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Memoirs of Louis XIV and his Court and of the Regency
by Duke of Saint-Simon
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MEMOIRS OF LOUIS XIV AND HIS COURT AND OF THE REGENCY

BY THE DUKE OF SAINT-SIMON



CONTENTS OF THE 15 VOLUMES

VOLUME 1.

CHAPTER I

Birth and Family.—Early Life.—Desire to join the Army.—Enter the Musketeers.—The Campaign Commences.—Camp of Gevries.—Siege of Namur. —Dreadful Weather.—Gentlemen Carrying Corn.—Sufferings during the Siege.—The Monks of Marlaigne.—Rival Couriers.—Naval Battle.— Playing with Fire-arms.—A Prediction Verified.

CHAPTER II

The King's Natural Children.—Proposed Marriage of the Duc de Chartres.— Influence of Dubois.—The Duke and the King.—An Apartment.—Announcement of the Marriage.—Anger of Madame.—Household of the Duchess.—Villars and Rochefort.—Friend of King's Mistresses.—The Marriage Ceremony.— Toilette of the Duchess.—Son of Montbron.—Marriage of M. du Maine.— Duchess of Hanover.—Duc de Choiseul.—La Grande Mademoiselle.

CHAPTER III

Death of My Father.—Anecdotes of Louis XIII.—The Cardinal de Richelieu.—The Duc de Bellegarde.—Madame de Hautefort.—My Father's Enemy.—His Services and Reward.—A Duel against Law.—An Answer to a Libel.—M. de la Rochefoucauld.—My Father's Gratitude to Louis XIII.

CHAPTER IV

Position of the Prince of Orange.—Strange Conduct of the King.—Surprise and Indignation.—Battle of Neerwinden.—My Return to Paris.—Death of La Vauguyon.—Symptoms of Madness.—Vauguyon at the Bastille.—Projects of Marriage.—M. de Beauvilliers.—A Negotiation for a Wife.—My Failure.— Visit to La Trappe.

CHAPTER V

M. de Luxemhourg's Claim of Precedence.—Origin of the Claim.—Duc de Piney.—Character of Harlay.—Progress of the Trial.—Luxembourg and Richelieu.—Double-dealing of Harlay.—The Duc de Gesvres.—Return to the Seat of War.—Divers Operations.—Origin of These Memoirs.

CHAPTER VI

Quarrels of the Princesses.—Mademoiselle Choin.—A Disgraceful Affair.— M. de Noyon.—Comic Scene at the Academie.—Anger and Forgiveness of M. de Noyon.—M. de Noailles in Disgrace.—How He Gets into Favour Again. —M. de Vendome in Command.—Character of M. de Luxembourg.— The Trial for Precedence Again.—An Insolent Lawyer.—Extraordinary Decree.

CHAPTER VII

Harlay and the Dutch.—Death of the Princess of Orange.—Count Koenigsmarck.—A New Proposal of Marriage.—My Marriage.—That of M. de Lauzun.—Its Result.—La Fontaine and Mignard.—Illness of the Marechal de Lorges.—Operations on the Rhine.—Village of Seckenheim.—An Episode of War.—Cowardice of M. du Maine.—Despair of the King, Who Takes a Knave in the Act.—Bon Mot of M. d'Elboeuf.

CHAPTER VIII

The Abbe de Fenelon.—The Jansenists and St. Sulpice.—Alliance with Madame Guyon.—Preceptor of the Royal Children.—Acquaintance with Madame de Maintenon.—Appointment to Cambrai.—Disclosure of Madame Guyon's Doctrines.—Her Disgrace.—Bossuet and Fenelon.—Two Rival Books.— Disgrace of Fenelon.



VOLUME 2.

CHAPTER IX

Death of Archbishop Harlay.—Scene at Conflans.—"The Good Langres."— A Scene at Marly.—Princesses Smoke Pipes!—Fortunes of Cavoye.— Mademoiselle de Coetlogon.—Madame de Guise.—Madame de Miramion.—Madame de Sevigne.—Father Seraphin.—An Angry Bishop.—Death of La Bruyere.— Burglary by a Duke.—Proposed Marriage of the Duc de Bourgogne.—The Duchesse de Lude.—A Dangerous Lady.—Madame d'O.—Arrival of the Duchesse de Bourgogne.

CHAPTER X

My Return to Fontainebleau.—A Calumny at Court.—Portrait of M. de La Trappe.—A False Painter.—Fast Living at the "Desert."—Comte d'Auvergne.—Perfidy of Harlay.—M. de Monaco.—Madame Panache.—The Italian Actor and the "False Prude".

CHAPTER XI

A Scientific Retreat.—The Peace of Ryswick.—Prince of Conti King of Poland.—His Voyage and Reception.—King of England Acknowledged.—Duc de Conde in Burgundy.—Strange Death of Santeuil.—Duties of the Prince of Darmstadt in Spain.—Madame de Maintenon's Brother.—Extravagant Dresses. Marriage of the Duc de Bourgogne.—The Bedding of the Princesse.—Grand Balls.—A Scandalous Bird.

CHAPTER XII

An Odd Marriage.—Black Daughter of the King.—Travels of Peter the Great.—Magnificent English Ambassador.—The Prince of Parma.— A Dissolute Abbe.—Orondat.—Dispute about Mourning.—M. de Cambrai's Book Condemned by M. de La Trappe.—Anecdote of the Head of Madame de Montbazon.—Condemnation of Fenelon by the Pope.—His Submission.

CHAPTER XIII

Charnace.—An Odd Ejectment.—A Squabble at Cards.—Birth of My Son.— The Camp at Compiegne.—Splendour of Marechal Boufflers.—Pique of the Ambassadors.—Tesse's Grey Hat.—A Sham Siege.—A Singular Scene.— The King and Madame de Maintenon.—An Astonished Officer.— Breaking-up of the Camp.

CHAPTER XIV

Gervaise Monk of La Trappe.——His Disgusting Profligacy.—The Author of the Lord's Prayer.—A Struggle for Precedence.—Madame de Saint-Simon.— The End of the Quarrel.—Death of the Chevalier de Coislin.—A Ludicrous Incident.—Death of Racine.—The King and the Poet.—King Pays Debts of Courtiers.—Impudence of M. de Vendome.—A Mysterious Murder.— Extraordinary Theft.

CHAPTER XV

The Farrier of Salon.—Apparition of a Queen.—The Farrier Comes to Versailles.—Revelations to the Queen.—Supposed Explanation.— New Distinctions to the Bastards.—New Statue of the King.— Disappointment of Harlay.—Honesty of Chamillart.—The Comtesse de Fiesque.—Daughter of Jacquier.—Impudence of Saumery.—Amusing Scene.— Attempted Murder.

CHAPTER XVI

Reform at Court.—Cardinal Delfini.—Pride of M. de Monaco.—Early Life of Madame de Maintenon.—Madame de Navailles.—Balls at Marly.—An Odd Mask.—Great Dancing—Fortunes of Langlee.—His Coarseness.—The Abbe de Soubise.—Intrigues for His Promotion.—Disgrace and Obstinacy of Cardinal de Bouillon.

CHAPTER XVII

A Marriage Bargain.—Mademoiselle de Mailly.—James II.—Begging Champagne.—A Duel.—Death of Le Notre.—His Character.—History of Vassor.—Comtesse de Verrue and Her Romance with M. de Savoie.—A Race of Dwarfs.—An Indecorous Incident.—Death of M. de La Trappe.



VOLUME 3.

CHAPTER XVIII

Settlement of the Spanish Succession.—King William III.—New Party in Spain.—Their Attack on the Queen.—Perplexity of the King.—His Will.— Scene at the Palace.—News Sent to France.—Council at Madame de Maintenon's.—The King's Decision.—A Public Declaration.—Treatment of the New King.—His Departure for Spain.—Reflections.—Philip V. Arrives in Spain.—The Queen Dowager Banished.

CHAPTER XIX

Marriage of Phillip V.—The Queen's Journey.—Rival Dishes.— A Delicate Quarrel.—The King's journey to Italy.—The Intrigues against Catinat.—Vaudemont s Success.—Appointment of Villeroy.—The First Campaign.—A Snuffbox.—Prince Eugene's Plan.—Attack and Defence of Cremona.—Villeroy Made Prisoner.—Appointment of M. de Vendome.

CHAPTER XX

Discontent and Death of Barbezieux.—His Character.—Elevation of Chamillart.—Strange Reasons of His Success.—Death of Rose.—Anecdotes. —An Invasion of Foxes.—M. le Prince.—A Horse upon Roses.—Marriage of His Daughter: His Manners and Appearance

CHAPTER XXI

Monseigneur's Indigestion.—The King Disturbed.—The Ladies of the Halle.—Quarrel of the King and His Brother.—Mutual Reproaches.— Monsieur's Confessors.—A New Scene of Wrangling.—Monsieur at Table.— He Is Seized with Apoplexy.—The News Carried to Marly.—How Received by the King.—Death of Monsieur.—Various Forms of Grief.—The Duc de Chartres.

CHAPTER XXII

The Dead Soon Forgotten.—Feelings of Madame de Maintenon.—And of the Duc de Chartres.—Of the Courtiers.—Madame's Mode of Life.—Character of Monsieur.—Anecdote of M. le Prince.—Strange Interview of Madame de Maintenon with Madame.—Mourning at Court.—Death of Henriette d'Angleterre.—A Poisoning Scene.—The King and the Accomplice.

CHAPTER XXIII

Scandalous Adventure of the Abbesse de la Joye.—Anecdote of Madame de Saint-Herem.—Death of James II. and Recognition of His Son.—Alliance against France.—Scene at St. Maur.—Balls and Plays.—The "Electra" of Longepierre—Romantic Adventures of the Abbe de Vatterville.

CHAPTER XXIV

Changes in the Army.—I Leave the Service.—Annoyance of the King.—The Medallic History of the Reign.—Louis XIII.—Death of William III.— Accession of Queen Anne.—The Alliance Continued.—Anecdotes of Catinat. —Madame de Maintenon and the King.



VOLUME 4.

CHAPTER XXV

Anecdote of Canaples.—Death of the Duc de Coislin.—Anecdotes of His Unbearable Politeness.—Eccentric Character.—President de Novion.— Death of M. de Lorges.—Death of the Duchesse de Gesvres.

CHAPTER XXVI

The Prince d'Harcourt.—His Character and That of His Wife.—Odd Court Lady.—She Cheats at Play.—Scene at Fontainebleau.—Crackers at Marly.— Snowballing a Princess.—Strange Manners of Madame d'Harcourt.— Rebellion among Her Servants.—A Vigorous Chambermaid.

CHAPTER XXVII

Madame des Ursins.—Her Marriage and Character.—The Queen of Spain.— Ambition of Madame de Maintenon.—Coronation of Philip V.—A Cardinal Made Colonel.—Favourites of Madame des Ursins.—Her Complete Triumph.— A Mistake.—A Despatch Violated.—Madame des Ursins in Disgrace.

CHAPTER XXVIII

Appointment of the Duke of Berwick.—Deception Practised by Orry.—Anger of Louis XIV.—Dismissal of Madame des Ursins.—Her Intrigues to Return. —Annoyance of the King and Queen of Spain.—Intrigues at Versailles.— Triumphant Return of Madame des Ursins to Court.—Baseness of the Courtiers.—Her Return to Spain Resolved On.

CHAPTER XXIX

An Honest Courtier.—Robbery of Courtin and Fieubet.—An Important Affair.—My Interview with the King.—His Jealousy of His Authority.— Madame La Queue, the King's Daughter.—Battle of Blenheim or Hochstedt.— Our Defeat.—Effect of the News on the King.—Public Grief and Public Rejoicing.—Death of My Friend Montfort.

CHAPTER XXX

Naval Battle of Malaga.—Danger of Gibraltar.—Duke of Mantua in Search of a Wife.—Duchesse de Lesdiguieres.—Strange Intrigues.—Mademoiselle d'Elboeuf Carries off the Prize.—A Curious Marriage.—Its Result.— History of a Conversion to Catholicism.—Attempted Assassination. — Singular Seclusion

CHAPTER XXXI

Fascination of the Duchesse de Bourgogne.—Fortunes of Nangis.—He Is Loved by the Duchesse and Her Dame d'Atours.—Discretion of the Court.— Maulevrier.—His Courtship of the Duchess.—Singular Trick.—Its Strange Success.—Mad Conduct of Maulevrier—He Is Sent to Spain.—His Adventures There.—His Return and Tragical Catastrophe.

CHAPTER XXXII

Death of M. de Duras.—Selfishness of the King.—Anecdote of Puysieux.— Character of Pontchartrain.—Why He Ruined the French Fleet.—Madame des Ursins at Last Resolves to Return to Spain.—Favours Heaped upon Her.— M. de Lauzun at the Army.—His bon mot.—Conduct of M. de Vendome.— Disgrace and Character of the Grand Prieur.



VOLUME 5.

CHAPTER XXXIII

A Hunting Adventure.—Story and Catastrophe of Fargues.—Death and Character of Ninon de l'Enclos.—Odd Adventure of Courtenvaux.—Spies at Court.—New Enlistment.—Wretched State of the Country.—Balls at Marly.

CHAPTER XXXIV

Arrival of Vendome at Court.—Character of That Disgusting Personage.— Rise of Cardinal Alberoni.—Vendome's Reception at Marly.—His Unheard-of Triumph.—His High Flight.—Returns to Italy.—Battle of Calcinato.— Condition of the Army.—Pique of the Marechal de Villeroy.—Battle of Ramillies.—Its Consequences.

CHAPTER XXXV

Abandonment of the Siege of Barcelona.—Affairs of Italy.— La Feuillade.—Disastrous Rivalries.—Conduct of M. d'Orleans.—The Siege of Turin.—Battle.—Victory of Prince Eugene.—Insubordination in the Army.—Retreat.—M. d'Orleans Returns to Court.—Disgrace of La Feuillade

CHAPTER XXXVI

Measures of Economy.—Financial Embarrassments.—The King and Chamillart.—Tax on Baptisms and Marriages.—Vauban's Patriotism.— Its Punishment.—My Action with M. de Brissac.—I Appeal to the King.— The Result.—I Gain My Action.

CHAPTER XXXVII

My Appointment as Ambassador to Rome.—How It Fell Through.—Anecdotes of the Bishop of Orleans.—A Droll Song.—A Saint in Spite of Himself.— Fashionable Crimes.—A Forged Genealogy.—Abduction of Beringhen.— The 'Parvulos' of Meudon and Mademoiselle Choin.

CHAPTER XXXVIII

Death and Last Days of Madame de Montespan.—Selfishness of the King.— Death and Character of Madame de Nemours.—Neufchatel and Prussia.— Campaign of Villars.—Naval Successes.—Inundations of the Loire.—Siege of Toulon.—A Quarrel about News.—Quixotic Despatches of Tesse.



VOLUME 6.

CHAPTER XXXIX

Precedence at the Communion Table.—The King Offended with Madame de Torcy.—The King's Religion.—Atheists and Jansenists.—Project against Scotland.—Preparations.—Failure.—The Chevalier de St. George.—His Return to Court.

CHAPTER XL

Death and Character of Brissac.—Brissac and the Court Ladies.—The Duchesse de Bourgogne.—Scene at the Carp Basin.—King's Selfishness.— The King Cuts Samuel Bernard's Purse.—A Vain Capitalist.—Story of Leon and Florence the Actress.—His Loves with Mademoiselle de Roquelaure.— Run—away Marriage.—Anger of Madame de Roquelaure.—A Furious Mother.— Opinions of the Court.—A Mistake.—Interference of the King.— Fate of the Couple .

CHAPTER XLI

The Duc d'Orleans in Spain.—Offends Madame des Ursins and Madame de Maintenon.—Laziness of M. de Vendome in Flanders.—Battle of Oudenarde. —Defeat and Disasters.—Difference of M. de Vendome and the Duc de Bourgogne.

CHAPTER XLII

Conflicting Reports.—Attacks on the Duc de Bourgogne.—The Duchesse de Bourgogne Acts against Vendome.—Weakness of the Duke.—Cunning of Vendome.—The Siege of Lille.—Anxiety for a Battle.—Its Delay.—Conduct of the King and Monseigneur.—A Picture of Royal Family Feeling.—Conduct of the Marechal de Boufflers.

CHAPTER XLIII

Equivocal Position of the Duc de Bourgogne.—His Weak Conduct.— Concealment of a Battle from the King.—Return of the Duc de Bourgogne to Court.—Incidents of His Reception.—Monseigneur.—Reception of the Duc de Berry.—Behaviour of the Duc de Bourgogne.—Anecdotes of Gamaches.— Return of Vendome to Court.—His Star Begins to Wane.—Contrast of Boufflers and Vendome.—Chamillart's Project for Retaking Lille.—How It Was Defeated by Madame de Maintenon.

CHAPTER XLIV

Tremendous Cold in France.—Winters of 1708-1709—Financiers and the Famine.—Interference of the Parliaments of Paris and Dijon.—Dreadful Oppression.—Misery of the People.—New Taxes.—Forced Labour.—General Ruin.—Increased Misfortunes.—Threatened Regicide.—Procession of Saint Genevieve.—Offerings of Plate to the King.—Discontent of the People.— A Bread Riot, How Appeased.

CHAPTER XLV

M. de Vendome out of Favour.—Death and Character of the Prince de Conti.—Fall of Vendome.—Pursegur's Interview with the King.—Madame de Bourgogne against Vendome.—Her Decided Conduct.—Vendome Excluded from Marly.—He Clings to Meudon.—From Which He is also Expelled.—His Final Disgrace and Abandonment.—Triumph of Madame de Maintenon.

CHAPTER XLVI

Death of Pere La Chaise.—His Infirmities in Old Age.—Partiality of the King.—Character of Pere La Chaise.—The Jesuits.—Choice of a New Confessor.—Fagon's Opinion.—Destruction of Port Royal.—Jansenists and Molinists.—Pascal.—Violent Oppression of the Inhabitants of Port Royal.



VOLUME 7.

CHAPTER XLVII

Death of D'Avaux.—A Quarrel about a Window.—Louvois and the King.— Anecdote of Boisseuil.—Madame de Maintenon and M. de Beauvilliers.— Harcourt Proposed for the Council.—His Disappointment.—Death of M. le Prince.—His Character.—Treatment of His Wife.—His Love Adventures.— His Madness.—A Confessor Brought.—Nobody Regrets Him.

CHAPTER XLVIII

Progress of the War.—Simplicity of Chamillart.—The Imperialists and the Pope.—Spanish Affairs.—Duc d'Orleans and Madame des Ursins.—Arrest of Flotte in Spain.—Discovery of the Intrigues of the Duc d'Orleans.—Cabal against Him.—His Disgrace and Its Consequences.

CHAPTER XLIX

Danger of Chamillart.—Witticism of D'Harcourt.—Faults of Chamillart.— Court Intrigues against Him.—Behaviour of the Courtiers.—Influence of Madame de Maintenon.—Dignified Fall of Chamillart.—He is Succeeded by Voysin.—First Experience of the New Minister.—The Campaign in Flanders.—Battle of Malplaquet.

CHAPTER L.

Disgrace of the Duc d'Orleans.—I Endeavor to Separate Him from Madame d'Argenton.—Extraordinary Reports.—My Various Colloquies with Him.—The Separation.—Conduct of Madame d'Argenton.—Death and Character of M. le Duc.—The After-suppers of the King.

CHAPTER LI

Proposed Marriage of Mademoiselle.—My Intrigues to Bring It About.—The Duchesse de Bourgogne and Other Allies.—The Attack Begun.—Progress of the Intrigue.—Economy at Marly.—The Marriage Agreed Upon.—Scene at Saint-Cloud.—Horrible Reports.—The Marriage.—Madame de Saint-Simon.— Strange Character of the Duchesse de Berry

CHAPTER LII

Birth of Louis XV.—The Marechale de la Meilleraye.—Saint-Ruth's Cudgel.—The Cardinal de Bouillon's Desertion from France.—Anecdotes of His Audacity.

CHAPTER LIII

Imprudence of Villars.—The Danger of Truthfulness.—Military Mistakes.— The Fortunes of Berwick.—The Son of James.—Berwick's Report on the Army.—Imprudent Saying of Villars.—"The Good Little Fellow" in a Scrape.—What Happens to Him.

CHAPTER LIV

Duchesse de Berry Drunk.—Operations in Spain.—Vendome Demanded by Spain.—His Affront by the Duchesse de Bourgogne.—His Arrival.— Staremberg and Stanhope.—The Flag of Spain Leaves Madrid.—Entry of the Archduke.—Enthusiasm of the Spaniards—The King Returns.—Strategy, of Staremberg.—Affair of Brighuega.—Battle of Villavciosa.—Its Consequences to Vendome and to Spain.



VOLUME 8.

CHAPTER LV

State of the Country.—New Taxes.—The King's Conscience Troubled.— Decision of the Sorbonne.—Debate in the Council.—Effect of the Royal Tithe.—Tax on Agioteurs.—Merriment at Court.—Death of a Son of Marechal Boufflers.—The Jesuits.

CHAPTER LVI

My Interview with Du Mont.—A Mysterious Communication. —Anger of Monseigneur against Me.—Household of the Duchesse de Berry.—Monseigneur Taken Ill of the Smallpox.—Effect of the News.—The King Goes to Meudon.—The Danger Diminishes.—Madame de Maintenon at Meudon.—The Court at Versailles.—Hopes and Fears.—The Danger Returns.—Death of Monseigneur.—Conduct of the King.

CHAPTER LVII

A Rumour Reaches Versailles.—Aspect of the Court.—Various Forms of Grief.—The Duc d'Orleans.—The News Confirmed at Versailles.—Behaviour of the Courtiers.—The Duc and Duchesse de Berry.—The Duc and Duchesse de Bourgogne.—Madame.—A Swiss Asleep.—Picture of a Court.—The Heir- Apparent's Night.—The King Returns to Marly.—Character of Monseigneur. —Effect of His Death.

CHAPTER LVIII

State of the Court at Death of Monseigneur.—Conduct of the Dauphin and the Dauphine.—The Duchesse de Berry.—My Interview with the Dauphin.— He is Reconciled with M. d'Orleans.

CHAPTER LIX

Warnings to the Dauphin and the Dauphine.—The Dauphine Sickens and Dies.—Illness of the Dauphin.—His Death.—Character and Manners of the Dauphine.—And of the Dauphin.

CHAPTER LX

Certainty of Poison.—The Supposed Criminal.—Excitement of the People against M. d'Orleans.—The Cabal.—My Danger and Escape.—The Dauphin's Casket.



VOLUME 9.

CHAPTER LXI

The King's Selfishness.—Defeat of the Czar.—Death of Catinat.—Last Days of Vendome.—His Body at the Escurial.—Anecdote of Harlay and the Jacobins.—Truce in Flanders.—Wolves.

CHAPTER LXII

Settlement of the Spanish Succession.—Renunciation of France.—Comic Failure of the Duc de Berry.—Anecdotes of M. de Chevreuse.—Father Daniel's History and Its Reward.

CHAPTER LXIII

The Bull Unigenitus.—My Interview with Father Tellier.—Curious Inadvertence of Mine.—Peace.—Duc de la Rochefoucauld.—A Suicide in Public.—Charmel.—Two Gay Sisters.

CHAPTER LXIV

The King of Spain a Widower.—Intrigues of Madame des Ursins.—Choice of the Princes of Parma.—The King of France Kept in the Dark.—Celebration of the Marriage.—Sudden Fall of the Princesse des Ursins.—Her Expulsion from Spain.

CHAPTER LXV

The King of Spain Acquiesces in the Disgrace of Madame des Ursins.—Its Origin.—Who Struck the Blow.—Her journey to Versailles.—Treatment There.—My Interview with Her.—She Retires to Genoa.—Then to Rome.— Dies.

CHAPTER LXVI

Sudden Illness of the Duc de Berry—Suspicious Symptoms.—The Duchess Prevented from Seeing Him.—His Death.—Character.—Manners of the Duchesse de Berry.

CHAPTER LXVII

Maisons Seeks My Acquaintance.—His Mysterious Manner.—Increase of the Intimacy.—Extraordinary News.—The Bastards Declared Princes of the Blood.—Rage of Maisons and Noailles.—Opinion of the Court and Country.

CHAPTER LXVIII

The King Unhappy and Ill at Ease.—Court Paid to Him.—A New Scheme to Rule Him.—He Yields.—New Annoyance.—His Will.—Anecdotes Concerning It.—Opinions of the Court.—M. du Maine

CHAPTER LXIX

A New Visit from Maisons.—His Violent Project.—My Objections.—He Persists.—His Death and That of His Wife. —Death of the Duc de Beauvilliers.—His Character.—Of the Cardinal d'Estrees.—Anecdotes.— Death of Fenelon.



VOLUME 10.

CHAPTER LXX

Character and Position of the Duc d'Orleans—His Manners, Talents, and Virtues.—His Weakness.—Anecdote Illustrative Thereof.— The "Debonnaire"—Adventure of the Grand Prieur in England.—Education of the Duc d'Orleans.—Character of Dubois.—His Pernicious Influence.— The Duke's Emptiness.—His Deceit.—His Love of Painting.—The Fairies at His Birth.—The Duke's Timidity.—An Instance of His Mistrustfulness.

CHAPTER LXXI

The Duke Tries to Raise the Devil.—Magical Experiments.—His Religious Opinions.—Impiety.—Reads Rabelais at Church.—The Duchesse d'Orleans.— Her Character.—Her Life with Her Husband.—My Discourses with the Duke on the Future.—My Plans of Government.—A Place at Choice Offered Me.— I Decline the Honour.—My Reason.—National Bankruptcy.—The Duke's Anger at My Refusal.—A Final Decision.

CHAPTER LXXII

The King's Health Declines.—Bets about His Death.—Lord Stair.—My New Friend.—The King's Last Hunt.—And Last Domestic and Public Acts.— Doctors.—Opium.—The King's Diet.—Failure of His Strength.—His Hopes of Recovery.—Increased Danger.—Codicil to His Will.—Interview with the Duc d'Orleans.—With the Cardinal de Noailles.—Address to His Attendants.—The Dauphin Brought to Him.—His Last Words.— An Extraordinary Physician.—The Courtiers and the Duc d'Orleans.— Conduct of Madame de Maintenon.—The King's Death.

CHAPTER LXXIII

Early Life of Louis XIV.—His Education.—His Enormous Vanity.—His Ignorance.—Cause of the War with Holland.—His Mistakes and Weakness in War.—The Ruin of France.—Origin of Versailles.—The King's Love of Adulation, and Jealousy of People Who Came Not to Court.—His Spies.— His Vindictiveness.—Opening of Letters.—Confidence Sometimes Placed in Him—A Lady in a Predicament.

CHAPTER LXXIV

Excessive Politeness.—Influence of the Valets.—How the King Drove Out.—Love of magnificence.—His Buildings. —Versailles.—The Supply of Water.—The King Seeks for Quiet.—Creation of Marly.—Tremendous Extravagance.

CHAPTER LXXV

Amours of the King.—La Valliere.—Montespan.—Scandalous Publicity.— Temper of Madame de Montespan.—Her Unbearable Haughtiness.—Other Mistresses.—Madame de Maintenon.—Her Fortunes.—Her Marriage with Scarron.—His Character and Society.—How She Lived After His Death.— Gets into Better Company.—Acquaintance with Madame de Montespan.— The King's Children.—His Dislike of Widow Scarron.—Purchase of the Maintenon Estate.—Further Demands.—M. du Maine on His Travels.— Montespan's Ill—humour.—Madame de Maintenon Supplants Her.—Her Bitter Annoyance.—Progress of the New Intrigue.—Marriage of the King and Madame de Maintenon.

CHAPTER LXXVI

Character of Madame de Maintenon.—Her Conversation.—Her Narrow- mindedness.—Her Devotion.—Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.—Its Fatal Consequences.—Saint Cyr.—Madame de Maintenon Desires Her Marriage to be Declared.—Her Schemes.—Counterworked by Louvois.—His Vigorous Conduct and Sudden Death.—Behaviour of the King.—Extraordinary Death of Seron.

CHAPTER LXXVII

Daily Occupations of Madame de Maintenon.—Her Policy—How She Governed the King's Affairs.—Connivance with the Ministers.—Anecdote of Le Tellier.—Behaviour of the King to Madame de Maintenon.— His Hardness.—Selfishness.—Want of Thought for Others.—Anecdotes.— Resignation of the King.—Its Causes.—The Jesuits and the Doctors.—The King and Lay Jesuits.



VOLUME 11.

CHAPTER LXXVIII

External Life of Louis XIV.—At the Army.—Etiquette of the King's Table.—Court Manners and Customs.—The Rising of the King.—Morning Occupations.—Secret Amours.—Going to Mass.—Councils.—Thursdays.— Fridays.—Ceremony of the King's Dinner.—The King's Brother.—After Dinner.—The Drive.—Walks at Marly and Elsewhere.—Stag—hunting.—Play- tables.—Lotteries.—Visits to Madame de Maintenon.—Supper.—The King Retires to Rest.—Medicine Days.—Kings Religious Observances.—Fervency in Lent.—At Mass.—Costume.—Politeness of the King for the Court of Saint-Germain.—Feelings of the Court at His Death.—Relief of Madame de Maintenon.—Of the Duchesse d'Orleans.—Of the Court Generally.—Joy of Paris and the Whole of France.—Decency of Foreigners.—Burial of the King.

CHAPTER LXXIX

Surprise of M. d'Orleans at the King's Death.—My Interview with Him.— Dispute about Hats.—M. du Maine at the Parliament.—His Reception.— My Protest.—The King's Will.—Its Contents and Reception.—Speech of the Duc d'Orleans.—Its Effect.—His Speech on the Codicil.—Violent Discussion.—Curious Scene.—Interruption for Dinner.—Return to the Parliament.—Abrogation of the Codicil.—New Scheme of Government.— The Regent Visits Madame de Maintenon.—The Establishment of Saint-Cyr.— The Regent's Liberality to Madame de Maintenon.

CHAPTER LXXX

The Young King's Cold.—'Lettres des Cachet' Revived.—A Melancholy Story.—A Loan from Crosat.—Retrenchments.—Unpaid Ambassadors.—Council of the Regency.—Influence of Lord Stair.—The Pretender.—His Departure from Bar.—Colonel Douglas.—The Pursuit.—Adventure at Nonancourt.—Its Upshot.—Madame l'Hospital.—Ingratitude of the Pretender.

CHAPTER LXXXI

Behaviour of the Duchesse de Berry.—Her Arrogance Checked by Public Opinion.—Walls up the Luxembourg Garden.—La Muette.—Her Strange Amour with Rion.—Extraordinary Details.—The Duchess at the Carmelites.— Weakness of the Regent.—His Daily Round of Life.—His Suppers.— How He Squandered His Time.—His Impenetrability.—Scandal of His Life.— Public Balls at the Opera.

CHAPTER LXXXII

First Appearance of Law.—His Banking Project Supported by the Regent.— Discussed by the Regent with Me.—Approved by the Council and Registered. —My Interviews with Law.—His Reasons for Seeking My Friendship.— Arouet de Voltaire

CHAPTER LXXXIII

Rise of Alberoni.—Intimacy of France and England.—Gibraltar Proposed to be Given Up.—Louville the Agent.—His Departure.—Arrives at Madrid.— Alarm of Alberoni.—His Audacious Intrigues.—Louville in the Bath.— His Attempts to See the King.—Defeated.—Driven out of Spain.—Impudence of Alberoni.—Treaty between France and England.—Stipulation with Reference to the Pretender.

CHAPTER LXXXIV

The Lieutenant of Police.—Jealousy of Parliament.—Arrest of Pomereu Resolved On.—His Imprisonment and Sudden Release.—Proposed Destruction of Marly.—How I Prevented It.—Sale of the Furniture.—I Obtain the 'Grandes Entrees'.—Their Importance and Nature.—Afterwards Lavished Indiscriminately.—Adventure of the Diamond called "The Regent."—Bought for the Crown of France.

CHAPTER LXXXV

Death of the Duchesse de Lesdiguieres.—Cavoye and His Wife.—Peter the Great.—His Visit to France.—Enmity to England.—Its Cause.—Kourakin, the Russian Ambassador.—The Czar Studies Rome.—Makes Himself the Head of Religion.—New Desires for Rome—Ultimately Suppressed.—Preparations to Receive the Czar at Paris.—His Arrival at Dunkerque.—At Beaumont.— Dislikes the Fine Quarters Provided for Him.—His Singular Manners, and Those of His Suite.

CHAPTER LXXXVI

Personal Appearance of the Czar.—His Meals.—Invited by the Regent.— His Interview with the King—He Returns the Visit.—Excursion in Paris.— Visits Madame.—Drinks Beer at the Opera.—At the Invalides.—Meudon.— Issy.—The Tuileries.—Versailles.—Hunt at Fontainebleau.—Saint—Cyr.— Extraordinary Interview with Madame de Maintenon.—My Meeting with the Czar at D'Antin's.—The Ladies Crowd to See Him.—Interchange of Presents.—A Review.—Party Visits.—Desire of the Czar to Be United to France.

CHAPTER LXXXVII

Courson in Languedoc.—Complaints of Perigueux.—Deputies to Paris.— Disunion at the Council.—Intrigues of the Duc de Noailles.—Scene.— I Support the Perigueux People.—Triumph.—My Quarrel with Noailles.— The Order of the Pavilion.



VOLUME 12.

CHAPTER LXXXVIII

Policy and Schemes of Alberoni.—He is Made a Cardinal.—Other Rewards Bestowed on Him.—Dispute with the Majordomo.—An Irruption into the Royal Apartment.—The Cardinal Thrashed.—Extraordinary Scene.

CHAPTER LXXXIX

Anecdote of the Duc d'Orleans.—He Pretends to Reform —Trick Played upon Me.—His Hoaxes.—His Panegyric of Me.—Madame de Sabran.—How the Regent Treated His Mistresses.

CHAPTER XC

Encroachments of the Parliament.—The Money Edict.—Conflict of Powers— Vigorous Conduct of the Parliament.—Opposed with Equal Vigour by the Regent.—Anecdote of the Duchesse du Maine.—Further Proceedings of the Parliament.—Influence of the Reading of Memoirs.—Conduct of the Regent.—My Political Attitude.—Conversation with the Regent on the Subject of the Parliament.—Proposal to Hang Law.—Meeting at My House.— Law Takes Refuge in the Palais Royal.

CHAPTER XCI

Proposed Bed of Justice.—My Scheme.—Interview with the Regent.— The Necessary Seats for the Assembly.—I Go in Search of Fontanieu.— My Interview with Hini.—I Return to the Palace.—Preparations.— Proposals of M. le Duc to Degrade M. du Maine.—My Opposition.—My Joy and Delight.—The Bed of Justice Finally Determined On.—A Charming Messenger.—Final Preparations.—Illness of the Regent.—News Given to M. du Maine.—Resolution of the Parliament.—Military Arrangements.—I Am Summoned to the Council.—My Message to the Comte de Toulouse.

CHAPTER XCII

The Material Preparations for the Bed of Justice—Arrival of the Duc d'Orleans:—The Council Chamber.—Attitude of the Various Actors.—The Duc du Maine.—Various Movements.—Arrival of the Duc de Toulouse.— Anxiety of the Two Bastards.—They Leave the Room.—Subsequent Proceedings.—Arrangement of the Council Chamber.—Speech of the Regent. —Countenances of the Members of Council.—The Regent Explains the Object of the Bed of Justice.—Speech of the Keeper of the Seals.—Taking the Votes.—Incidents That Followed.—New Speech of the Duc d'Orleans.— Against the Bastards.—My Joy.—I Express My Opinion Modestly.—Exception in Favour of the Comte de Toulouse.—New Proposal of M. le Duc.—Its Effect.—Threatened Disobedience of the Parliament.—Proper Measures.— The Parliament Sets Out.

CHAPTER XCIII

Continuation of the Scene in the Council Chamber.—Slowness of the Parliament.—They Arrive at Last.—The King Fetched.—Commencement of the Bed of Justice.—My Arrival.—Its Effect.—What I Observed.—Absence of the Bastards Noticed.—Appearance of the King. The Keeper of the Seals.— The Proceedings Opened.—Humiliation of the Parliament.—Speech of the Chief-President.—New Announcement.—Fall of the Duc du Maine Announced. —Rage of the Chief-President.—My Extreme joy.—M. le Duc Substituted for M. du Maine.—Indifference of the King.—Registration of the Decrees.

CHAPTER XCIV

My Return Home.—Wanted for a New Commission.—Go to the Palais Royal.— A Cunning Page.—My journey to Saint-Cloud.—My Reception.—Interview with the Duchesse d'Orleans.—Her Grief.—My Embarrassment.—Interview with Madame.—Her Triumph.—Letter of the Duchesse d'Orleans.—She Comes to Paris.—Quarrels with the Regent.

CHAPTER XCV

Intrigues of M. du Maine.—And of Cellamare, the Spanish Ambassador.— Monteleon and Portocarrero.—Their Despatches.—How Signed.—The Conspiracy Revealed.—Conduct of the Regent.—Arrest of Cellamare.—His House Searched.—The Regency Council.—Speech of the Duc d'Orleans.— Resolutions Come To.—Arrests.—Relations with Spain.—Alberoni and Saint-Aignan.—Their Quarrel.—Escape of Saint-Aignan.

CHAPTER XCVI

The Regent Sends for Me.—Guilt of the Duc de Maine.—Proposed Arrest.— Discussion on the Prison to Be Chosen.—The Arrest.—His Dejection.— Arrest of the Duchess.—Her Rage.—Taken to Dijon.—Other Arrests.— Conduct of the Comte de Toulouse.—The Faux Sauniers.—Imprisonment of the Duc and Duchesse du Maine.—Their Sham Disagreement.—Their Liberation.—Their Reconciliation.



VOLUME 13.

CHAPTER XCVII

Anecdote of Madame de Charlus.—The 'Phillippaques'.—La Grange.— Pere Tellier.—The Jesuits.—Anecdote——Tellier's Banishment.—Death of Madame de Maintenon.—Her Life at Saint-Cyr.

CHAPTER XCVIII

Mode of Life of the Duchesse de Berry.—Her Illness.—Her Degrading Amours.—Her Danger Increases.—The Sacraments Refused.—The Cure Is Supported by the Cardinal de Noailles.—Curious Scene.—The Duchess Refuses to Give Way.—She Recovers, and Is Delivered.—Ambition of Rion. —He Marries the Duchess.—She Determines to Go to Meudon.—Rion Sent to the Army.—Quarrels of Father and Daughter.—Supper on the Terrace of Meudon.—The Duchess Again Ill.—Moves to La Muette.—Great Danger.— Receives the Sacrament.—Garus and Chirac.—Rival Doctors.—Increased Illness.—Death of the Duchess.—Sentiments on the Occasion.—Funeral Ceremonies.—Madame de Saint-Simon Fails Ill.—Her Recovery.—We Move to Meudon.—Character of the Duchesse de Berry.

CHAPTER XCIX

The Mississippi Scheme.—Law Offers Me Shares.—Compensation for Blaye.— The Rue Quincampoix.—Excitement of the Public.—Increased Popularity of the Scheme.—Conniving of Law.—Plot against His Life—Disagreement with Argenson.—Their Quarrel.—Avarice of the Prince de Conti.—His Audacity.—Anger of the Regent.—Comparison with the Period of Louis XIV.—A Ballet Proposed.—The Marechal de Villeroy.—The Young King Is to Dance.—Young Law Proposed.—Excitement.—The Young King's Disgust.— Extravagant Presents of the Duc d'Orleans.

CHAPTER C

System of Law in Danger.—Prodigality of the Duc d'Orleans.—Admissions of Law.—Fall of His Notes.—Violent Measures Taken to Support Them.— Their Failure.—Increased Extravagance of the Regent.—Reduction of the Fervour.—Proposed Colonies.—Forced Emigration.—Decree on the Indian Company.—Scheming of Argenson. Attitude of the Parliament.—Their Remonstrance.—Dismissal of Law.—His Coolness—Extraordinary Decree of Council of State.—Prohibition of jewellery.—New Schemes.

CHAPTER CI

The New Edict.—The Commercial Company.—New Edict.—Rush on the Bank.— People Stifled in the Crowd.—Excitement against Law.—Money of the Bank.—Exile of the Parliament to Pontoise.—New Operation.—The Place Vendome.—The Marechal de Villeroy.—Marseilles.—Flight of Law.— Character of Him and His Wife.—Observations on His Schemes.—Decrees of the Finance.

CHAPTER CII

Council on the Finances.—Departure of Law—A Strange Dialogue.—M. le Duc and the Regent.—Crimes Imputed to Law during His Absence.—Schemes Proposed.—End, of the Council.

CHAPTER CIII

Character of Alberoni.—His Grand Projects.—Plots against Him.—The Queen's Nurse.—The Scheme against the Cardinal.—His Fall.—Theft of a Will.—Reception in Italy.—His Adventures There.

CHAPTER CIV

Meetings of the Council.—A Kitten.—The Archbishopric of Cambrai.— Scandalous Conduct of Dubois.—The Consecration.—I Persuade the Regent Not to Go.—He Promises Not.—Breaks His Word.—Madame de Parabere.—The Ceremony.—Story of the Comte de Horn.



VOLUME 14

CHAPTER CV

Quarrel of the King of England with His Son.—Schemes of Dubois.— Marriage of Brissac.—His Death.—Birth of the Young Pretender.— Cardinalate of Dubois.—Illness of the King.—His Convalescence.— A Wonderful Lesson.—Prudence of the Regent.—Insinuations against Him.

CHAPTER CVI

Projected Marriages of the King and of the Daughter of the Duc d'Orleans_ —How It Was Communicated to Me.—I Ask for the Embassy to Spain.—It Is Granted to Me.—Jealousy of Dubois.—His Petty Interference.— Announcement of the Marriages.

CHAPTER CVII

Interview with Dubois.—His Singular Instructions to Ale.—His Insidious Object.—Various Tricks and Manoeuvres.—My Departure for Spain.—Journey by Way of Bordeaux and Bayonne.—Reception in Spain.—Arrival at Madrid.

CHAPTER CVIII

Interview in the Hall of Mirrors.—Preliminaries of the Marriages.— Grimaldo.—How the Question of Precedence Was Settled.—I Ask for an Audience.—Splendid Illuminations.—A Ball.—I Am Forced to Dance.

CHAPTER CIX

Mademoiselle de Montpensier Sets out for Spain.—I Carry the News to the King.—Set out for Lerma.—Stay at the Escurial.—Take the Small—pox.— Convalescence.

CHAPTER CX

Mode of Life of Their Catholic Majesties.—Their Night.—Morning.— Toilette.—Character of Philippe V.—And of His Queen.—How She Governed Him.

CHAPTER CXI

The King's Taste for Hunting.—Preparations for a Battue.—Dull Work.— My Plans to Obtain the Grandesse.—Treachery of Dubois.—Friendship of Grimaldo.—My Success.

CHAPTER CXII

Marriage of the Prince of the Asturias.—An Ignorant Cardinal.—I Am Made Grandee of Spain.—The Vidame de Chartres Named Chevalier of the Golden Fleece.—His Reception—My Adieux.—A Belching Princess.— Return to France.



VOLUME 15.

CHAPTER CXIII

Attempted Reconciliation between Dubois and Villeroy.—Violent Scene.— Trap Laid for the Marechal.—Its Success.—His Arrest.

CHAPTER CXIV

I Am Sent for by Cardinal Dubois.—Flight of Frejus.—He Is Sought and Found.—Behaviour of Villeroy in His Exile at Lyons.—His Rage and Reproaches against Frejus.—Rise of the Latter in the King's Confidence.

CHAPTER CXV

I Retire from Public Life.—Illness and Death of Dubois. —Account of His Riches.—His Wife.—His Character.—Anecdotes.—Madame de Conflans.— Relief of the Regent and the King.

CHAPTER CXVI

Death of Lauzun.—His Extraordinary Adventures.—His Success at Court.— Appointment to the Artillery.—Counter—worked by Louvois.—Lauzun and Madame de Montespan.—Scene with the King.—Mademoiselle and Madame de Monaco.

CHAPTER CXVII

Lauzun's Magnificence.—Louvois Conspires against Him.—He Is Imprisoned.—His Adventures at Pignerol.—On What Terms He Is Released.— His Life Afterwards.—Return to Court.

CHAPTER CXVIII

Lauzun Regrets His Former Favour.—Means Taken to Recover It.—Failure.— Anecdotes.—Biting Sayings.—My Intimacy with Lauzun.—His Illness, Death, and Character.

CHAPTER CXIX

Ill-Health of the Regent.—My Fears.—He Desires a Sudden Death.— Apoplectic Fit.—Death.—His Successor as Prime Minister.—The Duc de Chartres.—End of the Memoirs.



INTRODUCTION

No library of Court documents could pretend to be representative which ignored the famous "Memoirs" of the Duc de Saint-Simon. They stand, by universal consent, at the head of French historical papers, and are the one great source from which all historians derive their insight into the closing years of the reign of the "Grand Monarch," Louis XIV: whom the author shows to be anything but grand—and of the Regency. The opinion of the French critic, Sainte-Beuve, is fairly typical. "With the Memoirs of De Retz, it seemed that perfection had been attained, in interest, in movement, in moral analysis, in pictorial vivacity, and that there was no reason for expecting they could be surpassed. But the 'Memoirs' of Saint-Simon came; and they offer merits . . . which make them the most precious body of Memoirs that as yet exist."

Villemain declared their author to be "the most original of geniuses in French literature, the foremost of prose satirists; inexhaustible in details of manners and customs, a word-painter like Tacitus; the author of a language of his own, lacking in accuracy, system, and art, yet an admirable writer." Leon Vallee reinforces this by saying: "Saint-Simon can not be compared to any of his contemporaries. He has an individuality, a style, and a language solely his own.... Language he treated like an abject slave. When he had gone to its farthest limit, when it failed to express his ideas or feelings, he forced it—the result was a new term, or a change in the ordinary meaning of words sprang forth from has pen. With this was joined a vigour and breadth of style, very pronounced, which makes up the originality of the works of Saint-Simon and contributes toward placing their author in the foremost rank of French writers."

Louis de Rouvroy, who later became the Duc de Saint-Simon, was born in Paris, January 16, 1675. He claimed descent from Charlemagne, but the story goes that his father, as a young page of Louis XIII., gained favour with his royal master by his skill in holding the stirrup, and was finally made a duke and peer of France. The boy Louis had no lesser persons than the King and Queen Marie Therese as godparents, and made his first formal appearance at Court when seventeen. He tells us that he was not a studious boy, but was fond of reading history; and that if he had been given rein to read all he desired of it, he might have made "some figure in the world." At nineteen, like D'Artagnan, he entered the King's Musketeers. At twenty he was made a captain in the cavalry; and the same year he married the beautiful daughter of the Marechal de Larges. This marriage, which was purely political in its inception, finally turned into a genuine love match—a pleasant exception to the majority of such affairs. He became devoted to his wife, saying: "she exceeded all that was promised of her, and all that I myself had hoped." Partly because of this marriage, and also because he felt himself slighted in certain army appointments, he resigned his commissim after five years' service, and retired for a time to private life.

Upon his return to Court, taking up apartments which the royal favour had reserved for him at Versailles, Saint-Simon secretly entered upon the self-appointed task for which he is now known to fame—a task which the proud King of a vainglorious Court would have lost no time in terminating had it been discovered—the task of judge, spy, critic, portraitist, and historian, rolled into one. Day by day, henceforth for many years, he was to set down upon his private "Memoirs" the results of his personal observations, supplemented by the gossip brought to him by his unsuspecting friends; for neither courtier, statesman, minister, nor friend ever looked upon those notes which this "little Duke with his cruel, piercing, unsatisfied eyes" was so busily penning. Says Vallee: "He filled a unique position at Court, being accepted by all, even by the King himself, as a cynic, personally liked for his disposition, enjoying consideration on account of the prestige of his social connections, inspiring fear in the more timid by the severity and fearlessness of his criticism." Yet Louis XIV. never seems to have liked him, and Saint- Simon owed his influence chiefly to his friendly relations with the Dauphin's family. During the Regency, he tried to restrain the profligate Duke of Orleans, and in return was offered the position of governor of the boy, Louis XV., which he refused. Soon after, he retired to private life, and devoted his remaining years largely to revising his beloved "Memoirs." The autograph manuscript, still in existence, reveals the immense labour which he put into it. The writing is remarkable for its legibility and freedom from erasure. It comprises no less than 2,300 pages in folio.

After the author's death, in 1755, the secret of his lifelong labour was revealed; and the Duc de Choiseul, fearing the result of these frank revelations, confiscated them and placed them among the state archives. For sixty years they remained under lock and key, being seen by only a few privileged persons, among them Marmontel, Duclos, and Voltaire. A garbled version of extracts appeared in 1789, possibly being used as a Revolutionary text. Finally, in 1819, a descendant of the analyst, bearing the same name, obtained permission from Louis XVIII. to set this "prisoner of the Bastille" at liberty; and in 1829 an authoritative edition, revised and arranged by chapters, appeared. It created a tremendous stir. Saint-Simon had been merciless, from King down to lady's maid, in depicting the daily life of a famous Court. He had stripped it of all its tinsel and pretension, and laid the ragged framework bare. "He wrote like the Devil for posterity!" exclaimed Chateaubriand. But the work at once became universally read and quoted, both in France and England. Macaulay made frequent use of it in his historical essays. It was, in a word, recognised as the chief authority upon an important period of thirty years (1694-1723).

Since then it has passed through many editions, finally receiving an adequate English translation at the hands of Bayle St. John, who has been careful to adhere to the peculiarities of Saint-Simon's style. It is this version which is now presented in full, giving us not only many vivid pictures of the author's time, but of the author himself. "I do not pride myself upon my freedom from prejudice—impartiality," he confesses—"it would be useless to attempt it. But I have tried at all times to tell the truth."



VOLUME 1.



CHAPTER I

I was born on the night of the 15th of January, 1675, of Claude Duc de Saint-Simon, Peer of France, and of his second wife Charlotte de l'Aubepine. I was the only child of that marriage. By his first wife, Diana de Budos, my father had had only a daughter. He married her to the Duc de Brissac, Peer of France, only brother of the Duchesse de Villeroy. She died in 1684, without children,—having been long before separated from a husband who was unworthy of her—leaving me heir of all her property.

I bore the name of the Vidame de Chartres; and was educated with great care and attention. My mother, who was remarkable for virtue, perseverance, and sense, busied herself continually in forming my mind and body. She feared for me the usual fate of young men, who believe their fortunes made, and who find themselves their own masters early in life. It was not likely that my father, born in 1606, would live long enough to ward off from me this danger; and my mother repeatedly impressed on, me how necessary it was for a young man, the son of the favourite of a King long dead,—with no new friends at Court,—to acquire some personal value of his own. She succeeded in stimulating my courage; and in exciting in me the desire to make the acquisitions she laid stress on; but my aptitude for study and the sciences did not come up to my desire to succeed in them. However, I had an innate inclination for reading, especially works of history; and thus was inspired with ambition to emulate the examples presented to my imagination,—to do something and become somebody, which partly made amends for my coldness for letters. In fact, I have always thought that if I had been allowed to read history more constantly, instead of losing my time in studies for which I had no aptness, I might have made some figure in the world.

What I read of my own accord, of history, and, above all, of the personal memoirs of the times since Francis I., bred in me the desire to write down what I might myself see. The hope of advancement, and of becoming familiar with the affairs of my time, stirred me. The annoyances I might thus bring upon myself did not fail to present themselves to my mind; but the firm resolution I made to keep my writings secret from everybody, appeared to me to remedy all evils. I commenced my memoirs then in July, 1694, being at that time colonel of a cavalry regiment bearing my name, in the camp of Guinsheim, upon the old Rhine, in the army commanded by the Marechal Duc de Lorges.

In 1691 I was studying my philosophy and beginning to learn to ride at an academy at Rochefort, getting mightily tired of masters and books, and anxious to join the army. The siege of Mons, formed by the King in person, at the commencement of the spring, had drawn away all the young men of my age to commence their first campaign; and, what piqued me most, the Duc de Chartres was there, too. I had been, as it were, educated with him. I was younger than he by eight months; and if the expression be allowed in speaking of young people, so unequal in position, friendship had united us. I made up my mind, therefore, to escape from my leading-strings; but pass lightly over the artifices I used in order to attain success. I addressed myself to my mother. I soon saw that she trifled with me. I had recourse to my father, whom I made believe that the King, having led a great siege this year, would rest the next. I said nothing of this to my mother, who did not discover my plot until it was just upon the point, of execution.

The King had determined rigidly to adhere to a rule he had laid down— namely, that none who entered the service, except his illegitimate children, and the Princes of the blood royal, should be exempt from serving for a year in one of his two companies of musketeers; and passing afterwards through the ordeal of being private or subaltern in one of the regiments of cavalry or infantry, before receiving permission to purchase a regiment. My father took me, therefore, to Versailles, where he had not been for many years, and begged of the King admission for me into the Musketeers. It was on the day of St. Simon and St. Jude, at half-past twelve, and just as his Majesty came out of the council.

The King did my father the honour of embracing him three times, and then turned towards me. Finding that I was little and of delicate appearance, he said I was still very young; to which my father replied, that I should be able in consequence to serve longer. Thereupon the King demanded in which of the two companies he wished to put me; and my father named that commanded by Maupertuis, who was one of his friends. The King relied much upon the information given him by the captains of the two companies of Musketeers, as to the young men who served in them. I have reason for believing, that I owe to Maupertuis the first good opinion that his Majesty had of me.

Three months after entering the Musketeers, that is to say, in the March of the following year, the King held a review of his guards, and of the gendarmerie, at Compiegne, and I mounted guard once at the palace. During this little journey there was talk of a much more important one. My joy was extreme; but my father, who had not counted upon this, repented of having believed me, when I told him that the King would no doubt rest at Paris this year. My mother, after a little vexation and pouting at finding me enrolled by my father against her will, did not fail to bring him to reason, and to make him provide me with an equipment of thirty-five horses or mules, and means to live honourably.

A grievous annoyance happened in our house about three weeks before my departure. A steward of my father named Tesse, who had been with him many years, disappeared all at once with fifty thousand francs due to various tradesfolk. He had written out false receipts from these people, and put them in his accounts. He was a little man, gentle, affable, and clever; who had shown some probity, and who had many friends.

The King set out on the 10th of May, 1692, with the ladies; and I performed the journey on horseback with the soldiers and all the attendants, like the other Musketeers, and continued to do so through the whole campaign. I was accompanied by two gentlemen; the one had been my tutor, the other was my mother's squire. The King's army was formed at the camp of Gevries; that of M. de Luxembourg almost joined it: The ladies were at Mons, two leagues distant. The King made them come into his camp, where he entertained them; and then showed them, perhaps; the most superb review which had ever been seen. The two armies were ranged in two lines, the right of M. de Luxembourg's touching the left of the King's,—the whole extending over three leagues of ground.

After stopping ten days at Gevries, the two armies separated and marched. Two days afterwards the seige of Namur was declared. The King arrived there in five days. Monseigneur (son of the King); Monsieur (Duc d'Orleans, brother of the King); M. le Prince (de Conde) and Marechal d'Humieres; all four, the one under the other, commanded in the King's army under the King himself. The Duc de Luxembourg, sole general of his own army, covered the siege operations, and observed the enemy. The ladies went away to Dinant. On the third day of the march M. le Prince went forward to invest the place.

The celebrated Vauban, the life and soul of all the sieges the King made, was of opinion that the town should be attacked separately from the castle; and his advice was acted upon. The Baron de Bresse, however, who had fortified the place, was for attacking town and castle together. He was a humble down-looking man, whose physiognomy promised nothing, but who soon acquired the confidence of the King, and the esteem of the army.

The Prince de Conde, Marechal d'Humieres, and the Marquis de Boufflers each led an attack. There was nothing worthy of note during the ten days the siege lasted. On the eleventh day, after the trenches had been opened, a parley was beaten and a capitulation made almost as the besieged desired it. They withdrew to the castle; and it was agreed that it should not be attacked from the town-side, and that the town was not to be battered by it. During the siege the King was almost always in his tent; and the weather remained constantly warm and serene. We lost scarcely anybody of consequence. The Comte de Toulouse received a slight wound in the arm while quite close to the King, who from a prominent place was witnessing the attack of a half-moon, which was carried in broad daylight by a detachment of the oldest of the two companies of Musketeers.

The siege of the castle next commenced. The position of the camp was changed. The King's tents and those of all the Court were pitched in a beautiful meadow about five hundred paces from the monastery of Marlaigne. The fine weather changed to rain, which fell with an abundance and perseverance never before known by any one in the army. This circumstance increased the reputation of Saint Medard, whose fete falls on the 8th of June. It rained in torrents that day, and it is said that when such is the case it will rain for forty days afterwards. By chance it happened so this year. The soldiers in despair at this deluge uttered many imprecations against the Saint; and looked for images of him, burning and breaking as many as they could find. The rains sadly interfered with the progress of the siege. The tents of the King could only be communicated with by paths laid with fascines which required to be renewed every day, as they sank down into the soil. The camps and quarters were no longer accessible; the trenches were full of mud and water, and it took often three days to remove cannon from one battery to another. The waggons became useless, too, so that the transport of bombs, shot, and so forth, could not be performed except upon the backs of mules and of horses taken from the equipages of the Court and the army. The state of the roads deprived the Duc de Luxembourg of the use of waggons and other vehicles. His army was perishing for want of grain. To remedy this inconvenience the King ordered all his household troops to mount every day on horseback by detachments, and to take sacks of grain upon their cruppers to a village where they were to be received and counted by the officers of the Duc de Luxembourg. Although the household of the King had scarcely any repose during this siege, what with carrying fascines, furnishing guards, and other daily services, this increase of duty was given to it because the cavalry served continually also, and was reduced almost entirely to leaves of trees for provender.

The household of the King, accustomed to all sorts of distinctions, complained bitterly of this task. But the King turned a deaf ear to them, and would be obeyed. On the first day some of the Gendarmes and of the light horse of the guard arrived early in the morning at the depot of the sacks, and commenced murmuring and exciting each other by their discourses. They threw down the sacks at last and flatly refused to carry them. I had been asked very politely if I would be of the detachment for the sacks or of some other. I decided for the sacks, because I felt that I might thereby advance myself, the subject having already made much noise. I arrived with the detachment of the Musketeers at the moment of the refusal of the others; and I loaded my sack before their eyes. Marin, a brigadier of cavalry and lieutenant of the body guards, who was there to superintend the operation, noticed me, and full of anger at the refusal he had just met with, exclaimed that as I did not think such work beneath me, the rest would do well to imitate my example. Without a word being spoken each took up his sack; and from that time forward no further difficulty occurred in the matter. As soon as the detachment had gone, Marin went straight to the King and told him what had occurred. This was a service which procured for me several obliging discourses from his Majesty, who during the rest of the siege always sought to say something agreeable every time he met me.

The twenty-seventh day after opening the trenches, that is, the first of July, 1692, a parley was sounded by the Prince de Barbanqon, governor of the place,—a fortunate circumstance for the besiegers, who were worn out with fatigue; and destitute of means, on account of the wretched weather which still continued, and which had turned the whole country round into a quagmire. Even the horses of the King lived upon leaves, and not a horse of all our numerous cavalry ever thoroughly recovered from the effects of such sorry fare. It is certain that without the presence of the King the siege might never have been successful; but he being there, everybody was stimulated. Yet had the place held out ten days longer, there is no saying what might have happened. Before the end of the siege the King was so much fatigued with his exertions, that a new attack of gout came on, with more pain than ever, and compelled him to keep his bed, where, however, he thought of everything, and laid out his plans as though he had been at Versailles.

During the entire siege, the Prince of Orange (William III. of England) had unavailingly used all his science to dislodge the Duc de Luxembourg; but he had to do with a man who in matters of war was his superior, and who continued so all his life. Namur, which, by the surrender of the castle, was now entirely in our power, was one of the strongest places in the Low Countries, and had hitherto boasted of having never changed masters. The inhabitants could not restrain their tears of sorrow. Even the monks of Marlaigne were profoundly moved, so much so, that they could not disguise their grief. The King, feeling for the loss of their corn that they had sent for safety into Namur, gave them double the quantity, and abundant alms. He incommoded them as little as possible, and would not permit the passage of cannon across their park, until it was found impossible to transport it by any other road. Notwithstanding these acts of goodness, they could scarcely look upon a Frenchman after the taking of the place; and one actually refused to give a bottle of beer to an usher of the King's antechamber, although offered a bottle of champagne in exchange for it!

A circumstance happened just after the taking of Namur, which might have led to the saddest results, under any other prince than the King. Before he entered the town, a strict examination of every place was made, although by the capitulation all the mines, magazines, &c., had to be shown. At a visit paid to the Jesuits, they pretended to show everything, expressing, however, surprise and something more, that their bare word was not enough. But on examining here and there, where they did not expect search would be made, their cellars were found to be stored with gunpowder, of which they had taken good care to say no word. What they meant to do with it is uncertain. It was carried away, and as they were Jesuits nothing was done.

During the course of this siege, the King suffered a cruel disappointment. James II. of England, then a refugee in France, had advised the King to give battle to the English fleet. Joined to that of Holland it was very superior to the sea forces of France. Tourville, our admiral, so famous for his valour and skill, pointed this circumstance out to the King. But it was all to no effect. He was ordered to attack the enemy. He did so. Many of his ships were burnt, and the victory was won by the English. A courier entrusted with this sad intelligence was despatched to the King. On his way he was joined by another courier, who pressed him for his news. The first courier knew that if he gave up his news, the other, who was better mounted, would outstrip him, and be the first to carry it to the King. He told his companion, therefore, an idle tale, very different indeed from the truth, for he changed the defeat into a great victory. Having gained this wonderful intelligence, the second courier put spurs to his horse, and hurried away to the King's camp, eager to be the bearer of good tidings. He reached the camp first, and was received with delight. While his Majesty was still in great joy at his happy victory, the other courier arrived with the real details. The Court appeared prostrated. The King was much afflicted. Nevertheless he found means to appear to retain his self-possession, and I saw, for the first time, that Courts are not long in affliction or occupied with sadness. I must mention that the (exiled) King of England looked on at this naval battle from the shore; and was accused of allowing expressions of partiality to escape him in favour of his countrymen, although none had kept their promises to him.

Two days after the defeated garrison had marched out, the King went to Dinant, to join the ladies, with whom he returned to Versailles. I had hoped that Monseigneur would finish the campaign, and that I should be with him, and it was not without regret that I returned towards Paris. On the way a little circumstance happened. One of our halting-places was Marienburgh, where we camped for the night. I had become united in friendship with Comte de Coetquen, who was in the same company with myself. He was well instructed and full of wit; was exceedingly rich, and even more idle than rich. That evening he had invited several of us to supper in his tent. I went there early, and found him stretched out upon his bed, from which I dislodged him playfully and laid myself down in his place, several of our officers standing by. Coetquen, sporting with me in return, took his gun, which he thought to be unloaded, and pointed it at me. But to our great surprise the weapon went off. Fortunately for me, I was at that moment lying flat upon the bed. Three balls passed just above my head, and then just above the heads of our two tutors, who were walking outside the tent. Coetquen fainted at thought of the mischief he might have done, and we had all the pains in the world to bring him to himself again. Indeed, he did not thoroughly recover for several days. I relate this as a lesson which ought to teach us never to play with fire-arms.

The poor lad,—to finish at once all that concerns him,—did not long survive this incident. He entered the King's regiment, and when just upon the point of joining it in the following spring, came to me and said he had had his fortune told by a woman named Du Perehoir, who practised her trade secretly at Paris, and that she had predicted he would be soon drowned. I rated him soundly for indulging a curiosity so dangerous and so foolish. A few days after he set out for Amiens. He found another fortune-teller there, a man, who made the same prediction. In marching afterwards with the regiment of the King to join the army, he wished to water his horse in the Escaut, and was drowned there, in the presence of the whole regiment, without it being possible to give him any aid. I felt extreme regret for his loss, which for his friends and his family was irreparable.

But I must go back a little, and speak of two marriages that took place at the commencement of this year the first (most extraordinary) on the 18th February the other a month after.



CHAPTER II.

The King was very anxious to establish his illegitimate children, whom he advanced day by day; and had married two of them, daughters, to Princes of the blood. One of these, the Princesse de Conti, only daughter of the King and Madame de la Valliere, was a widow without children; the other, eldest daughter of the King and Madame de Montespan, had married Monsieur le Duc (Louis de Bourbon, eldest son of the Prince de Conde). For some time past Madame de Maintenon, even more than the King, had thought of nothing else than how to raise the remaining illegitimate children, and wished to marry Mademoiselle de Blois (second daughter of the King and of Madame de Montespan) to Monsieur the Duc de Chartres. The Duc de Chartres was the sole nephew of the King, and was much above the Princes of the blood by his rank of Grandson of France, and by the Court that Monsieur his father kept up.

The marriages of the two Princes of the blood, of which I have just spoken, had scandalised all the world. The King was not ignorant of this; and he could thus judge of the effect of a marriage even more startling; such as was this proposed one. But for four years he had turned it over in his mind and had even taken the first steps to bring it about. It was the more difficult because the father of the Duc de Chartres was infinitely proud of his rank, and the mother belonged to a nation which abhorred illegitimacy and, misalliances, and was indeed of a character to forbid all hope of her ever relishing this marriage.

In order to vanquish all these obstacles, the King applied to M. le Grand (Louis de Lorraine). This person was brother of the Chevalier de Lorraine, the favourite, by disgraceful means, of Monsieur, father of the Duc de Chartres. The two brothers, unscrupulous and corrupt, entered willingly into the scheme, but demanded as a reward, paid in advance, to be made "Chevaliers of the Order." This was done, although somewhat against the inclination of the King, and success was promised.

The young Duc de Chartres had at that time for teacher Dubois (afterwards the famous Cardinal Dubois), whose history was singular. He had formerly been a valet; but displaying unusual aptitude for learning, had been instructed by his master in literature and history, and in due time passed into the service of Saint Laurent, who was the Duc de Chartres' first instructor. He became so useful and showed so much skill, that Saint Laurent made him become an abbe. Thus raised in position, he passed much time with the Duc de Chartres, assisting him to prepare his lessons, to write his exercises, and to look out words in the dictionary. I have seen him thus engaged over and over again, when I used to go and play with the Duc de Chartres. As Saint Laurent grew infirm, Dubois little by little supplied his place; supplied it well too, and yet pleased the young Duke. When Saint Laurent died Dubois aspired to succeed him. He had paid his court to the Chevalier de Lorraine, by whose influence he was much aided in obtaining his wish. When at last appointed successor to Saint Laurent, I never saw a man so glad, nor with more reason. The extreme obligation he was under to the Chevalier de Lorraine, and still more the difficulty of maintaining himself in his new position, attached him more and more to his protector.

It was, then, Dubois that the Chevalier de Lorraine made use of to gain the consent of the young Duc de Chartres to the marriage proposed by the King. Dubois had, in fact, gained the Duke's confidence, which it was easy to do at that age; had made him afraid of his father and of the King; and, on the other hand, had filled him with fine hopes and expectations. All that Dubois could do, however, when he broke the matter of the marriage to the young Duke, was to ward off a direct refusal; but that was sufficient for the success of the enterprise. Monsieur was already gained, and as soon as the King had a reply from Dubois he hastened to broach the affair. A day or two before this, however, Madame (mother of the Duc de Chartres) had scent of what was going on. She spoke to her son of the indignity of this marriage with that force in which she was never wanting, and drew from him a promise that he would not consent to it. Thus, he was feeble towards his teacher, feeble towards his mother, and there was aversion on the one hand and fear on the other, and great embarrassment on all sides.

One day early after dinner I saw M. de Chartres, with a very sad air, come out of his apartment and enter the closet of the King. He found his Majesty alone with Monsieur. The King spoke very obligingly to the Duc de Chartres, said that he wished to see him married; that he offered him his daughter, but that he did not intend to constrain him in the matter, but left him quite at liberty. This discourse, however, pronounced with that terrifying majesty so natural to the King, and addressed to a timid young prince, took away his voice, and quite unnerved him. He, thought to escape from his slippery position by throwing himself upon Monsieur and Madame, and stammeringly replied that the King was master, but that a son's will depended upon that of his parents. "What you say is very proper," replied the King; "but as soon as you consent to my proposition your father and mother will not oppose it." And then turning to Monsieur he said, "Is this not true, my brother? "Monsieur consented, as he had already done, and the only person remaining to consult was Madame, who was immediately sent for.

As soon as she came, the King, making her acquainted with his project, said that he reckoned she would not oppose what her husband and her son had already agreed to. Madame, who had counted upon the refusal of her son, was tongue-tied. She threw two furious glances upon Monsieur and upon the Duc de Chartres, and then said that, as they wished it, she had nothing to say, made a slight reverence, and went away. Her son immediately followed her to explain his conduct; but railing against him, with tears in her eyes, she would not listen, and drove him from her room. Her husband, who shortly afterwards joined her, met with almost the same treatment.

That evening an "Apartment" was held at the palace, as was customary three times a week during the winter; the other three evenings being set apart for comedy, and the Sunday being free. An Apartment as it was called, was an assemblage of all the Court in the grand saloon, from seven o'clock in the evening until ten, when the King sat down to table; and, after ten, in one of the saloons at the end of the grand gallery towards the tribune of the chapel. In the first place there was some music; then tables were placed all about for all kinds of gambling; there was a 'lansquenet'; at which Monsieur and Monseigneur always played; also a billiard-table; in a word, every one was free to play with every one, and allowed to ask for fresh tables as all the others were occupied. Beyond the billiards was a refreshment-room. All was perfectly lighted. At the outset, the King went to the "apartments" very often and played, but lately he had ceased to do so. He spent the evening with Madame de Maintenon, working with different ministers one after the other. But still he wished his courtiers to attend assiduously.

This evening, directly after the music had finished, the King sent for Monseigneur and Monsieur, who were already playing at 'lansquenet'; Madame, who scarcely looked at a, party of 'hombre' at which she had seated herself; the Duc de Chartres, who, with a rueful visage, was playing at chess; and Mademoiselle de Blois, who had scarcely begun to appear in society, but who this evening was extraordinarily decked out, and who, as yet, knew nothing and suspected nothing; and therefore, being naturally very timid, and horribly afraid of the King, believed herself sent for in order to be reprimanded, and trembled so that Madame de Maintenon took her upon her knees, where she held her, but was scarcely able to reassure her. The fact of these royal persons being sent for by the King at once made people think that a marriage was in contemplation. In a few minutes they returned, and then the announcement was made public. I arrived at that moment. I found everybody in clusters, and great astonishment expressed upon every face. Madame was walking in the gallery with Chateauthiers—her favourite, and worthy of being so. She took long strides, her handkerchief in her hand, weeping without constraint, speaking pretty loudly, gesticulating; and looking like Ceres after the rape of her daughter Proserpine, seeking her in fury, and demanding her back from Jupiter. Every one respectfully made way to let her pass. Monsieur, who had returned to 'lansquenet', seemed overwhelmed with shame, and his son appeared in despair; and the bride-elect was marvellously embarrassed and sad. Though very young, and likely to be dazzled by such a marriage, she understood what was passing, and feared the consequences. Most people appeared full of consternation.

The Apartment, which, however heavy in appearance, was full of interest to, me, seemed quite short. It finished by the supper of the King. His Majesty appeared quite at ease. Madame's eyes were full of tears, which fell from time to time as she looked into every face around, as if in search of all our thoughts. Her son, whose eyes too were red, she would not give a glance to; nor to Monsieur: all three ate scarcely anything. I remarked that the King offered Madame nearly all the dishes that were before him, and that she refused with an air of rudeness which did not, however, check his politeness. It was furthermore noticeable that, after leaving the table, he made to Madame a very marked and very low reverence, during which she performed so complete a pirouette, that the King on raising his head found nothing but her back before him, removed about a step further towards the door.

On the morrow we went as usual to wait in the gallery for the breaking-up of the council, and for the King's Mass. Madame came there. Her son approached her, as he did every day, to kiss her hand. At that very moment she gave him a box on the ear, so sonorous that it was heard several steps distant. Such treatment in presence of all the Court covered with confusion this unfortunate prince, and overwhelmed the infinite number of spectators, of whom I was one, with prodigious astonishment.

That day the immense dowry was declared; and on Sunday there was a grand ball, that is, a ball opened by a 'branle' which settled the order of the dancing throughout the evening. Monseigneur the Duc de Bourgogne danced on this occasion for the first time; and led off the 'branle' with Mademoiselle. I danced also for the first time at Court. My partner was Mademoiselle de Sourches, daughter of the Grand Prevot; she danced excellently. I had been that morning to wait on Madame, who could not refrain from saying, in a sharp and angry voice, that I was doubtless very glad of the promise of so many balls—that this was natural at my age; but that, for her part, she was old, and wished they were well over. A few days after, the contract of marriage was signed in the closet of the King, and in the presence of all the Court. The same day the household of the future Duchesse de Chartres was declared. The King gave her a first gentleman usher and a Dame d'Atours, until then reserved to the daughters of France, and a lady of honour, in order to carry out completely so strange a novelty. I must say something about the persons who composed this household.

M. de Villars was gentleman usher; he was grandson of a recorder of Coindrieu, and one of the best made men in France. There was a great deal of fighting in his young days, and he had acquired a reputation for courage and skill. To these qualities he owed his fortune. M. de Nemours was his first patron, and, in a duel which he had with M. de Beaufort, took Villars for second. M. de Nemours was killed; but Villars was victorious against his adversary, anal passed into the service of the Prince de Conti as one of his gentlemen. He succeeded in gaining confidence in his new employment; so much so, that the marriage which afterwards took place between the Prince de Conti and the niece of Cardinal Mazarin was brought about in part by his assistance. He became the confidant of the married pair, and their bond: of union with the Cardinal. His position gave him an opportunity of mixing in society much above him; but on this he never presumed. His face was his, passport with the ladies: he was gallant, even discreet; and this means was not unuseful to him. He pleased Madame Scarron, who upon the throne never forgot the friendships of this kind, so freely intimate, which she had formed as a private person. Villars was employed in diplomacy; and from honour to honour, at last reached the order of the Saint Esprit, in 1698. His wife was full of wit, and scandalously inclined. Both were very poor—and always dangled about the Court, where they had many powerful friends.

The Marechale de Rochefort was lady of honour. She was of the house of Montmorency—a widow—handsome—sprightly; formed by nature to live at Court—apt for gallantry and intrigues; full of worldly cleverness, from living much in the world, with little cleverness of any other kind, nearly enough for any post and any business. M. de Louvois found her suited to his taste, and she accommodated herself very well to his purse, and to the display she made by this intimacy. She always became the friend of every new mistress of the King; and when he favoured Madame de Soubise, it was at the Marechale's house that she waited, with closed doors, for Bontems, the King's valet, who led her by private ways to his Majesty. The Marechale herself has related to me how one day she was embarrassed to get rid of the people that Madame de Soubise (who had not had time to announce her arrival) found at her house; and how she most died of fright lest Bontems should return and the interview be broken off if he arrived before the company had departed. The Marechale de Rochefort was in this way the friend of Mesdames de la Valliere, de Montespan, and de Soubise; and she became the friend of Madame de Maintenon, to whom she attached herself in proportion as she saw her favour increase. She had, at the marriage of Monseigneur, been made Dame d'Atours to the new Dauphiness; and, if people were astonished at that, they were also astonished to see her lady of honour to an "illegitimate grand-daughter of France."

The Comtesse de Mailly was Dame d'Atours. She was related to Madame de Maintenon, to whose favour she owed her marriage with the Comte de Mailly. She had come to Paris with all her provincial awkwardness, and, from want of wit, had never been able to get rid of it. On the contrary, she grafted thereon an immense conceit, caused by the favour of Madame de Maintenon. To complete the household, came M. de Fontaine-Martel, poor and gouty, who was first master of the horse.

On the Monday before Shrove Tuesday, all the marriage party and the bride and bridegroom, superbly dressed, repaired, a little before mid-day, to the closet of the King, and afterwards to the chapel. It was arranged, as usual, for the Mass of the King, excepting that between his place and the altar were two cushions for the bride and bridegroom, who turned their backs to the King. Cardinal de Bouillon, in full robes, married them, and said Mass. From the chapel all the company went to table: it was of horse-shoe shape. The Princes and Princesses of the blood were placed at the right and at the left, according to their rank, terminated by the two illegitimate children of the King, and, for the first time, after them, the Duchesse de Verneuil; so that M. de Verneuil, illegitimate son of Henry IV., became thus "Prince of the blood" so many years after his death, without having ever suspected it. The Duc d'Uzes thought this so amusing that he marched in front of the Duchess, crying out, as loud as he could—"Place, place for Madame Charlotte Seguier!" In the afternoon the King and Queen of England came to Versailles with their Court. There was a great concert; and the play-tables were set out. The supper was similar to the dinner. Afterwards the married couple were led into the apartment of the new Duchesse de Chartres. The Queen of England gave the Duchess her chemise; and the shirt of the Duke was given to him by the King, who had at first refused on the plea that he was in too unhappy circumstances. The benediction of the bed was pronounced by the Cardinal de Bouillon, who kept us all waiting for a quarter of an hour; which made people say that such airs little became a man returned as he was from a long exile, to which he had been sent because he had had the madness to refuse the nuptial benediction to Madame la Duchesse unless admitted to the royal banquet.

On Shrove Tuesday, there was a grand toilette of the Duchesse de Chartres, to which the King and all the Court came; and in the evening a grand ball, similar to that which had just taken place, except that the new Duchesse de Chartres was led out by the Duc de Bourgogne. Every one wore the same dress, and had the same partner as before.

I cannot pass over in silence a very ridiculous adventure which occurred at both of these balls. A son of Montbron, no more made to dance at Court than his father was to be chevalier of the order (to which however, he was promoted in 1688), was among the company. He had been asked if he danced well; and he had replied with a confidence which made every one hope that the contrary was the case. Every one was satisfied. From the very first bow, he became confused, and he lost step at once. He tried to divert attention from his mistake by affected attitudes, and carrying his arms high; but this made him only more ridiculous, and excited bursts of laughter, which, in despite of the respect due to the person of the King (who likewise had great difficulty to hinder himself from laughing), degenerated at length into regular hooting. On the morrow, instead of flying the Court or holding his tongue, he excused himself by saying that the presence of the King had disconcerted him; and promised marvels for the ball which was to follow. He was one of my friends, and I felt for him, I should even have warned him against a second attempt, if the very indifferent success I had met with had not made me fear that my advice would be taken in ill part. As soon as he began to dance at the second ball, those who were near stood up, those who were far off climbed wherever they could get a sight; and the, shouts of laughter were mingled with clapping of hands. Every one, even the King himself, laughed heartily, and most of us quite loud, so that I do not think any one was ever treated so before. Montbron disappeared immediately afterwards, and did not show himself again for a long time, It was a pity he exposed himself to this defeat, for he was an honourable and brave man.

Ash Wednesday put an end to all these sad rejoicings by command, and only the expected rejoicings were spoken of. M. du Maine wished to marry. The King tried to turn him from it, and said frankly to him, that it was not for such as he to make a lineage. But pressed M. by Madame de Maintenon, who had educated Maine; and who felt for him as a nurse the King resolved to marry him to a daughter of the Prince de Conde. The Prince was greatly pleased at the project. He had three daughters for M. du Maine to choose from: all three were extremely little. An inch of height, that the second had above the others, procured for her the preference, much to the grief of the eldest, who was beautiful and clever, and who dearly wished to escape from the slavery in which her father kept her. The dignity with which she bore her disappointment was admired by every one, but it cost her an effort that ruined her health. The marriage once arranged, was celebrated on the 19th of March; much in the same manner as had been that of the Duc de Chartres. Madame de Saint-Vallery was appointed lady of honour to Madame du Maine, and M. de Montchevreuil gentleman of the chamber. This last had been one of the friends of Madame de Maintenon when she was Madame Scarron. Montchevreuil was a very honest man, modest, brave, but thick-headed. His wife was a tall creature, meagre, and yellow, who laughed sillily, and showed long and ugly teeth; who was extremely devout, of a compassed mien, and who only wanted a broomstick to be a perfect witch. Without possessing any wit, she had so captivated Madame de Maintenon, that the latter saw only with her eyes. All the ladies of the Court were under her surveillance: they depended upon her for their distinctions, and often for their fortunes. Everybody, from the ministers to the daughters of the King, trembled before her. The King himself showed her the most marked consideration. She was of all the Court journeys, and always with Madame de Maintenon.

The marriage of M. du Maine caused a rupture between the Princess de Conde and the Duchess of Hanover her sister, who had strongly desired M. du Maine for one of her daughters, and who pretended that the Prince de Conde had cut the grass from under her feet. She lived in Paris, making a display quite unsuited to her rank, and had even carried it so far as to go about with two coaches and many liveried servants. With this state one day she met in the streets the coach of Madame de Bouillon, which the servants of the German woman forced to give way to their mistress's. The Bouillons, piqued to excess, resolved to be revenged. One day, when they knew the Duchess was going to the play, they went there attended by a numerous livery. Their servants had orders to pick a quarrel with those of the Duchess. They executed these orders completely; the servants of the Duchess were thoroughly thrashed—the harness of her horses cut—her coaches maltreated. The Duchess made a great fuss, and complained to the King, but he would not mix himself in the matter. She was so outraged, that she resolved to retire into Germany, and in a very few months did so.

My year of service in the Musketeers being over, the King, after a time, gave me, without purchase, a company of cavalry in the Royal Roussillon, in garrison at Mons, and just then very incomplete. I thanked the King, who replied to me very obligingly. The company was entirely made up in a fortnight. This was towards the middle of April.

A little before, that is, on the 27th of March, the King made seven new marechals of France. They were the Comte de Choiseul, the Duc de Villeroy, the Marquis de Joyeuse, Tourville, the Duc de Noailles, the Marquis de Boufllers, and Catinat. These promotions caused very great discontent. Complaint was more especially made that the Duc de Choiseul had not been named. The cause of his exclusion is curious. His wife, beautiful, with the form of a goddess—notorious for the number of her gallantries—was very intimate with the Princess de Conti. The King, not liking such a companion for his daughter, gave the Duc de Choiseul to understand that the public disorders of the Duchess offended him. If the Duke would send her into a convent, the Marechal's baton would be his. The Duc de Choiseul, indignant that the reward of his services in the war was attached to a domestic affair which concerned himself alone, refused promotion on such terms. He thus lost the baton; and, what was worse for him, the Duchess soon after was driven from Court, and so misbehaved herself, that at last he could endure her no longer, drove her away himself, and separated from her for ever.

Mademoiselle la grande Mademoiselle, as she was called, to distinguish her from the daughter of Monsieur—or to call her by her name, Mademoiselle de Montpensier, died on Sunday the 5th of April, at her palace in the Luxembourg, sixty-three years of age, and the richest private princess in Europe. She interested herself much in those who were related to her, even to the lowest degree, and wore mourning for them, however far removed. It is well known, from all the memoirs of the time, that she was greatly in love with M. de Lauzun, and that she suffered much when the King withheld his permission to their marriage. M. de Lauzun was so enraged, that he could not contain himself, and at last went so far beyond bounds, that he was sent prisoner to Pignerol, where he remained, extremely ill-treated, for ten years. The affection of Mademoiselle did not grow cold by separation. The King profited by it, to make M. de Lauzun buy his liberty at her expense, and thus enriched M. du Maine. He always gave out that he had married Mademoiselle, and appeared before the King, after her death, in a long cloak, which gave great displeasure. He also assumed ever afterwards a dark brown livery, as an external expression of his grief for Mademoiselle, of whom he had portraits everywhere. As for Mademoiselle, the King never quite forgave her the day of Saint Antoine; and I heard him once at supper reproach her in jest, for having fired the cannons of the Bastille upon his troops. She was a little embarrassed, but she got out of the difficulty very well.

Her body was laid out with great state, watched for several days, two hours at a time, by a duchess or a princess, and by two ladies of quality. The Comtesse de Soissons refused to take part in this watching, and would not obey until the King threatened to dismiss her from the Court. A very ridiculous accident happened in the midst of this ceremony. The urn containing the entrails fell over, with a frightful noise and a stink sudden and intolerable. The ladies, the heralds, the psalmodists, everybody present fled, in confusion. Every one tried to gain the door first. The entrails had been badly embalmed, and it was their fermentation which caused the accident. They were soon perfumed and put in order, and everybody laughed at this mishap. These entrails were in the end carried to the Celestins, the heart to Val de Grace, and the body to the Cathedral of Saint Denis, followed by a numerous company.



CHAPTER III

On May 3d 1693, the King announced his intention of placing himself at the head of his army in Flanders, and, having made certain alterations in the rule of precedence of the marechale of France, soon after began the campaign. I have here, however, to draw attention to my private affairs, for on the above-mentioned day, at ten o'clock in the morning, I had the misfortune to lose my father. He was eighty-seven years of age, and had been in bad health for some time, with a touch of gout during the last three weeks. On the day in question he had dined as usual with his friends, had retired to bed, and, while talking to those around him there, all at once gave three violent sighs. He was dead almost before it was perceived that he was ill; there was no more oil in the lamp.

I learned this sad news after seeing the King to bed; his Majesty was to purge himself on the morrow. The night was given to the just sentiments of nature; but the next day I went early to visit Bontems, and then the Duc de Beauvilliers, who promised to ask the King, as soon as his curtains were opened, to grant me the—offices my father had held. The King very graciously complied with his request, and in the afternoon said many obliging things to me, particularly expressing his regret that my father had not been able to receive the last sacraments. I was able to say that a very short time before, my father had retired for several days to Saint Lazare, where was his confessor, and added something on the piety of his life. The King exhorted me to behave well, and promised to take care of me. When my father was first taken ill; several persons, amongst others, D'Aubigne, brother of Madame de Maintenon, had asked for the governorship of Blaye. But the King refused them all, and said very bluntly to D'Aubigne, "Is there not a son?" He had, in fact, always given my father to understand I should succeed him, although generally he did not allow offices to descend from father to son.

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