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Mother's Remedies - Over One Thousand Tried and Tested Remedies from Mothers - of the United States and Canada
by T. J. Ritter
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[Transcriber's Notes]

Some of the suggestions in this book may be helpful or at least have a placebo effect. Beware of the many recipes that include kerosene (coal oil), turpentine, ammonium chloride, lead, lye (sodium hydroxide), strychnine, arsenic, mercury, creosote, sodium phosphate, opium, cocaine and other illegal, poisonous or corrosive items. Many recipes do not specify if it is to be taken internally or topically (on the skin). There is an extreme preoccupation with poultices (applied to the skin, 324 references) and "keeping the bowels open" (1498 references, including related terms).

I view this material as a window into the terror endured by mothers and family members when a child or adult took ill. The doctors available (if you could afford one) could offer little more than this book. The guilt of failing to cure the child was probably easier to endure than the helplessness of doing nothing.

There are many recipes for foods I fondly remember eating as a child.

Note the many recipes for a single serving that involve lengthy and labor-intensive preparation. Refrigeration was uncommon and the temperature of iceboxes was well above freezing, so food had to be consumed quickly.

Many recipes use uncooked meat and eggs that can lead to several diseases.

Obvious typographical errors have been corrected but contemporary spelling and usage are unchanged. Page headers are retained, but are moved to the beginning of the paragraph where the text is interrupted. Page numbers are shown in brackets [ ].

The author claims the material is directed toward non-medical "family" members, but many passages are obviously copied from medical textbooks. The following glossary of unfamiliar (to me) terms is quite lengthy and does not include incomprehensible (to me) medical terms and many words and names I could not find in several reference books. The book's own 16 page dictionary is on page 893.

I recommend the article on "hydrophobia" (page 241) as an interesting history of the Pasture treatment.

Don Kostuch

Transcriber's Dictionary

These entries are absent or brief in the original dictionary on page 893. A short cooking dictionary is on page 831. Check there for items not found here.

acetanilide (also acetanilid) White crystalline compound, C6H5NH(COCH3), formerly used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It has been replaced because of toxicity.

Aconite Various, usually poisonous perennial herbs of the genus Aconitum, having tuberous roots, palmately lobed leaves, blue or white flowers with large hoodlike upper sepals, and an aggregate of follicles. The dried leaves and roots of these plants yield a poisonous alkaloid that was formerly used medicinally. Also called monkshood, wolfsbane.

actinomycosis (lumpy jaw) Inflammatory disease of cattle, hogs, and sometimes humans, caused by actinomyces; causes lumpy tumors of the mouth, neck, chest, and abdomen.

Addison's disease Caused by partial or total failure of adrenocortical function; characterized by a bronze-like skin color and mucous membranes, anemia, weakness, and low blood pressure.

ad libitum At the discretion of the performer. Giving license to alter or omit a part.

affusion Pouring on of liquid, as in baptism.

ague Alternating periods of chills, fever, and sweating. Used in reference to the fevers associated with malaria.

aletris farinosa (Colicroot, star grass, blackroot, blazing star, and unicorn root ) Bitter American herb of the Bloodwort family, with small yellow or white flowers in a long spike (Aletris farinosa and A. aurea).

algid Cold; chilly.

alkanet European perennial herb (Alkanna tinctoria) having cymes of blue flowers and red roots. The red dye extracted from the root. Plants of the Eurasian genus Anchusa, having blue or violet flowers grouped on elongated cymes.

allyl Univalent, unsaturated organic radical C3H5.

aloin Bitter, yellow crystalline compound from aloe, used as a laxative. alum Double sulfates of a trivalent metal such as aluminum, chromium, or iron and a univalent metal such as potassium or sodium, especially aluminum potassium sulfate, AlK(SO4)2 12H2O, widely used in industry as clarifiers, hardeners, and purifiers and medicinally as topical astringents and styptics.

anemonin Acrid poisonous compound containing two lactone groups; obtained from plants of the genus Anemone and genus Ranunculus, containing the buttercups.

aneurysm (aneurism) Localized, blood-filled dilatation of a blood vessel caused by disease or weakening of the vessel wall.

animadversion Strong criticism. Critical or censorious remark:

anise Aromatic Mediterranean herb (Pimpinella anisum) in the parsley family, cultivated for its seed-like fruits and the oil; used to flavor foods, liqueurs, and candies.

anodyne Relieves pain.

antipyrine (antipyrin, phenazone) Analgesic and antipyretic (reduces fever) C11H12N2O formerly used, but now largely replaced by less toxic drugs such as aspirin.

antrum Cavity or chamber, especially in a bone. Sinus in the bones of the upper jaw, opening into the nasal cavity.

apomorphine Poisonous white crystalline alkaloid, C17H17NO2, derived from morphine and used to induce vomiting.

arnica Perennial herbs of the genus Arnica. Tincture of the dried flower heads of the European species A. montana, applied externally to relieve the pain and inflammation of bruises and sprains.

articular Relating to joints: the articular surfaces of bones.

asafetida (asafoetida) Fetid (offensive odor) gum resin of Asian plants of the genus Ferula (especially F. assafoetida, F. foetida, or F. narthex). It has a strong odor and taste, and was formerly used as an antispasmodic and a general prophylactic against disease.

atresia Absence or closure of a normal body orifice or tubular passage such as the anus, intestine, or external ear canal. Degeneration and resorption of one or more ovarian follicles before a state of maturity has been reached.

atropine Poisonous, bitter, crystalline alkaloid, C17H23NO3, obtained from belladonna and related plants. Used to dilate the pupils of the eyes and as an antispasmodic.

bainmarie Large pan of hot water in which smaller pans may be placed to cook food slowly or to keep food warm.

barberry Shrubs of the genus Berberis having small yellow flowers, and red, orange, or blackish berries.

baryta A barium compounds, such as barium sulfate.

baste Sew loosely with large running stitches to hold together temporarily.

batiste Fine, plain-woven fabric made from various fibers and used especially for clothing.

bedizen Ornament or dress in a showy or gaudy manner.

belladonna (deadly nightshade) Poisonous Eurasian perennial herb (Atropa belladonna) with solitary, nodding, purplish-brown, bell-shaped flowers and glossy black berries. An alkaloidal extract of this plant used in medicine.

benne (sesame) Tropical Asian plant (Sesamum indicum) bearing small flat seeds used as food and as a source of oil.

benzoin Balsamic resin obtained from certain tropical Asian trees of the genus Styrax and used in perfumery and medicine. Also called benjamin, gum benjamin, gum benzoin. A white or yellowish crystalline compound, C14 H12 O2, derived from benzaldehyde.

berberine Bitter-tasting yellow alkaloid, C20H19NO5, from several plants such as goldenseal. Used medically as an antipyretic and antibacterial agent.

bergamot Small tree (Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia) grown in southern Italy for its sour citrus fruits. The rinds yield an aromatic oil (bergamot oil) used in perfume.

beri-beri Deficiency of thiamine, endemic in eastern and southern Asia and characterized by neurological symptoms, cardiovascular abnormalities, and edema.

Berserker Ancient Norse warriors legendary for working themselves into a frenzy before a battle and fighting with reckless savagery and insane fury.

bijouterie Collection of trinkets or jewelry; decorations.

bilious Relating to bile. Excess secretion of bile. Gastric distress caused by a disorder of the liver or gallbladder. Resembling bile, especially in color: a bilious green. Peevish disposition; ill-humored.

bistort Eurasian perennial herb (Polygonum bistorta) with cylindrical spikes of pink flowers and a rhizome used as an astringent in folk medicine.

blue flag Several irises with blue or blue-violet flowers, especially Iris versicolor of eastern North America.

blue stone (blue vitriol, blue copperas, chalcanthite) Hydrated blue crystalline form of copper sulfate.

bobbinet Machine-woven net fabric with hexagonal meshes.

boil Painful, circumscribed pus-filled inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue usually caused by a local staphylococcal infection. Also called furuncle.

bolster Long narrow pillow or cushion.

bombazine Fine twilled fabric of silk and worsted or cotton, often dyed black for mourning clothes.

boracic acid (boric acid) Water-soluble white or colorless crystalline compound, H3BO3, used as an antiseptic and preservative.

boutonniere Flower or small bunch of flowers worn in a buttonhole.

bryonia Small genus of perennial old world tendril-bearing vines (family Cucurbitaceae) having large leaves, small flowers, and red or black fruit; Dried root of a bryony (Bryonia alba or B. dioica) used as a cathartic.

bubo (buboes) An inflamed, tender swelling of a lymph node, especially in the area of the armpit or groin, that is characteristic of bubonic plague and syphilis.

bubonic plague (black death) Contagious, often fatal epidemic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia (syn. Pasteurella) pestis, transmitted from person to person or by the bite of fleas from an infected rodent, especially a rat; produces chills, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and the formation of buboes.

buchu South African shrubs of the genus Agathosma, especially A. betulina and A. crenulata; the leaves are used as a mild diuretic and provide an aromatic oil used for flavoring.

burdock Weedy, chiefly biennial plants of the genus Arctium.

cachexia Weight loss, wasting of muscle, loss of appetite, and general debility during a chronic disease.

cajeput (paperbark) Australian and southeast Asian tree (Melaleuca quinquenervia, M. leucadendron) of the myrtle family (Myrtaceae); yields a pungent medicinal oil; grown in Florida.

calamine White or colorless mineral, essentially Zn4Si2O7(OH)2.H2O (hemimorphite). Pink, odorless, tasteless powder of zinc oxide with a small amount of ferric oxide, dissolved in mineral oils and used in skin lotions.

calcareous Composed of calcium carbonate, calcium, or limestone; chalky.

cale Variety of cabbage in which the leaves do not form a head, being nearly the wild form of the species; also called kail.

calomel Colorless, white or brown tasteless compound, Hg2Cl2, used as a purgative and insecticide. Mercurous chloride.

cambric Finely woven white linen or cotton fabric.

cantharis (pl. cantharides) (also called Spanish fly) Brilliant green blister beetle (Lytta vesicatoria or Cantharis vesicatoria) of central and southern Europe. Toxic preparation of the crushed, dried bodies of this beetle, formerly used as a counter-irritant for skin blisters and as an aphrodisiac.

capsicum Topical American pepper plants, genus Capsicum, especially C. annuum and C. frutescens.

capsid (mirid bug, mirid) Variety of leaf bug.

carbolic acid (phenol) Caustic, poisonous, white crystalline compound, C6H5OH, derived from benzene and used in resins, plastics, and pharmaceuticals and in dilute form as a disinfectant and antiseptic.

carbuncle A painful localized bacterial infection of the skin that usually has several openings discharging pus.

cardamom Rhizomatous (horizontal, usually underground stem) Indian herb (Elettaria cardamomum) having capsular fruits with aromatic seeds used as a spice or condiment. Plants of the related genus Amomum, used as a substitute for cardamom.

carminative Inducing the expulsion of gas from the stomach and intestines.

cascara (See Rhamnus purshiana) A buckthorn native to northwest North America; the bark yields cascara sagrada.

cassia Tropical or subtropical trees, shrubs, or herbs of the genus Cassia in the pea family, having yellow flowers, and long, flat or cylindrical pods. Tropical Asian evergreen tree (Cinnamomum cassia) having aromatic bark used as a substitute for cinnamon.

Castile soap Fine, hard, white, odorless soap made of olive oil and sodium hydroxide.

castor oil Colorless or pale yellowish oil extracted from the seeds of the castor-oil plant, used as a laxative and skin softener.

catarrh Inflammation of mucous membranes, especially in the nose and throat.

catechu (cutch, Acacia catechu, betel palm) Spiny Asian tree with yellow flowers, and dark heartwood. A raw material obtained from the heartwood of this plant, used in the preparation of tannins and brown dyes.

caudal Near the tail or hind parts; posterior. Similar to a tail in form or function.

caustic potash (potassium hydroxide) Caustic white solid, KOH, used as a bleach and in the manufacture of soaps, dyes, alkaline batteries.

cerate Hard, unctuous, fat or wax-based solid, sometimes medicated, formerly applied to the skin directly or on dressings.

chambray Fine lightweight fabric woven with white threads across a colored warp.

chancel Space around the altar of a church for the clergy and sometimes the choir, often enclosed by a lattice or railing.

chary Cautious; wary; not giving or expending freely; sparing.

chelidnium Herbs of the poppy family (Papaveraceae) with brittle stems, yellowish acrid juice, pinnately divided leaves, and small yellow flowers that includes the celandine. Preparation of celandine (Chelidonium majus) used formerly as a diuretic.

Cheviot Breed of sheep with short thick wool, originally raised in the Cheviot Hills. Fabric of coarse twill weave, used for suits and overcoats, originally made of Cheviot wool.

chicken pox Caused by the varicella-zoster virus; indicated by skin eruptions, slight fever, and malaise. Also called varicella.

chilblain Inflammation and itchy irritation of the hands, feet, or ears, caused by moist cold.

chloral hydrate Colorless crystalline compound, CCl3CH(OH)2, used as a sedative and hypnotic.

chlorosis Iron-deficiency anemia, primarily of young women, indicated by greenish-yellow skin color.

cholera infantum Acute non-contagious intestinal disturbance of infants formerly common in congested areas with high humidity and temperature.

cholera morbus Acute gastroenteritis occurring in summer and autumn exhibiting severe cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting. No longer in scientific use.

chorea Nervous disorders marked by involuntary, jerky movements, especially of the arms, legs, and face.

Chrysarobin Bitter, yellow substance in Goa powder (from the wood of a Brazilian tree Vataireopsis araroba), and yielding chrysophanic acid; formerly called chrysphanic acid.

cinchona (Jesuit's bark, Peruvian bark) Trees and shrubs of the genus Cinchona, native chiefly to the Andes and cultivated for bark that yields the medicinal alkaloids quinine and quinidine, which are used to treat malaria. Dried bark of these plants.

Cinnamyl Hypothetical radical, (C6H5.C2H2)2C, of cinnamic compounds. Formerly, cinnamule.

clonic The nature of clonus—contraction and relaxation of muscle.

cocculus Poisonous bean-shaped berry of a woody vine (Anamirta cocculus) of the East Indies that yields picrotoxin.

cochineal Red dye made of the dried and pulverized bodies of female cochineal insects.

coddle Cook in water below the boiling point: coddle eggs. Treat indulgently; baby; pamper.

codling (codlin) Greenish elongated English apple used for cooking. Small unripe apple.

Cohosh (baneberry, herb Christopher) Plant of the genus Actaea having acrid poisonous berries; especially blue cohosh, black cohosh.

colchicum Various bulbous plants of the genus Colchicum, such as the autumn crocus. The dried ripe seeds or corms (short thick solid food-storing underground stem) of the autumn crocus which yield colchicine.

collodion Highly flammable, colorless or yellowish syrupy solution of pyroxylin, ether, and alcohol, used as an adhesive to close small wounds and hold surgical dressings, in topical medications, and for making photographic plates.

colocynth (bitter apple) Old World vine (Citrullus colocynthis) bearing yellowish, green-mottled fruits the size of small lemons. The pulp of the fruit is a strong laxative.

colombo (calumba) Root of an African plant (Jatrorrhiza palmata, family Menispermaceae) containing columbin; it is used as a tonic called calumba root or colombo root.

colostrum (foremilk) Thin yellowish fluid secreted by the mammary glands at birth, rich in antibodies and minerals. It precedes the production of true milk.

coltsfoot (galax) Eurasian herb (Tussilago farfara), naturalized in parts of North America with dandelion-like flower heads. Dried leaves or flower heads of this plant have been long used in herbal medicine to treat coughs.

consomme Clear soup or bouillion boiled down so as to be very rich.

contretemps Unforeseen disruption of the normal course of things; inopportune occurrence.

copaiba Transparent, often yellowish, viscous oleoresin from South American trees of the genus Copaifera in the pea family, used in varnishes and as a fixative in perfume.

copperas (ferrous sulfate) Greenish crystalline compound, FeSO4.7H2O, used as a pigment, fertilizer, and feed additive, in sewage and water treatment, and in the treatment of iron deficiency.

corrosive sublimate Mercuric chloride.

costal Relating to or near a rib.

costive Constipated

cranesbill (geranium, storksbill) Plants of the genus Geranium, with pink or purplish flowers. Various plants of the genus Pelargonium, native chiefly to southern Africa and widely cultivated for their rounded and showy clusters of red, pink, or white flowers.

cream of tartar Potassium bitartrate. White, acid, crystalline solid or powder, KHC4H4O6, used in baking powder, in the tinning of metals, and as a laxative.

Creasote (creosote) Colorless to yellowish oily liquid containing phenols and creosols, obtained by the destructive distillation of wood tar, especially from beech, and formerly used as an expectorant in treating chronic bronchitis. Also used as a wood preservative and disinfectant. May cause severe neurological disturbances if inhaled.

crepe de Chine Silk crepe used for dresses and blouses.

cretonne Heavy unglazed cotton, linen, or rayon fabric, colorfully printed and used for draperies and slipcovers.

croton oil Brownish-yellow, foul-smelling oil from the seeds of a tropical Asian shrub or small tree (Croton tiglium); formerly used as a drastic purgative and counterirritant. Its use was discontinued because of its toxicity.

croup Condition of the larynx, especially in infants and children, causing respiratory difficulty and a hoarse, brassy cough.

Culver's root Perennial herb (Veronicastrum virginicum) native to eastern North America; the root was formerly used as a cathartic and an emetic.

cupping Therapeutic procedure, no longer in use; an evacuated glass cup is applied to the skin to draw blood to the surface.

Cuprum Copper.

Curacao Flavored with sour orange peel. Popular island resort in the Netherlands Antilles.

cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder.

damask Rich patterned fabric of cotton, linen, silk, or wool. Fine, twilled table linen.

deadly night-shade (bittersweet, bittersweet nightshade, climbing nightshade, poisonous nightshade, woody nightshade, Solanum dulcamara) Perennial Eurasian herb with reddish bell-shaped flowers and shining black berries; extensively grown in United States; roots and leaves yield atropine (belladonna, Atropa belladonna).

decollete Cut low at the neckline. Wearing a garment that is low-cut or strapless.

demi-monde Class of women kept by wealthy lovers or protectors; prostitutes; group whose respectability is dubious or whose success is marginal.

demulcent Soothing, usually mucilaginous or oily substance, such as glycerin or lanolin, used to relieve pain of irritated mucous membranes.

diathesis Hereditary predisposition to disease, allergy, or other disorder.

digitalis Plant of the genus Digitalis, including foxgloves. Drug prepared from the seeds and dried leaves used as a cardiac stimulant.

dilatory Delay or postpone.

discomfit Make uneasy or perplexed; disconcert; embarrass; thwart the plans of; frustrate.

dry cupping See cupping.

dysmenorrhea Painful menstruation.

effusion Seeping of serous, purulent, or bloody fluid into a body cavity or tissue. The effused fluid.

eiderdown (eider down) Down of the eider duck, used to stuff quilts and pillows. Quilt stuffed with the down of the eider duck.

empyema Pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural cavity.

ennui Listlessness, dissatisfaction, lack of interest; boredom:

Epsom salts Hydrated magnesium sulfate, MgSO4.7H2O, used as a cathartic and to reduce inflammation.

ergot Fungus (Claviceps purpurea) infecting cereal plants; forms compact black masses of branching filaments that replace many of the grains of the host plant. Disease caused by such a fungus. The dried sclerotia of ergot obtained from rye is a source of several medicinal alkaloids and lysergic acid.

erigeron Genus of composite herbs having flower heads resembling asters. Formerly used as a diuretic and as a hemostatic in uterine hemorrhage

erysipelas Acute skin disease caused by hemolytic streptococcus; marked by localized inflammation and fever. Also called Saint Anthony's fire.

eschar Dry scab or slough formed on the skin caused by a burn or by the action of a corrosive or caustic substance.

eucaine A crystalline substance, C15H21NO2, used as a local anesthetic, substituting for cocaine, in veterinary medicine.

eucalyptol (cineole) Colorless oily liquid, C10H18O, from eucalyptus; used in pharmaceuticals, flavoring, and perfumery.

eucalyptus Trees of the genus Eucalyptus, native to Australia; they have aromatic leaves that yield an oil used medicinally.

farcy (see glanders) Chronic form of glanders that affects the skin and superficial lymph vessels.

febrile ferverish

felon Painful purulent infection at the end of a finger or toe in the area surrounding the nail. Also called whitlow.

ferrocyanate Salt of ferrocyanic acid; a ferrocyanide.

fistula An abnormal duct or passage resulting from injury, disease, or other disorder that connects an abscess, cavity, or hollow organ to the body surface or to another hollow organ.

flounce Strip of decorative, gathered or pleated material attached by one edge, as on a garment or curtain.

fondant Sweet creamy sugar paste used in candies and icings. Candy containing this paste.

fontanelles The soft membranous gaps between the incompletely formed cranial bones of a fetus or an infant. Also called soft spot.

formaldehyde Colorless gaseous compound, HCHO, used to manufacture resins, fertilizers, dyes, and embalming fluids and in aqueous solution as a preservative and disinfectant.

formalin Aqueous solution of formaldehyde that is 37 percent by weight.

fossa A small depression, as in a bone.

foulard Lightweight twill or plain-woven fabric of silk or silk and cotton, often having a small printed design. Necktie or scarf, made of this fabric.

Fowler's solution Solution of arsenite of potassium in water; named for Fowler, an English physician who brought it into use.

frock coat Man's dress coat or suit coat with knee-length skirts.

fuller's earth Highly adsorbent (attaches to other substances without any chemical action) clay-like substance consisting of hydrated aluminum silicates; used in talcum powders.

fly blister Blister caused by the vesicating (blistering) body fluid of certain beetles.

fusiform Tapered at each end; spindle-shaped.

galatea Durable, often striped cotton fabric used in making clothing.

galax (beetleweed, coltsfoot, wandflower) Stemless evergreen perennial plant (Galax urceolata) of the eastern US, with a rosette of glossy, heart-shaped leaves and small white flowers in spike-like clusters.

gallic acid Colorless crystalline compound, C7H6O5, derived from tannin used as a tanning agent, ink dye, in photography, and paper manufacturing.

gamboge Brownish or orange resin from trees of the genus Garcinia of south-central Asia and yielding a golden-yellow pigment.

gaucherie Awkward or tactless act, manner, or expression.

gelsemium Genus of climbing plants. The yellow (false) jasmine (Gelsemium sempervirens) is a native of the Southern United States; the root is used for malarial fevers.

gentian Plants of the genus Gentiana, having showy, variously colored flowers. The dried rhizome and roots of a yellow-flowered European gentian, G. lutea, used as a tonic.

germander Aromatic plants of the genus Teucrium, with purplish or reddish flowers.

gingham Yarn-dyed cotton fabric woven in stripes, checks, plaids, or solid colors.

glace Smooth, glazed or glossy surface, such as certain silks or leathers. Coated with a sugar glaze; candied.

glairy Slimy consistency, like egg white; cough producing glairy sputum.

glanders Contagious, usually fatal disease of horses, caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas mallei; causes swollen lymph nodes, nasal discharge, and ulcers of the respiratory tract and skin. Communicable to other mammals, including humans.

glaubers salts (Na2SO4.10H2O); colorless salt used as a cathartic.

gleet Inflammation of the urethra caused by chronic gonorrhea with a discharge of mucus and pus; the discharge that is characteristic of this inflammation.

Glonoin Dilute solution of nitroglycerin used as a neurotic.

glycerite Preparation made by mixing or dissolving a substance in glycerin.

glycyrrhiza Widely distributed perennial herbs of the family Leguminosae that include licorice. Dried root of a licorice of the genus Glycyrrhiza (G. glabra); used to mask unpleasant flavors in drugs or to give a pleasant taste to confections called licorice.

goiter (goitre) Enlargement of the thyroid gland; often results from insufficient intake of iodine.

golden seal See hydrastis.

groats Hulled, usually crushed grain, especially oats.

grosgrain Closely woven silk or rayon fabric with narrow horizontal ribs. Ribbon made of this fabric.

gruel Thin porridge (usually oatmeal or cornmeal). See page 574.

guaiacum (guaiac ) Tree of the genus Guaiacum; a lignum vitae. Greenish-brown resin from this tree, used medicinally and in varnishes.

gustatory Concerning the sense of taste.

haematuria Blood in the urine.

hamamelis Genus of shrubs or small trees (family Hamamelidaceae), including the witch hazels. Dried leaves of a witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) of the eastern U.S. used formerly as a tonic and sedative.

hartshorn Antler of a hart, formerly used as a source of ammonia and in smelling salts. Ammonium carbonate.

hellebore Plants of the genus Helleborus, native to Eurasia, most of which are poisonous. Plants of the genus Veratrum, especially V. viride of North America, yielding a toxic alkaloid used medicinally.

henbane (black henbane, insane root) Poisonous Eurasian plant (Hyoscyamus niger) having an unpleasant odor, sticky leaves, and funnel-shaped greenish-yellow flowers. It is a source hyoscyamus, hyoscamine and scopolamine.

henna Tree or shrub (Lawsonia inermis) of the Middle East, having fragrant white or reddish flowers. Reddish-orange dyestuff prepared from the dried and ground leaves of this plant, used as a cosmetic dye and for coloring leather and fabrics. To dye (hair, for example) with henna.

Hepar Liver of sulphur; a substance of a liver-brown color, sometimes used in medicine. Fformed by fusing sulphur with carbonates of the alkalies (esp. potassium), and consists essentially of alkaline sulphides. Called also hepar sulphuris. A substance resembling hepar; in homeopathy, calcium sulphide, called also hepar sulphuris calcareum.

hepatica (liverleaf) Woodland plants of the genus Hepatica, especially H. americana of eastern North America, having three-lobed leaves and white or lavender flowers.

Herpes Zoster Varicella-zoster virus: A herpesvirus that causes chickenpox and shingles. Causes an acute viral infection—inflammation of the sensory ganglia of spinal or cranial nerves and the eruption of vesicles along the affected nerve path. It usually strikes only one side of the body and is often accompanied by severe neuralgia.

Honduras Bark Dried bark of a tropical American tree (Picramnia antidesma) formerly used in the treatment of syphilis and skin diseases.

Hunyadi (Hunyady ) Hungarian noble family, partly of Romanian origin. The first recorded member of the family was Serbe, who settled in Hunyad county in Transylvania from Wallachia.

hydrastis Genus of herbs (family Ranunculaceae) with palmately lobed leaves and small greenish flowers and including the goldenseal (H. canadensis). The dried rhizome and roots of the goldenseal formerly used in pharmacy as a bitter tonic and antiseptic called also goldenseal.

hydragogue Cathartics that aid in the removal of edematous fluids and promote the discharge of fluid from the bowels.

hydrophobia (rabies) Viral disease of the nervous system of warm-blooded animals. Transmitted by a rhabdovirus (genus Lyssavirus) in infected saliva of a rabid animal. Causes increased salivation, abnormal behavior, and paralysis and death when untreated

hypophosphite Salt of hypophosphorous acid.

hyoscine (scopolamine) An alkaloid, C17H21NO4, from plants such as henbane; used as a mydriatic (dilatate the pupils) and sedative, and to treat nausea and motion sickness.

hyoscyamus Poisonous Eurasian herbs of the family Solanaceae that have simple leaves, irregular flowers, and include the henbane (H. niger). Dried leaves of the henbane containing the alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine, used as an antispasmodic and sedative.

ichthyol Oily substance prepared by the dry distillation of a bituminous mineral containing fossil fishes. Used as a remedy for some skin diseases.

ignatia Dried ripe seeds of the Saint-Ignatius's-bean used like nux vomica.

impetigo Contagious bacterial skin infection, usually of children, indicated by the eruption of superficial pustules with thick yellow crusts, commonly on the face.

incommode Cause inconvenience; disturb.

inspissate Undergo thickening or cause to thicken, as by boiling or evaporation; condense.

intercostal Relating to or near a rib.

iodoform Yellowish crystalline compound, CHI3, used as an antiseptic.

ipecac Tropical American shrub (Cephaelis ipecacuanha) that yields emetine. Medicinal preparation made from this shrub used to induce vomiting.

Iris Florentina (Florentine iris, orris, Iris germanica florentina, Iris florentina) German iris having large white flowers and a fragrant rhizome.

Irish moss (carrageen) Edible North Atlantic seaweed (Chondrus crispus) that yields a mucilaginous substance used medicinally and in preparing jellies.

iritis Inflammation of the iris of the eye.

jalap Eastern Mexican vine (Ipomoea purga) with tuberous roots that are dried, powdered, and used as a cathartic.

jocose Given to joking; merry; humorous.

kamala Asian tree (Mallotus philippinensis) that bears a hairy capsular fruit; vermifugal powder is obtained from the capsules of this tree.

kino Reddish resin from several Old World trees of the genera Eucalyptus, Pterocarpus, and Butea and from tropical American trees of the genera Coccoloba and Dipteryx.

kumiss (koumiss) Fermented milk of a mare or camel, used as a beverage in western and central Asia.

La Grippe Influenza.

lancinating Sensation of cutting, piercing, or stabbing.

lard White solid or semisolid rendered fat of a hog.

laudanum Tincture of opium, formerly used as a drug.

leukemia (leucemia, leukaemia, leucaemia) Disease in humans and other warm-blooded animals involving the blood-forming organs; causes an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the tissues with or without a corresponding increase in the circulating blood.

lime (calcium oxide) White, caustic, lumpy powder, CaO, used as a refractory, as a flux, in manufacturing steel and paper, in glassmaking, in waste treatment, in insecticides, and as an industrial alkali.

Slaked lime is calcium hydroxide, a soft white powder, Ca(OH)2, used in making mortar, cements, calcium salts, paints, hard rubber products, and petrochemicals.

litmus Coloring material from lichens that turns red in acid solutions and blue in alkaline solutions.

Liveforever (orpine, orpin, livelong, Sedum telephium) Perennial northern temperate plant with toothed leaves and heads of small purplish-white flowers.

lobelia See Herb Department, page 428.

lochia Normal uterine discharge of blood, tissue, and mucus from the vagina after childbirth.

lupus Systemic lupus erythematosus. Chronic skin conditions characterized by ulcerative lesions that spread over the body. No longer in scientific use.

lupulin Minute yellowish-brown hairs in the strobili of the hop plant, formerly used in medicine as a sedative.

lycopodium Plant of the genus Lycopodium, including club mosses. The yellowish powdery spores of certain club mosses, especially Lycopodium clavatum, are used in fireworks and as a coating for pills.

madras Cotton or silk cloth of fine texture, usually with a plaid, striped, or checked pattern. Large handkerchief of madras cloth.

malines Thin, stiff net woven in a hexagonal pattern, used in dressmaking.

mandrake (may-apple) Southern European plant (Mandragora officinarum) having greenish-yellow flowers and a branched root. This plant was once believed to have magical powers because its root resembles the human body. The root contains the poisonous alkaloid hyoscyamine. Also called mandragora. See podophyllin.

marseille Heavy cotton fabric with a raised pattern of stripes or figures.

meatus Body opening or passage, such as the opening of the ear or the urethra.

menorrhagia Unusually heavy or extended menstrual flow.

menstruum Solvent used to extract compounds from plant and animal tissues and preparing drugs.

messaline Lightweight, soft, shiny silk cloth with a twilled or satin weave.

mezereon Poisonous Eurasian ornamental shrub (Daphne mezereum) with fragrant lilac-purple flowers and small scarlet fruit. The dried bark of this plant was used externally as a vesicant (blistering agent) and internally for arthritis.

miliary Appearance of millet seeds. Small skin lesions with the appearance of millet seeds.

mullein Eurasian plants of the genus Verbascum, especially V. thapsus. Also called flannel leaf, velvet plant.

muriate Chloride; compound of chlorine with another element or radical; especially, a salt or ester of hydrochloric acid called.

myrrh Aromatic gum resin from trees and shrubs of the genus Commiphora of India, Arabia, and eastern Africa, used in perfume and incense.

methyl salicylate Liquid ester C8H8O3 obtained from the leaves of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) or the bark of a birch (Betula lenta); now made synthetically, and used as a flavoring and a counterirritant.

motherwort Eurasian plants of the genus Leonurus, especially L. cardiaca, a weed having clusters of small purple or pink flowers.

mugwort Aromatic plants of the genus Artemisia, especially A. vulgaris, native to Eurasia; used as a condiment.

mustard plaster (sinapism) Medicinal plaster made with a paste-like mixture of powdered black mustard, flour, and water, used as a counterirritant.

nephritis Various acute or chronic inflammations of the kidneys, such as Bright's disease.

naphthalene (naphthaline, tar camphor) White crystalline compound, C10H8, derived from coal tar or petroleum and used in manufacturing dyes, moth repellents, and explosives and as a solvent.

nebulize To convert a liquid to a fine spray; atomize. To treat with a medicated spray.

nainsook Soft lightweight muslin used for babies.

Neroli An essential oil made by distilling the flowers of the orange; it is used in perfume.

nitre (niter, saltpeter) Potassium nitrate, KNO3, used in making gunpowder.

nux vomica Tree (Strychnos nux-vomica) native to southeast Asia, having poisonous seeds that are the source of the medicinal alkaloids strychnine and brucine.

ocher (ochre) Yellow, brown, or red mineral oxides of iron used as pigments.

oil of vitriol Sulfuric acid; highly corrosive, dense, oily liquid, H2SO4, colorless to dark brown depending on its purity and used to manufacture a wide variety of chemicals and materials including fertilizers, paints, detergents, and explosives.

omentum Folds of the peritoneum (membrane lining the abdominal cavity) that connect the stomach with other abdominal organs.

ophthalmia neonatorum (infantile purulent conjunctivitis) Various forms of conjunctivitis in newborns, usually contracted during birth from passage through the infected birth canal of the mother.

orchitis Inflammation of the testes, often the result of mumps or other infection, trauma, or metastasis.

organdy (organdie) Stiff transparent fabric of cotton or silk, used for trim, curtains, and light apparel.

Origanum Marjoram. Genus of mint-like plants (Origanum). The sweet marjoram (O. Majorana) is aromatic and fragrant, and used in cooking. The wild marjoram of Europe and America (O. vulgare) is less fragrant.

orris Several species of iris with a fragrant rootstock, especially Iris germanica, used in perfumes and cosmetics.

panada Paste or gruel of bread crumbs, toast, or flour combined with milk, stock, or water; used for soups or thickening sauces.

Paralysis Agitans (Parkinson's disease, shaking palsy) Progressive nervous disease causing destruction of brain cells that produce dopamine, muscular tremor, slowing of movement, partial facial paralysis, peculiarity of gait and posture, and weakness.

paregoric A camphorated tincture of opium, taken internally for the relief of diarrhea and intestinal pain

Paris green Poisonous emerald-green powder, C4H6As6Cu4O16, used as a pigment, insecticide, and wood preservative.

pedicle (pedicel) Small stalk or stalk-like structure, especially one supporting or connecting an organ or other body part. Slender foot-like part, as at the base of a tumor.

pell mell Jumbled, confused manner; helter-skelter; frantic disorderly haste; headlong:

pemphigus Several acute or chronic skin diseases characterized by groups of itching blisters.

pennyroyal Eurasian mint (Mentha pulegium) with small lilac-blue flowers that yield an aromatic oil. Aromatic plant (Hedeoma pulegioides) of eastern North America, having purple-blue flowers that yields an oil used as an insect repellent

peptonize Convert protein into a peptone (water-soluble protein derivative produced by partial hydrolysis of a protein by an acid or enzyme ). Dissolve (food) by means of a proteolytic enzyme.

pernicious anemia (Addison's anemia, malignant anemia.) Severe anemia in older adults, caused by failure absorb vitamin B12; causes abnormally large red blood cells, gastrointestinal disturbances, and lesions of the spinal cord.

pharyngitis Inflammation of the pharynx.

phenacetine (phenacetin) White, crystalline compound, C10H13O2N, used as an antipyretic.

phlox North American plants of the genus Phlox, having opposite leaves and flowers.

phytolacca decandra (Scoke, Poke, Pokeweed) Tall coarse perennial American herb with small white flowers followed by blackish-red berries on long drooping racemes; young fleshy stems are edible; berries and root are poisonous.

picric acid Poisonous, yellow crystalline solid, C6H2(NO2)3OH, used in explosives, dyes, and antiseptics.

piece de resistance Outstanding accomplishment. Principal dish of a meal.

pilocarpus Small tropical American shrubs (family Rutaceae) with small greenish flowers.

pilocarpine muriate 3-ethyl-4-[(3-methylimidazol-4-yl)methyl]oxolan-2-one hydrochloride C11H17ClN2O2

pique Vexation caused by a perceived slight or indignity; feeling of wounded pride.

pleurodynia Paroxysmal pain and soreness of the muscles between the ribs. Epidemic disease caused by a coxsackievirus, causing pain in the lower chest and fever, headache, and malaise.

podophyllin Bitter-tasting resin from the dried root of the may apple; used as a cathartic.

pokeweed (pokeberry, pokeroot.) Tall North American plant (Phytolacca americana) with small white flowers, blackish-red berries, and a poisonous root.

prickly ash Deciduous or evergreen shrubs or trees of the genus Zanthoxylum.

probang Long, slender, flexible rod with a tuft or sponge at the end; used to remove objects from or apply medication to the larynx or esophagus.

proteid (obsolete term) Protein.

proud flesh Swollen flesh that surrounds a healing wound, caused by excessive granulation (Small, fleshy, bead-like protuberances—new capillaries—on the surface of a wound that is healing).

pruritus Severe itching, often of undamaged skin.

Prunus Virginiana (Chokecherry) Astringent fruit of a species of wild cherry; the bush or tree which bears such fruit.

pterygium Abnormal mass of tissue on the conjunctiva of the inner corner of the eye that obstructs vision by covering the cornea.

pulsatilla Dried medicinal herb from a pasqueflower (especially Anemone pulsatilla) formerly used to treat amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea.

punctilio Fine point of etiquette. Precise observance of formalities.

purpura Hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes having the appearance of purplish spots or patches.

pyemia Septicemia (blood poisoning) caused by pyogenic (producing pus) microorganisms in the blood, often resulting in the formation of multiple abscesses.

pyrogallic Acid White, toxic crystalline phenol, C6H3(OH)3, used as a photographic developer and to treat certain skin diseases.

quassia Tropical American shrub (Quassia amara) with bright scarlet flowers. A bitter substance from its wood is used in medicine and as an insecticide.

Queen of the meadow (Meadowsweet) European herbaceous plant (Spiraea Ulmaria). North American shrubs (Spiraea alba or S. latifolia) having umbel-shaped clusters of white flowers. Perennial herbs of the genus Filipendula in the rose family.

quinine Bitter, colorless, powder or crystalline alkaloid, C20H24N2O2-3H2O, derived from cinchona barks and used to treat malaria.

quince Western Asian shrub or tree (Cydonia oblonga) with white flowers and hard apple-like fruit.

quinsy Acute inflammation of the tonsils and surrounding tissue, often leading to an abscess.

rabies see hydrophobia

ranunculus bulbosus Perennial Old World buttercup with yellow flowers in late spring to early summer.

red precipitate Mercuric oxide (HgO) a heavy red crystalline powder formed by heating mercuric nitrate, or by heating mercury in the air.

repousse Ornamented with patterns in relief made by pressing or hammering on the reverse side;

resorcinol (resorcin) White crystalline compound, C6H4(OH)2, used to treat certain skin diseases and in dyes, resin adhesives, and pharmaceuticals.

Rhamnus Purshiana (Cascara buckthorn ) Buckthorn of the Pacific coast of the United States, which yields cascara sagrada.

rhatany Dried root of South American shrubs (Krameria lappacea or K. argentea) used as an astringent and in toothpaste and mouthwash.

rheumatic fever Acute inflammatory disease occurring after an infection from group A streptococci, marked by fever and joint pain. Associated with polyarthritis, Sydenham's chorea, and endocarditis; frequently causes scarring of the heart valves.

rheumatism Painful disorder of the joints or muscles or connective tissues. Chronic auto-immune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities.

rhus Genus of vines and shrubs including poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac.

rickets (rachitis) Childhood disease caused by a lack of vitamin D or calcium and from insufficient exposure to sunlight, characterized by defective bone growth.

Rochelle salts Potassium sodium tartrate; colorless efflorescent crystalline compound, KNaC4H4O6.4H2O, used in making mirrors, in electronics, and as a laxative

ruche Ruffle or pleat of lace, muslin, or other fine fabric used to trim women's garments.

rumex Crispus (chrysophanic acid) Yellow crystalline substance found in the root of yellow dock (Rumex crispus).

rush Stiff marsh plants of the genus Juncus, having pliant hollow or pithy stems and small flowers with scale-like perianths (outer envelope of a flower,).

sago Powdery starch from the trunks of sago palms; used in Asia as a food thickener and textile stiffener.

sal-ammoniac ammonium chloride; white crystalline volatile salt NH4Cl, used in dry cells and as an expectorant called.

saleratus Sodium or potassium bicarbonate used as a leavening agent; baking soda.

salicylate Salt or ester of salicylic acid.

salicylic acid White crystalline acid, C6H4(OH)(COOH), used to make aspirin and to treat skin conditions such as eczema.

salol White crystalline powder, C13H10O3, derived from salicylic acid and used in plastics, suntan oils, analgesics and antipyretics. Was a trademark.

saltpetre (potassium nitrate, saltpeter, niter, nitre) (KNO3) used especially as a fertilizer, explosive and a diuretic.

salt rheum Popular name in the United States, for skin eruptions, such as eczema. Eczema; inflammatory skin disease, indicated by redness and itching, eruption of small vesicles, and discharge of a watery exudation, which often dries up, leaving the skin covered with crusts;—called also tetter, and milk crust.

sanguinaria Rhizome (horizontal, underground stem) and roots of the bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) used formerly as an expectorant and emetic.

sedulous Persevering and constant in effort or application; assiduous.

senna Plants of the genus Cassia, having showy, nearly regular, usually yellow flowers. Dried leaves of Cassia angustifolia or C. acutifolia, used as a cathartic.

santonin Colorless crystalline compound, C15H18O3, wormwood, especially santonica; used to expel or destroy parasitic intestinal worms.

sarsaparilla Tropical American plants, genus Smilax, with fragrant roots used as a flavoring. Dried roots of any of these plants. Sweet soft drink flavored with these roots.

savin Evergreen Eurasian shrub (Juniperus sabina) with brownish-blue seed-bearing cones and young shoots that yield an oil formerly used medicinally.

scrofula (struma) A form of tuberculosis affecting the lymph nodes, especially of the neck. Common in children. Spread by unpasteurized milk from infected cows.

scurf Scaly or shredded dry skin, such as dandruff.

scurvy Disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C (citrus fruit; oranges, limes,..); causes spongy and bleeding gums, bleeding under the skin, and extreme weakness.

Seidlitz A village in Bohemia (also Sedlitz). Seidlitz powders, effervescing salts, consisting of forty grains of sodium bicarbonate, two drachms of Rochell salt (tartrate of potassium and sodium) and thirty-five grains of tartaric acid. The powders are mixed in water, and drunk while effervescing, as a mild cathartic; the result resembles the natural water of Seidlitz. Also Rochelle powders.

senega Dried root of seneca snakeroot containing an irritating saponin and was formerly used as an expectorant

sesquioxide Oxide containing three atoms of oxygen with two atoms (or radicals) of some other substance; thus, alumina, Al2O3 is a sesquioxide.

shirr Cook (unshelled eggs) by baking until set.

sinapism. See mustard plaster.

sitz bath Bathtub shaped like a chair, used to bathe only the hips and buttocks.

slaked lime See lime

sling Drink consisting of brandy, whiskey, or gin, sweetened and usually lemon-flavored.

smallpox Contagious febrile (feverish) disease characterized by skin eruption with pustules, sloughing, and scar formation. It is caused by a poxvirus (genus Orthopoxvirus) that is believed to exist now only in lab cultures.

smilax (catbrier, greenbrier) Slender vine (Asparagus asparagoides) with glossy foliage, greenish flowers, heart-shaped leaves, and bluish to black berries; popular as a floral decoration.

Socotrine Pertaining to Socotra, an island in the Indian Ocean, on the east coast of Africa.

sordes Dark brown or blackish crust-like deposits on the lips, teeth, and gums of a person with dehydration resulting from a chronic debilitating disease.

spermaceti White, waxy substance from the head of the sperm whale used for making candles, ointments, and cosmetics.

spematorrhea (spermatorrhoea) Involuntary discharge of semen without orgasm

spigelia (pinkroot ) Genus of American herbs (family Loganiaceae) related to the nux vomica and used as anthelmintics (expel or destroy parasitic intestinal worms).

sprue Chronic, chiefly tropical disease characterized by diarrhea, emaciation, and anemia, caused by defective absorption of nutrients from the intestinal tract.

squill (sea onion) Bulbous Eurasian and African plants of the genus Scilla, having narrow leaves and bell-shaped blue, white, or pink flowers. The dried inner scales of the bulbs used as rat poison and formerly as a cardiac stimulant, expectorant, and diuretic.

stephanotis Woody climbing plants of the genus Stephanotis, especially S. floribunda of Madagascar, cultivated for its showy fragrant white flowers.

staphisagria (stavesacre) Eurasian plant of the genus Delphinium (D. staphisagria). Ripe seeds of the stavesacre contain delphinine, are violently emetic and carthartic, and have been used to kill head lice called also staphisagria

steppage Peculiar gait seen in neuritis of the peroneal nerve and in tabes dorsalis; high stepping to allow the drooping foot and toes to clear the ground.

stertorous Harsh snoring or gasping sound.

stevia Plant of the genus Stevia or Piqueria, having white or purplish flowers.

stiletto Small dagger with a slender, tapering blade. Small, sharp-pointed instrument used for making eyelet holes in needlework.

stillingia Genus of widely distributed herbs and shrubs (family Euphorbiaceae). The dried root of a plant of the genus Stillingia (S. sylvatica) was formerly used as a diuretic, and laxative.

stomachic Relating to the stomach; gastric. Beneficial to digestion. An agent that strengthens the stomach.

strychnine Extremely poisonous white crystalline alkaloid, C21H22O2N2, derived from nux vomica and related plants, used to poison rodents and topically in medicine as a stimulant for the central nervous system.

stupe Hot, wet, medicated cloth used as a compress.

St. Vitus' Dance See chorea

stye (hordeolum) Inflamed swelling of a sebaceous gland at the margin of an eyelid.

suety Consisting of, or resembling, suet (hard fatty tissues around the kidneys of cattle and sheep, used in cooking and for making tallow.)

sugar of lead lead acetate, a poisonous white crystalline compound, Pb(C2H3O2)2.3H2O, used in hair dyes, waterproofing compounds, and varnishes.

sumbul Root of a plant of the genus Ferula (F. sumbul); formerly a tonic and antispasmodic.

Summer complaint (summer diarrhea) Diarrhea of children that in hot weather; often caused by ingestion of food contaminated by microorganisms.

Sulphonal Produced by combining mercaptan and acetone; employed as a hypnotic.

sulphuric ether Ethyl ether; formerly called Naphtha vitrioli (naphtha of vitriol).

sumac (sumach) Shrubs or small trees of the genus Rhus, having compound leaves, clusters of small greenish flowers, and usually red, hairy fruit. Some species, such as the poison ivy and poison oak, cause an acute itching rash on contact.

suppuration Formation or discharge of pus. Also called pyesis, pyopoiesis, pyosis.

suprarenal Located above the kidney; a suprarenal part, especially an adrenal gland.

sweet william Annual, biennial, or perennial herb (Dianthus barbatus), native to Eurasia, widely cultivated as an ornamental for its flat-topped dense clusters of varicolored flowers.

synechia Adhesions between the iris and the lens or cornea caused by trauma or eye surgery or as a complication of glaucoma or cataracts; may cause blindness

terebenthene Oil of turpentine.

terebinth Mediterranean tree (Pistacia terebinthus), a source of tanning material and turpentine.

tetter Skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis, herpes) that cause eruptions and itching.

thrall Slave or serf, who is held in bondage. One intellectually or morally enslaved.

thrush A contagious childhood disease caused by a fungus, Candida albicans. Causes small whitish eruptions on the mouth, throat, and tongue, and usually accompanied by fever, colic, and diarrhea.

thuja (arborvitae) A North American or east Asian evergreen tree or shrub of the genus Thuja, having flattened branchlets with opposite, scale-like leaves and small cones; used as ornamentals and timber. A similar plant of the genus Platycladus or Thujopsis.

thymol White, crystalline, aromatic compound, C10H14O, derived from thyme oil and other oils or made synthetically and used as an antiseptic, a fungicide, and a preservative.

tolu (balsam of tolu, tolu balsam) Aromatic yellowish brown balsam from the tolu balsam tree used in cough syrups.

tormentil (Potentilla erecta) Plant of northern Europe found in clearings and meadows. The root has been used to stop bleeding, for food in times of need and to dye leather red.

torpid Lacking the power of motion or feeling.

tragacanth Thorny shrubs of the genus Astragalus, especially A. gummifer, of the Middle East, yielding a gum used in pharmacy, adhesives, and textile printing.

trephine Surgical instrument with circular edges, used to cut out disks of bone from the skull.

trillium (birthroot, wake-robin) Plants of genus Trillium, of North America, the Himalaya Mountains, and eastern Asia, having a cluster of three leaves and a variously colored, three-petaled flower.

trional Contains three ethyls. Similar to sulphonal, used as a hypnotic.

turbinated Shaped like a top. A small curved bone in the lateral wall of the nasal passage.

tulle Fine, starched net of silk, rayon, or nylon, used for veils, tutus, or gowns.

turmeric (tumeric) East Indian perennial herb (Curcuma longa) of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) used as a coloring agent, a condiment, or a stimulant. Yellow to reddish brown dyestuff obtained from turmeric.

typhus (prison fever, ship fever, typhus fever.) Infectious diseases caused by rickettsia bacteria, especially those transmitted by fleas, lice, or mites. Symptoms are severe headache, sustained high fever, depression, delirium, and the eruption of red rashes on the skin.

ulster Loose, long overcoat made of rugged fabric.

umbrage Offense; resentment. Affording shade. Vague or indistinct indication; a hint.

Uva Ursi Common bearberry; a procumbent (trailing along the ground but not rooting) evergreen shrub 10-30 cm high with red berries.

Valerianate (Valerianic) One of three metameric acids; the typical one (called also inactive valeric acid), C4H9CO2H, is from valerian root and other sources; it is a corrosive, oily liquid, with a strong acid taste, and the odor of old cheese.

valvular Resembling or functioning as a valve. Relating to a valve, especially of the heart.

varioloid Mild form of smallpox occurring in people previously vaccinated or who previously had the disease.

vegetable marrow Squash plants with elongated fruit and smooth dark green skin and whitish flesh.

veratrum Poisonous alkaloid from the root hellebore (Veratrum) and from sabadilla seeds. Used externally to treat neuralgia and rheumatism.

verdigris Blue or green powder, basic cupric acetate used as a paint pigment and fungicide. A green patina of copper sulfate or copper chloride on copper, brass, and bronze exposed to air or seawater.

vermifuge Medicine that expels intestinal worms.

vervain (verbena) New World plants of the genus Verbena, especially those with showy spikes of variously colored flowers.

Vichy water Sparkling mineral water from springs at Vichy, France or water similar to it.

vis-a-vis One that is face to face with or opposite to another.

vitiate Reduce the value; impair the quality; corrupt morally; debase; make ineffective; invalidate.

voile Light, plain-weave, sheer fabric of cotton, rayon, silk, or wool used for dresses and curtains.

wahoo Shrubby North American tree of the genus Euonymus (E. atropurpureus) having a root bark with cathartic properties.

Waldorf salad Diced raw apples, celery, and walnuts mixed with mayonnaise.

wen Harmless cyst, usually on the scalp or face, containing the fatty secretion of a sebaceous gland.

whortleberry Two deciduous shrubs, Vaccinium myrtillus, of Eurasia, or V. corymbosum, of eastern North America, having edible blackish berries.

wontedness Being accustomed.

yarrow Plants of the genus Achillea, especially A. millefolium, native to Eurasia. Also called achillea, milfoil.

yellow fever (yellow jack) Infectious tropical disease caused by an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes, especially A. aegypti, and Haemagogus; it causes high fever, jaundice, and gastrointestinal hemorrhaging.

yerba reuma A low California undershrub (Frankenia grandifolia).

Zingiber Tropical Asiatic and Polynesian perennial plants: ginger.

zwieback Sweetened bread baked as a loaf and then sliced and toasted.



The following table is copied from page 636.

20 grains equal 1 scruple 3 scruples " 1 dram 8 drams " 1 ounce 12 ounces " 1 pound

The pound is the same as the pound Troy. Medicines are bought and sold in quantities by Avoirdupois Weight.

1 grain equals 1 drop or 1 minim 60 grains or drops " 1 teaspoonful 1 teaspoonful " 1 fluid dram 8 drams (or 8 teaspoonfuls) make " 1 fluid ounce 2 tablespoonfuls make " 1 fluid ounce 1/2 fluid ounce is a " tablespoonful 2 fluid ounces is a " wineglassful 4 fluid ounces is a " teacupful 6 fluid ounces is a " coffee cup 16 ounces (dry or solid) is a " pound 20 fluid ounces is a " pint



The remaining tables are copied from contemporary (circa 2005) sources

Measurement Unit Conversion

From Multiply by To get inches 25.4 millimeters inches 2.54 centimeters feet 30.48 centimeters yards 0.91 meters miles 1.61 kilometers teaspoons 4.93 milliliters tablespoons 14.79 milliliters fluid ounces 29.57 milliliters cups 0.24 liters pints 0.47 liters quarts 0.95 liters gallons 3.79 liters cubic feet 0.028 cubic meters cubic yards 0.76 cubic meters ounces 28.35 grams pounds 0.45 kilograms short tons (2,000 lbs) 0.91 metric tons square inches 6.45 square centimeters square feet 0.09 square meters square yards 0.84 square meters square miles 2.60 square kilometers acres 0.40 hectacres

millimeters 0.04 inches centimeters 0.39 inches meters 3.28 feet meters 1.09 yards kilometers 0.62 miles milliliters 0.20 teaspoons milliliters 0.06 tablespoons milliliters 0.03 fluid ounces liters 1.06 quarts liters 0.26 gallons liters 4.23 cups liters 2.12 pints cubic meters 35.32 cubic feet cubic meters 1.35 cubic yards grams 0.035 ounces kilograms 2.21 pounds metric ton (1,000 kg) 1.10 short ton square centimeters 0.16 square inches square meters 1.20 square yards square kilometers 0.39 square miles hectacres 2.47 acres

Temperature Conversion Between Celsius and Fahrenheit

C = (F - 32) / 1.8 F = (C x 1.8) + 32

Condition Fahrenheit Celsius Boiling point of water 212 100 A very hot day 104 40 Normal body temperature 98.6 37 A warm day 86 30 A mild day 68 20 A cool day 50 10 Freezing point of water 32 0 Lowest temperature by mixing salt and ice 0 -17.8

U.S. Length

Unit Equal to Metric Equivalent inch 1/12 foot 2.54 centimeters foot 12 inches or 1/3 yard 0.3048 meter yard 36 inches or 3 feet 0.9144 meter rod 16 1/2 feet or 5 1/2 yards 5.0292 meters furlong 220 yards or 1/8 mile 0.2012 kilometer mile (statute) 5,280 feet or 1,760 yards 1.6093 kilometers mile (nautical) 2,025 yards 1.852 kilometers

U.S. Liquid Volume or Capacity

Unit Equal to Metric Equivalent minim 1/60 of a fluid dram 0.0616 milliliters ounce 1/16 pint 29.574 milliliters wineglassful 2 ounces .0591 liter gill 4 ounces 0.1183 liter pint 16 ounces 0.4732 liter quart 2 pints or 1/4 gallon 0.9463 liter gallon 128 ounces or 8 pints 3.7853 liters

barrel (wine) 31 1/2 gallons 119.24 liters (beer) 36 gallons 136.27 liters (oil) 42 gallons 158.98 liters

U.S. Dry Volume or Capacity

Unit Equal to Metric Equivalent pint 1/2 quart 0.5506 liter quart 2 pints 1.1012 liters peck 8 quarts or 1/4 bushel 8.8098 liters bucket 2 pecks 17.620 liters bushel 2 buckets or 4 pecks 35.239 liters

U.S. Weight

Unit Equal to Metric Equivalent grain 1/7000 pound 64.799 milligrams dram 1/16 ounce 1.7718 grams ounce 16 drams 28.350 grams pound 16 ounces 453.6 grams ton (short) 2,000 pounds 907.18 kilograms ton (long) 2,240 pounds 1,016.0 kilograms

U.S. Geographic Area

Unit Equal to Metric Equivalent acre 4,840 square yards 4,047 square meters

Cooking Measures

Unit Equal to Metric Units drop 1/76 teaspoon 0.0649 milliliter teaspoon 76 drops or 1/3 tablespoon 4.9288 milliliters tablespoon 3 teaspoons 14.786 milliliters cup 16 tablespoons or 1/2 pint 0.2366 liter pint 2 cups 0.4732 quart 4 cups or 2 pints 0.9463

British Liquid Volume or Capacity

Unit British Units U.S. Units Metric Units minim 1/20 of a scruple 0.0592 milliliters pint 1/2 quart 1.201 pints 0.5683 liter quart 2 pints or 1/4 gallon 1.201 quarts 1.137 liters gallon 8 pints or 4 quarts 1.201 gallons 4.546 liters

British Dry Volume or Capacity

Unit British Units U.S. Units Metric Units peck 1/4 bushel 1.0314 pecks 9.087 liters bushel 4 pecks 1.0320 bushels 36.369 liters

Apothecary Weights

Unit Apothecary Units U.S. Units Metric Units grain 160 dram or 1/5760 pound 1 grain 64.799 milligrams dram 60 grains or 1/8 ounce 2.1943 drams 3.8879 grams ounce 8 drams 1.0971 ounces 31.1035 grams pound 12 ounces or 96 drams 0.8232 pound 373.242 grams

[End Transcriber's Notes]



MOTHER'S' REMEDIES Over One Thousand Tried and Tested Remedies from Mothers of the United States and Canada.

Also Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Diet, Nursing, Treatments, Etc., of Every Known Disease. Poisons, Accidents, Medicinal Herbs and Special Departments on Women, Children and Infants,

by DR. T. J. RITTER Formerly connected with Medical Faculty of University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Mich.

REVISED with INTRODUCTION by DR. W. E. ZIEGENFUSS

PUBLISHED BY G.H. FOOTE PUB. CO. DETROIT MICH 1921



Copyright, 1910 by G. H. FOOTE PUBLISHING CO. All rights reserved

Copyright, 1915 by G. H. FOOTE PUBLISHING CO. All rights reserved



RIVERSIDE PRINTING COMPANY PORT HURON MICHIGAN



PREFACE. [iii]

Medicine is not an exact science, and it is reasonable to presume that even Time, with all its qualifying influences, will fail in its effects on this one branch of science. As the millions of faces seem each to present some differentiating feature, so each human system seems to require special study of its individual temperament.

So physicians find it necessary to have more than one remedy for a given ill; they still find truth in the old adage, "What is one man's meat is another's poison." But Mother finds a variety of remedies necessary for another reason. Her medicine-chest is usually lacking the full quota of drugs required to meet the many emergencies, and she must turn to the "remedy at hand."

Necessity has again proved its influence and with the years thousands of simple home concoctions have found their way to the relief of the daily demands on Mother's ingenuity. These mothers' remedies have become a valuable asset to the raising of a family, and have become a recognized essential in a Mother's general equipment for home-making.

For fifteen years the Publisher has handled so-called home medical works; during that time he has had occasion to examine practically all the home medical works published. He has been impressed with the utter uselessness of many, perhaps most, of these books because the simple home remedies were lacking.

A few years ago he conceived the idea of gathering together the "Mothers' Remedies" of the world. This one feature of this book he claims as distinctly his own. Letters were sent by him to Mothers in every state and territory of the United States, and to Canada and other countries, asking for tried and tested "Mothers' Remedies." The appeal was met with prompt replies, and between one thousand and two thousand valuable remedies were collected in this way.

Through courtesy to these Mothers who helped to make this book possible, the book was named "MOTHERS' REMEDIES."

Dr. T. J. Ritter, of Ann Arbor, Michigan, a graduate of the regular School of Medicine at the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, and later one of the medical staff of the University, consented to furnish the necessary material to complete the Medical Department. Dr. Ritter, in over thirty years of actual practice, has met with all the exigencies of both city and country practice which have brought to him the ripe experience of what would be called a "physician's life-time." His success has been, in part, due to his honesty, kindliness and conscientiousness, as well as to his thorough training and natural adaptability to the profession.

Besides writing the Causes, Symptoms, Preventives, Nursing, Diet, Physicians' Treatment, etc., he has examined each and every one of the Mothers' Remedies and added, when possible, the reason why that remedy is valuable. In short, he supplied in his remarks following each Mother's Remedy the Medical virtue or active principle of the ingredients. This lifts each Mother's Remedy into the realm of science,—in fact, to the level of a Doctor's Prescription.

In writing his part, Dr. Ritter consulted, personally or through their works, considerably over one hundred of the acknowledged Medical Specialists of the world. Thus he has brought to you the latest discoveries of modern science,—the Medical knowledge of the world's great specialists.

Dr. Ritter, therefore, wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the following: On the subject of Theory and Practice, to Dr. Wm. Osler, Oxford University, England; Dr. James M. Andres, Ph. D., Medico-Chirurgical College, Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. Hughes Dayton, Vanderbilt Clinic-College of Physicians and Surgeons; Dr. Hobart A. Hare, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. Temple S. Hoyne, Hahnemann Medical College, Chicago, Ill.; Dr. A. E. Small, Hahnemann Medical College, Chicago, Ill.; Dr. C. G. Raue, Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. John King, Eclectic Medical Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio. On the subject of Materia Medica to Dr. John Shoemaker, Medico-Chirurgical College, Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. Hobart A. Hare; Drs. Hemple and Arndt, Homeopathic, and others. On the subject of Obstetrics, to Dr. W. P. Manton, Detroit Medical College, and others. On the subject of Surgery, to the American Text Book on Surgery, edited by Drs. Keen and White, of Philadelphia, and many contributors. On the subject of Nervous Diseases, to Dr. Joseph D. Nagel and others. On the subject of the Eye, to Dr. Arthur N. Alling, of Yale University. On the subject of the Ear, to Dr. Albert H. Buck, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City; Dr. O. A. Griffin, University of Michigan and others. On the Nose and Throat, to Dr. James B. Ball, London, England. On the Skin, to Dr. James N. Hyde, Rush Medical College, Chicago, Ill.; Dr. Alfred Schalek, Rush Medical College, Chicago, Ill. On the Rectum and Anus, to Dr. Samuel G. Gant, Ph. D., Post-graduate College, New York City. On the Diseases of Children, to Dr. L. Emmett Holt, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City; Dr. Koplik, New York City; Dr. Charles Douglas, Detroit College of Medicine; Dr. Henry E. Tuley, University of Kentucky; Dr. Tooker, Chicago. On the subject of Nursing, to Isabel Hampton Robb, and on Dietetics, to Dr. Julius Friedenwald, College Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, Md. On the Baby to Drs. Holt, Douglas, Tooker, Koplik and Coolidge. On Insanity, to Dr. Selden Talcott, formerly superintendent of the Middleton State Hospital for the Insane, New York State. Besides the above a great many other physicians and their works might be mentioned, and to all appreciation is gratefully acknowledged.

Mrs. Elizabeth Johnstone, who writes the department on "Manners and Social Customs," is the only daughter of the late Francis Gardiner, one of the early settlers of Washtenaw County, Michigan. She was educated at the State Normal School, now the Normal College at Ypsilanti, and taught for several years after graduation. In 1880 she married the late Robert Ferguson Johnstone, editor of the Michigan Farmer, and after his death became editor of the Household Department of that paper. In 1895, the Farmer having passed into other ownership, she became a member of the Editorial Staff of the Detroit Free Press, where,—continuing to write under the pseudonym of "Beatrix" she has become widely known through the vast circulation of that paper.

Years of experience have enabled her to write on topics of interest to women with comprehension of their needs, and to answer social inquiries with exactness.

Miss Edna Gertrude Thompson, who supplies the chapter on Domestic Science, is a graduate of the Northern State Normal of Michigan. She was for a time a teacher in the Public Schools of Michigan and New York State. Miss Thompson later graduated from and is now the director of the Domestic Science Department of the Thomas Normal Training School of Detroit, Michigan.

Miss Thompson has won an enviable reputation in Domestic Science work. She has avoided all of the quackery, self-exploitation and money schemes, which have proved a temptation to many in the work, and which have tended to brand the science as an advertising scheme, and confined herself to study, teaching and the legitimate development of the science. Her work in the Normal and in giving lectures on Domestic Science brings her in touch with large numbers of intelligent and practical women who realize that housekeeping and cookery must be reduced to a science. Luxuries of fifty years ago are necessities today. The increase in the cost of living without a corresponding advance in wages has made it imperative that method and system he installed in the home.

Domestic Science is still in the embryo, but let us hope it will, in a measure at least, prove a panacea for modern domestic ills and receive the encouragement and speedy endorsement that it deserves.



TABLE OF CONTENTS [vii]

Beginning on Page MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 1 Mother's Diagnosis 1 Respiratory Diseases 6 Animal Parasites, Diseases Caused by 44 Skin, Diseases of 52 Digestive Organs, Diseases of 97 Kidney and Bladder, Diseases of 152 Infectious Diseases 166 Blood and Ductless Glands, Diseases of 249 Nervous System, Diseases of 261 Constitutional Diseases 314 Circulatory System, Diseases of 337 Eye and Ear, Diseases of 346 Deformities 369 Intoxicants and Sunstrokes 371 Accidents, Emergencies and Poisons 376 Herb Department 408 Homeopathy 448 Patent Medicines and Secret Formula, 465

Woman's Department Diseases of Women 489 Obstetrics or Midwifery 515 All About Baby 544 Nursing Department 623 Schools of Medicine, Leading 669 Operations 662 Hot Springs of Arkansas 666 Common Household Articles, Medical Uses of 668 Mothers' Remedies, Unclassified 674

MANNERS AND SOCIAL CUSTOMS 683 BEAUTY AND THE TOILET 790 NURSERY HINTS AND FIRESIDE GEMS 800 DOMESTIC SCIENCE DEPARTMENT 817 CANNING, PICKLING, PRESERVING, ETC 831 CANDY DEPARTMENT 848 MISCELLANEOUS, GENERAL 856 DICTIONARY, MEDICAL 893

INDEX Medical 909 Manners and Social Customs 944 Miscellaneous 946



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS [viii]

ADENOIDS Opposite Page 8 APPENDIX, VERMIFORM (Showing Different Types) 116 APPENDIX, VERMIFORM (When Affected by Inflammation and Gangrene, Necessitating an Operation) 116 ARDIS (Baby Photo) 544 BANDAGING, HOSPITAL METHOD 384 BRONCHIAL TUBES AND LUNGS Opposite Page 6 CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Opposite Page 337 DIPHTHERIA Opposite Page 184 DROWNING (Schaefer Method of Resuscitating) Opposite Page 399 EYE BANDAGE, PLAN OF BORSCH'S Page 386 HAND ARTERIES Opposite Page 392 HAND NERVES Opposite Page 292 HEART, STOMACH AND APPENDIX Opposite Page 97 HERB PLATES: Bearberry Opposite Page 411 Blood Root Opposite Page 413 Boneset Opposite Page 414 Canada Fleabane Opposite Page 430 Chamomile, True Opposite Page 417 Elder Flowers Opposite Page 422 Elecampane Opposite Page 446 Ginseng Opposite Page 424 Indian Tobacco or Lobelia Opposite Page 417 Mandrake or May-apple Opposite Page 429 Marigold, Marsh Opposite Page 430 Mustard Opposite Page 432 Partridge Berry Opposite Page 432 Pleurisy Root Opposite Page 434 Rock Rose Opposite Page 431 St. John's Wort Opposite Page 443 Scouring Rush Opposite Page 414 Seneca Snake Root Opposite Page 438 Snake Head Opposite Page 408 Tansy Opposite Page 437 Wahoo Opposite Page 445 Wormsted, American Opposite Page 446 Wormwood Opposite Page 443

KIDNEYS, URETERS AND BLADDER Page 153 MUSCULAR SYSTEM Opposite Page 323 NERVOUS SYSTEM Page 262 OBLIQUE BANDAGE OF THE JAW 380 RITTER, DR. T. J. (Photo) Opposite Title Page SCIATIC NERVE Opposite Page 266 SKELETON Opposite Page 369 SKIAGRAPH (X-RAY PHOTOGRAPH) OF THE HAND 316 SPIRAL BANDAGE OF THE FINGER 384 SPIRAL BANDAGE OF THE FOOT 384 SPIRAL REVERSED BANDAGE OF THE JAW 386 TASTE BUDS 308 THYROID GLAND (Goitre) Opposite Page 258



PHYSICIAN'S INTRODUCTION [x]

"Of the things which man can do or make here below, by far the most momentous, wonderful, and worthy, are the things we call Books." —CARLYLE.

"A good book may be among the best of friends. It is the most patient and cheerful of companions. It does not turn its back upon us in times of adversity or distress. It always receives us with the same kindness." —S. SMILES.

Of making books there seems no end. Some are good, some bad, and many just an encumbrance upon the book-shelves, neither of much use nor particularly harmful. Some books are to be read for cheer and amusement; some for reproof and correction; others to be studied for useful information and profit.

The Ideal Book.

There is a wide felt need for a worthy book of sound hygienic and medical facts for the non-medical people. The Ideal Book for this mission should be compact in form, but large enough to give the salient facts, and give these in understandable language; it must not be "loaded" with obsolete and useless junk of odds and ends which have long ceased to be even interesting; it must carry with it the stamp of genuine reliability; it should treat all the ordinary and most common forms of ailments and accidents; it must be safe in its teachings; it needs to be free from objectionable language and illustrations, so that all of any family may study and use it with profit; it must frequently warn of dangers ahead and urge the summoning of professional skill promptly, for there are many cases requiring the services of experienced physicians and surgeons in their treatment; it should advise remedies readily obtainable, as well as those for which long journeys to a drug store are required; and finally the book should be reasonable in price that those who most need it can afford to own it.

Need of Brevity.

The facts of hygiene and therapeutic measures are widely scattered through medical literature, and extend over hundreds of years of time. Many volumes have been written on diseases of the eye, the heart, liver, and stomach, brain and other organs, to understand which requires special technical education. It would be the height of folly to present these discussions to the laity in their original form, hence the necessity for condensation and presentation of the needful facts in the language of the people in whose interests the book is printed. In a book of fiction there may be need for useless verbiage for the sake of "making pages," but facts of vital importance and usefulness in our daily welfare need to be well boiled down and put into shape for ready reference. This has been done in "Mothers' Remedies" and I think it quite fulfills the ideal I have outlined above.

The title is rather odd upon first seeing it, but the most plausible when you become acquainted with its import. It surely becomes the best friend of the whole family. "It does not turn its back upon us in times of adversity," but cheerfully answers a thousand and one questions of vital importance to the household. In the hour of distress, when illness or accident befalls the dear ones, you may turn again and again to its pages without meeting disappointment.

Its Value. [x]

There are many books on household medicines, but in my opinion this is the most useful of them all, a very present help in time of need. You can go to it for helpful information without failing to find it. Is there serious illness in the house? It will tell you about it concisely and plainly, describing its symptoms, nature and course, and advise you to consult the family physician if of a serious nature before it is too late. In the chapters on accidents, emergencies and poisons, it tells you what to do at once while awaiting the doctor's arrival. He will be much pleased to see that you have made the proper effort to treat the case. Prompt treatment makes for prompt recovery.

The real value of any book, or what is sometimes called its intrinsic value, or utility, consists in what it avails to gratify some desire or want of our nature. It depends, then, wholly upon its qualities in relation to our desires. That which contributes in ever so small degree to the wellbeing of humanity is of greater value than silver or gold. This book contains hundreds of prescriptions, anyone of which will repay the small cost in money that it requires to possess it. In fact, the financial investment is so small when compared with the benefit derived from its pages that this feature need not be considered.

Examples.

In the stillness and loneliness of the night, away from medical help, there comes the hoarse barking cough of the child, perhaps, and a case of croup is upon the responsibility of the parents. The struggles and terror of the little patient throws the household into consternation, and all is excitement in a moment. If the mother ever knew what to do in such a case she is likely not able to recall the exact remedy at this time, the doctor is miles away, and the case is urgent.

A reference to the medical index of "Mothers' Remedies" under croup shows that on pages 27, 28 and 29, is a full description of the attack, and there are fifteen (15) home remedies given, many of which can be found in the house, and the spasm may be stopped by the use of one of them.

This is only one example of the use of this book. There are innumerable times when cases come up in the home, or accidents befall a dear one and a ready remedy is required; the book most likely contains it, and is willing to tell you if you consult it carefully.

Tuberculosis.

The article on tuberculosis is full of valuable rules on diet and hygiene for every person, whether he has the disease or not. A knowledge of the dangers and mode of spreading the disease is the best safeguard against having it. Where one person in every seven (7) dies of consumption it becomes imperative that full knowledge of the disease and its prevention should become widespread.

Accidents and Poisons. [xii]

Another department that illustrates the value of the book is that on Accidents and Poisons, where quick action is needed to prevent great suffering and danger and the salvation of life itself. One cannot always get the doctor in time. A quick reference to this part of the book will give the proper course of action to follow. The indicated mother's remedy or the physician's treatment as given here applied in the "nick of time" will save many a life in cases of burns, or accidental poisoning, or hemorrhage. I have been called in such cases where a simple drink of warm mustard water promptly used would have saved a life in carbolic acid poisoning. It is in the emergencies where a ready knowledge of the ways and means necessary to conserve life is most valuable; and it is in just such emergencies that one is most apt to forget what is best to do that a copy of Mothers' Remedies becomes a priceless boon of helpfulness.

All About Baby.

The Woman's Department, and the chapter on "All About Baby," alone contain priceless information for the guidance of the women of the home. It is like having a good doctor right in the house who is ready and able to answer more than 500 questions of vital interest about Baby. The book is thoroughly reliable, free from exaggerated statements and written in the plainest language possible so as to make it useful to every member of the home. The Herb Department gives a brief description of the more common and most useful plants and roots, with the time for gathering them, and the dose and therapeutic indication for their use. The botanical illustrations are correct and worthy of careful study.

THE INDEX.

Mothers' Remedies is unique in arrangement, and full of detail, but so well indexed that any portion of it, or any disease and remedy, can be readily found, and when found you will have a choice of home remedies ready at hand. This is one of the features of the book that distinguishes Mothers' Remedies from the usual home medical books heretofore sold.

This feature of the book cannot be too strongly impressed. Its value becomes apparent as soon as one consults its pages. Long chapters of descriptive reading filled with high sounding, technical terms may look very learned because the average reader does not understand it fully. But it is what one can obtain from a book that is usable that makes it valuable. In Mothers' Remedies this idea has been excellently carried out.

The Home Remedies.

If there was any question regarding the success of the book in this homelike arrangement, the utilization of the home remedies, in addition to the strictly medical and drug-store ingredients; it was promptly dispelled when the book was printed and presented to the people interested. It has proved to be the most wonderful seller on the market—the most usable and useful book ever offered the non-medical reader; because never before has a medical book contained the hundreds of simple home remedies from mothers. Because a physician tells you why the remedies are useful—the reason why the things used are efficacious.

Medical Terms. [xiii]

Frequently one comes across technical terms in the secular papers which, unless understood, obscure the sense of the reading. There is a dictionary of medical terms as a separate department which adds much to the usefulness of the work; the spelling, pronunciation and definition being concisely given in English.

Other Departments.

There are other departments, such as chapters on Manners and Social Customs, by an expert. Nursery Hints, Candy Making, Domestic Science, and Miscellaneous departments which interest every member of any average family in health as well as in sickness. The Candy Department provides many an evening's enjoyment for the young people.

In addition, the book gives under each disease the physician's remedies, the symptoms, causes, preventives wherever important, the diet, nursing, necessity for operations, and much other needful information for the sick-room. A complete chapter on Nursing and a detailed account of the Baby and its care is perhaps the most useful portion of the book to the mothers who desire to learn all about the baby. Many home medical books are of doubtful value by reason of exaggerated statements or vague and unusable directions regarding treatments. Mothers' Remedies stands squarely upon the foundation of utility and practical every-day usefulness. No matter how many other home medical books one may have, this is also needful because there's none other on the market like it. One of the missions of Mothers' Remedies in the home is the prevention of disease through its sound sanitary teachings. It was written exclusively for home use, and its instructions can be followed by anyone who can understand plain English, and the home remedies are extensively explained and recommended so that in emergencies one can always find something of value to use while awaiting the surgeon's arrival. It is a well-spring of usefulness in any home, and it gives me genuine pleasure to call attention to it in these few lines, and to bespeak for it the continued enthusiastic reception with which it has met heretofore.

(Signed) WM. ELLWOOD ZIEGENFUSS, M.D. Detroit, July 2, 1914.

The National Narcotic law makes it practically impossible for the laity to have prescriptions filled which contain opiates or cocaine.

We therefore have substituted other remedies quite as good whenever this was possible and still retain the efficiency of the prescription.

DR. W. E. ZIEGENFUSS. August, 1918.



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT [1]

MOTHERS' DIAGNOSIS

STRIKING, CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOMS of Many Diseases for Quick Reference and Comparison WHEN IN DOUBT BEFORE CALLING THE DOCTOR.

APPENDICITIS.—Loss of appetite. There may be nausea and vomiting; there is usually a sudden onset of pain, often sharp and severe in the whole or part of the abdomen. Later the pain settles in the right groin. Patient lies on his back with his right knee drawn up. The muscles become rigid on the right side and later a lump appears in the right groin (iliac fossa).

ANEMIA.—This disease is a diminution of the total quantity of the blood of its red cells, or red corpuscles or of their Haemoglobin, the coloring matter of the red corpuscles. Some difficulty of breathing. Palpitation on least exertion, tendency to faint, headache, tired, irritable, poor or changeable appetite, digestive disturbances, constipation, cold hands and feet, difficult and painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea), irregular menstruation, leucorrhea. And when the skin is pale, yellowish green tinge, with perhaps flushed cheeks, it might properly be called chlorosis or "green sickness."

ADDISON'S DISEASE.—Great weakness, stomach and bowel disorders, weak heart and dark coloring (pigmentation) of the skin.

BRIGHT'S DISEASE.—Albumin and casts in the urine. The onset is usually gradual. There is paleness and puffiness of the eyelids, ankles or hands in the morning. Later increased dropsy of face and the extremities, pasty yellow complexion, dyspepsia, constipation and heart symptom.

[2 MOTHERS' DIAGNOSIS]

BRONCHITIS, ACUTE. (Cold on the Chest.)—There is a feeling of tightness under the breastbone, with a dry hard cough and headache. This cough may make the chest feel raw and sore, especially in front.

CHOLERA MORBUS.—The onset is usually sudden with nausea, vomiting, and cramp-like bowel pains; vomits at first the stomach contents. Purging follows; vomiting and purging with severe cramps in abdomen and legs.

CROUP.—Child wakes up suddenly, perhaps at midnight, with a harsh barking cough, with difficulty of breathing, and it looks as if it could not get another breath. Then there is an easy spell and soon the spasm recurs.

CANCER OF THE STOMACH.—There is anemia and a gradual loss of weight. A peculiar color of the skin (cachexia), irregular vomiting, some bleeding of "coffee-ground" color. Progressive loss of weight. Dragging or burning in the region of the stomach.

CHICKEN POX.—Slight fever, chilly feelings. In twenty-four hours the eruption appears upon the body, face and forehead often only a few separate red pimples which soon become rounded vesicles; however, there may be few or many.

DIABETES.—The onset is gradual, glucose (sugar) is persistently in the urine. Great quantity of urine passed; six to forty pints in twenty-four hours. Thirst is great. Large quantities of water is taken. Loss of strength and weight, mouth is dry, tongue is red and glazed, skin is dry and wrinkled.

DIPHTHERIA.—This disease begins gradually, as a rule, with chilly feelings, pain in the back and limbs, pulse is faster, with a general redness of the throat before the formation of the membrane; with such symptoms there are great weakness, paleness, and a bad smelling breath. Soon a spot or spots may be seen on the tonsils, uvula or soft palate, but in a day or two a dirty white patch is seen on the tonsils and this may spread, and with it there is increased weakness, pallor, loss of appetite and fever. When the membrane is taken off of the tonsils there is left a raw surface, and the membrane rapidly reforms.

DYSENTERY.—The onset may be marked by diarrhea, followed by a severe, cramp-like bowel pain, with frequent small stools containing blood and mucus and accompanied by much straining (tenesmus).

DYSPEPSIA, ACUTE. (Acute Gastritis, Acute Indigestion).—Distress in the stomach, headache, thirst, nausea, vomiting, tongue heavily coated, foul breath, distaste for food, tender stomach.

[3 MOTHERS' DIAGNOSIS]

ERYSIPELAS.—The onset is sudden, high fever, and a local redness with a sharply defined margin between it and a healthy skin. It frequently appears upon the nose and spreads over one cheek or both. It may show only a smooth raised skin, or there may be vesicles.

EARACHE.—This is very common in children. It comes frequently as an extension through the eustachian canal of a cold. The ache is only an evidence of congestion or inflammation in the ear. The child bursts out crying violently and nothing seems to make it stop. It may cry for some time then stop. When it is very young it is restless, and wants to move constantly, and refuses to be comforted by the soothing embraces of its mother. It is quiet only a few moments at a time and again renews its cries and restlessness. The cries are moaning and seem like hopeless cries. A child or infant that cries that way and will not be quieted, should be suspected of having earache, and hot applications of dry or wet heat should be applied to the ear. If such symptoms are neglected, in a few days you are likely to have a discharge running from the external canal (meatus) and perhaps permanent injury may be done to the drum membrane by ulceration. Warm water poured in the ear frequently relieves common earache.

GALL STONES.—Sudden agonizing pain in the right upper abdomen in the region of the liver, with vomiting, prostration, tenderness in that region. Pain generally comes at intervals in paroxysms. There may be pains in the stomach during the weeks when the attack is absent and the patient may think the stomach is the seat of the trouble.

IRITIS.—Pain is severe and worse at night, the iris looks cloudy, muddy, the pupil is small. There is congestion around the iris (ciliary congestion).

KIDNEY STONES.—Pain goes from the kidneys down through the ureter into the bladder and into the scrotum. There may be sand in the urine that makes it look like blood.

LA GRIPPE—The onset is usually sudden, with a chill, and all of the symptoms of an active fever, headache, bone-ache, a general ache all over. A feeling of extreme weakness; feels miserable and sick.

LOCK-JAW (Tetanus).—History of a wound. The muscles of the jaw may be stiff and set. When there are spasms the muscles remain stiff and hard for some time.

MALARIAL FEVER.—Chill, fever, and sweat, or one stage may be absent. There may be only a slight chilly feeling with fever almost all day and then remission.

[4 MOTHERS' DIAGNOSIS]

MUMPS.—The swelling is in front and below and behind the ear. Hard to eat and the swallowing of vinegar is almost impossible.

MEASLES.—Comes on gradually. There is a feeling of tiredness and languor, headache followed shortly by sneezing, cold symptoms, running at the eyes, dry throat, cough, much like an ordinary cold in the head, but with a persistent, hard racking cough. The eruption appears first in the sides of the mouth, in the inner surface of the cheeks, lips, gums and soft palate, in size from that of a pin-head to that of a split pea. It appears then about the eyes and then on the face, chest and extremities. It is first in red spots and then gets blotchy. This is usually three to six days after the appearance of the cold (catarrh) symptoms.

MEASLES (German).—Chilliness, slight fever, pain in the back and legs, coryza. The eruption appears on the first or second day, on the face, then on the chest and in twenty-four hours over the whole body. The glands under the jaw enlarge.

OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM. (Inflammation of Eyes at Birth).—A severe conjunctivitis in the newly-born baby, swelling and redness usually of both eyes, occurring on the second or third day after birth; very soon there is a discharge and shortly it becomes creamy pus which runs from the eyes when the lids are parted.

PLEURISY.—The onset may be sudden or gradual. Sudden with a chill, fever, a severe sharp pain, stitch in the side, made worse by respiration, coughing or moving. The cough is dry. The pain is near the breast and sometimes it extends to the back.

PNEUMONIA.—It begins with a chill, fever, pain in the lungs, expectoration with cough, and the material spit up may be mixed with blood (rusty sputa). Then also rapid rise of temperature, "grunting" breathing, the nostrils dilate, and the cheeks are flushed.

RHEUMATIC FEVER OR INFLAMMATORY RHEUMATISM.—A number of joints become involved. It spreads from one joint to another, very painful joints; profuse sweating.

SMALLPOX.—The onset is sudden and ushered in by a chill, nausea and vomiting, headache, and severe pains in the back and legs, without grip symptoms. There is a rapid rise of temperature. Usually on the fourth day after the onset small red pimples appear on the forehead, along the line of the hair and on the wrists. The temperature falls with the appearance of the eruption.

SPOTTED FEVER.—Marked loss of appetite, chill, projectile vomiting, severe headache, pain and stiffness of the back and neck. Later head is drawn back, often the back is rigid. The muscles of the neck and back are very tender.

[5 MOTHERS' DIAGNOSIS]

SCARLET FEVER. (Scarlatina).—Comes on suddenly with loss of appetite, headache, sick stomach, perhaps vomiting, high fever, sore throat, vomiting may persist. The tongue is coated, edges are red; later it is red and rough; the so-called strawberry tongue. Usually within twenty-four hours an eruption appears, first upon the neck and chest which spreads rapidly over the face and the rest of the body. The eruption consists of red pimply elevations about the size of a pin-head, very close together, so that the body seems to be covered with a scarlet flush. If you look closely you can see these little pimply elevations.

TUBERCULOSIS OF THE LUNGS.—Irregular temperatures, respiration is more frequent than normal, pulse is rapid, cough, expectoration, night sweats, perhaps, and general failure of strength.

TONSILITIS. (Smooth and Follicular).—Commences with a chill, rapid rise of temperature, general aching in the back, and legs especially. The tonsils are large and red and spots may appear on them in a few hours. There may be no spots but a smooth; red, swollen tonsil, sometimes swollen to an enormous size. The spot and membrane, if any exists, are easily rubbed off and when this is done a glistening surface is seen, but not raw, as in diphtheria.

TYPHOID FEVER—There is a feeling of illness for a week or two and the patient is not able to work much, does not sleep well, dreams, has a dull headache, back of the neck may be stiff, nosebleed sometimes, with a feeling as if there was some fever, increasing feeling of weakness, and sick feeling. Finally the fever, etc., becomes more prominent with constipation and diarrhea.

ULCER OF THE CORNEA.—Light hurts the eyes very much, tears run freely and there is a feeling of something in the eye. The eyeball shows a rim of pink congestion about the cornea. The ulcer can be seen.

ULCER OF THE STOMACH.—Pain, local tenderness, bleeding. Distress after eating and vomiting of a very acid fluid. Pain in the region of the stomach and usually sharp pain in the back is the most constant symptom. It is increased by food at once and relieved by vomiting. The tenderness upon pressure is usually marked and is localized.

WHOOPING-COUGH.—Begins with symptoms of a cold in the eyes, nose, and the chest. The cough gradually becomes worse, usually in from seven to ten days; it comes in paroxysms (spells) and then the whoop.

RESPIRATORY DISEASES [6] Including CROUP, COLDS, SORE-THROAT, HOARSENESS, BRONCHITIS, ASTHMA, HAY-FEVER, PLEURISY, ADENOIDS, PNEUMONIA, ETC.

With Definition, Cause, Symptoms, Preventives, Mothers' Remedies, Physicians' Treatment; also Diet, Nursing and Sanitary Care; all for Home Use and Reference.

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