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Military Instructors Manual
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MILITARY INSTRUCTORS MANUAL

by

CAPTAIN JAMES P. COLE, 59th INFANTRY Instructor 3rd Battalion, 17th Provisional Training Regiment, Plattsburg, N.Y.

and

MAJOR OLIVER SCHOONMAKER, 76th DIVISION Assistant Instructor 3rd Battalion, 17th Provisional Training Regiment, Plattsburg, N.Y.



TO COLONEL WOLF

Under whose careful supervision so many have received their Military Training in order that they may show the world in battle the true spirit of American manhood.



Acknowledgment.

To have prepared this book within the time allotted to it, without the assistance of Candidates ALCOTT FARRAR ELWELL and LYLE MILTON PROUSE would have been impossible, and grateful recognition is made of their services. Not only much of the manual labor, but the preparation of entire chapters, has been in their hands.

Candidates CHARLES HUNTINGTON JACOBS and MICHAEL FRANCIS MCALEER have rendered very valuable assistance and we wish to thank the following candidates for the loan of materials used elsewhere, for typewriting and other work:

GLENN MACK AINSWORTH. PHILIP M. BROWN. NELSON P. BUMP. EDWIN G. BURROWS. PHILIP DOREMUS. WALTER LANE HARDENBROOK. ALBERT BLANCHARD KELLOGG. HENRY PRATT MCKEAN. LOREN RAY PIERCE. HARRY RAPHAEL SAFTEL. ROLAND EMERY PACKARD. HOYT SHERMAN.



Introduction.

The officer of to-day has big problems to face at short notice. His training has necessarily been so intensive that he cannot absorb a large amount of it. He has little time to make out schedules or even to look over the hasty notes he may have made during his training period, yet he finds himself facing problems which force him to immediate action.

This book so condenses and systematizes general military instruction and the work done at Plattsburg so that it may be easily utilized in training other troops. No broad claim for originality is made except in the arrangement of all available material; the bibliography makes acknowledgment to all texts so utilized. Besides bringing helpful reminders to new officers regarding the elements of modern warfare, much of the material will be found of radical importance, as it is practically new and never before condensed. Since under the new army organization the platoon leader virtually has assumed the roll of a captain of a company, it is not enough for him to know simply his own part; he must be ready with all the information that his non-commissioned officers and men should know, and more important still, he must know how to teach them. Having little or no time to work over and digest for himself this mass of new material pouring in upon him, the officer may find in this book, material condensed and already arranged.

It is hoped that this work will serve to recall to many officers, valuable points of military training which would otherwise be lost, to them in the mass of notes never looked at since the day they were made. More than this, every reader will find help in planning his work, saving thereby precious hours already too full of necessary duties, and will find fresh material for progress in the game of war.

It is the purpose of this book to help men who are in the service of the United States, and through them to share in bringing victory.



Table of Contents.

PAGE.

Chapter 1. SCHEDULES 1

Chapter 2. INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS 31

Chapter 3. PHYSICAL TRAINING 91 VOICE CULTURE.

Chapter 4. USE OF MODERN ARMS 105 1. S.A.F.M. 2. Range Practice. 3. Pistol. 4. Bayonet. 5. Machine Guns. 6. Grenade Instruction.

Chapter 5. MAP SKETCHING 143

Chapter 6. ARTICLES OF WAR. (Courts-Martial.) 161

Chapter 7. ARMY REGULATIONS 175

Chapter 8. PRACTICE MARCHES 187 FIELD WORK.

Chapter 9. FEEDING MEN 213 CAMPING AND CAMP SANITATION.

Chapter 10. PERSONAL HYGIENE 221 FIRST AID.

Chapter 11. SIGNALING 229

Chapter 12. GUARD DUTY 237

Chapter 13. COMPANY ADMINISTRATION 245

Chapter 14. CONFERENCES 259 Study. Small Problems in Infantry. Examinations.

Chapter 15. TRENCH WARFARE 287 1. General Principles. 2. Siting Trenches. 3. Construction. 4. Occupation.

CONCLUSION 396

BIBLIOGRAPHY 397

CHAPTER INDEX 403



CHAPTER 1.

Schedules.

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., August 27 to September 1, 1917

Organization. Issue of Equipment. Drill Organization of Drill Physical Barracks I.D.R. M.P.T. ==================== ================ ================= Monday, Aug. 27 7.00-12.00 a.m. 1.30-4.30 p.m. =================== ================ ================== Tuesday, Aug. 28 Without arms 8.00-8.30 a.m. 7.00-8.00 a.m. pgs. 1-30 pars 48-73 - 8.30-10.30 a.m. pars. 101-132 ==================== ================ ================= With arms 7.00-8.00 a.m. pars 48-100 8.00-8.30 a.m. Wednesday, Aug. 29 - pgs. 1-33 8.30-10.30 a.m. par. 101-132 =================== ================ ================== 7.00-8.00 a.m. 8.00-8.30 a.m. par. 48-100 pgs. 1-36 Thursday, Aug. 30 8.30-9.30 a.m. pars. 101-132 9.30-10.30 a.m. pars. 159-198 ==================== ================ ================= 7.00-8.00 a.m. 8.00-8.30 a.m. par. 48-100 pgs. 1-39 Friday, Aug. 31 8.30-9.30 a.m. pars. 101-132 9.30-10.30 a.m. pars. 159-198 =================== =================================== Saturday, Sept. 1. As prescribed by Senior Instructors. =================== ====================================

Musketry Practice Training March S.A.F.M. Study Conferences ================ ============== ============== ================= 7.00-9.00 p.m. par. 1-21 par. 48-73- 101-132 I.D.R. ================= ============== ============ ================ 1.30-3.30 p.m. par. 1-21 S.A.F.M. 2.30-4.30 p.m. Care of arms and 7.00-9.00 p.m. equipment par. 74-100 I.D.R. ================ ============== ============== ================= 2.30-3.30 p.m. par. 1-31 Without arms 1.30-2.30 p.m. S.A.F.M. 3.30-4.30 p.m. 10.45-11.45 a.m. par. 1-21 Assembling and 7.00-9.00 p.m. adjusting pack par. 159-198 I.D.R. ================= ============== ============ ================ 10.45-11.45 a.m. 1.30-2.30 p.m. 7.00-9.00 p.m. 2.30-4.30 p.m. With arms par. 1-31 par. 159-198 Assembling and I.D.R. adjusting pack ================ ============== ============== ================= With arms and 7.00-9.00 p.m. 3.30-4.30 p.m. light pack 1.30-3.30 p.m. par. 199-257- Military 10.45-11.45 a.m. par. 1-31 758-765 Courtesy I.D.R. ================= ============== ============ ================

======================================================================

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., September 3 to September 8, 1917

Drill Drill Physical I.D.R. M.P.T. =================== ============== ================= Monday, Sept. 3 7.00-8.30 a.m. 3.30-4.00 p.m. pars. 101-158 pgs. 1-42 159-193 =================== ============== ================= Tuesday, Sept. 4 7.00-8.30 a.m. 3.30-4.00 p.m. pars. 48-100 pgs. 1-45 158-198 =================== ============== ================= Wednesday, Sept. 5 7.00-8.30 a.m. 3.30-4.00 p.m. pars. 101-158 pgs. 1-48 158-198 =================== ============== ================= Thursday, Sept. 6 7.00-8.30 a.m. 3.30-4.30 p.m. pars. 48-100 pgs. 1-52 159-198 =================== ============== ================= Friday, Sept. 7 7.00-8.30 a.m. 3.30-4.00 p.m. pars. 101-158 pgs. 1-55 159-198 =================== ==================================== Saturday, Sept. 8 As prescribed by Senior Instructor. =================== =====================================

Musketry Companies Training Semaphore Practice March S.A.F.M. Signalling Full Kit ================ ============== ============== 8.45-9.45 a.m. par. 1-31 9.45-10.45 a.m. ================ ================ ================ 10.00-11.00 a.m. par. 1-31 11.00-11.30 a.m. 8.45-9.45 a.m. ================ ============== ============== 8.45-9.45 p.m. par. 1-31 9.45-10.15 a.m. ================ ================ ================ 10.30-11.30 a.m. par. 1-31 8.45-10.15 a.m. ================ ============== ============== 8.45-9.45 a.m. par. 1-31 9.45-10.15 a.m. ================ ================ ================

======================================================

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., September 3 to September 8, 1917—(Concluded)

Grenade Instruction [A] Bayonet Drill ================== ======================== ================== 4.00-4.30 p.m. Lesson 1 Monday, Sept. 3 11.00-11.30 a.m. Notes on Bayonet Training ================== ======================== ================== 4.00-4.30 p.m. Lessons 1 and 2 Tuesday, Sept. 4 11.30-12.00 m. Notes on Bayonet Training ================== ======================== ================== 4.00-4.30 p.m. Lessons 1 and 3 Wednesday, Sept. 5 10.30-11.00 a.m. Notes on Bayonet Training ================== ======================== ================== 4.00-4.30 p.m. Lessons 1 and 4 Thursday, Sept. 6 11.30-12.00 m. Notes on Bayonet Training ================== ======================== ================== 4.00-4.30 p.m. Lessons 1 and 5 Friday, Sept. 7 10.30-11.00 a.m. Notes on Bayonet Training ================== ======================== ================== Saturday, Sept. 8 As prescribed by Senior Instructor. ================== ============================================

Voice Culture Conferences Study ================== ======================== ==================== 7.00-9.00 p.m. 1.30-3.30 p.m. pars. 1-158 I.D.R 11.30-12.00 m. par. 1-100 I.D.R. pgs. 7-46 pgs. 7-46 M.G.D. M.G.D. ================== ======================== ==================== 7.00-9.00 p.m. 1.30-3.30 p.m. par. 159-174 I.D.R. pars. 101-158 I.D.R. pgs. 47-88 pgs. 7-88 M.G.D. M.G.D. ================== ======================== ==================== Physical Exam. 7.00-9.00 p.m. 1.30-3.30 p.m. par. 175-198 I.D.R. 11.00-12.00 m. pars. 159-174 part III U.S. part 5, 6, 10, 19 Signal Book U.S.S.B. ================== ======================== ==================== 7.00-9.00 p.m. 1.30-3.30 p.m. par. 792-798 I.D.R. pars. 175-198, 1-61 par. 1-61 S.A.F.M. S.A.F.M. ================== ======================== ==================== 1.30-3.30 p.m. 7.00-9.00 p.m. 11.00-12.00 m. pars. 792-798 I.D.R. par. 199-220 1-61 1-61 S.A.F.M. S.A.F.M. ================== ======================== ====================

==================================================================

[Footnote A: As prescribed by Senior Grenade Instructor.]

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., September 10 to September 15, 1917

Drill Musketry Training I.D.R. S.A.F.M. ==================== ==================== =================== 7.00-7.30 a.m. pars. 133-150 8.30-9.30 a.m. pars. 35-43 Monday, Sept. 10 7.30-8.00 a.m. Sight setting pars. 123-127 and loadings 8.00-8.30 a.m. pars. 159-198 =================== ================== ================== 9.30-10.30 a.m. pars. 35-51 Tuesday, Sept. 11 Same as for Monday Sight setting and loadings ==================== ==================== =================== Wednesday, Sept. 12 7.00-8.00 a.m. 8.30-9.30 p.m. pars. 199-211 pars. 35-57 Sight setting 8.00-8.30 a.m. and loadings pars. 159-198 =================== ================== ================== 7.00-8.00 a.m. Thursday, Sept. 13 pars. 199-224 10.00-11.00 a.m. pars. 35-60 8.00-8.30 a.m. Sight setting pars. 159-198 and loadings ==================== ==================== =================== 7.00-8.30 a.m. 8.30-9.30 a.m. Friday, Sept. 14 pars. 159-224 pars. 35-61 Sight setting and loadings =================== ================== ================== Saturday, Sept. 15 As prescribed by Senior Instructors. ==============================================================

First Aid Manual, Signaling N.C.O's and Morse Code Practice March Privates (wig wag) Full Kit ==================== ==================== ================== 9.30-10.30 a.m. Wounds 10.30-11.00 a.m. pgs. 286-288 ================== ================ ================ 10.30-11.00 a.m. 8.30-9.30 a.m. ==================== ==================== ================== 9.30-10.30 a.m. Fractures 10.30-11.00 a.m. pgs. 288-290 ================== ================ ================ 8.30-10.00 a.m. ==================== ==================== ================== 9.30-10.00 a.m. Resuscitation 10.00-11.00 a.m. pgs. 290-296 ================== ================ ================

============================================================

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., September 10 to September 15, 1917—(Concluded)

Grenade Instruction Drill, Physical [B] M.P.T. ===================== ===================== ================= 3.30-4.00 p.m. Monday, Sept. 10 11.00-11.30 a.m. pgs. 1-58 pgs. 133-134 ===================== ===================== ================= 3.30-4.00 p.m. Tuesday, Sept. 11 11.00-11.30 a.m. pgs. 1-61 pgs. 133-134 ===================== ===================== ================= Wednesday, Sept. 12 11.00-11.30 a.m. 3.30-4.00 p.m. pgs. 1-64 pgs. 133-134 ===================== ===================== ================= 3.30-4.00 p.m. Thursday, Sept. 13 11.00-11.30 a.m. pgs. 1-67 pgs. 133-134 ===================== ===================== ================= 3.30-4.00 p.m. Friday, Sept. 14 11.00-11.30 a.m. pgs. 1-70 pgs. 133-134 ===================== ======================================= Saturday, Sept. 15 As prescribed by Senior Instructors. ==============================================================

Bayonet Drill Conference Study ============== ==================== =========================== 1.30-2.30 p.m. Mon. 7.00-8.00 p.m. pars. 123-127, pars. 123-127, 199-223 I.D.R. 199-223 I.D.R. 4.00-4.30 p.m. 2.30-3.30 p.m. 8.00-9.00 p.m. pars. 32-61 S.A.F.M. pars. 32-61 S.A.F.M. =============== ====================== ===================== 7.00-8.00 p.m. 1.30-3.30 p.m. pars. 225-248 I.D.R. 4.00-4.30 p.m. pars. 225-248 I.D.R. pgs. 5-11 8.00-9.00 p.m. Notes on pgs. 5-11 Bayonet Training Notes on Bayonet Training =============== ====================== ==== =================== 1.30-3.30 p.m. Tues. 7.00-9.00 p.m. pars. 249-257 I.D.R. pars. 249-257 I.D.R. 4.00-4.30 p.m. pgs. 12-19 pgs. 12-19 Notes on Notes on Bayonet Training Bayonet Training =============== ==================== ==== ===================== 1.30-2.30 p.m. Wed. 7.00-8.00 p.m. Patrolling, messages, Patrolling, messages, orders, etc. orders, etc. 4.00-4.30 p.m. pgs. 12-24 F.S.R. pgs. 12-24 F.S.R. 2.30-3.30 p.m. 8.00-9.00 p.m. Notes on Notes on Grenade Warfare Grenade Warfare =============== ====================== ==== =================== 1.30-2.30 p.m. Thurs. 7.00-8.00 p.m. Advance and Advance and Rear Guards Rear Guards pgs. 25-34 F.S.R. pgs. 25-24 F.S.R. 4.00-4.30 p.m. 2.30-3.30 p.m. 8.00-9.00 p.m. Training & Training & Employment of Employment of Bombers Bombers ===================================================================

===================================================================

[Footnote B: As prescribed by Senior Grenade Instructor.]

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., September 17 to September 22, 1917

Drill, I.D.R. Musketry Training S.A.F.M. ==================== ================ ================= Monday, Sept. 17 7.00-8.00 a.m. 8.00-8.30 a.m. pars. 48-198 pars. 32-61 close order only =================== ============== ================ Tuesday, Sept. 18 7.00-8.00 a.m. 8.00-8.30 a.m. pars. 48-198 pars. 32-61 close order only ==================== ================ ================= Wednesday, Sept. 19 7.00-8.00 a.m. 8.00-8.30 a.m. pars. 48-198 pars. 32-61 close order only =================== ============== ================ Thursday, Sept. 20 7.00-8.00 a.m. 8.00-8.30 a.m. pars. 48-198 pars. 32-70 close order only ==================== ================ ================= Friday, Sept. 21 7.00-8.00 a.m. 8.00-8.30 a.m. pars. 48-198 pars. 32-70 close order only =================== ============== ================ Saturday, Sept. 22 As prescribed by Senior Instructors. ============================================================

Drill, Physical Sketching Study M.P.T. [C] ================== ================ ====================== 8.30-9.00 a.m. 9.00-11.30 a.m. 7.00-9.00 p.m. pgs. 1-73, 133-134 1.30-4.30 p.m. pgs. 20-34 Notes on Bayonet Training pars. 232-257, I.D.R. pars. 258-276, I.D.R. ================== ================ ====================== 8.30-9.00 a.m. 9.00-11.30 a.m. 7.00-9.00 p.m. pgs. 1-76, 133-134 1.30-4.30 p.m. Outposts pgs. 35-42, F.S.R. pars. 277-289, I.D.R. ================== ================ ====================== 8.30-9.00 a.m. 9.00-11.30 a.m. 7.00-9.00 p.m. pgs. 1-79, 133-184 1.30-4.30 p.m. Orders pgs. 43-50, F.S.R. pars. 290-326, I.D.R. ================== ================ ====================== 8.30-9.00 a.m. 9.00-11.30 a.m. 7.00-9.00 p.m. pgs. 1-82, 133-132 1.30-4:30 p.m. Marches pgs. 51-65, F.S.R. pars. 1-9, 14-18, E.F.M. ================== ================ ====================== 8.30-9.00 a.m. 9.00-11:30 a.m. 7.00-9.00 p.m. pgs. 1-85, 133-134 1.30-4.30 p.m. pars. 37-42, 61-72, 101-109, E.F.M. ============================================================

============================================================

[Footnote C: As prescribed by Senior Instructor in Sketching.]

September 24-29, 1917. CONSTRUCTION OF TRENCHES.

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., October 1 to October 6, 1917.

Drill, I.D.R. Physical M.P.T. ================ ============== ==================== Monday, Oct. 1 1/2 hour 1/2 hour pars. 48-198 pgs. 86-89 and 142 Arm Combinations ================== ================ ==================== Tuesday, Oct. 2 Company 1/2 hour 1/2 hour pgs. 90-93 and 142 pars. 48-198 Arm Combinations ================ ============== ==================== Wednesday, Oct. 3 Battalion 1/2 hour 1/2 hour pgs. 90-93 and 142 pars. 258-289 Arm Combinations ================== ================ ==================== Thursday. Oct. 4 Battalion 1/2 hour 1/2 hour pgs. 17-93 and 142 pars. 258-289 Arm Combinations ================ ============== ==================== Friday, Oct. 5 Battalion 1/2 hour 1/2 hour pgs. 17-93 and 142 pars. 258-289 Arm Combinations ================== ======================================= Saturday, Oct. 6 As prescribed by Senior Instructors. ===========================================================

Bayonet Range Practice Signalling [D] [E] ========== ================== ================= 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ========= ================ ================ 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1 hour 1.15-4.15 p.m. Semaphore and Wigwag ========== ================== ================= 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ========= ================ ================ 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1 hour 1.15-4.15 p.m. Semaphore and Wigwag ========== ================== ================= 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ===============================================

===============================================

[Footnote D: Per Bayonet Program.]

[Footnote E: Per schedule Senior Instructor Musketry Training.]

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., October 1 to October 6, 1917—(Concluded)

Field Work Pistol ================ ============ ======================= Monday, Oct. 1 1 hour 1/2 hour Patrolling Nomenclature 1/2 hour Manual ================== ============ ===================== Tuesday, Oct. 2 Same as for Monday ================ ============ ======================= Wednesday, Oct. 3 1 hour 1/2 hour Patrolling Manual 1/2 hour Position and Aiming ================== ============ ===================== Thursday, Oct. 4 Same as for Wednesday ================ ============ ======================= Friday, Oct. 5 1 hour Same as for Wednesday Patrolling ================== ============ ===================== Saturday, Oct. 6 As prescribed by Senior Instructors. ================ =====================================

Conference Study ======================== ======================== ====== 2 hours 7.00-9.00 p.m. pars. 258-274, I.D.R. pars. 263-285, I.D.R. Prob. 1 to Situation 3. Problem 1, S.P.I. S.P.I. ========================== ========================== ====== 2 hours 7.00-9.00 p.m. pars. 275-285, I.D.R. pars. 286-304, I.D.R. Situation 3, Prob. 1, to Problem 2, S.P.I. end of Problem, S.P.I. ======================== ======================== ====== 2 hours 7.00-9.00 p.m. pars. 286-304, I.D.R. pars. 305-326, I.D.R. Problem 2, S.P.I. Problem 3 to Situation 4 S.P.I. ========================== ========================== ====== 2 hours 7.00-9.00 p.m. pars. 305-326, I.D.R. pars. 327-349, I.D.R. Prob. 3 to Situation 4, Situation 4, Problem 3 to S.P.I. end of Problem, S.P.I. ======================== ======================== ====== 2 hours 7.00-9.00 p.m. pars. 327-349, I.D.R. Per later Situation 4, Prob. 3, to announcement end of Problem, S.P.I. ========================== ========================== ======

==============================================================

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., October 8 to October 13, 1917.

Drill, I.D.R. Physical Drill M.P.T. ==================== ============= ===================== Monday, October 8 1 hour pars. 48-289 1 hour 1/2 hour pars. 123-158 pgs. 17-93, 133-142 199-224 ==================== ============= ===================== Tuesday, October 9 1 hour pars. 48-289 1 hour 1/2 hour pars. 123-158 pgs. 17-93, 133-142 199-224 ==================== ============= ===================== Wednesday, October 10 1/2 hour pars. 48-289 1 hour 1/2 hour pars. 123-158 pgs. 17-93, 133-142 199-224 ==================== ============= ===================== Thursday, October 11 1 hour pars. 48-289 1 hour 1/2 hour pars. 123-158 pgs. 17-93, 133-142 199-224 ==================== ============= ===================== Friday, October 12 ==================== ============= ===================== Saturday, October 13 As prescribed by Senior Instructors. =============================================================

Bayonet Range Practice Signaling [F] [G] ========== ================ =========== 1/2 hour 7-30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ========= ================ ============ 1/2 hour 7-30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ========== ================ =========== 1/2 hour 7-30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. 1/2 hour ========= ================ ============ 1/2 hour 7-30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ========== ================ =========== =========================================

=========================================

[Footnote F: Per Bayonet Program.]

[Footnote G: Rifle, pistol, machine gun, estimating distances, etc., as prescribed by Senior Instructor Musketry Training.]

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., October 8 to October 13, 1917—(Concluded)

Field Work (Company) [H] Conferences ==================== =================== ========================= Monday, October 8 2 hours Prob. 4 to Situation 5 exclusive, S.P.I. pars. 596-622, I.D.R. ====================== ===================== ========================= Tuesday, October 9 2 hours Situation 5, Prob. 4 to end of Problem, S.P.I. pars. 623-660, I.D.R. ==================== =================== ========================= Wednesday, October 10 2 hours Problem 5, S.P.I. pars. 661-677, I.D.R. ====================== ===================== ========================= Thursday, October 11 2 hours Problem 6, S.P.I. pars. 678-707, I.D.R. ==================== =================== ========================= Friday, October 12 7.00-11.30 a.m. 1.30-4.30 p.m. Advance and rear guards, outposts, patroling, messages and orders ====================== =============================================== Saturday, October 13 As prescribed by Senior Instructors. ====================== ================================================

Study ====================== ====== ======= 7.00-9.00 p.m. Problem 4, S.P.I pars. 596-660, I.D.R. ======================= ====== ====== 7.00-9.00 p.m. Problem 5, S.P.I. pars. 661-677, I.D.R. ====================== ====== ======= 7.00-9.00 p.m. Problem 6, S.P.I. pars. 678-707, I.D.R. ======================= ====== ====== 7.00-9.00 p.m. Problem 7 to Situation 5, exclusive pars. 350-370, I.D.R. ====================== ====== ======= 7.00-9.00 p.m. as per later announcement ======================= ====== ======

======================= ======= =======

[Footnote H: To include conferences and critique on the ground of exercise conducted.]

October 15-17, 1917. CONSTRUCTION OF TRENCHES. October 18-19, 1917. OCCUPATION OF THE TRENCHES FROM 8.00 A.M. October 18, 1917 TO 8.00 A.M. October 19, 1917. October 20, 1917. 7.30 A.M.-11 A.M. CONFERENCE OF TRENCH OCCUPATION, 11 A.M. INSPECTION.

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., October 22 to October 27, 1917

Drill, I.D.R. Physical Drill M.P.T. ==================== ============= ===================== Monday, October 22 1 hour 1/2 hour pars. 48-289 pgs. 17-93 pg. 149 ==================== ============= ===================== Tuesday, October 23 1 hour 1/2 hour pars. 48-289 pgs. 17-93 pg. 149 ==================== ============= ===================== Wednesday, October 24 1 hour 1/2 hour pars. 48-289 pgs. 17-93 pg. 149 ==================== ============= ===================== Thursday, October 25 1 hour 1/2 hour pars. 48-289 pgs. 17-93 pg. 149 ==================== ============= ===================== Friday, October 26 ==================== ============= ===================== Saturday, October 27 As prescribed by Senior Instructors. =============================================================

Bayonet Range Practice Signaling [I] [J] ============ ============== ======== 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ============ ============== ======== 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ============ ============== ======== 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1/2 hour 1.15-4.15 p.m. ============ ============== ======== 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ============ ============== ======== ============ ============== ========

============================================

[Footnote I: Per Bayonet Program.]

[Footnote J: Rifle, pistol, machine gun, estimating distances, etc., as prescribed by Senior Instructor of Musketry Training.]

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., October 22 to October 27, 1917—(Concluded)

Field Work [K] Conferences ====================== ============ ======================== Monday, October 22 2 hours pars. 350-370, I.D.R. Review Problems 1-6 S.P.I. ====================== ============ ======================== Tuesday, October 23 2 hours pars. 371-401, I.D.R Prob. 7 to Situation 5 S.P.I. ====================== ============ ======================== Wednesday, October 24 2 hours pars. 402-442, I.D.R. Situation 6, Prob. 7 to end of prob. ====================== ============ ======================== Thursday, October 25 2 hours pars. 442-494, I.D.R. Problem 8, S.P.I. ====================== ============ ======================== Friday, October 26 7.00-11.30 a.m. 1.30-4.30 p.m. Companies in attack and defense (to include siting of trenches) ====================== ============ ======================== Saturday, October 27 As prescribed by Senior Instructors. ====================== ========================================

Study ======================== ======== ========= 3 hours 1 hour daily and 7.00-9.00 p.m. pars. 371-401, I.D.R. Prob. 7 to Situation 5, S.P.I. ======================== ======== ======== 3 hours 1 hour daily and 7.00-9.00 p.m. pars. 402-441, I.D.R. Situation 6, Prob. 7 to end of Prob. S.P.I. ======================== ======== ======== 3 hours 1 hour daily and 7.00-9.00 p.m. pars. 442-494, I.D.R. Prob. 8, S.P.I. ======================== ======== ======== 3 hours 1 hour daily and 7.00-9.00 p.m. pars. 495-536, I.D.R. Problem 9, S.P.I. ======================== ======== ======== 7.00-9.00 p.m. as per later announcement ======================== ======== ========

======================== ======== ========

[Footnote K: To include conferences and critique on the ground of exercise conducted.]

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., October 29 to November 3, 1917

Drill Physical Drill ====================== ================ ================= Monday, October 29 1 hour 1/2 hour Attack Formation [Trench] ======================= ================ ================ Tuesday, October 30 1 hour 1/2 hour Attack Formation [Trench] ====================== ================ ================= Wednesday, October 31 1 hour 1/2 hour Attack Formation [Trench] ======================= ================ ================ Thursday, November 1 1 hour 1/2 hour Attack Formation [Trench] ====================== ================ ================= Friday, November 2 ======================= ================ ================= Saturday, November 3 As prescribed by Senior Instructors. ======================= ======================================

Bayonet Signaling Range Practice [L] [M] ============ ======== ================ 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ============ ======== ================ 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ============ ======== ================ 1/2 hour 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ============ ======== ================ 1/2 hour 7.30-11.30 a.m. 1.15-4.15 p.m. ============ ======== ================ ============ ======== ================

============================================

[Footnote L: Per Bayonet Program.]

[Footnote M: Rifle, pistol, machine gun, estimating distances, etc., as prescribed by Senior Instructor of Musketry Training.]

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP Plattsburg, N.Y., October 29 to November 3, 1917—(Concluded)

Field Work Conferences [N] ==================== ==================== ======================= Monday, October 29 2 hours pars. 495-536, I.D.R. Problem 9, S.P.I. ====================== ==================== ===================== Tuesday, October 30 2 hours Problem 10, S.P.I. Battle Fire Training (lesson scheduled later) ==================== ==================== ======================= Wednesday, October 31 2 hours Problem 11, S.P.I. Battle Fire Training (lesson scheduled later) ====================== ==================== ===================== Thursday, November 1 2 hours Problem 12, S.P.I. Battle Fire Training (lesson scheduled later) ==================== ==================== ======================= Friday, November 2 Battalions in attack and defense (Field Kit) ====================== ==================== ===================== Saturday, November 3 As prescribed by Senior Instructors. ==================== =============================================

Study ======================== ====== ======== 3 hours 1 hour daily and 7.00-9.00 p.m. Problem 10, S.P.I. Battle Fire Training (lesson scheduled later) ======================== ====== ======== 3 hours 1 hour daily and 7.00-9.00 p.m. Problem 11, S.P.I. Battle Fire Training (lesson scheduled later) ======================== ====== ======== 3 hours 1 hour daily and 7.00-9.00 p.m. Problem 12, S.P.I. Battle Fire Training (lesson scheduled later) ======================== ====== ======== 3 hours 1 hour daily and 7.00-9.00 p.m. Problem 13, S.P.I. Battle Fire Training (lesson scheduled later) ======================== ====== ======== 7.00-9.00 p.m. as per later announcement[O] ======================== ====== ========

======================== ====== ========

[Footnote N: To include conferences and critique on the ground of exercise conducted.]

[Footnote O: During the week each Battalion will be given 1/2 day's instruction in camouflage under direction Senior Engineer Instructor.]

SCHEDULES.

November 5th-9th, 1917.

Infantry Drill Regulations, 2 hours. March in full kit, 2-1/2 hours. Signaling, 1/2 hour. Physical drill, 2-1/2 hours, Bayonet, 2-1/2 hours, Machine gun instruction, 7-1/2 hours. Field fortification, 10 hours. Conferences, 10 hours. Study, 10 hours. In the study and conferences the following will be taken up: Manual of Courts-Martial—pp. 305 to end. First Aid. Personal Hygiene. Camp Sanitation.

November 12th-17th, 1917.

Physical, drill, 2-1/2 hours. Bayonet drill, 2-1/2 hours. Battalion ceremonies, 1-1/2 hours. Battalion march, full kit, 2-1/2 hours. Field fortification and trench warfare, 23 hours. Study and conferences, 10 hours. In the study and conference's the following will be taken up: Trench Warfare. Grenades Gas Attack and Defense. Communication.

November 19th-23rd, 1917.

Physical, drill, 2-1/2 hours. Bayonet drill, 2-1/2 hours. Infantry Drill Regulations, 2-1/2 hours. Company administration and Army regulations, 40 hours. Ceremonies, parades and reviews, 5 hours.



CHAPTER 2.

Infantry Drill Regulations.

The greatest lesson of the present war is that the keynote of success is discipline. In trenches the direct control of the men is even less than in extended order in open warfare, and only thoroughly disciplined troops with a trusted leader can hope to succeed.

The successful officer will show anger or irritation only in rare cases, and then by design: he will know his men individually and be as considerate of them as possible, ready to do himself what he asks to have done; just in administering punishments; clear in giving his commands and insistent that they be carried out promptly; he will learn from drilling his men the quickest way a desired result can be accomplished, and to give the necessary commands in the most effective manner.

He will read his Infantry Drill Regulations through each month and will always find something that he never knew or has forgotten. He will always consult it before going to drill. In explaining movements he will use blackboard diagrams in conferences. On the field he will take the fewest possible men and have movement executed by the numbers properly before the other men. Then have all the men go through the movement a number of times.

The object of each exercise or drill should be explained to the men whenever possible.

"Success in battle is the ultimate object of all military training."

School of the Soldier.

INSTRUCTION WITHOUT ARMS.

The object of the facings and marchings is to give the soldier complete control of his body in drills so that he can move easily and promptly at any command.

Attention.

POSITION OF ATTENTION.—This is the position a soldier assumes when in ranks or whenever the command attention is given.

In the training of anyone nothing equals the importance of a proper posture; it is the very foundation upon which the entire fabric of any successful training must be founded.

Instructors must persist in the development of this position until the men assume it from habit.

At the command, 1. Company (Squad, etc.), 2. Attention, the following position is assumed:

1. HEELS TOGETHER AND ON A LINE.—If the heels are not on a line, the hips and sometimes even the shoulders, are thrown out of line. 2. FEET TURNED OUT EQUALLY, FORMING AN ANGLE OF 45 DEGREES.—If the feet are not turned out equally, the result will be the same as above. 3. KNEES EXTENDED WITHOUT STIFFNESS.—Muscles should be contracted just enough to keep the knees straight. If locked, men tire easily and faint if at attention a long time. 4. THE TRUNK ERECT UPON THE HIPS, the spine extended throughout its entire length; the buttocks well forward. The position of the trunk, spine and buttocks is most essential. In extending the spine the men must feel that the trunk is being stretched up from the waist until the back is as straight as it can be made. In stretching the spine the chest should be arched and raised, without, however, raising the shoulders or interfering with natural respiration. 5. SHOULDERS FALLING NATURALLY and moved back until they are square. Being square, means having the shoulder ridge and the point of the shoulder at right angles to a general anterior-posterior plane running through the body. They should never be forced back of this plane, but out rather in line with it. 6. ARMS HANGING NATURALLY, thumbs against the seams of the trousers, fingers extended, and back of hand turned out. The arms must not be forcibly extended nor held rigidly; if they are, a compensating faulty curve will occur in the lumbar region. 7. HEAD ERECT, CHIN RAISED until neck is vertical, eyes fixed upon some object at their own height. Every tendency to draw the chin in must be counteracted. 8. When this position is correctly assumed, the men will be taught to incline the body forward until the weight rests chiefly upon the balls of the feet, heels resting lightly upon the ground. When properly assumed, a vertical line drawn from the top of the head should pass in front of the ear, shoulder and thighs, and find its base at the balls of the feet. Every tendency toward rigidity must be avoided; all muscles are contracted only enough to maintain this position, which is one of co-ordination, of physical and mental alertness, that makes for mobility, activity and grace. A man who faints standing at attention has not taken the proper position.

Rests.

POSITION OF REST AND AT EASE.—When men are standing at rest or at ease they must be cautioned to avoid assuming any position that will nullify the object of the position of Attention. Standing on one leg, folding arms, allowing shoulders or head to droop forward, must be discountenanced persistently until the men form the habit of resting with feet separated but on the same line, hands elapsed behind the back,—head, shoulders and trunk erect, (m.p.t., pp. 21 and 22.)

FALL OUT.—Leave ranks. REST.—One foot in place. Can talk. AT EASE.—One foot in place. Silence. PARADE REST.—Do not slouch down on right foot. Keep chest well up. EYES RIGHT, 2. FRONT.—Have it snappy. RIGHT FACE.—To face in marching and advance, turn on the ball of either foot and step off with the other foot in the new line of direction. (Do not confuse with the ordinary command, "Right Face.") RIGHT HALF FACE.—45 degrees, used to show position in Right Oblique. ABOUT FACE.—Have weight well back. Not necessary to move right foot after turn is made. HAND SALUTE.—Manner of rendering is index to manner in which all other duties are performed. FORWARD MARCH.—Shift weight to right foot, mentally. DOUBLE TIME, MARCH.—Tendency to go too fast. Time it. 30 steps in 10 seconds. Take one step quick time, then take up double time. MARK TIME, MARCH.—Given as either foot strikes the ground. To resume full step, Forward, March. HALF STEP, MARCH.—All steps and marchings executed from a halt, except Right Step, begin with left foot. RIGHT STEP, MARCH. BACKWARD, MARCH.—Executed in quick time only and at trail, without command. 15 inch Step. SQUAD, HALT.—Given as either foot strikes the ground. BY THE RIGHT FLANK, MARCH.—Step off with right foot. TO THE REAR, MARCH.—Given as right foot strikes the ground. If marching in double time, turn to the rightabout taking 4 steps, in place, in cadence, and step off with left foot. CHANGE STEP, MARCH.—Being in march; given as either foot strikes the ground.

Manual of Arms.

PURPOSE.—To make the man so accustomed to the rifle that he handles it without a thought.

Eight rules govern the carrying of the piece. See paragraph 75, Infantry Drill Regulations.

Six rules govern the execution of the manual. See paragraph 76, Infantry Drill Regulations.

Commands and Cautions.

ORDER, ARMS.—See that all the fingers of the right hand are around the piece.

PRESENT, ARMS.—Left forearm horizontal and against the body.

PORT, ARMS.—Right forearm horizontal. Left forearm against the body.

RIGHT SHOULDER, ARMS.—Insist on an angle of 45 degrees. Trigger guard in hollow of shoulder. Right hand does the work.

LEFT SHOULDER, ARMS.—Right hand in next to last position grasps small of stock.

PARADE, REST.—Left hand grasps piece just below stacking swivel. Right foot straight back 6 inches.

TRAIL, ARMS.—Piece at angle of about 30 degrees, about 3 inches off the ground.

RIFLE SALUTE.—Left forearm horizontal.

FIX BAYONET.—Parade Rest and resume order after bayonet is fixed.

UNFIX BAYONET.—Parade Rest and resume order after bayonet is unfixed.

INSPECTION ARMS.—Be sure men glance down in chamber and keep hold of bolt handle.

Parade, Rest can be executed only from order arms, and the command Attention follows Parade, Rest.

Any movement not in the manual, e.g., Right, Face, breaks the execution of movements by the numbers. The number of counts in the execution of each command must be remembered.

Distinguish between raise and carry and throw.

School of the Squad.

OBJECT.—To give basic element, the squad, its first lesson in team work.

Team work wins battles just as it does football games.

Avoid keeping men too long at the same movement.

COMPOSITION OF SQUAD.—7 men and a corporal. Never less than 6 nor more than 11 men.

FALL IN.—Instructor 3 paces in front of where center is to be.

FALL OUT.—If under arms, always preceded by Inspection Arms. Does not mean dismissed.

COUNT OFF.—Right file front and rear do not execute eyes right. Front and rear rank men count off together.

INSPECTION ARMS.— RIGHT DRESS, FRONT:

(1) Company Commander must establish base file or files before giving the command Right Dress. (2) Right flank men remain facing to front. (3) Be sure first four men are on desired line and rest of company can easily be made to conform. (4) Right guide may be established at any point desired and at command Right Dress all march to their proper positions without other command, and at the trail. (5) Have men beyond base files step forward until one pace beyond where new line is to be and then dress back on line established.

GUIDE RIGHT.—Keep head and eyes off the ground. Close in or open out gradually.

TAKE INTERVAL, TO THE RIGHT, MARCH, SQUAD, HALT.—(At command "To the Right") Rear rank falls back 60 inches. At March, all face to right and leading man of each rank steps off, followed by the others at four-pace intervals, rear-rank men marching abreast of their file leaders. When halted all face to the front.

To REFORM, ASSEMBLE TO THE RIGHT (LEFT), MARCH.

TAKE DISTANCE, MARCH.—1-2-3-4 front rank, 1-2-3-4 rear rank, 4-pace intervals. Guide in each four is right.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH.—No. 1, Front rank stands fast.

STACK ARMS.—Piece of even number front rank: butt between his feet, barrel to front. Even number rear rank passes piece to file leader.

TAKE ARMS.—Loose pieces are returned by even numbers front rank. If No. 2 of rear rank is absent, No. 1 rear rank takes his place in making or breaking stacks and resumes his post. Pieces are never stacked with bayonet fixed.

OBLIQUE, MARCH.—Taught from Right half face. Half faced to front after obliquing, Forward, March. If at half step or mark time while obliquing, Oblique, March.

IN PLACE, HALT.—All halt and stand fast without changing position of pieces.

RESUME MARCH.—Only given after In place, Halt.

RIGHT TURN.—Turn on moving pivot is used by subdivisions of a column in executing change of direction.

Each rank successively and on same ground executes movement. All except pivot man execute two right obliques. No marking time. Arriving on new line, all take the half step, glance toward marching flank and take full step without command as last man arrives on the line.

RIGHT HALF TURN.—Executed in similar manner.

SQUADS RIGHT.—Turn on fixed pivot is used in all formations from line into column and the reverse. No half step. Right flank man faces to right in marching and marks time. Rest of front rank oblique once to new position. Step off on 5th step.

SQUAD RIGHT ABOUT.—Front rank twice executes squads right.

In rear rank, No. 3 with No. 4 abreast of him on his left and followed in column by the second and first moves straight forward until on prolongation of new line he is to occupy; faces to right in marching and proceeds to place. Then all face to the right in marching, mark time and glance toward marching flank. As last man arrives on new line all step off without command on 9th step.

Deploying as skirmishers and following the corporal are covered under Company Extended Order.

School of the Company.

The company is the basic fighting and administrative unit, and must be easily handled and capable of promptly carrying out the will of its commander.

Team work among the squads, so that the company can be easily managed as a whole, is the purpose of company drill.

Close order drill is for discipline.

Numerical designations of squads or platoons do not change.

Center squad is middle or right middle squad of the company.

8 (6-11) men = 1 squad. 7 (2-7) squads = 1 platoon. 4 platoons = 1 company (250 men, 6 officers). 4 (2-6) companies = 1 battalion (1,026 officers and men). 3 battalions = 1 regiment (3,755, including medical detachment). 2 regiments = 1 brigade (8,210 officers and men). 2 brigades = 1 division (27,152 officers and men).

First Sergeant when not commanding a platoon is opposite the 3rd file from outer flank of first platoon, in line of file closers.

FALL IN.—First Sergeant 6 paces front of center, facing company. Right guide takes post at such point that the center will be 6 paces from and opposite the First Sergeant.

Squad leaders salute and report all present; or Private(s) —— absent. First Sergeant does not return salute of squad leaders.

Captain takes post 12 paces in front of center of company in time to receive report of First Sergeant, "Sir, all present or accounted for," or names of unauthorized absentees. E.G. A man in hospital might be reported absent by squad leader if he did not know where he was, but First Sergeant would know, and would not report him absent.

Captain returns salute of First Sergeant who then takes his post without command.

PLATOON MOVEMENTS IN PLATOON COLUMN.

Leading Platoon, C.O.

On Right into Line ... Right Turn. Column Right ... Right Turn. Right Front into Line ... Continue. (Caution) If halted, Forward.

Rear Platoon, C.O.

On Right into Line ... Continue. (caution) If halted, Forward. Column Right ... Continue. (caution) If halted, Forward. Right Front into Line ... Right Oblique

QUESTIONS WHICH COME UP IN DAILY MILITARY LIFE.

It is well to have a solution on hand.

(1) The company is in line reversed,—16th squad where 1st squad should be. Bring the company into proper line, 1-2-3-4; 5-6-7-8; 9-10-11-12; 13-14-15-16.

(2) You are platoon leader. Your platoon is drilling separately and you get assembled in company line.

16-15-14-13; 12-11-10-9; 4-3-2-1; 5-6-7-8.

What commands do you give to get the platoon into line properly arranged?

(3) You are in charge of the company and find yourself marching into the company street in reverse order. What commands do you give to correct this?

(4) You are marching your company to the rear along a road through a narrow cut. Suddenly around a bend comes an ambulance. To let it pass, you must immediately reduce your marching front. What is the quickest method? (This can be used also in arranging the advance party of the outguard.)

(5) You are marching your company in company front, and wish to march in column of platoons. What do you command?

ANSWERS.

(1) Right (left) by squads. Column left (right). Squads right (left) Company, Halt. (2) Forward; 2 March. On left into line; 2 Platoon; 3 Halt. (3) On right (left) into line. (4) 1 Squads right; 2 March. 2 By the left flank; 2 March. (5) 1 Right by squads; 2 March. 2 Platoons left front into line; Double time; 2 March.

On the O.D. Shirt Collar Insignia is worn as follows:

"On the right side, in the middle of the collar, the letters (U.S.), (U.S.R.), (U.S.N.A.), and the insignia of rank; the letters one inch from the end of the collar and the insignia of rank one-half inch from letters."

"On the left side in the middle of the collar, and one inch from the end, the insignia of the arm of the service."

For Second Lieutenants.

On the right side, in the middle of the collar, and one inch from the end, the letters (U.S.), (U.S.R.), (U.S.N.A.).

On the left side, in the middle of the collar and one inch from the end, the insignia of the arm of service.

When the Star Spangled Banner is played, an officer in uniform if uncovered stands at Attention. If covered he salutes. An officer "Presents his compliments" only to his juniors.

1. COMPANY RIGHT, MARCH; COMPANY, Halt; Forward March. Being in line to turn. Right-flank man is pivot. Right guide steps back at command March, and marks time.

2. PLATOONS RIGHT, MARCH; Company, Halt; Forward March. Line to Column Platoons, reverse. Guides must be covering.

3. SQUADS RIGHT, MARCH; Company, Halt. Line to Column Squads, reverse. Line of Platoon to Column Platoons, reverse.

4. RIGHT TURN, MARCH; Forward, March. Line to change direction. Right guide is pivot. Men do not glance toward flank. Rear rank begins oblique on same ground as front rank. All take full step at command, Forward, March.

5. COLUMN RIGHT, MARCH. First Platoon Leader, Right Turn. Other Platoon Leaders (if halted), Forward; (if marching), cautions, continue the march. All Platoons execute right turn on same ground. Column of Platoons to change direction.

6. COLUMN RIGHT, MARCH. Column Squads to change direction.

7. PLATOONS, COLUMN RIGHT, MARCH. Column Squads to Line of Platoons.

8. SQUADS RIGHT, COLUMN RIGHT, MARCH. Right by Squads, March. Line to Column Squads and change direction. Right guide posts himself and takes 4 short steps. Right Squad conforms.

9. SQUADS RIGHT, PLATOONS, COLUMN RIGHT, MARCH. Platoons right by Squads, March. Line to line of Platoons. Guide same as in 8.

10. SQUADS RIGHT ABOUT, MARCH; Company, Halt. To face or march to the rear. About Face; Forward, March. To the rear a few paces.

11. ON RIGHT INTO LINE, MARCH; Company, Halt, Front. Column Platoons or Squads to line to side. If executed in double time, leading squad marches double time until halted.

12. RIGHT FRONT INTO LINE, MARCH; Company, Halt, Front. Column Platoons or Squads to line (front). In double time, halting and aligning are omitted. Guide is toward side of first unit in line. If halted, leader of leading unit commands, Forward.

13. PLATOONS, RIGHT FRONT INTO LINE, MARCH; Company, Halt, Front. Column Squads to Column Platoons. Line of Platoons to Company line.

14. ROUTE STEP, MARCH. Muzzles kept elevated. Ranks cover, preserve distances. (If halted, at rest.) At ease, March. Silence preserved. (Halted, at ease.)

15. RIGHT BY TWOS, MARCH. All but 2 right files of leading Squad execute in place, Halt. RIGHT BY FILES, MARCH. To diminish the front in Column Squads.

16. SQUADS RIGHT FRONT INTO LINE, MARCH. Twos right front into line, march. Twos or files, to Column Squads. Leading file or files halt. N.B.—If right by twos, then left into line or reverse.

DISMISS THE COMPANY.—First Sergeant places himself 3 paces to front. 2 paces from nearest flank, salutes, faces toward opposite flank, commands, Inspection Arms, Port Arms, Dismissed.

TO FALL IN COMPANY WHEN IT CANNOT BE FORMED BY SQUADS.—Inspection Arms. Right Shoulder Arms. Roll Call. Each man as name is called, executes Order Arms.

FOR MUSTER, COMMANDS ARE: Open Ranks, MARCH, FRONT. (At command Open Ranks, Rear Rank drops back 4 steps, 5 counts.) (As mustering officer approaches) Right Shoulder Arm's. Attention to Muster. Each man, as name is called, answers "Here" and comes to Order Arms. Company Commander is on right flank, in same place as "Prepare for Inspection."

IN ALIGNING COMPANY.—Captain places himself 2 paces from and facing the flank toward which dress is made, verifies alignment and commands Front. (Platoon leaders same position for Platoon alignment.)

TO MARCH SQUAD WITHOUT UNNECESSARY COMMANDS.—The Corporal commands, Follow Me. Men always at ease. Squad conform to pace of Corporal, and carry pieces as he does. In line or skirmish line, No. 2 front rank follows in trace of Corporal at 3 paces. Others guide on No. 2.

AS SKIRMISHERS, MARCH.—At run. Rear rank men on right of file leaders. All conform to Corporals gait. In squad alone, skirmish line is formed on No. 2, front rank, Corporal ahead when advancing, in rear when halted. Regular interval in skirmish line 1/2 pace = 1 yard per man. Squad deployed = 10 paces. Any number of paces may be specified, e.g. As Skirmishers, at 10 paces, March.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH.—Men form on corporal. If he continues to advance, move in double time, form and follow. Do not assemble while marching to rear.

KNEEL.—Left forearm and left lower leg form straight line.

LIE DOWN.—On both knees, then both elbows.

RISE.—Stand on point marked by both knees. (When deployed, may sit instead of kneel.)

LOADINGS AND FIRINGS.—Loadings are executed only in line and skirmish line. Firings are always executed at a halt. When kneeling and lying down in double rank, rear rank does not load, aim or fire. In both cease firing and suspend firing pieces are loaded and locked. (Sec. 150, i.d.r., April, 1917, is incorrect.) 1. AIMING.—Target carefully pointed out. 2. SIGHT-SETTING ANNOUNCED. (Battle sight if none announced.) 3. (If by volley), Ready, Aim, Squad FIRE. To continue volley firing, Aim, Squad FIRE. Volley fire is used against large, compact enemy or in fire of position.

FIRE AT WILL.—Normally employed in attack and defense; 3 shots per minute at effective ranges (600 to 1,200 yards); 5 to 6 shots per minute at close ranges (up to 600 yards).

CLIP FIRE: Used (1) To steady men. (2) To produce a short burst of fire.

UNLOAD.—Safety lock up.

EXTENDED ORDER.

A squad acting alone, as one out on a patrol or for instruction, the corporal acts as the leader of a small platoon leading the advance, and in rear when halted. Men come to trail as they come on the skirmish line. On halting, a deployed line faces front (direction of real or assumed enemy), and takes cover.

CORPORAL CAUTIONS.—By the Right Flank (if halted). Corporal steps out looking back to get his 10-pace interval. Squad Halt.

LEFT FACE.—Base squad deploys as soon as it has room. Guide of a deployed squad is center without command. Captain indicates point on which corporal of base squad is to march.

COMPANY RIGHT is executed as explained for front rank of Company, but at 1/2 pace intervals.

DEPLOYMENTS.

From Line, to Form Skirmish Line to Front.

As SKIRMISHERS, GUIDE RIGHT, MARCH.—1. If marching, corporal commands, Follow Me. Corporal of base squad moves straight to front, deploys as soon as possible and advances until Company, Halt, is given. Other squads move to left front and place squads on the line. If guide is center, other corporals on right of center squad move to the right, and squads on the left to the left, and bring their squads on the line. If guide is left, other corporals move to right front.

2. If at halt, base squad deploys abreast of its corporal, 3 paces in front of the former line, as soon as it has room. Other squads are conducted by the left flank, to their places.

TO DEPLOY FROM COLUMN OF SQUADS, FORMING SKIRMISH LINE TO THE FRONT.—If at a halt, base squad deploys abreast of its corporal 3 paces in front of its former position. If marching, base squad deploys and moves straight to the front. If guide is right, other corporals move to left front and place squads on line. If guide is center, corporals in front move to right (if at a halt, to right rear), the corporals in rear of center squad move to left and come on line in succession. Column of twos or files are deployed by same commands in same manner. If deployment in an oblique direction is desired, the captain points out desired direction. Column of squads may be turned to the flank or rear and then deployed.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH.—In skirmish line, men assemble at a run, to their places individually. Squads do not assemble and march to places as units as do platoons.

PLATOONS, ASSEMBLE.—Men assemble individually on the run, in their platoons and are then marched to relative position on base platoon as indicated by position or command of captain.

PLATOON COLUMNS.—Platoon leaders should be sure to go through center of platoon. Platoon guides in rear. Columns should be 20 yards apart, or more. (Used to take advantage of few favorable routes where cover is poor or ground difficult.)

SQUAD COLUMNS.—Men oblique and follow squad leader. No advantage in cover, but used to advance more quickly over rough or brush grown ground. (It might be desirable to teach men to take squad columns from column of squads.) In assembling from Platoon or Squad columns, the men reform by platoons or squads and are conducted by their leaders to point indicated by captain. Thin lines are used to cross wide stretches under artillery fire or heavy, long range rifle fire which cannot be profitably returned.

No. 1's FORWARD, MARCH. First line is led by platoon leader, right platoon. Second line is led by platoon guide, right platoon. Third line is led by platoon leader, next platoon, etc. Quick time, unless conditions otherwise demand.

CAPTAIN POINTS OUT NEW LINE.—Original intervals preserved.

DISADVANTAGE.—Serious loss of control over company.

ADVANTAGE.—Offers less definite target and is less likely to draw fire.

BEING IN SKIRMISH LINE.

BY PLATOON (2 PLATOONS, SQUADS, 4 MEN, ETC.), FROM THE RIGHT, RUSH.—Leader of rush usually platoon leader.

(1) Selects new line. (2) Cease firing. (3) Prepare to rush. (4) Follow me. (5) Commence firing.

When whole company rushes, it is led by Captain. Platoon leader lead their platoons.

COMMANDS.

Commands should be so given as to be distinctly heard by all the men who have to execute them. It is unfair to expect good execution of a slovenly command or one that cannot be heard. A sufficient interval should be allowed between the preparatory command and the command of execution, proportioned to the size of the command, so that each man has time to grasp the movement before execution is required.

School of the Battalion.

BASIS.—4 companies to a battalion.

ARRANGEMENT.—Right to left by rank of Captains. After formation order is not kept with reference to rank of Captains.

NUMBER.—From right to left in whatever direction.

CENTER.—Actual center or right center company.

BAND.—Places itself as if it were an adjoining battalion on right.

DRESSING.—Each company is dressed by its Captain who places himself on the flank toward which the dress is to be made.

In battalion line beside the guide (or beside flank file of the front rank if guide is not in line) facing front.

In column of companies—2 paces from the guide and facing down the line.

To Form the Battalion.

OTHER THAN CEREMONIES.—Column of squads. Adjutant does not take his post until companies are formed. Each Captain halts company and salutes Adjutant. Adjutant returns salutes and when last Captain has saluted, faces Major and reports "Sir, the Battalion is formed." He joins Major without command.

FOR CEREMONIES.—Or when directed, Battalion is formed in line. Adjutant places himself 6 paces to right of right company and facing in direction line is to extend. Guides precede companies on line by 20 paces. Adjutant causes guides to cover. Companies are halted one pace in rear of line and dressed to right against arm of guide. When guides of left company have been posted, Adjutant by shortest route moves to post facing Battalion midway between post of Major and center of Battalion. Adjutant commands: 1. Guides, 2. Posts, 3. Present, 4. Arms. He then faces about and reports, "Sir, the Battalion is formed." Major commands, "Take your post, sir."

TO DISMISS THE BATTALION.—Dismiss your companies.

TO RECTIFY THE ALIGNMENT.—See Infantry Drill Regulations, paragraphs 273-274.

TO RECTIFY THE COLUMN.—See Infantry Drill Regulations, paragraph 275.

HELPFUL HINTS TO BEGINNERS.—These hold good with few exceptions. When in column of squads; first command of Captain begins with word "Column." When in column of companies; first command of Captain begins with word "Squads."

IN COLUMN OF SQUADS.—

Major: On right (left) into line.

First Captain: Squads right. (Captain marches beside right guide.)

Rear Captains: Continue to march (If halted, forward).

Major: March.

Rear Captains: (Upon uncovering preceding company) Squads right.

Major: Battalion.

First Captain: Company.

Major: Halt.

First Captain: Right Dress, Front.

Rear Captains: (Coming on line). Company Halt, Right Dress, Front.

Major: Right (left) front into line.

First Captain: Column right.

Rear Captains: Column half right.

Major: March.

First Captain: (Halts and allows company to pass him and form column of squads to right.) Squads left, Company Halt, Left Dress, Front.

Rear Captains: When company in column of squads arrives one pace in rear of the right flank of the company that has formed in line. Column half right, March. The Captain then takes 5 paces beyond the flank of the last company in line, allows company to pass him, and as rear guide reaches him, commands: Squads left, March, Company Halt, Left Dress, Front.

Major: Line of companies at (seven) paces, guide left (right). (Close on first company from column of squads is no longer used in Battalion drill.)

First Captain: Continue to march (if halted, forward).

Rear Captains: Column half right.

Major: March.

Rear Captains: (When company reaches a position 7 paces to the flank of the leading company.) Column half right.

Major: Battalion.

All Captains: Company.

Major: Halt.

Major: Column of companies, first company squads right (left).

First Captain: Squads right.

Rear Captains: Continue to march (if halted, forward.).

As each company reaches the point where the first company formed line the Captain commands: Squads right, March.

IN COLUMN OF COMPANIES OR CLOSE COLUMN OF COMPANIES.—

Major: On right (left) into line.

First Captain: Right turn.

Rear Captains: Continue to march (if halted, forward).

Major: March.

Rear Captains: Each Captain takes 5 paces beyond the left flank of the company that has just executed the turn and commands: Right turn, March.

Major: Battalion.

First Captain: Company.

Major: Halt.

First Captain: Right Dress, Front.

Rear Captains: (As they come on line.) Company Halt, Right Dress, Front.

Major: Right (left) front into line.

First Captain: Company.

Second Capt: Right by Squads.

Third and fourth Captains: Squads Right.

Major: March.

First Captain: Halt, Left Dress, Front.

Rear Captains: Column half left, March, Column half right March. Taking 5 paces from the flank of the company last on line and allowing the company to pass by him until the rear guide reaches him, Captain commands: Squads left, March, Company Halt, Left Dress, Front.

Major: Close on first company (Never any other).

First Captain: Company.

Rear Captains: Continue to march (if halted, forward).

Major: March.

First Captain: Halt.

Rear Captains: As each successive company closes to 8 paces from the company immediately in front, the Captain commands: Company Halt.

Major: Extend on fourth company. (Never any other.)

First Captain: Continue to march (if halted, forward).

Rear Captains: Company.

Major: March.

Rear Captains: Halt. Then as each company in rear of the leading company gets the proper distance (company front plus 5 paces) the Captain commands: Forward March.

Close column not extended in double time.

Major: Column of squads, first company squads right (left).

First Captain: Squads right.

Rear Captains: Continue to march (if halted, forward). As each company reaches the point where the first company formed column of squads, the Captain commands: Squads right, March.

Major: Column right (left).

First Captain: Right turn.

Rear Captains: Continue to March (if halted, forward).

Major: March.

First Captain: When the marching flank of the company is one pace from the new line the Captain commands: Forward March.

Rear Captains: Other companies march squarely up to the turning point and each changes direction at the Captain's command: Right turn, March, Forward, March.

LINE OF COMPANIES OR CLOSE LINE OF COMPANIES.

Major: Battalion right (left).

First Captain: Column right.

Flank Captains: Column half right.

Major: March.

Flank Captains: When each company has moved 7 paces to the flank of the base company the command is: Column half right, March. The companies are then marched echeloned with an interval of 7 paces.

Major: Battalion.

First Captain: Company.

Major: Halt.

Flank Captains: Continue to march. As each company comes into line with the base company the Captain commands: Company, Halt.

Major: Close on first (fourth) company.

Extend on first (fourth) company. Both movements executed in the same manner.

First Captain: (If marching.) Halt. (If halted, cautions "Stand Fast.")

Flank Captains: Squads right.

Major: March.

Flank Captains: Right Oblique, March. (When the company has closed sufficiently): Forward March, Squads left, March. (Then as the company comes on the line with first company): Company, Halt.

Major: Column of Squads, first (fourth) company, forward.

First Captain: Forward.

Flank Captains: Column half right (left).

Major: March.

Flank Captains: As their companies come onto the line behind the leading company (at 4.4 paces) the Captain commands: Column half right, March.

IN BATTALION LINE.

Major: Close on first (fourth) company.

First Captain: Stand fast (Caution).

Second Captain: Squads right, column right.

Third and fourth Captains: Squads right, column half right.

Major: March.

Second, third and fourth Captains: As each company reaches a point 8 paces behind the company just preceding it into close column, the command is given: Column half right, March. (Cautioning "Guide left" when closing on first company—"Guide right" when closing on fourth company): Squads left, March, Company, Halt.

Major: Halt.

First Captain: Right Dress, Front.

Rear Captains: (As they come on the line): Company Halt, Right Dress, Front.



Inspections.

(Kitchen and mess inspections have been covered under Feeding Men.)

Daily inspection of the barracks should be made and rigid discipline enforced as to the floors being kept clean, scrubbed once a week, bedding and bed clothes aired out of doors every Tuesday, shoes cleaned and kept in order under bunks, lockers under bunks, toilet articles and books all kept in order. Sheets, comforters and blankets should be shaken out, folded as for pack and laid on top of pillow until afternoon, each day.

In inspecting men every week see that hair is kept short and feet clean and in good condition, toe nails trimmed. Insist on woolen socks.

Equipment must be inspected carefully, each week, to see that it is in good condition.

SPECIAL POINTS OF COMPANY INSPECTION.

After Open Ranks, March, given from usual position in front of Company, the Captain takes his post 3 paces in front of Right Guide, facing to the left and commands:

1. Front. 2. Prepare for Inspection.

The Lieutenants are 3 paces in front of the center of their respectives Platoons, facing to front.

If equipment is also to be inspected, commands are as follows:

1. Close Ranks. 2. March. Stack Arms. Backward, March. Take Interval to the Right, March. Company, Halt.

1. Unsling Equipment. 2. Open Packs. Close Packs. Sling Equipment.

Battalion Inspection.

At command, Prepare for Inspection, given by the Major, each Captain commands, Open Ranks. They do not salute when the Major and Inspector approach.

The Lieutenants take their places as in Company Inspection. Each Captain commands:

Company Attention. Prepare for Inspection.

Lieutenants face about and stand at ease, after being inspected or passed.

After inspection:

Close Ranks, march.

Rest.

Regimental Inspection.

Commands mean and principles are same as for Battalion. (Look up Post of Colonel, par. 754, Infantry Drill Regulations.)

Ceremonies.

BATTALION REVIEW.

After Battalion is formed in line, Major faces front.

When Reviewing Officer halts, Major turns about and commands:

Present Arms; turns to front and salutes. Major turns about; commands Order Arms, and again faces front.

When Reviewing Officer is within 6 paces, the Major salutes, takes post on the right and accompanies him.

On arriving at the right of the line again, Major salutes, halts, takes his post in front of Battalion and commands:

Pass in Review. Squads Right, March.

Major and Staff execute Eyes Right and take post on right of Reviewing Officer remaining until Battalion has passed, when he salutes and rejoins it.

Double time is given by Major when the Battalion comes to its original starting place and the Battalion passes in review as before except that Eyes Right is omitted and Major salutes only when he leaves Reviewing Officer.

Major and Staff may be dismounted at discretion of Commanding Officer.

BATTALION PARADE.

When band sounds off, the Reviewing Officer and his Staff stands, if dismounted, with arms folded: if mounted they remain at attention at a convenient distance in front of the center and facing the Battalion.

The Battalion is not presented for Battalion Parade.

The Lieutenants take posts in front of center of their Platoons at Captain's command for dressing his Company on the line.

After Guides Posts, the Adjutant commands:

(To Battalion) Parade Rest.

(To Band) Sound Off.

Battalion, Attention. Present Arms.

At conclusion of National Anthem Adjutant reports:

Sir: The parade is formed.

The Major directs: Take your post, sir.

Major then commands: Order Arms.

At conclusion of Manual of Arms, Major directs: Receive the reports, sir.

Captains report "'C' Company present or accounted for," or "'C' Company, 1 officer, 7 enlisted men are absent."

Publish the orders, sir:

After publishing them, Adjutant commands: Officers, Center, March. At command Center, Officers face center: at command March, march to center and halt, facing front.

Commands Forward and Halt are given by Senior Officer. Left Officer of center Company is guide and marches on the Major. Halt at 6 paces from Major, salute and come down with the Major.

At command Officers Posts, March, Officers face about at command "posts" and are conducted by Senior Officer who halts them 3 paces from line. Officers, Halt. Posts, March. Face outward at command, Posts, step off with 4 pace intervals. Lieutenants go to their posts by shortest route, in rear of Company.

REGIMENTAL PARADE.

Lieutenants remain in file closers.

At command, Officers Center, Captains remain at their posts with their Companies.

REGIMENTAL REVIEW.

Regiment formed in line or line of masses.

Colonel commands: Pass in Review.

Each Major commands: 1, Squads Right; 2, March.

If in line of masses, Colonel commands: "Pass in Review." Major of Right Battalion commands: Column of Squads, First Company Squads, Right, March.

FIRE DIRECTION IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CAPTAIN AND HIGHER COMMANDERS. ABOVE THE GRADE OF CAPTAIN AND DIRECTION IS PRINCIPALLY TACTICAL. WITH A CAPTAIN IT IMPLIES THE ABILITY TO ISSUE CORRECT FIRE ORDERS TO MEET GIVEN SITUATIONS IN ORDER THAT THE FIRE OF THE COMPANY MAY BE AS EFFECTIVE AS POSSIBLE.

FIRE CONTROL IS THE COMBINED PRODUCT OF THE FIRE UNIT COMMANDERS AND THE FIRERS. THE FIRE UNIT IS THE PLATOON.

FIRE DISCIPLINE MEANS STRICT ATTENTION TO THE SIGNALS AND ORDERS OF THE COMMANDER, AND IS THE FACULTY DEVELOPED IN THE MEN BY INSTRUCTION AND TRAINING, OF COMMENCING, CEASING, OR DIMINISHING FIRE, OR OF CONCENTRATING IT UPON A DEFINED OBJECT IN OBEDIENCE TO THE DELIBERATE WILL OF THE COMMANDER.

NOTE.—It is to be remembered that all grades of commanders are supposed to be familiar with the duties of all below them.

In issuing orders all Officers, in addition to announcing where they will be found will give the location of the next higher Commander.

The authorities for statements under the Platoon Leader and below are not given after each statement but the paragraphs from which they are deduced are given under the heading for each grade. This course was thought necessary to avoid repetition.

I. THE COLONEL.

POSITION—(369, 380, 528—i.d.r.)

1. Advancing to the battlefield: as (a) Independent commander ordinarily with the advance guard in order that he may: 1. Receive information promptly. 2. Personally see the situation (reconnoiter). 3. Order the deployment. 4. Begin the action strictly in accordance with his own wishes. (b) Subordinate commander (427, i.d.r.). After receiving his order for the action, precedes his command as far as possible in order to: 1. Personally reconnoiter the ground. 2. Be prepared to issue his orders promptly.

Note—For a discussion of the position of leaders see Subject V.

2. During the action; such as will enable him to: (a) Observe the progress of events. (b) Receive and transmit messages and orders. (c) Be in constant, direct, and easy communication with the reserve. (369, i.d.r.)

DUTIES:

a. After having received his orders, the regimental commander leads his regiment forward in a column, or in line of columns, until the time arrives for issuing the regimental order, he then: (426, i.d.r.) b. Assigns targets and sectors or tasks to battalions and special units. (312, 381 and 426, i.d.r.) c. Provides for necessary reconnaissance to front and flank. (428, i.d.r.) d. Announces his position and also that of the next higher commander. e. Controls the reserve as the tactical situation demands. (441, i.d.r.) f. Regulates ammunition supply. (316, f.s.r. and 552, i.d.r.) See also full discussion of the ammunition supply in Subject VIII.

Note—The colonel is assisted in the performance of his duties by the regimental staff.

II. THE MAJOR.

The battalion is the attack unit whether acting alone or as part of a larger force. (305, i.d.r.)

POSITION:

(The general rules for a colonel apply)

1. Where he can best: a. Direct the reinforcing of the firing line from the support. (315, i.d.r.) b. Observe the progress of events, (369, i.d.r.) c. Maintain contact with regimental headquarters. (369, i.d.r.)

2. On the firing line when all the supports have joined. (315, i.d.r.) (See Subject V.)

GENERAL.

DUTIES:

1. Conducts his battalion according to sector and mission assigned him. 2. Directs first disposition of battalion by tactical orders, giving subordinates— a. Information of the enemy. b. Position of supporting and neighboring troops. c. The general object to be attained. d. The special problem for each company (291, i.d.r.) (This includes making the primary apportionment of the target.) (303, i.d.r.) e. If practicable, the point or time at which the fire fight is to open. (304, i.d.r.) f. Orders for flank protection and reconnaissance, unless specifically provided for by higher authority. (293, 397 and 398, i.d.r.) g. His position and that of the next higher commander. 3. Controls supports, dispatches reinforcements from support to firing line. (226 and 297, i.d.r.) 4. Controls subsequent movements by suitable orders or commands. (291, i.d.r.) 5. Regulates ammunition supply—(See Subject VIII, also Pars. 316-317, f.s.r.) (The combat train is the immediate reserve supply of the battalion.) a. Is responsible for the proper use of the combat train. b. Insures maintenance of the prescribed allowance at all times. c. Causes combat trains to march immediately in rear of the battalion unless directed otherwise. (548, i.d.r.) d. When battalion deployed on his own initiative, indicates whether extra ammunition shall be issued. (294, i.d.r.) e. When battalion deployed pursuant to orders from higher authority, causes issue of extra ammunition unless specifically ordered not to do so. (294, 548, i.d.r.) f. When combat wagons are emptied, directs them to proper rendezvous to be refilled. (548, i.d.r.) g. Sees that combat wagons and belts of men are refilled as soon as possible after an engagement. (553, i.d.r.) 6. Maintains contact with adjoining troops. (399 i.d.r.) 7. May harmonize ranges used by the companies on the firing line. 8. Determines when bayonets shall be fixed. (318, i.d.r.) 9. Subject to orders from higher authority, determines the point from which the charge to be made. (319, i.d.r.) 10. Orders the charge. (318, i.d.r.)

SPECIAL.

1. In attack: a. May select formation in which companies advance. (212, i.d.r.) b. Designates— 1. The direction of the objective. (303, i.d.r.) 2. The companies for the firing line. 3. The companies for the support. 4. The order and front of the companies in the firing line. 5. The right or left company of the firing line as the base company. 6. May indicate when the advance by rushes is to start. (311, i.d.r.) 2. In defense: a. Describes front of each company. (292, i.d.r.) b. Assigns sector of fire. (244, 302, i.d.r.) c. Locates fire, communicating and cover trenches. d. Directs preparation of obstacles. e. Assigns companies to construct trenches and obstacles. f. Details troops to occupy trenches. (321, i.d.r.) g. Causes firing line and supports to fix bayonets when a charge by the enemy is imminent. (324, i.d.r.) h. Seeks opportunities for counter attacks. (326, i.d.r.)

III. BATTALION STAFF.

POSITIONS:

Battalion Adjutant } Battalion Sergeant Major } with Major.

Mounted orderlies—both with Major (one with major and one with Adjutant) until horses are sent to rear when both may be with the horses or one take the horses and the other remain with the major, as he may direct.

DUTIES:

All assist the major in any way directed, by a. Reconnaissance. (565, i.d.r., 25, f.s.r.) b. Observation of the firing line. c. Maintaining contact with regimental headquarters. d. Maintaining contact with the support. e. Receiving, communicating, and sending visual signals from and to front and rear. f. Observing fire effect and progress of events. g. Keeping copies of all orders, messages, and other data necessary, for his war diary. (35, f.s.r.)

When there is only one range finder to the battalion, the Battalion Sergeant Major is the Battalion Range Taker. When not actually engaged in taking ranges, he assists the Major as above or, preferably, he may be charged with the duty of maintaining communication with the companies of the firing line.

The major designates a sergeant to take charge of the battalion combat train. Under the Major's direction, he a. Conducts combat train as far to the front with the battalion as directed. b. Issues ammunition to the battalion. c. Takes combat train to rendezvous for refilling, under direction of the regimental commander. d. Rejoins battalion, if it is not in action, or, if it be engaged, joins or establishes communication with the regimental reserve. (548, 549 and 553, i.d.r.) (This sergeant is not provided for in the present organization. Recommendation has been made to the War Department that he be included in the Tables of Organization.)

IV. THE CAPTAIN. (The Fire Director.)

POSITION: Where he can best:

1. Control his four platoons. (248, i.d.r.) 2. Observe fire effect. (249, i.d.r.) 3. See the major and platoon chiefs. (234, i.d.r.)

DUTIES: Before fire action:

1. Conducts his company to place of deployment assigned by the major's orders (297, i.d.r.) in best manner. (212, i.d.r.) 2. Designates target, and allots part to each platoon. (245 and 249, i.d.r.) (See Overlapping Method, page 15, Subject V. Fire Tactics.) 3. Determines the range. (240 and 249, i.d.r.) 4. Announces the sight setting. } 5. Indicates class of fire and } (249, i.d.r.) 6. Time to open fire. } 7. Informs the subordinates as to the location of the battalion commander, and, when necessary, announces his own position.

During the Action:

1. Observes fire effect. (249, 414, 415, i.d.r., and 216, s.a.f.m.) 2. Corrects material errors in sight setting. (249, i.d.r.) 3. Prevents exhaustion of ammunition supply. (249, 550, 551, i.d.r.) 4. Distributes ammunition received from rear. (249, i.d.r.) 5. Provides for the collection and distribution of the ammunition of the dead and wounded. (551, i.d.r.) 6. Is on the alert for the Major's signals or commands. (226 and 234, i.d.r.) 7. In the absence of express directions from the major, if commanding a flank company, determines when advances by rushes shall be attempted. (311, i.d.r.) 8. Indicates size of fractions to rush. (311, i.d.r.) 9. Leads a rush by entire company. (223, i.d.r.) 10. Leads the charge. (319, i.d.r.) 11. When necessary, designates new platoon leaders and sees that new squads are organized and new squad leaders designated to replace those disabled. (104, 375, i.d.r.)

V. BUGLERS.

POSITION:

Join the Captain when the company deploys. (164, i.d.r.)

DUTIES: (235, i.d.r.)

1. One Bugler— a. Observes the enemy. b. Observes the target. c. Observes for fire effect. d. Watches platoon leaders for signals. e. Transmits signals to platoon leaders. 2. The other— a. Watches the Major for signals and repeats them back. b. Transmits information to the Major. 3. BOTH— a. Repeat bugle signals "charge." (319, i.d.r.) b. Carry field glasses, message pads, pencils and signal flags. (i.u.a.e.m., 387, i.d.r.) c. Act as messengers.

ALL OF THE ABOVE IMPLIES THAT THEY MUST BE PROFICIENT IN: a. Signaling—Hand, Arm and Letter Codes. b. Observation for fire effect. c. Location and definition or description of targets. d. Bugle calls.

VI. RANGE ESTIMATORS.

Five or six officers or men, selected from the most accurate estimators in the company are designated "Range Finders." (240, i.d.r.)

The term "Range Finder" is a misnomer as a range finder is an instrument. The school uses the term "Range Estimator" when applied to an individual. The attention of the War Department has been called to this.

The range estimators are given special training in the estimation of ranges.

When an action is pending, the Captain receives from the Major the primary apportionment of the target or sector of fire. (303, i.d.r.)

The Captain returns to the company, and, avoiding dangerous grouping, assembles the platoon leaders and range estimators, and points out to both the target of the Battalion and Company.

The Range Estimators immediately begin their estimation of the range to the company target; the Captain meanwhile continues with his instructions to the Platoon Leaders.

The instructions to the Platoon Leaders completed, the Range Estimators announce to the Captain either their individual estimates, or the mean of their estimates as deduced by one of the estimators. The Range Estimators then take their customary posts (240, i.d.r.), and the Captain indicates to the Platoon Leaders the range to be used.

The Range Estimators act in an advisory capacity to the Captain. The mean of their estimates will usually be the most accurate deduction available in battle. The adoption by the Captain of the range thus determined, however, is not obligatory.

Range Estimators should be ready to signal their estimates of the range to the platoon leaders at any time during the action.

VII. THE PLATOON LEADER.

(The Fire Controller.)

POSITION: Where he can best:

1. Control the squads constituting his platoon. (252, i.d.r.) 2. Observe the target and fire effect. (252, 414, 415, i.d.r., and 216, s.a.f.m.) 3. Observe the captain for signals or commands. (234, 251, i.d.r.)

DUTIES:

(6, 42, 104, 229, 231-233, 244, 245-257, 319, 375, 550, i.d.r.) Controls the fire of his platoon and in his fire orders.

1. Receives his orders from the company commander. 2. If necessary, may indicate the fire position that has been ordered. 3. Announces sight setting. 4. Points out designated target to his platoon, if practicable, otherwise to his corporals only, or 5. When the target cannot be seen, indicates an aiming target. (247 and 251, i.d.r., call this an aiming "point", but the occasions upon which infantry would use an aiming "point" are so rare that it is believed aiming "target" is a more accurate term as it includes both point and line.) 6. Assigns target so as to insure that the entire front or sector given him by the company commander will be covered with fire. 7. Gives class of fire. 8. Announces rate of fire. 9. If commanding a flank platoon, details a man to watch for signals from the combat patrols. 10. When his Corporals have signaled that their squads are ready to fire, signals the Captain by looking toward him and holding up his hand. 11. When Captain signals a "commence firing", repeats same to the corporals.

THEREAFTER:

1. Observes for fire effect. 2. When platoon is not firing, insures that the front assigned is kept under constant observation for any appearance of the enemy or any change of position. 3. Changes sight-setting of his platoon when necessary. 4. Regulates rate of fire. 5. Increases rate of fire when large and distinct targets appear and decreases it when the target becomes small and indistinct. 6. Prevents decrease in rate of fire when— (1) Changing sight-setting, (2) Preparing for rushes, (3) Fixing bayonets, (4) Transmitting firing data to supports, (5) Distributing ammunition. 7. Increases the rate of fire to cover the advance of adjacent units. For this purpose progress and movements of adjoining units are kept under observation. 8. Maintains direction of advance of his platoon in rushing, so as not to blanket fire of adjacent units. 9. Is on the alert for Captain's commands or signals, for this purpose he may use his platoon guide. 10. May use his platoon guide to observe adjoining units. 11. Must understand all signals. 12. Leads his platoon in advancing and charging. 13. Prevents changing fire to unauthorized targets. 14. Insures distribution of ammunition brought up from the rear and the collection and distribution of same from the dead and wounded. (540, i.d.r.). 15. In coming up with re-enforcements, he takes over the duties of disabled platoon leaders of the platoon into which his men have dropped, or it may be some other section of the line needs his service in which case he goes there. 16. Endeavors to preserve the integrity of squads, designates new squad leaders to replace those disabled, organizes new squads when necessary, sees that every man is placed in a squad and takes every opportunity for restoring order in the firing line. (104, 375, i.d.r.) 17. In "Advance by thin lines", leads odd numbered lines. (218, i.d.r.).

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