripe red berry for a ripe red month.

9. "Apple blooms whiten, and peach blooms fall, And roses are gay by the garden wall, Ere the daisy's dial gives the sign That we may invite little Pearl to dine.

10. "The days are longest, the month is June, The year is nearing its golden noon, The weather is fine, and our feast is spread With a green cloth and berries red.

11. "Just take us betwixt your finger and thumb, And quick, oh, quick! for, see! there come Tom on all fours, and Martin the man, And Margaret, picking as fast as they can.

12. "Oh, dear! if you only knew how it shocks Nice berries like us to be sold by the box, And eaten by strangers, and paid for with pelf, You would surely take pity, and eat us yourself!"

13. And this is the story the small lips told To dear Pearl Honeydew, six years old, When she laid her head on the strawberry bed To hear what the red-cheeked berries said.

DEFINITIONS.—3. Thrive, to grow well, to flourish. 5. Nes'tled, gathered closely together. 6. Mold, fine, soft earth. Run'ner, a slender branch running along the ground. 8. Mel'low, to ripen. 9. Di'al, the face of a timepiece. 10. Feast, a festive or joyous meal, a banquet. 12. Pelf, money.

EXERCISES.—What did little Pearl ask of the strawberries? What did they reply? Can you tell what name is given to this kind of story?



XVV. HARRY'S RICHES. (74)

1. One day, our little Harry spent the morning with his young playmate, Johnny Crane, who lived in a fine house, and on Sundays rode to church in the grandest carriage to be seen in all the country round.

2. When Harry returned home, he said, "Mother, Johnny has money in both pockets!"

3. "Has he, dear?"

4. "Yes, ma'am; and he says he could get ever so much more if he wanted it."

5. "Well, now, that's very pleasant for him," I returned, cheerfully, as a reply was plainly expected. "Very pleasant; don't you think so?"

6. "Yes, ma'am; only—"

7. "Only what, Harry?"

8. "Why, he has a big popgun, and a watch, and a hobbyhorse, and lots of things." And Harry looked up at my face with a disconsolate stare.

9. "Well, my boy, what of that?"

10. "Nothing, mother," and the telltale tears sprang to his eyes, "only I guess we are very poor, aren't we?"

11. "No, indeed, Harry, we are very far from being poor. We are not so rich as Mr. Crane's family, if that is what you mean."

12. "O mother!" insisted the little fellow, "I do think we are very poor; anyhow, I am!"

13. "O Harry!" I exclaimed, reproachfully.

14. "Yes, ma'am I am," he sobbed; "I have scarcely any thing—I mean anything that's worth money—except things to eat and wear, and I'd have to have them anyway."

15. "Have to have them?" I echoed, at the same time laying my sewing upon the table, so that I might reason with him on that point; "do you not know, my son—"

16. Just then Uncle Ben looked up from the paper he had been reading: "Harry," said he, "I want to find out something about eyes; so, if you will let me have yours, I will give you a dollar apiece for them."

17. "For my eyes!" exclaimed Harry, very much astonished.

18. "Yes," resumed Uncle Ben, quietly, "for your eyes. I will give you chloroform, so it will not hurt you in the least, and you shall have a beautiful glass pair for nothing, to wear in their place. Come, a dollar apiece, cash down! What do you say? I will take them out as quick as a wink."

19. "Give you my eyes, uncle!" cried Harry, looking wild at the very thought, "I think not." And the startled little fellow shook his head defiantly.

20. "Well, five, ten, twenty dollars, then." Harry shook his head at every offer.

21. "No, sir! I wouldn't let you have them for a thousand dollars! What could I do without my eyes? I couldn't see mother, nor the baby, nor the flowers, nor the horses, nor anything," added Harry, growing warmer and warmer.

22. "I will give you two thousand," urged Uncle Ben, taking a roll of bank notes out of his pocket. Harry, standing at a respectful distance, shouted that he never would do any such thing.

23. "Very well," continued the uncle, with a serious air, at the same time writing something in his notebook, "I can't afford to give you more than two thousand dollars, so I shall have to do without your eyes; but," he added, "I will tell you what I will do, I will give you twenty dollars if you will let me put a few drops from this bottle in your ears. It will not hurt, but it will make you deaf. I want to try some experiments with deafness, you see. Come quickly, now! Here are the twenty dollars all ready for you."

24. "Make me deaf!" shouted Harry, without even looking at the gold pieces temptingly displayed upon the table. "I guess you will not do that, either. Why, I couldn't hear a single word if I were deaf, could I?"

25. "Probably not," replied Uncle Ben. So, of course, Harry refused again. He would never give up his hearing, he said, "no, not for three thousand dollars."

26. Uncle Ben made another note in his book, and then came out with large bids for "a right arm," then "left arm," "hands," "feet," "nose," finally ending with an offer of ten thousand dollars for "mother," and five thousand for "the baby."

27. To all of these offers Harry shook his head, his eyes flashing, and exclamations of surprise and indignation bursting from his lips. At last, Uncle Ben said he must give up his experiments, for Harry's prices were entirely too high.

28. "Ha! ha!" laughed the boy, exultingly, and he folded his dimpled arms and looked as if to say, "I'd like to see the man who could pay them!"

29. "Why, Harry, look here!" exclaimed Uncle Ben, peeping into his notebook, "here is a big addition sum, I tell you!" He added the numbers, and they amounted to thirty-two thousand dollars.

30. "There, Harry," said Uncle Ben, "don't you think you are foolish not to accept some of my offers?" "No, sir, I don't," answered Harry, resolutely. "Then," said Uncle Ben, "you talk of being poor, and by your own showing you have treasures for which you will not take thirty-two thousand dollars. What do you say to that?"

31. Harry didn't know exactly what to say. So he blushed for a second, and just then tears came rolling down his cheeks, and he threw his chubby arms around my neck. "Mother," he whispered, "isn't God good to make everybody so rich?"

DEFINITIONS.—8. Dis-con'so-late, filled with grief. 13. Re-proach'ful-ly, with censure or reproof. 18. Chlo're-form, an oily liquid, the vapor of which causes insensibility. 19. Startled, shocked. De-fi'ant-ly, daringly. 23. Af-ford', to be able to pay for. Ex-per'i-ments, acts performed to discover some truth. 27. Ex-cla-ma'tions, expressions of surprise, anger, etc. 28. Ex-ult'ing-ly, in a triumphant manner. 30. Treas'ures, things which are very much valued.



XXVI. IN TIME'S SWING. (77)

By Lucy Larcom.

1. Father Time, your footsteps go Lightly as the falling snow. In your swing I'm sitting, see! Push me softly; one, two; three, Twelve times only. Like a sheet, Spread the snow beneath my feet. Singing merrily, let me swing Out of winter into spring.

2. Swing me out, and swing me in! Trees are bare, but birds begin Twittering to the peeping leaves, On the bough beneath the eaves. Wait,—one lilac bud I saw. Icy hillsides feel the thaw. April chased off March to-day; Now I catch a glimpse of May.

3. Oh, the smell of sprouting grass! In a blur the violets pass. Whispering from the wildwood come Mayflower's breath and insect's hum. Roses carpeting the ground; Thrushes, orioles, warbling sound:— Swing me low, and swing me high, To the warm clouds of July.

4. Slower now, for at my side White pond lilies open wide. Underneath the pine's tall spire Cardinal blossoms burn like fire. They are gone; the golden-rod Flashes from the dark green sod. Crickets in the grass I hear; Asters light the fading year.

5. Slower still! October weaves Rainbows of the forest leaves. Gentians fringed, like eyes of blue, Glimmer out of sleety dew. Meadow green I sadly miss: Winds through withered sedges hiss. Oh, 't is snowing, swing me fast, While December shivers past!

6. Frosty-bearded Father Time, Stop your footfall on the rime! Hard you push, your hand is rough; You have swung me long enough. "Nay, no stopping," say you? Well, Some of your best stories tell, While you swing me—gently, do!— From the Old Year to the New.

DEFINITIONS.—2. Twit'ter-ing, making a succession of small, chirping noises. Glimpse, a short, hurried view. 3. Blur, a dim, confused appearance. 6. Rime, whitefrost, hoarfrost.



XXVII. HARRY AND HIS DOG. (79)

1. "Beg, Frisk, beg," said little Harry, as he sat on an inverted basket, at his grandmother's door, eating, with great satisfaction, a porringer of bread and milk. His little sister Annie, who had already dispatched her breakfast, sat on the ground opposite to him, now twisting her flowers into garlands, and now throwing them away.

2. "Beg, Frisk, beg!" repeated Harry, holding a bit of bread just out of the dog's reach; and the obedient Frisk squatted himself on his hind legs, and held up his fore paws, waiting for master Harry to give him the tempting morsel.

3. The little boy and the little dog were great friends. Frisk loved him dearly, much better than he did anyone else; perhaps, because he recollected that Harry was his earliest and firmest friend during a time of great trouble.

4. Poor Frisk had come as a stray dog to Milton, the place where Harry lived. If he could have told his own story, it would probably have been a very pitiful one, of kicks and cuffs, of hunger and foul weather.

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