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Mrs. Wilson's Cook Book - Numerous New Recipes Based on Present Economic Conditions
by Mary A. Wilson
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Transcriber's Note: The measure of one-half cup of nutmeg in the recipe for Caramel Pudding on p. 236 is undoubtedly an error. One-half teaspoon would likely seem the correct amount.

MRS. WILSON'S COOK BOOK

NUMEROUS NEW RECIPES BASED ON PRESENT ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

BY

MRS. MARY A. WILSON

(MRS. WILSON'S COOKING SCHOOL, PHILADELPHIA)

FORMERLY QUEEN VICTORIA'S CUISINIERE AND INSTRUCTOR DOMESTIC SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA SUMMER SCHOOL, CHARLOTTEVILLE, VIRGINIA

INSTRUCTOR OF COOKING FOR THE U.S. NAVY

THIRD PRINTING

PHILADELPHIA AND LONDON J.B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY



COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY J.B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY

PRINTED BY J.B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY AT THE WASHINGTON SQUARE PRESS PHILADELPHIA, U.S.A.



TO MY FAMILY FOR THEIR UNTIRING EFFORTS IN BEHALF OF THIS BOOK



PREFACE

The influence of well-cooked, palatable food upon the health and general well-being of the family is as certain as that of changes of temperature and more serious in its consequences for lasting good or ill.

The sage old saying "Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are" is as full of the "pith o' sense" to-day as in ye days of long ago, for food either makes us physically fit and fully efficient, or miserable failures with physical complications that keep us constantly in the physician's hands.

The vital essences of that which we prepare for eating are "medicinal messengers" bearing light to the eye, vigor to the limb, beauty to the cheek and alertness to the brain, as vitamines, or distorted in the misdirected process are the harsh heralds of pain and debility to the human system. How great then is the influence of the one who prepares it!

Influence, according to astrology, was "a power or virtue flowing from the planets upon men and things," but from the kitchen, as a sun and heat centre, there truly flows a planetary influence that makes or mars us.

Scientific cooking means the elimination of waste, the preservation of edible resources and conservation of their potential energy through the preparation of attractive, vitalizing food with minimum cost and labor, thus providing in wide, deep measure, for harmony, personal comfort and domestic peace.

The preface of a book is too often a flat, spiritless excuse for offering it to the public instead of being a hearty announcement in welcome terms of the arrival of a much-desired provision for a real need, so I will come to the essential point at once by saying that gathered here, in these pages, are my best recipes, truly "tried in the fire," the actual working results of many years' teaching and lecturing, brought "up to the minute" in the interests of that exacting domestic economy now, as rarely before, imperative in its demands.

It will also be noted that the heavy cook-book style is not used here but the recipes are presented as if housewife and author were conversing upon the dish in question, and to her I will say: economical, palatable food is within your reach if you will discard the ideas and methods of long ago. Remember, you would not prefer to ride in a horse car, as a means of conveyance, so why use the recipes of those days?

The capable housewife, whose busy hands bake bread, cake and pastry, spreads forth to the community an influence that is priceless, a largesse not of festal day, holy day, or holiday, but thrice daily, wholesome and welcome as spring's first sunbeam and precious to every home so blessed, ever growing and radiating. May this book help in that growth and a greater radiation!

THE AUTHOR



MRS. WILSON'S COOK BOOK

Bread, the staff of life, must be palatable and good if we are to be satisfied with it when we eat.

Can you think of anything that will spoil a meal more quickly than poor, over moist, doughy or heavy bread?

Bread may truly be called the staff of life, as it will maintain life longer than any other single food.

Yet many women think bread-making is a simple task; that the ingredients can be thrown together helter-skelter and good results obtained; or that any kind of flour will make good bread. This is a great mistake. To make good palatable bread it requires good materials, a reasonable amount of care and attention. But first of all must come the knowledge of the flour.

A good blend of hard winter flour is necessary and it can easily be tested by pressing a small quantity of it in the hand; if the flour is good, it will retain the shape of the hand. Graham or whole wheat flour and rye flours can be used for variety and to advantage in making bread.

Other cereal flours do not contain gluten to allow them to be used alone for making the yeast-raised breads. Keep this in mind and thus prevent failures. The yeast is a single-cell plant and must be given the proper temperature, moisture and food for its successful growth. When this is supplied, each little cell multiples a thousand times, thus pushing and stretching the dough. This makes it rise or become light.

WHY DOUGH FALLS

When the yeast cells have absorbed or consumed all the food that they can obtain from the sugar, flour, etc., the dough will recede or fall. Now, if the dough is carefully handled at a given time, this will not take place, and so for this reason the dough is permitted to stand only for a given length of time before it is worked and then placed in the pans.

Few utensils will be required for making bread, but they must be scrupulously clean, if the bread is to have a good flavor. Potatoes and other cooked cereals may be used with good results. Compressed yeast will give the best results, and either the sponge or straight dough method may be used.

Bread made by the sponge method will require a longer time to make than the bread that is made by the straight dough method. Sponge dough consists of setting the sponge and letting it rise until it drops back, usually in two and one-half hours, and then adding sufficient flour to make a dough that can easily be handled.

The straight dough method consists of making a dough at the start. To make bread successfully, do not set the dough over the range, do not set it on the radiators and do not place it where it will be in a draft, to rise. Cold chills the dough and retards the yeast. Yeast grows successfully only in a warm moist temperature from 80 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit.

DOUGH BOX

I would like to tell the housewife about a dough box that I have found to work very successfully. The baker's success in making bread is founded on the fact that he can regulate the temperature of his shop and thus prevent drafts from chilling the dough. This box is just an ordinary cracker box with the lid hinged on it. It is then lined with thick asbestos paper on the inside and then covered with oilcloth on the outside. The bowl with the dough is then placed in the box to retain its temperature and to be free from drafts while it rises. In cold weather this box can be heated by placing a warm iron in it when starting to mix the dough, and then removing the iron before placing the dough in the box. This box will easily pay for the time and cost in a few weeks, and then, too, it will prevent failure.

Now to get the proper temperature—always use a thermometer. Remember that you cannot successfully gauge the correct temperature of liquids that are used for making bread by testing with the finger or by testing them from the spoon. Any plain thermometer that can be found in the house will do for this work. Scrub it with soda and water to remove the paint. Remember, in cold weather to heat the mixing bowl. See that the flour is not lower than 65 degrees Fahrenheit.

All water or half water and milk may be used in making bread. When the milk is used it must be scalded and then allowed to cool. Evaporated or condensed milk does not require scalding. Simply add the hot water to acquire the proper temperature.

POINTS THAT WILL MAKE FOR SUCCESSFUL BAKING

Earthen mixing bowls or clean cedar pails make the best utensils to set the bread dough in. These utensils will retain the heat and are easy to clean, and when they are closely covered, prevent a hard crust from forming on the dough.

Do not fail to give the dough plenty of proof—that is, let it rise for a sufficient length of time as given in the recipes.

Use a good grade of blended flour.

Use the ball of the hand, near the wrist, to knead and work the dough. Kneading is most important and should be thoroughly done. Do not be afraid of hurting the dough; you can handle it as roughly as you like. Heavy, active kneading distributes the yeast organisms and develops the elasticity of the gluten and gives body and strength to the dough.

Now, a word about the baking. Bread is baked to kill the fermentation and to hold the glutinous walls of the dough in place and to cook the starch and thus make it palatable and easy to digest.

An oven 350 degrees Fahrenheit is necessary. Do not have it any hotter than this. Too much heat browns the loaf before it has time to bake in the centre.

SALT

Salt controls the action of the yeast. It also retards or delays the proper fermentation if too large an amount of it is used. Then again, if not enough salt is added to the mix, the yeast becomes too active and thus produces an overlight loaf of bread. One ounce of salt to each quart of liquid in summer, and three-fourths of an ounce in winter will give the best results to the home baker.

BAKING THE BREAD

Now turn on a moulding board and cut into five parts or loaves. Allow about nineteen ounces to each loaf. Take the dough up between the hands and work into a round ball. Place on the moulding board and cover for ten minutes. Now with the palm of the hand flatten out the dough and then fold halfway over, pounding well with the hand. Now, take the dough between the hands and stretch out, knocking it against the moulding board, fold in the ends and shape into loaves. Place in well-greased pans and brush the top of each loaf with shortening. Cover and let raise for 45 minutes. Bake in a hot oven for 45 minutes and brush with shortening when removing from the oven. Let cool and then the bread is ready to use.

SPONGE METHOD

Generally speaking, the sponge method produces a lighter and whiter loaf than the bread made by the straight dough method. Bread made by the straight dough method has the advantage over bread made by the sponge method in flavor, texture and keeping qualities.

SPONGE METHOD

One quart of water or half water and half milk, 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Two yeast cakes, Two and one-half quarts or two and one-half pounds of flour, One ounce of sugar.

Dissolve the sugar and yeast in the water and add the flour. Beat to thoroughly blend and then set aside to raise for three hours, then add

One ounce of salt, One and one-half ounces of shortening, One and one-half quarts or one and one-half pounds of flour.

Work to a smooth elastic dough. This takes usually about ten minutes, after the flour is worked into the dough. Place in a greased bowl and then turn over the dough to coat with shortening. This prevents a crust from forming on the dough. Set aside to raise for two hours and then pull the sides down to the centre of the dough and punch down. Turn the dough over and let raise for one and one-quarter hours.

THE CARE OF THE BREAD AFTER BAKING

The jar, crock or box in which the bread is kept should be scrupulously clean. It should be scalded and aired one day every week in winter and three times weekly during the spring, summer and early fall. Keep the fact in mind that the bread kept in a poorly ventilated box will mould and spoil and thus be unfit for food.

Place the freshly baked bread on a wire rack to thoroughly cool before storing. Do not put old bread in the box with the new baking. Plan to use the stale bread for toast, dressings, bread and cabinet puddings, croutons and crumbs.

THE FOOD VALUE OF BREAD

Wheat contains the sixteen needed elements for nutrition, and when made into palatable bread, it forms about 40 per cent. of our total food requirements. Stale bread digests much easier than fresh bread for the reason that when thoroughly masticated in the mouth the saliva acts directly upon the starchy content. Fresh bread, unless thoroughly chewed, so that it may be well broken up, becomes a hard, pasty ball in the stomach, which requires that organ to manufacture the additional gastric juices to break up this dough ball.

Bread from one to three days old easily digests. Graham and whole wheat breads contain a larger percentage of nutriment than the white breads.

OVEN TEMPERATURE

Many housewives feel that it is impossible to secure accurate results in baking in the gas range; this is due to the fact that few women really understand the principle of baking with gas.

To secure a slow oven, light both burners and let them burn for five minutes; then turn both of them down low, turning the handle that controls the flow of gas two-thirds off. This will maintain a steady even heat. A slow oven requires 250 to 275 degrees Fahrenheit of heat. A moderate oven is 350 to 375 degrees Fahrenheit of heat. It can be obtained by burning both burners of gas range for eight minutes and then turning them down one-half to maintain this heat.

A hot oven requires 425 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit and will need to have the burners burning twelve minutes and then turned off one-quarter.

This heat is intense and entirely too hot for breads, pastries and cakes. Meats require this heat for one-half of the length of time in the period of cooking. This heat is also necessary for broiling, grilling, etc.

Now, also try to utilize the full oven space when baking by cooking two or more dishes at the same time. Vegetables may be placed in casseroles or earthen dishes or even ordinary saucepans; cover them closely and cook in the oven until tender. This will not injure other foods baking in the oven.

Do not place breads, cakes and pastries upon the top shelf; rather, place them on the lower shelf and cook in moderate oven. Do you know that there are still among us women who firmly believe that placing other foods to cook in oven with cake will surely spoil it? This is a mistake; utilize every bit of oven space.

An oven thermometer soon pays for itself. Pay strict attention to heating the oven; if the oven is too hot, the heat is wasted, while it cools sufficiently. This wastes gas. When food is first placed in the oven, keep oven door closed for first ten minutes and then open when necessary.

Placing food in oven will materially reduce the heat. Do not try to increase the heat; just as soon as the mixture acquires the heat, the baking will begin in the usual manner and the dish will be ready to remove from oven in given time.

Never keep the oven waiting for the food; rather let food remain in cool place while oven is heating.

Before mixing materials select the pans that will best fit the oven. This does not mean that you must discard your present equipment. It means that you should place in groups such pans that entirely fill oven space without crowding. Keep this fact in mind when purchasing new utensils.

The best and whitest rye flour is milled from the centre of the grains in a manner similar to wheat flour. When only the bran is removed from the milling, we have the darker flour, carrying a heavy pronounced flavor. The rye meal is used for making pumpernickel, a Swiss and Swedish rye flour bread.

HOME-MADE YEAST

Wash four potatoes and then cut in slices, without peeling, and place in saucepan, and add three pints of water. Cook until the potatoes are soft and then add

One-half cupful of hops.

Cook slowly for one-half hour. Rub the mixture through a fine sieve and then pour hot mixture on

One and one-half cupfuls of flour, One tablespoonful of salt, One-quarter cupful of brown sugar.

Stir until well mixed, beating free from lumps. Cool to 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Now add

One yeast cake dissolved in one cupful of water, 80 degrees Fahrenheit

Stir well to mix and then let ferment in a warm place for ten hours. Now pour into jar or crock and store in a cool place.

TO USE

Use one and one-half cups of this mixture in place of the yeast cake. Always stir well before using and take care that the mixture does not freeze. This potato ferment must be made fresh every eighteen days in winter and every twelve days in summer.

STRAIGHT DOUGH VIENNA

One quart of water or milk, One ounce of salt, One ounce of sugar.

Stir well to thoroughly dissolve, and then add

Two yeast cakes, Four quarts of flour, One and one-half ounces of shortening.

Work to a smooth dough and then knead for ten minutes. Then place in a well-greased bowl, turning the dough over to thoroughly coat. This prevents a crust from forming on the dough.

Cover the bowl and set aside to raise for three and one-half hours. Now lay over the dough by pulling in toward the centre, the sides and ends of the dough until it forms a compact mass. Turn over the dough, cover and let rise for one hour. Now place on the moulding board and proceed to form into loaves, using the same method as in the sponge dough.

TO PREPARE LOAF

When the dough is ready to mould into loaves, proceed; using method as given in sponge dough, finally rolling the loaf on the moulding board, making it pointed at the ends. Now place a clean cloth in a deep baking pan and sprinkle the cloth with cornmeal. Place the loaf of dough on the cloth and sprinkle it lightly with cornmeal. Now lift the cloth up close to the dough, making a cloth partition between each loaf.

Let the dough rise, about 45 minutes, and when ready to bake, lift dough carefully from the cloth and lay on a baking sheet and gash slightly with a sharp knife. Wash with an egg and water, wash and back forty-five minutes in a hot oven, adding a small saucepan of boiling water to provide steam to keep the loaf moist while baking.

One-half of above recipes for small family.

TO MAKE THE FAMOUS FRENCH BREAD

Pare and cut in slices two medium-sized potatoes. Cook until very soft in three cups of water. When cooked rub through a sieve and cool. There must be two cups of this mixture. When the mixture is about 80 degrees Fahrenheit, pour in the mixing bowl and add

One yeast cake crumbled in, One-half ounce of shortening (1 tablespoon), One ounce of sugar (2 tablespoons), Three-fourths ounce of salt (2 teaspoons).

Stir to thoroughly dissolve and then add eight cups of flour. Work to a dough and then proceed as in the straight dough method. When the dough is ready for the pans, cut or divide into six pieces and mould into loaves, three inches thick and twelve inches long, and set to rise like the Vienna bread, then bake, using the same method.

RYE BREAD

Two cupfuls of water, 80 degrees Fahrenheit, Two tablespoonfuls of sugar, Two teaspoonfuls of salt.

Mix and then add

One yeast cake, Five cupfuls of white flour, Three cupfuls of rye flour, Two tablespoonfuls of shortening.

Work to a dough and ferment three and one-quarter hours, then proceed as in the straight dough method. When the dough is ready for the pans use the same method as for Vienna bread. Bake in a similar manner, having the oven heated to 450 degrees Fahrenheit. Rye bread requires an oven hotter than for wheat bread. Wash the rye bread when taking from the oven with warm water. Caraway seeds may be added if desired.

GRAHAM BREAD

Two cupfuls of water, 80 degrees Fahrenheit, Four tablespoonfuls of syrup, Two tablespoonfuls of sugar, Two teaspoonfuls of salt.

Stir until dissolved and then crumble in one yeast cake, dissolve thoroughly, and then add

Four cupfuls of white flour, Three and one-half cupfuls of graham flour, Three tablespoonfuls of shortening.

Work to a dough and then proceed as in the straight dough method.

ENTIRE WHEAT BREAD

Two cupfuls of water, Three tablespoonfuls of syrup, Two tablespoonfuls of sugar, Two teaspoonfuls of salt.

Mix thoroughly and then crumble in one yeast cake and stir until dissolved, then add

Seven and a half cupfuls of wheat flour.

Work to a smooth elastic dough and proceed as in a straight dough.

PRUNE BREAD

Wash to thoroughly cleanse one-half pound of prunes and then stone and with a pair of scissors cut into small pieces the size of a raisin. When the bread is ready to go into the pans add the prunes and knead the dough well to distribute the prunes. Then place in pans and proceed as usual.

BRAN BREAD

Two cupfuls of water, 80 degrees Fahrenheit, One-half cupful of mashed potatoes, Three tablespoonfuls of syrup, Two tablespoonfuls of sugar, Two teaspoonfuls of salt.

Mix and then crumble in one yeast cake. Stir until dissolved, and then add

Six cupfuls of wheat flour, Two and one-half cupfuls of bran.

Proceed as in the straight dough method.

CALIFORNIA ORANGE BREAD

Grate the rind of two oranges and then place in a bowl and add

One cup of orange juice, warmed to 80 degrees Fahrenheit, Two tablespoonfuls of melted shortening, Four tablespoonfuls of sugar, One and a half teaspoonfuls of salt, One egg.

Beat to mix and then dissolve one yeast cake in one cup of water 80 degrees Fahrenheit, and add to the above mixture; then work in sufficient flour to make a smooth elastic dough; usually about eight cups. Place in a greased bowl and turn the dough to thoroughly coat with grease. Cover and let rise for three hours. Pull the corners of the dough to the centre and punch down, turn over and let rise again for one hour. Repeat the punching down and then let rise for three-quarters of an hour. Turn out on a moulding board and mould into three loaves, adding

One-half cupful of seeded raisins to one loaf, One-half cupful of chopped almonds to second loaf,

and keep the third loaf plain. Place in greased pans and let rise for three-quarters of an hour. Bake in the hot oven for 40 minutes. The temperature of the oven should be 400 degrees Fahrenheit.

This bread is delicious for sandwiches. Undoubtedly one of the causes of the failure in making breads at home is that the process is hurried and the bread is insufficiently baked. The size and shape of the pans affect the quality of the bread. Avoid too deep or shallow pans. A pan, 7-1/2 by 4-1/4 inches, will give the best results.

Turn the bread on a wire cake rack to cool. This permits the free circulation of air.

BOSTON BROWN BREAD

Place in a bowl

Two cups of bread crumbs, One-half cup of syrup, One teaspoon of baking soda, One tablespoon of water.

Dissolve the baking soda in the tablespoon of water and add

Two cups of hot water.

Beat to mix and then let cool, add

One-half cup of cornmeal, One-half cup of graham flour.

Beat to thoroughly mix and then pour in well-greased moulds and cover and steam or boil for one and one-half hours. Remove the cover and place in a slow oven for twenty minutes to dry out. A one-pound coffee can makes a splendid mould.

BOSTON BROWN BREAD

Place in a mixing bowl

Two-thirds cup of molasses, Two cups of sour milk, One and one-half teaspoons of baking soda.

Stir to thoroughly dissolve the soda, then add

Two-thirds cup of graham flour, One cup of cornmeal, One cup of rye flour, One-half cup of seeded raisins.

Beat to thoroughly mix and then grease thoroughly one-pound coffee can and fill two-thirds full with this mixture. Put on the lid and steam for two hours, then remove the lid and place the can in the oven to dry out. One-pound baking-powder cans may be used to replace the coffee cans.

SCOTCH OAT BREAD

Place in a bowl

One cupful of scalded milk cooled to 80 degrees Fahrenheit, One cupful of water, 80 degrees Fahrenheit, One-half cup of syrup, Two teaspoonfuls of salt.

Crumble in one yeast cake and then mix until the yeast cake is dissolved and then add

Four cupfuls of flour.

Beat to mix and then let the sponge rise for two and a half hours. Now add

Two cupfuls of rolled oats, Two cupfuls of flour.

Knead to smooth elastic dough and then place in a greased bowl, turning the dough to coat thoroughly with shortening. Let rise for one and three-quarter hours. Pull the corners down to the centre and punch down. Turn over and let rise for one hour. Now turn out on moulding board and cut into loaves. Shape between the hands and place on the moulding board and cover. Let spring for ten minutes and then shape for pans. Place in well-greased pans and brush the tops of loaves with melted shortening. Let rise forty minutes. Bake in hot oven.

PARKER HOUSE ROLLS

Place in a bowl

Three tablespoons sugar, One and one-half teaspoonfuls salt, Four tablespoons shortening.

Scald and pour into the bowl

One and one-half cups of milk.

Stir to thoroughly blend; cool to 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Now crumble in one yeast cake, stirring until thoroughly dissolved, then add

Six cups of sifted flour.

Knead to smooth elastic dough; clean out the bowl and grease thoroughly, place in the bowl and press firmly against the bottom, turn over; then cover and set aside to rise for three and one-half hours. Punch or knead down, turn over and let rise one hour. Now turn out on moulding board and shape like a long French loaf, and with scissors or French knife cut into pieces the size of a large egg. Roll quickly between the hands to form a round ball, set on moulding board and let rise for ten minutes. Flatten out, using small rolling pin or palm of hand, brush with shortening, fold pocketbook style and set on well-greased baking sheet two inches apart to rise for twenty minutes; bake in hot oven for fifteen minutes, brush with melted shortening as soon as removed from oven.

RASP ROLLS

Prepare dough as for Parker House rolls, cutting dough in pieces the size of a small orange; round up between the hands, place on moulding board and cover for five minutes. Now roll on moulding board to form a ball, using the palm of the hand; place on well-greased baking sheet; let rise twenty-five minutes, bake in moderate oven twenty minutes—cool, rub each roll over grater to rasp, removing a light coating of the crust.

LUNCHEON ROLLS

Prepare dough as for Parker House rolls and cut in pieces the size of small egg; round up and cover and let rise ten minutes, roll between the board and hands, forming points on end of rolls. Finish as for Parker House rolls.

RICH PARKER HOUSE ROLLS

Scald one pint of milk, adding

Four tablespoonfuls of shortening.

Cool to 80 degrees Fahrenheit and then pour into the mixing bowl, and add

Three tablespoonfuls of sugar, Two teaspoonfuls of salt, One well-beaten egg, One yeast cake, dissolved in four tablespoonfuls of water, mix thoroughly

And then add

Three and three-quarter pints or seven and one-half cupfuls of sifted flour.

Work to a smooth elastic dough, grease a clean bowl and place the dough in it. Turn several times to coat the dough thoroughly with the shortening. This prevents a crust from forming. Set in a place free from drafts and let rise for three and one-half hours, then punch down and turn over. Let rise one and one-quarter hours. Punch again and then let rise three-quarters of an hour. Now turn on the pastry board and mould into a long strip not quite as thick as the rolling pin. Break the dough off into pieces weighing about one and one-half ounces. Form into balls and then cover and let spring or rise for ten minutes; take a ball of the dough and round it well on the board, then flatten slightly with the palm of the hand. Now mark a decided crease with the back of a knife down the centre of the roll. Fold over in pocketbook style, patting the turn in the roll hard with the hand. Lay on well-greased tins, brushing the rolls with shortening. Let rise for twenty minutes and then wash with egg and bake in a hot oven.

FINGER OR SANDWICH ROLLS

Use the Parker House roll dough, cutting it into pieces one and one-half ounces in weight. Mould into balls and then set on a board and cover for ten minutes to let spring. Now mould into finger shapes and place on greased pans and proceed as in Parker House rolls.

FLUKES

Prepare as for finger rolls, pointing the dough at both ends by rolling into a shape similar to a sweet potato.

BRAIDS

Break off pieces of the dough three-quarters of an ounce in weight and then mould into balls and let spring for five minutes. Now mould out into rope-shaped pieces a little longer than a lead pencil. Fasten the three pieces together and then plait. Process as for finger rolls.

RUSK OR TEA BISCUITS

Prepare dough as for Parker House rolls, cut and form in small-sized balls, cover, and let rise ten minutes. Now, round up by rolling between the hands, set very closely together in deep, well-greased pans, let rise forty minutes, bake in a moderate oven; brush with syrup and water and dust with sugar as soon as removed from the oven.

CRESCENTS

Use the Parker House roll dough and then break off into pieces weighing about twelve ounces. Mould into balls and then cover and let spring for ten minutes. Now roll out the dough one-half inch thick with rolling pin and cut into five-inch squares. Cut each square into a triangle and brush lightly with shortening. Roll from the cut side towards the point, lapping the point closely. Form into crescent when setting in well-greased pan, brush with shortening and cover and let rise for eighteen minutes. Wash with milk and water. Bake for eighteen minutes in a hot oven.

ENGLISH BATH BUNS

Melt four ounces of butter and then place in a mixing bowl and add

One-half cup of sugar, One cup of scalding milk, cooled to 80 degrees.

Then add

Two well-beaten eggs, One teaspoon of salt, ne-half yeast cake.

Stir to thoroughly mix and then add four cups of flour and work to a smooth elastic dough. Grease the mixing bowl well and then put in the dough. Press down well and then turn over. Cover and set to rise for four hours, then turn on a moulding board and knead for two minutes. Cut into pieces for biscuits. Roll between the hands into round balls and then cover and let set on the moulding board for ten minutes. Now press flat with the hands and let rise on a well-greased baking sheet. Let rise for thirty minutes, then brush with a mixture of

Four tablespoonfuls of syrup, Two tablespoonfuls of water.

Bake in a hot oven for fifteen minutes.

SALLY LUNN

Place in a mixing bowl

One cup scalded milk, cooled to 80 degrees, One-half cup sugar, Four tablespoonfuls of shortening, One well-beaten egg, One-half yeast cake crumbled in.

Beat to thoroughly blend, and then add

Two and three-quarter cupfuls of sifted flour, One teaspoonful of salt.

Beat well, cover and let rise for three hours, beat again. Now grease thoroughly an oblong or round baking pan; take the Sally Lunn and beat for five minutes, pour into the prepared pan, having the dough fill the pan about one-half; let rise twenty minutes in warm place, bake in hot oven twenty-five minutes, then dust with sugar.

PLAIN BUNS

Weigh out eighteen ounces of dough and divide into one dozen pieces. Mould into balls and let spring for ten minutes. Now mould up nice and round and then set close together on a well-greased pan. Let rise for thirty-five minutes, and then brush the tops with egg and water; wash and dust lightly with sugar. Bake for eighteen minutes in a hot oven. A small pan of boiling water may be placed in the oven when baking these rolls.

For variety's sake, part of the dough may be baked plain. To the balance add caraway seeds, a little citron, nutmeg or a few currants. If carefully baked and cooled, these rolls may be stored in an air-tight box and they will keep for several days. To reheat, place in an oven with a pan of boiling water for ten minutes to freshen.

Egg wash: One egg and one-fourth cup of milk; beat to mix; apply with small paint brush.

STICKY CINNAMON BUNS

Scald one cup of milk and then place

Four tablespoonfuls of shortening, One-half cupful of sugar, One teaspoonful of salt

in the mixing bowl, and pour over it the scalded milk. Stir to thoroughly mix and then cool to 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Now dissolve one-half yeast cake in one-half cupful of water 80 degrees Fahrenheit, and when the milk is at the proper temperature, add six cupfuls of flour and work to a smooth dough. Place in a well-greased bowl, turning the dough around in the bowl so that it will be thoroughly coated with shortening. Cover and let rise three and one-half hours. Now pull the sides of the dough into the centre and punch down, turning the dough over. Let rise again for one hour, then turn on a moulding board and divide the dough in half. Knead each piece into a ball. Cover and let rise or spring for ten minutes. Now roll out one-quarter inch thick, using a rolling pin. Brush with melted shortening and sprinkle well with brown sugar, using about one cupful. Now dust with two teaspoonfuls of cinnamon and spread over the prepared dough one and one-half cupfuls of currants or small seedless raisins. Begin at the edge and roll like a jelly-roll. Cut in pieces one and one-half inches thick and then place in prepared pans and let rise for one hour. Then bake in a moderate oven for forty minutes.

To prepare the pan for the cinnamon buns:

Grease the pan very thickly with shortening and then spread one cupful brown sugar and one-half cupful of currants or small seedless raisins evenly over the bottom of the pan. Place buns in pan and let rise for one hour in a warm place, then bake in a moderate oven for thirty-five minutes.

Now for the trick. When the buns are baked, brush the pastry board with shortening, then place

Two tablespoonfuls of brown sugar, One tablespoonful of water

in a saucepan, mix thoroughly, and then bring to a boil. Now, just as soon as the buns are baked, turn from the pan at once and brush well with the prepared syrup, brushing the bottom with the syrup, as brushing the candied part of the buns prevents it from hardening. Let cool and then use.

ST. NAZAIRE BUNS

Prepare the dough as for cinnamon buns and when ready to turn on the moulding board add

One cupful of finely shredded citron, One-half cupful of brown sugar, One cupful of seeded raisins.

Work well to distribute the fruit and then form into a long roll three inches thick. Cut off pieces about one and one-half ounces and form into buns. Let rest for fifteen minutes and then roll into round buns and place in a well-greased baking pan and let rise for thirty minutes. Make a hole in the centre of each bun with a small wooden stick and wash the buns with egg and milk. Bake in a moderate oven for twenty minutes. Cool, and then fill the centre with jelly, and ice with water icing.

PINWHEELS

Prepare the dough and roll as for cinnamon buns; cut in slices one-half inch thick; place inch apart in well-greased baking sheet, let rise twenty-five minutes, brush with egg wash; sprinkle with finely chopped peanuts and bake in moderate oven twenty minutes.

CINNAMON CAKE

You can use part of the dough for cinnamon cake. Cut the dough into pieces and then roll out three-fourths of an inch thick. Place in pans, stretching and rolling the dough to fit pan. Brush with shortening and then cover with crumbs, made as follows:

Six tablespoonfuls of flour, Four tablespoonfuls of brown sugar, Two tablespoonfuls of shortening, Two teaspoonfuls of cinnamon.

Rub the mixture until crumbly and then spread as directed. Let rise thirty-five minutes, bake in hot oven fifteen minutes.

COCOANUT ICING

One-half cupful of confectioner's sugar, One-half cupful of cocoanut, Sufficient hot water to moisten.

Spread on the buns with a spatula.

COCOANUT BUNS

Prepare the dough just the same as for cinnamon buns and when ready to turn on a moulding board add

One cupful of cocoanut, Three tablespoonfuls of shortening.

Knead to mix and then work the dough into a long roll about three inches thick and then break into pieces the size of a large egg. Now mould until round and then let rise on the board for ten minutes. Mould again, shaping oblong. Place on a well-greased pan and brush the buns with melted shortening. Let rise for thirty minutes and then bake in a hot oven and ice with cocoanut icing.

ALMOND COFFEE CAKES

Prepare the dough as given in the recipe, using the balance left for either cinnamon or cocoanut buns. When ready to turn on a moulding board cut the dough in half and roll each piece out one-quarter of an inch thick. Spread with shortening and then lightly with brown sugar and with one-half cupful of finely shredded almonds or peanuts. Roll like a jelly roll. Press flat with a rolling pin until just one inch thick. Cut in pieces six inches long and then place in a well-greased baking pan and let rise thirty-five minutes. When ready to bake, cut a gash three inches long on each cake. Wash with egg and milk and strew with finely shredded almonds. Bake in a moderate oven for twenty-five minutes. Ice with water icing.

HOW TO MAKE YEAST-RAISED CAKE

Scald one cupful of milk and add one-half cupful of cold water. Cool the mixture to 80 degrees. Now add four tablespoonfuls of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt. Crumble one yeast cake in the mixture and stir thoroughly until the yeast is dissolved. Now add four cupfuls of sifted flour and beat to a light batter. Cover, and set in a place free from drafts, where it will be kept warm in a temperature of 80 degrees and let raise for three hours. Now beat the dough with a spoon and let raise again for three-quarters of an hour. Now, while the dough is raising last time, place one cupful of sugar and one-half cupful shortening in a bowl and cream until light and frothy. Add two eggs, one at a time, and beat until very light. When the dough is ready, add the sugar, eggs, shortening and one and one-half cupfuls of flour; beat this mixture with spoon for twelve minutes until thoroughly mixed. Now pour in prepared mould filling the mould half full. Set in warm place, with a temperature of about 80 degrees Fahrenheit, to raise for one and one-quarter hours or until the mixture fills the mould. Bake in a moderate oven for three-quarters of an hour.

Remove the cake from the mould and cool on a wire rack. This cake may be iced or served plain; or chopped nuts, raisins or citron may be added to the dough with the sugar and eggs.

To prepare the pans: Grease them thoroughly, then coat them with finely chopped nuts or fine cake crumbs before pouring in the dough.

BRIOCHE

Brioche is a French sweet bread and while different authorities do not agree as to both the consistency and methods, without doubt these cakes figure largely in French cuisines.

One French bakery prepares the brioches in loaf form and when cold it is cut in slices and steeped in orange syrup. Then again the brioche is spread with jam and then covered with icing or the brioche may be steeped with prepared syrup and then dipped in a batter and fried golden brown in hot fat. Spread with jam and serve with orange or lemon sauce.

The actual preparation of the brioche involves very little trouble and can be made from bread dough on baking day. Now one point in making these sweet breads—there is just the same trick as in moulding the loaf of bread. One can learn by careful attention to details and with practice. Some stress may well be laid upon the lightness of the dough; for heavy, overrich dough that is poorly baked is injurious to health.

WATER ICING

Six tablespoonfuls of confectioner's sugar and sufficient water (boiling) to moisten.

BREST BREAD

Roll the dough into three strands about one inch thick and ten inches long. Fasten the three strands together and then braid. Place on a well-greased pan and let rise. Wash with egg and milk and then bake for twenty-five minutes in a moderate oven. Spread with jelly and then ice with water icing. Sprinkle with slightly browned cocoanut.

TO MAKE BRIOCHE USING BREAD DOUGH

When the bread is ready to put in the pan cut off one pound and place the dough in a bowl. Now place in a separate bowl

Yolks of two eggs, One-half cup shortening, Three-quarter cupful sugar.

Cream until light and frothy, then add the stiffly beaten whites of the eggs, also

One-half cup of milk, Four cups of flour, One pound piece of yeast raised dough.

Work or knead until smooth and elastic. Place in a greased bowl and let rise for three hours; now turn on board, divide into eight pieces and mould into balls. Cover and let rise for ten minutes. Now roll out one-half inch thick. Brush with shortening, strew with brown sugar and nuts. Roll like jelly roll and then flatten well with rolling pin. Place in a greased pan, cover and let rise for one-half hour. Now cut down the entire length of the dough, leaving two inches on each end. Wash with egg wash and bake twenty minutes in hot oven. Sprinkle with sugar, then return to oven five minutes.

SWEET DOUGHS

In the days of long ago, yeast, ammonia, pearl ash, honey water and a treacle mixture were used to lighten cakes—before the time of dependable baking powder.

In Europe the housewife makes from bread dough delicious cakes with yeast. These provide splendid variety. They include savarins, babas, and yeast-raised fruit cakes.

Many women fail in making these delicious goodies because they do not realize that the addition of large amounts of sugar, fruit, shortening and eggs to yeast dough, unless carefully handled, is apt to produce heavy, moist cakes that lack the light, velvety texture which makes cake a success.

The addition of nuts, cake crumbs and fruit will afford a large variety.

A sponge dough is necessary for successful results.

RUSSIAN RUSK

Prepare the dough as for brioche, adding one cupful of finely shredded almonds when ready to mould for the pan. Use a long narrow pan to bake loaf in. When baked, cool and then cut in one-inch slices and toast light brown in the oven.

SPANISH BUN

Scald one cupful of milk and then cool to 80 degrees Fahrenheit and pour in a bowl and add

Three tablespoonfuls sugar, One-half teaspoonful salt, One yeast cake dissolved in four tablespoonfuls cool water, Three cupfuls of flour.

Beat for five minutes with a spoon and let rise for two hours. Now cream

One and one-quarter cupfuls sugar, One-half cupful of shortening

until very light and creamy and then drop in, one by one, three eggs, beating the eggs for three minutes. Add this to the yeast-raised dough, together with one cupful of sifted flour. Beat with a wooden spoon for fifteen minutes and then pour into a greased and floured pan, filling the pan half full. Put the raisins on the top and then cover and let rise until it fills the pan almost to the edge. Bake in a moderate oven for fifty-five minutes and then cool and ice.

BABAS

Prepare dough as for brioche and, when ready to pan, mould into loaf shape adding nuts and finely shredded citron. Place in well-greased Boston brown-bread mould; let rise for one hour. Bake in moderate oven forty-five minutes. Then begin to baste the Baba with syrup made from

One cupful syrup, One-half cupful water, One tablespoonful vanilla, One teaspoonful mace.

Cook syrup ten minutes before using to baste the Baba, and bake until the syrup is absorbed, then turn on plate.

ANISE SEED RUSK

One tablespoonful of anise seed, One-half cupful finely shredded citron.

Add the above ingredients to the brioche dough; mould and bake as for Russian rusk. These crisp slices will keep for a long time if placed in an air-tight box.

This dough may be used for the old English crull cakes, which is nothing more than a doughnut. Prepare a dough as for a brioche and when ready for the pans turn on a molding board. Roll out one-quarter inch thick; cut with doughnut cutter. Set on cloth to rise for fifteen minutes. Stretch to shape and fry in hot fat until golden brown. Roll in pulverized sugar and cinnamon.

These doughs may be moulded in wreaths, crescents and bowknots. When risen, wash with egg wash, then sprinkle with granulated sugar and chopped nuts and then bake in moderate oven.

INDIAN GRIDDLE CAKES

One cupful cornmeal, One cupful flour, One teaspoonful salt, Three level teaspoonfuls of baking powder, Two tablespoonfuls of syrup, One tablespoonful shortening, One egg, One and one-quarter cups of milk.

Beat hard to mix and then bake on a hot griddle.

GRIDDLE CAKES

To bring the true nut flavor from the buckwheat we must go back to old-fashioned method of setting the buckwheat to rise overnight. Don't you remember the brownstone crock that was kept in the pantry and each time it was left with just enough of the mixture to start a new batter? The buckwheat would be prepared each night just before bedtime, and in the morning a cup of warm water was added, together with a couple of tablespoonfuls of syrup. The mixture was beaten and then the griddle was put on to heat. Sometimes it was a soapstone or a heavy iron griddle. When well heated it was rubbed with a piece of cut turnip or potato. The batter was poured on in large platter-sized cakes and then as quickly as they browned they were dexteriously turned to brown again.

To make perfect buckwheat cakes you must first of all obtain a stone-ground flour, and then it must be blended in proportion. Good, lively yeast is added, and if milk is used for the mixing it must be scalded and then cooled before using. To prepare the flour for the mixing:

Three pounds of buckwheat flour, One and one-half pounds of wheat flour, One pound of corn flour, One ounce of salt, One-half ounce of baking soda.

Sift twice to thoroughly mix and then place in a dry container and the flour is then ready to use.

BUCKWHEAT CAKES

Scald and then rinse out with cold water a large stone crock. Pour in one cupful of scalded and cooled milk and

One and one-half cupfuls of water, 80 degrees Fahrenheit, Two tablespoonfuls of sugar.

Crumble in one-half of an yeast cake and stir until dissolved, then add three cupfuls of the prepared buckwheat flour. Beat to thoroughly mix and then cover and set aside overnight to rise. In the morning add sufficient lukewarm water to bring the mixture to a pouring consistency. This usually requires about one cupful. Add two tablespoonfuls of syrup. Beat hard for three minutes and then let stand in a warm place while the griddle is heating, then bake.

RICE GRIDDLE CAKES

Rice griddle cakes may be prepared as follows: Wash one-half cup of rice in plenty of water and then place in a saucepan and add three cupfuls of water. Cook until the water is absorbed and the rice is soft. Let cool. Now place in a crock

Two and one-half cupfuls water, 80 degrees Fahrenheit, Two tablespoonfuls sugar, One-half yeast cake.

Stir until dissolved and then add

The prepared rice, Three cupfuls white flour, One-quarter teaspoonful baking soda.

Beat to mix and then cover and set aside to rise overnight. In the morning add sufficient lukewarm water to make a pouring batter, adding two tablespoonfuls of syrup and one teaspoonful of salt. Beat very hard and then set in a warm place while the griddle is heating.

The use of a small amount of baking soda as given in above recipes is for the purpose of neutralizing the slightly acid flavor of the buckwheat—a flavor to which many folks object.

Either of above mixes may be baked in a waffle iron instead of using the griddle. Try it some morning for the sake of variety. Use salad oil in a new sewing-machine oil can to grease waffle iron.

Almost everyone loves good sweet butter on the hot cakes in the morning. At the present prices of butter the frugal housewife looks upon the fast disappearing pat of butter with alarm. Now try this and save the butter and yet give the folks the butter flavor upon their cakes; place two tablespoonfuls of butter in a pitcher which will hold a cupful of syrup. Add the syrup and then place the pitcher in a pan of warm water and set on the stove to heat. Beat constantly until the butter melts and produces a creamy mix.

Stale bread may be crumbled or soaked in cold water pressed dry and used in place of rice or cornmeal. So may oatmeal or other leftover breakfast cereals, as well as mashed potatoes, be used. Reserve about one cupful of the yeast batter to start the next batter. Use this starter in place of the yeast. Renew the yeast mix every fifth morning.

A word about the griddle may not come amiss. The old-fashioned iron or soapstone may be used and will give good results. Aluminum griddles do not require greasing.

BREAD GRIDDLE CAKES

Try these cakes some morning when the folks are tired of the usual breakfast dishes. Place in a pitcher overnight

Two cups of buttermilk or sour milk, One cup of water, Two cups of bread crumbs.

Let stand in the kitchen in a cool place. Do not put in the icebox. In the morning add

One teaspoonful baking soda

dissolved in

Three tablespoonfuls of water.

Beat to thoroughly mix and then add

Two tablespoonfuls syrup, Two tablespoonfuls shortening, One teaspoonful salt, One and one-half cups flour, Two teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Beat hard to mix and then bake on a hot griddle.

CORNMEAL GRIDDLE CAKES

Scald one cup of cornmeal with two cups of boiling water, and then let cool. Now add

One and one-half cupfuls water, 80 degrees Fahrenheit, Three tablespoonfuls of syrup, One teaspoonful of salt, One-quarter yeast cake, Two cupfuls flour, One-quarter teaspoonful baking soda.

Beat hard and then let rise overnight; then prepare as for buckwheat cakes.

Modern methods have eliminated the yeast and substituted baking powder, thus making a quicker mix. To prepare buckwheat cakes with baking powder, prepare a blend of flour as follows:

Two pounds of buckwheat, One pound of wheat flour, One cupful cornmeal, One ounce of salt, Three ounces of baking powder, One-quarter ounce baking soda.

Sift three times to mix and then place in a dry container and use as required.

HOW TO BAKE THE PANCAKE

Use a frying-pan that is perfectly flat; the iron ones are best, as they hold the heat longer and can be regulated so that the cake will not burn.

PANCAKES FOR TWO

Yolk of one egg, Two tablespoonfuls sugar or syrup, One cupful milk, One tablespoonful shortening, One teaspoonful salt, One teaspoonful vanilla or nutmeg, One and one-quarter cupfuls flour, Two level teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Place in a bowl. Beat with a Dover egg-beater to thoroughly mix and then fold in the stiffly beaten white of egg. Pour the mixture into a pitcher and then place two tablespoonfuls of shortening in a frying pan. When smoking hot pour in just sufficient batter to cover the bottom of the pan. When it begins to bubble turn the cake over and bake on the other side. Lift and spread lightly with jelly or roll, or use the following mixture:

Three tablespoonfuls butter, One-half cupful of XXXX sugar,

Cream well, and then add

One tablespoonful lemon juice, One tablespoon boiling water.

Beat to blend.

PLAIN PANCAKES

Place in a bowl one quart of milk and then add

Two eggs, One-half teaspoonful nutmeg, Five cupfuls sifted flour, Four tablespoonfuls syrup, Five level teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Beat to mix and then bake. To insure sufficient cakes use two pans for cooking or bake on a griddle.

PANCAKES AU FAIT

One cupful milk, Two eggs, One and one-half cupfuls flour, Two teaspoonfuls baking powder, Two tablespoonfuls shortening, One-half teaspoonful nutmeg.

Beat to mix. Now prepare

One-half cupful of nuts, chopped very fine, One dozen maraschino cherries, well-drained and chopped fine.

Mix well and then pour pancake in hot pan and sprinkle with the above mixture.

Let bake and then lift. Spread with honey and dust with pulverized sugar. Roll and garnish with maraschino cherry.

FRENCH PANCAKE

One egg, One-quarter cupful milk.

Beat to mix and then add

One-half cupful flour, One-half teaspoonful salt, One teaspoonful baking powder.

Beat well to thoroughly mix and then pour in a hot pan containing three tablespoonfuls of shortening: pour just enough to barely cover the bottom of the pan. Cover the pan with a hot lid. Let the cake bake. When ready to turn slip the cake on the hot lid and invert, returning the cake to the pan. Spread with sugar and cinnamon. Bar le duc or currant jelly may be used to spread on the cakes. Fold like an omelet and place a spoonful of jelly on top. Serve. This will make two large pancakes.

IRISH PANCAKES

One cupful mashed potatoes, Two cupfuls flour, One teaspoonful salt, Three teaspoonfuls baking powder, Two eggs, One cupful milk, Four tablespoonfuls syrup, One and one-half teaspoonfuls nutmeg.

Beat to thoroughly mix and then bake on a griddle. Spread with butter and sugar.

BELGIUM PANCAKES

Two cupfuls of unsweetened thin applesauce, One well-beaten egg, Three tablespoonfuls syrup, Two and one-half cupfuls flour, Three teaspoonfuls baking powder, One tablespoonful shortening, One-half teaspoonful cinnamon.

Beat to mix and then bake in the usual manner. Serve with butter and syrup.

WAFFLES

Waffles are made from a thin batter and are baked in a well-heated waffle iron. Many failures to make good waffles are due to the fact that the iron is not sufficiently hot. The iron must be thoroughly cleaned after each baking. Place the iron on the range to heat, turning it several times.

Try this method in greasing the iron. Purchase a large-sized sewing machine oil-can, wash well in plenty of hot water and soap, then rinse thoroughly and dry. Now fill with a good salad oil and when the iron is heated, oil it on both sides. Now you are ready to bake the waffles. Reverse the iron, having the hot side on top, and pour in the batter and then bake about three minutes, reversing the iron once.

When the waffles are baked remove from the iron and then oil and reverse it again, putting the side that was next to the fire on top and then pour in the batter, close and bake as before.

QUICK BREADS

Quick breads include griddle cakes, waffles, muffins, Sally Lunns, shortcakes and biscuits. These doughs are made light or leavened by the use of eggs, baking soda, baking powder and steam created in baking and by air beaten into the mixture. Their entire success depends upon the careful measurement of ingredients, the mixing and the baking. Using all water in place of milk or equal parts of milk and water will give splendid results.

GRIDDLE CAKES

Place the griddle on the range to heat slowly, while mixing the batter.

Place in a bowl or a flat, wide-mouthed pitcher

One cupful milk, One cupful water, One teaspoonful salt, One tablespoonful syrup, Two and one-half cups of flour, Two tablespoonfuls shortening, Four level teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Beat to mix to a smooth batter. This amount of batter will make hotcakes for four persons. For larger amounts, multiply. One egg may be used for every two cupfuls of flour.

Test the griddle by dropping a few drops of water on it; if the water boils, the griddle is sufficiently hot to bake with. Aluminum griddles do not require any grease. Rub with a clean cloth dipped in salt. Grease iron griddles slightly. Pour on the batter; just as soon as the cakes begin to form air bubbles slip a cake-turner under the cakes and turn them.

Now, if large bubbles rise at once to the top of the cakes, the griddle is too hot and the heat should be reduced; while, if the cake stiffens before the underside is brown the griddle is not hot enough. Never turn a griddle cake twice—this makes them heavy. Serve them as soon as baked, piling not more than five or six together. Sour milk may be used in place of sweet milk. Discard the baking powder and use one level teaspoonful of baking soda for each cup of sour milk. One egg and two cupfuls of water may be used in place of two cupfuls of milk.

WAFFLE BATTER

One cup of milk, One cup of water, One egg, One teaspoonful of salt, Two and one-quarter cupfuls flour, Three teaspoonfuls baking powder, One tablespoonful syrup, Two tablespoonfuls shortening.

Beat to a smooth batter in a wide-mouthed pitcher. One-half of this amount for two people.

Cold boiled rice, hominy, oatmeal and stale bread that has been soaked in cold water and then pressed dry and rubbed through a sieve may be added to the griddle cakes and waffle batters.

MUFFINS

Muffins are made from a drop batter and may be baked in rings, on a griddle, in muffin pans or in custard cups. To bake the muffins in rings on a griddle upon the top of the stove—grease the griddle well, and also have the rings well greased. Put the griddle on to heat when starting to mix the drop batter and keep the rings cool until ready to bake.

Place in a bowl or pitcher

One and one-half cupfuls of milk or equal parts of milk and water, One egg, One teaspoonful salt, Two tablespoonfuls syrup, Two tablespoonfuls shortening, Two and three-quarters cupfuls flour, Five level teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Beat this mixture smooth and then place the rings on a hot griddle and half fill with the drop batter. When well risen and nearly dry, turn over, using the griddle-cake turner to turn the muffins and rings. Bake on the other side. It will require about eighteen minutes to bake these muffins. Tear them apart, butter and serve them at once.

To bake muffins in pans or custard cups, grease the pans or cups well and half fill with the drop batter and then bake in a hot oven for fifteen minutes.

OATMEAL MUFFINS

Put two cups of oatmeal through the food chopper into the mixing bowl and then add

One and one-half cups of sour milk, One teaspoonful baking soda dissolved in one tablespoon of cold water, One-half teaspoon salt, Four tablespoonfuls syrup, Two tablespoonfuls shortening. One cup of sifted flour.

Beat to mix and then pour into well-greased muffin pans and bake in a hot oven for twenty minutes.

SOUR MILK GEMS

One and one-quarter cups sour milk, Two tablespoonfuls shortening, One teaspoonful soda, One teaspoonful salt.

Mix to thoroughly blend and then add

One cupful white flour, One and one-half cupfuls graham flour. Two teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Beat to thoroughly mix and then bake for eighteen minutes on well-greased muffin pans.

BRAN MUFFINS

Two and one-half cups of bran, One and one-half cups of flour, One teaspoonful salt, Four tablespoonfuls syrup, Two tablespoonfuls shortening, One egg, One and three-quarter cups of buttermilk, One teaspoonful soda.

Dissolve the soda in the buttermilk and then beat to mix. Fill into well-greased muffin pans and bake in a moderate oven for twenty-five minutes. Toast the left over muffins.

ENGLISH MUFFINS

Place in a mixing bowl

Two and one-half cups flour, One teaspoon of salt, Two tablespoons of sugar, Two teaspoons of baking powder.

Sift to thoroughly mix, then add

One and one-half cups of sour milk, One teaspoon of baking soda.

Dissolve the baking soda in the milk and then mix thoroughly by heating hard. Now place well-greased muffin rings on well-greased hot griddle. Fill the rings half full and bake slowly for fifteen minutes. Turn with a cake-turner when the inner side is nicely browned.

NUT GINGER MUFFINS

Place in a mixing bowl

One-half cup of brown sugar, One cup of molasses, One-half cup of water, One teaspoon soda, Two teaspoons ginger, One teaspoon cinnamon, One-half teaspoon allspice, Six tablespoonfuls shortening, One egg, Three cups of flour, Two teaspoons baking powder, One-half cup finely chopped peanuts.

Beat thoroughly to mix and then fill into well-greased and floured muffin pans, filling the pans little more than half full. Bake in a moderate oven for twenty minutes. This amount will make about eighteen muffins.

HONEY AND NUT BRAN MUFFINS

Place in a mixing bowl

One-half cup of honey, One teaspoon of baking soda, One teaspoon of salt, Two cups of bran, One and one-half cups of flour, Three-quarters cup of finely chopped nuts. One and one-half cups of milk, One egg.

Beat hard and thoroughly mix and then bake in well-greased muffin pans in hot oven for twenty-five minutes. Serve with strawberry, orange or pineapple marmalade.

SALLY LUNNS

Sally Lunns are made from a drop batter and are usually baked in deep layer-cake pans. To serve cut in wedge-shaped pieces—like pie—and then split and butter and cover with a napkin. Serve at once.

Place in a bowl

One-half cupful sugar, Four tablespoonfuls shortening.

Cream until light and then add

One egg, One and one-half cupfuls of equal parts milk and water, Three cupfuls flour, Five level teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Beat to a smooth batter and then pour into well-greased pans and bake for twenty-five minutes in a moderate oven. When nearly baked brush the tops quickly with milk and sprinkle well with granulated sugar. One-half cup of finely chopped citron or seeded raisins may be added if desired.

CORN MUFFINS

Place in a mixing bowl

Three-quarters cup cornmeal, One and one-quarter cups flour, One teaspoon salt, Two level tablespoons baking powder, Two tablespoons shortening, Four tablespoons syrup, One and one-quarter cups of water.

Beat to mix and bake in well-greased iron muffin pans.

RICE MUFFINS

Place in a mixing bowl

One egg, Two tablespoons of sugar, Two tablespoons of shortening, One teaspoon of salt, One cup of milk, One and one-half cups of flour, Four teaspoons of baking powder, One cup of cold boiled rice.

Beat hard to thoroughly mix and then pour in well-greased muffin pans. Bake twenty-five minutes in a hot oven.

BATTER BREAD

Place in a mixing bowl

Three tablespoonfuls shortening, One and one-half cups cornmeal.

Pour over

Two and one-half cups boiling water.

Now add

One and one-half cups sour milk or water, One cup of flour, One teaspoon salt, Two level tablespoons baking powder, Four tablespoons syrup or sugar, One egg.

Beat to mix, pour in well-greased baking dish and bake in hot oven for forty minutes.

SOUTHERN SPOON BREAD

The success of making and baking this delicacy depends entirely upon a thorough beating of the batter and a hot oven. The southern mammy invariably uses the coarse white oatmeal, but you may use the yellow and obtain just as good results.

Place one quart of boiling water in a saucepan and then add one teaspoonful of salt, two tablespoonfuls of shortening and one and one-half cupfuls of cornmeal. Pour the meal in slowly, and just as soon as it boils remove from the fire and let cool. Now add

Yolk of two eggs, Two cupfuls of sour milk, One cupful flour.

in which you have dissolved one level teaspoonful of baking soda and one-half cupful of syrup.

Beat this mixture with a large spoon and now cut and fold in the stiffly beaten whites of the eggs. Pour in hot, well-greased baking dish and bake in a quick oven.

To add soda to the sour milk, dissolve the soda in one tablespoonful of the milk before adding to the remainder of the milk, and then use a Dover egg-beater and beat for three minutes to thoroughly mix.

LOUISIANA CORN BREAD

Place in a mixing bowl

One cup of cornmeal, One and one-quarter cups of flour, One teaspoon of salt, Five level teaspoons of baking powder, Two tablespoons of shortening, Four tablespoons of syrup, One egg, One and one-half cups of milk.

Beat hard to mix and then pour into well-greased square pans. Bake for thirty-five minutes in a hot oven.

RICE BATTER CAKES

Place in a bowl

One cup of cold boiled rice, One egg, One-half cup of milk, Three-quarters cup of flour, One teaspoon of salt, Two teaspoons of baking powder, One teaspoon of shortening, One tablespoon of syrup.

Beat to mix and then bake on a hot griddle and serve with butter and sugar.

BISCUITS

Place in a mixing bowl

Three and one-half cups of flour, One teaspoon of salt, Three level tablespoons baking powder, One level tablespoonful sugar.

Sift to mix; then rub in three tablespoonfuls of shortening and mix to dough with

One cup of milk or water.

Now work in a bowl to a smooth elastic dough, roll out three-quarters of an inch thick, cut, wash tops with milk and bake in hot oven twelve to fifteen minutes.

CURRANT BISCUITS

Add one cup of currants to sweet biscuit dough.

RAISIN BISCUITS

Add one cup of raisins to sweet biscuit dough.

COCOANUT BISCUITS

Put one cup of cocoanut through food chopper and add to sweet biscuit dough.

SWEET BISCUITS

Three and one-quarter cups flour, One teaspoon salt, One-half cup sugar, Three level tablespoons baking powder.

Sift to mix; then rub in four tablespoonfuls shortening. Break egg in cup and fill cup with milk, turn in bowl and beat to mix. Use this for doughing up the sweet biscuits. Work dough in bowl until smooth, turn on lightly floured board, cut, brush tops with milk, bake in hot oven fifteen minutes.

SCONES

Scones are delicious hot breads that are served for breakfast in the British Isles; they replace the American pancake and for tea replace our hot biscuits. Many varieties of scones are made in Scotland. Currants, citron and raisins are used in the dough, while in other parts of the United Kingdom these cakes are split, buttered and served with marmalade or gooseberry jam.

DELICIOUS ENGLISH SCONES

Place in a mixing bowl

Four cups of sifted flour, Two tablespoons of baking powder, Two level tablespoons of sugar, One-half teaspoon of salt.

Rub between the hands to thoroughly mix and then rub into the flour five level tablespoonfuls of shortening. Now beat up an egg and then add one-half of the beaten egg to one and one-fourth cups of milk. Beat to mix. Use this to make a soft dough. Turn on a lightly floured baking board and knead for three minutes. Now divide into five pieces and mould each piece round like a saucer, and cut each way, making four wedge-shaped pieces; place on a well-greased baking sheet and brush with the remaining half of the egg, and bake in a hot oven for fifteen minutes.

SCOTCH SCONES

Place in a mixing bowl

Five cups of flour, One and one-half teaspoons salt, Three level tablespoons baking powder, One-half cup of sugar.

Sift to mix and then rub in

One-half cup of shortening,

And mix to a dough with

One and one-fourth cups of milk.

Now work in

One-half cup of currants,

Or

One-half cup of raisins, One-quarter cup of finely chopped citron, One teaspoon cinnamon, One-half teaspoon nutmeg, One-half teaspoon allspice.

Divide into six pieces and then roll out the size of a saucer and about three-quarters of an inch thick. Make two cuts forming a cross, dividing the dough into four wedge-shaped pieces. Brush with beaten egg and bake for fifteen minutes in a hot oven. This amount will make twenty-four scones. To serve, split and fill with jam and then pile on a wicker basket, cover with a napkin and serve with tea.

IRISH SCONES

Three cups of mashed potatoes, Three cups of sifted flour, Two teaspoons of salt, Two level teaspoons of baking powder, Three level teaspoons of shortening.

Now place in a bowl

One-half cup of milk, One egg.

Beat. Use about two-thirds of the egg and milk mixture to form a dough. Knead the dough to a smooth mixture and then divide into four parts. Pat or roll out like a saucer and then make two cuts to form the cross, cutting into four pieces. Brush with part of egg and milk mixture and then place on a baking sheet and bake in a hot oven for eighteen minutes.

POPOVERS

Place the popover pan in the oven to heat. When hot start to mix the batter. Place in a measuring cup one egg, then fill with milk. Pour into a mixing bowl and then add

One cup of sifted flour, One teaspoon of sugar, One-half teaspoon of salt.

Beat with egg-beater until the mixture is a mass of bubbles on top, when the egg-beater is removed. This usually takes about five minutes. Now grease the hot popover pan well and fill one-half full with the batter. Place in a hot oven and bake for thirty-five minutes. Do not open the oven door for ten minutes after you put the popovers in. Opening the door before this period of time elapses prevents the mixture from springing or popping. After twenty minutes turn down the heat to moderate oven to prevent burning and to dry out the centres.

DOUGHNUTS

Take brioche dough, roll out one-half inch thick, cut with biscuit cutter, place on moulding board, cover and let rise fifteen minutes, fry golden brown in hot fat—roll in sugar and cinnamon.

DOUGHNUTS WITH FRUIT CENTRE

After doughnuts are cut and layed on board to rise, make an opening in side of same and insert one spoonful of jelly, pinch edges together and cover. Let rise and fry in usual manner.

CRULLERS

Place in bowl

Five cups of sifted flour, One teaspoon of salt, Three level tablespoons baking powder, One and one-quarter cups sugar.

Rub between the hands to thoroughly mix; then rub in three tablespoonfuls shortening. Then place

One egg, One cup of milk

in a bowl; beat to mix. Use this to form the dough, roll out one-half inch thick, cut and fry golden brown in hot fat.

HOW TO FRY CRULLERS OR DOUGHNUTS

When ready to fry place four cups of vegetable oil in a pan. The pan should not be too large and the fat should be deep enough to allow the cruller to swim at least two and one-half inches from the bottom of the pan.

GOLDEN BROWN

Heat the fat and test before starting to cook by dropping in a small piece of the dough and starting to count 101, 102, 104 and so on until 110 is reached. The sample should now be floating on top and a light brown in color. Do not attempt to start frying before this time, as the fat will not be sufficiently hot and the crullers will soak up the grease. Drop four or five doughnuts in the hot fat at a time, turning constantly, and cook until golden brown, lift, let drain few seconds, lay on paper towelling and then roll in sugar and cinnamon.

SPONGE CAKE—ONE EGG

Place in mixing bowl

One-half cup sugar, Yolk of one egg, One tablespoon butter.

Cream well, then add

Three tablespoons water, Two-thirds cup of flour, One teaspoon baking powder, Pinch salt.

Beat to mix, then fold in the stiffly beaten white of one egg; bake in well-greased and floured pan in slow oven thirty minutes.

SPONGE CAKE—TWO EGGS

Place in mixing bowl

Three-quarters cup of sugar, Yolks of two eggs.

Cream well and then add

Four tablespoonfuls water, One cup of flour, Two teaspoonfuls baking powder, Pinch salt.

Beat to mix, then cut and fold in stiffly beaten whites of two eggs. Bake in well-greased and floured cake pan in slow oven thirty-five minutes.

SPONGE CAKE—THREE EGGS

Place in a mixing bowl

One cup of sugar, Yolks of three eggs.

Cream until light lemon color, then add

Six tablespoonfuls cold water, One and one-quarter cups flour, Two teaspoonfuls baking powder, Pinch salt

Beat just enough to mix. Then cut and fold in the stiffly beaten whites of three eggs. Bake in well-greased and floured cake pan with tube in centre in moderate oven forty minutes.

FRUIT CAKE

Place in mixing bowl

One-half cupful of brown sugar, One cupful of molasses, Two tablespoons of cocoa, One egg, One and one-half level teaspoonfuls of baking soda, One cup cold coffee, Three and one-half cupfuls sifted flour, One and one-half teaspoonfuls cinnamon, One teaspoonful nutmeg, One cupful seeded raisins, One-half cupful chopped nuts.

Beat to thoroughly mix and then pour in a greased and floured cake pan and bake in a moderate oven for one hour.

JELLY ROLL

Cover the bottom of an oblong pan with a greased and floured paper and then pour in sponge cake mixture one-quarter of an inch deep. Spread evenly and then bake for ten minutes in a hot oven. Turn on a cloth and then trim the edges. Spread with jelly and roll tightly in a cloth. Set aside to cool and then ice with water icing.

A SMALL ANGEL CAKE

One-half cupful sugar, One-half cupful flour, One-half teaspoonful cream of tartar.

Sift four times and then place whites of three large eggs in a bowl and beat until they will hold their shape. Now gently cut and fold in the sugar and flour. Pour into an ungreased tube pan and bake for thirty-five minutes in a moderate oven. When baked remove and turn upside down to cool.

ONE-EGG LOAF CAKE

Place in a bowl

Three-quarters cup of sugar, One egg, Four level tablespoonfuls of shortening, Two cups of sifted flour, Four level teaspoons of baking powder, One level teaspoonful of flavoring, Three-quarters cup of water.

Beat hard to mix for five minutes. Pour into prepared loaf-shaped pans and bake in a moderate oven for thirty-five minutes.

To prepare the pan, grease thoroughly and then dust well with flour, then pour in the batter.

To make a raisin cake spread three-quarters cup of raisins on top of the cake when it is in the pan ready to put in the oven. The rising dough will distribute the raisins through the cake.

One-half cup of currants, One cup finely chopped nuts, or One-half cup of finely chopped citron

One-half cup of finely chopped citron may replace the raisins. Or this cake may be baked in a tube pan and then cooled and split and filled with custard or sour cream cake filling and then iced with chocolate icing.

For a layer cake grease the layer cake pan, line with plain paper and then grease again. Now divide the dough into the two pans and spread the mixture higher on the sides, leaving the centre shallow. Bake in a moderate oven for eighteen minutes. Put the layers together as follows: spread one layer with jelly and then sprinkle lightly with cocoanut. Now place the top layer in position and then spread the top, then cover thickly with cocoanut. Finely chopped nuts may be used instead of cocoanut.

GINGER CAKE

Place in a mixing bowl

One cup of molasses, Three-quarters cup of sugar, Ten tablespoonfuls of shortening, Three and one-half cups of flour, One level tablespoon of baking powder, One cup of cold water, One teaspoon of baking soda, dissolved in the water, One egg, One teaspoon of ginger, One teaspoon of cinnamon, One-half teaspoon of cloves.

Beat to thoroughly mix and then divide and add the fruit to one part, the cocoanut or chopped nuts to the second part and bake the other part plain. Pour into well-greased and floured loaf-shaped pans and bake in slow oven for forty minutes.

SWISS CRUMB CAKE

Place in a mixing bowl

Three-quarters cup of brown sugar, Two cups of flour, One teaspoon of salt, Two tablespoons of baking powder, One teaspoon of cinnamon, One teaspoon of ginger, One-half teaspoon of cloves, One-half cup of cocoa.

Sift to mix and then rub in

One-half cup of shortening

and

One cup of syrup, Two cups of sour milk, Three-quarters teaspoon baking soda, Two cups of fine bread crumbs, One package of seedless raisins.

Dissolve the baking soda in the milk. Beat all hard to mix and then pour into well-greased and floured oblong pans and bake in a slow oven for one hour. Cool and ice with water icing. This cake is delicious and will keep, if wrapped in wax paper, for a month.

LOUISIANA CRULLERS

One cup of sour cream, One cup of sugar, One level teaspoonful baking soda, One level teaspoonful nutmeg, One egg.

Beat to thoroughly blend and then add four and one-half cupfuls of flour. Roll out on a floured pastry board and then cut and fry in hot vegetable cooking oil until they are golden brown. The temperature for cooking crullers in the oil is 360 degrees Fahrenheit.

MORAVIAN SPICE CAKE

One and one-half cups of brown sugar, Nine tablespoons of shortening, One egg, One cup of sour milk, One teaspoon of baking soda dissolved in the milk, Two teaspoons of cinnamon, One teaspoon of ginger, One-half teaspoon of allspice, One-half teaspoon of cloves, Five tablespoons of cocoa, Three and one-half cups of sifted flour, One level tablespoon of baking powder, One-half cup of chopped nuts, One-half package of seedless raisins.

Beat to mix and then bake in well-greased and floured loaf-shaped pans in moderate oven for forty minutes. Ice with chocolate icing made as follows:

One cup of XXXX sugar, Six tablespoons cocoa, One tablespoon of cornstarch.

Sift to mix and then add just sufficient boiling water to make a mixture that will spread.

TWO LAYER CAKE

Place in bowl

One and one-half cups of sugar, Yolks of two eggs.

Cream, then add

One-half cup of shortening,

Cream again, then add

Three cups of flour, Two level tablespoons baking powder, One teaspoonful flavoring, One cup of water or milk.

Beat just enough to mix, then fold in whites of two eggs, bake in well-greased and floured deep layer-cake pans in moderate oven twenty minutes.

Every variety of layer cake may be made from this foundation. To chocolate layer cake—put together with chocolate icing and cover cake with same icing.

DROP CAKES

Place in a mixing bowl

Three-quarters cup of sugar, Yolks of two eggs.

Cream and then add

Four tablespoonfuls of shortening, One and one-half cups of flour, Three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, Stiffly-beaten whites of two eggs.

Drop by the spoonful three inches apart on well-greased and floured baking sheet. Bake in a moderate oven.

LOAF CAKE

Place in a mixing bowl

One and one-half cups of sugar, Yolks of four eggs.

Cream until well blended and then add

Six ounces of butter.

Cream again and then add

Four cups of flour, Five teaspoons of baking powder, One teaspoon of flavoring, One and one-quarter cups of milk.

Beat to mix and then cut and fold in the stiffly beaten whites of the four eggs. Place in a well-greased and floured loaf-shaped pan and bake fifty minutes in moderate oven.

COTTAGE PUDDING

Place in a mixing bowl

One cup of sugar, One egg, Six tablespoons of shortening, Two and one-half cups of flour, Five teaspoonfuls of baking powder, One cup of water.

Beat hard and thoroughly mix and then bake one-half of this mixture in well-greased custard cups for cottage pudding. To the balance of the mixture add a choice of any of the following:

One-half cup cocoanut or One-half cup of finely chopped nuts, One-half cup of finely chopped raisins, One-half cup of currants, candied orange peel or lemon peel, One-half cup of finely chopped figs, dates or evaporated apricots.

Pour into well-greased and floured loaf-shaped pan and bake in moderate oven for thirty minutes. Cool and ice with water icing.

FONDANT ICING

Place in saucepan

Two and one-half cups of sugar, One-quarter cup white corn syrup, One-half cup water.

Stir to dissolve sugar, bring to boil, cook until it forms soft ball when tried in cold water, or 240 degrees Fahrenheit in candy thermometer. Remove from the fire, pour on large well-greased meat platter and let cool; then begin and knead with spatula or spoon until creamy white—when stiff knead like dough, cover and set aside for twenty-four hours. To use, melt in double boiler, adding flavoring desired and just a tablespoon or two of boiling water to make a consistency that will spread.

CHOCOLATE ICING

Place in bowl

One pound XXXX sugar, Two tablespoons cornstarch, One-half cup cocoa, Sufficient boiling water to make mixture spread.

Beat until smooth, then add one tablespoon of melted butter and use.

BUTTER CREAM ICING

Wash salt from two ounces of butter, then beat until creamy, then add white of one egg and beat until mixture fluffs, then add

One teaspoonful vanilla extract, One-half teaspoonful almond or rose extract, One pound XXXX sugar.

Beat to thoroughly blend, if too thick, add one tablespoonful of boiling water, spread between layers and use for icing the cake. Cakes covered with butter cream icing may also be covered with finely chopped nuts or toasted cocoanut. To toast cocoanut, put cocoanut in pan in hot oven for few minutes, stirring frequently until it just begins to take the color.

SOFT GINGERBREAD

One cup of molasses, One-half cup of sugar, Eight tablespoons of shortening, Two and one-half cups of flour, One teaspoon of soda dissolved in one-half cup of water, One teaspoon of ginger, One-half teaspoon of cloves, Two teaspoons of cinnamon, Two teaspoons of baking powder.

Beat hard to blend and then pour into well-greased and floured pan and bake in a slow oven for thirty-five minutes.

PLAIN WATER ICING

Place in bowl

One pound XXXX sugar. Two tablespoonfuls cornstarch, One teaspoonful lemon juice, Sufficient hot water to spread.

Beat to mix, then use.

ORANGE WATER ICING

Place in bowl

One pound XXXX sugar, Two tablespoonfuls cornstarch, Yolk of one egg, One teaspoonful grated orange peel.

Sufficient hot orange juice to make a mixture which will spread. Beat hard for a few minutes to make glassy.

MOLASSES CAKE

Place in a mixing bowl

One-half cup of syrup, One-half cup of brown sugar, Six tablespoons of shortening, One egg.

Cream well and then add

One cup of seeded raisins, Two and one-half cups of flour, One-half teaspoon of baking soda dissolved in One-quarter cup of cold water or milk, One-quarter teaspoonful mace, One-quarter teaspoonful cloves, One-half teaspoonful ginger.

Work to a smooth dough and then roll on a slightly floured board and cut. Brush the tops of the cakes with syrup and sprinkle with finely chopped nuts. Bake for eight minutes in a moderate oven. This makes about three dozen cakes.

WHITE MOUNTAIN ICING

Place in saucepan

Two cups of sugar, One-half cup of corn syrup, One-half cup of water.

Stir to dissolve sugar; bring to a boil, cook until mixture forms soft ball, then pour in fine stream upon stiffly beaten white of egg. Beat to blend and use while warm.

DEVIL'S FOOD CAKE

One cupful of sugar, Six tablespoonfuls of shortening.

Cream well and then add

Yolk of one egg, One whole egg, Three-quarter cupful of milk, Two cupfuls of flour, Three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, One-half cupful of powdered cocoa, One teaspoonful of cinnamon.

Beat to mix and then bake in two layers in a moderate oven for twenty-five minutes. Now place

Left over white of egg, One-half glassful of apple jelly

in a bowl and beat with a Dover egg-beater to a heavy meringue that will hold its shape. Use this for filling. For icing use

One cupful of XXXX sugar, Two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch.

Sift sugar and starch and add sufficient boiling water to moisten, beat smooth and spread on the cake.

CHOCOLATE LAYER CAKE

Place in a bowl

One cup of sugar, Yolks of two eggs.

Cream and then add

Six tablespoons of shortening, Three cups of flour, Five level teaspoons baking powder, Two teaspoons of vanilla, One cup of milk or water.

Beat to mix and then cut and fold in the stiffly beaten whites of two eggs. Bake in two layers in prepared pans and when cool place a chocolate filling between and ice with chocolate butter cream. See chocolate filling recipe.

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